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Objective of Water Supply system

• To Supply safe and wholesome water to


consumers
• To supply water in adequate quantity
• To make water easily available to consumers
so as to encourage personal and household
cleanliness
Importance and Necessity of Water Supply Schemes
• Drinking and Cooking
• Bathing and washing
• Watering of lawns and gardens
• For heating and air conditioning system
• For growing of groups
• For street washing
• For fire fighting
• For recreation in swimming pools etc.
• For steam power and various industrial processes etc.

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Water supply Engineering
Source of Water

Surface Ground Water

River Lakes Ponds Impounded Reservoir Springs Infiltration Galleries Wells

Intake Works Tube Atresian Dug Infiltration Well


Treatement Works

Plain Sedimentation Chemical sedimentation Filtration Disinfection Misc treatments

Distribution reservoir

Gravity system Pumping system Dual System

Distribution pipes

Consumers Waste water Sanitary Engineering


Quantity of Water
For the purpose of estimation of total requirements
of water the demand is calculated on an average
basic, which is expressed as so many litrs/capita/day

Per Capita Demand = Total consumption in lits


Population x 365
• For communities with a population of between
20,000 to 100,000 — 100 to 150 litres per head
per day
• For communities with a population of over
100,000 — 150 to 200 litres per head per day.

In IS 1172 to understand the break-up of this


demand which is put as 135 litres per person per
day.
Types of Demand:
1. Domestic water demand
2. Commercial and Industrial demand
3. Fire demand
4. Demand for public uses
5. Compensate losses demand
Commercial demand and Industrial demand:
Commercial building and commercial centres include office building, warehouses, stores, hotels, shopping centres,
schools, templesm cinema houses etc. The water requirement for commercial and public places may be upto 45
litres/capita/day. The water required by the industry depends on the size of the industry. The quantity of the water
demand for industrial purpose is around 20-25% of the total demand of the city.

Fire demand
All big cities have full fire fighting squads. As during fire break large quantity of water is required to extinguish the fire,
provision is made in the water supply system to keep reserve for the fire demand requirements.
Fire Hydrants are connected to the street mains not less than 15cm in dia and provided on at max intervals of 150m at all
bends and crossings. Fire Demand: Fire demand is directly
a function of population of the city.
The quantity of water required for the
fire fighting is generally calculated by
certain empirical formulae:
1. John R Freeman’s formula:
Q = 1135.5(P/10 +10) Q= water
required in lits per minute
Y= 2.8 P
2. Kuichling’s formula:
Q= 3182 P
3. Buston’s formula:
Q=5663 P Q= water
Factors affecting demand of Water
• Climatic conditions
• Habits of people
• Size of city
• Cost of water
• Industry
• Pressure in water mains
• Quality of water
• System of sanitation
• System of supply
• Policy of metering
Types of sources of water
SURFACE WATER
• The reliability and quantity of water mainly depends on :
• Selection of site for collection of water
• Preparation and control of catchment area
• Choice of the type of reservoir
• Treatment of reservoir site as well as operation of the reservoir
• Design, construction and maintenance of dam , inlet and outlet
structure
Sources of surface water
1) Streams :In the mountainous region streams are formed by the
run off. The discharge in streams is much in the rainy seasons than
the other season. Those stream which dry up in the summer and
contain water only in the rainy season are known as RAINING
SREAM. The quality of water in the stream is normally good except
water of the first run off
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2) LAKES : Water from the stream generally flows towards the basin
and lakes are formed.
The quantity of water in the lake depends on its basin capacity,
catchment area, annual rainfall, porosity of the ground etc. The
quality of the water of the big lakes are good than the small lake and
the water at higher altitude contain pure water.

3) RIVER: rivers are born in the hills, when the discharge of large
number of streams combine together. In mountains the quantity of
water in the river remains small, therefore at such places these are
called as the small river. But the river flows towards more and more
stream and combines in it and increase the discharge of water. River
are the only source of surface water which have maximum quantity
water that can be used. Treatment is required for river water.

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4) PONDS: These are the depression in plains like lake of mountains,
in which water is collected during rainy season. Sometime ponds are
formed when much excavation is done for constructing kuccha
houses in villages, embankment for roads and railway and
manufacture of bricks. Generally the quantity of water in the pond is
very small and contain large amount impurities. This water is used
for washing clothes, animal bathing. This water cannot be used for
water supply due to the shortage of quantity and impurities

3) IMPONDED RESERVOIR (DAM) : Mostly found that there is great


variation in quantity of river water during monsoon and summer
season. The discharge in some river remains sufficient to meet the
hot weather demand, but in some river the flow becomes very small
and cannot meet the summer season. The water can be stored in
the river by constructing bunds.

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Ground sources:
1. Infiltration galleries
2. Infiltration wells
3. Springs
4. Wells
INFILTERATION WELL
• FOR TAPPING WATER FROM SANDY RIVER BEDS THE
INFILTRATION WELLS ARE SUNK IN SERIES IN SANDY RIVER
BEDS.
• THESE ARE CONSTRUCTED OF BRICK MASONRY WITH OPEN
JOINTS.
• THE WATER PERCOLATES THROUGH THESE JOINTS AND GET
COLLECTED IN THE WELLS.
• THE TOP OF THE WELLS ARE COVERED WITH R.C.C. SLAB
HAVING MANHOLE FOR INSPECTION.
• THE WATER FROM INFILTRATION
WELLS GETS COLLECTED IN A JACK
WELL.
• THEN THE WATER FROM JACK
WELL IS PUMPED OUT AND
STORED IN A STORAGE
RESERVIOUR.
• THE QUALITY OF WATER
OBTAINED IS GOOD AND IT
REQUIRE NO TREATMENT.
• THE QUANTITY OF WATER FROM
THIS SOURCE IS SUITABLE FOR
SMALL WATER SUPPLY SCHEME.
INFILTERATION GALLERY
• FOR TAPPING WATER FROM SANDY RIVER BEDS SOMETIMES
HORIZONTAL TUNNELS ARE CONSTRUCTED IN THE RIVER
BEDS AT SHALLOW DEPTH ALONG THE BANK OF RIVER.
• THE WALLS OF TUNNEL ARE CONSTRUCTED OF BRICK
MASONRY AND ITS TOP IS COVERED WITH R.C.C. SLAB
HAVING MANHOLES AT SOME INTERVALS.
• THE PERFORATED PIPES ARE CONNECTED TO THE TUNNELS
THROUGH WHICH WATER GETS COLLECTED INSIDE
TUNNEL.THIS TUNNEL IS KNOWN AS INFILTRATION GALLERY.
• THE SLOPE OF THE GALLERY IS SUCH THAT THE WATER INSIDE THE
GALLERY FLOWS TOWARDS A SUMP WELL.THEN THE WATER FROM
THE SUMP WELL IS PUMPED OUT AND STORED IN A STORAGE
RESERVIOUR.
• THE QUALITY OF WATER IS GOOD AND IT REQUIRE NO
TREATMENT.THE QUANTITY OF WATER FROM THIS SOURCE IS
SUITABLE FOR SMALL WATER SUPPLY SCHEME.
WELLS

• A WATER WELL IS A HOLE OR SHAFT, USSUALLY


VERTICAL, EXCAVATED IN THE EARTH FOR
BRINGING GROUND WATER TO THE SURFACE.

Wells:
Based on method of construction, they
are classified as
• Dug well or percolation well
• Driven well
• Tube well
Dug well:
• Usually confined to soft ground, sand
or gravel
• Known as Draw well or open well
• Diameter 1-4m, Depth = 20m
• Discharge = 20 cu.m/hr
• Walls are precast RCC block or Brick or
stone masonry
Driven wells:
• Shallow well constructed by driving a casing of 2.5cm – 15cm in diameter
• Lower portion is perforated
• Perforation is covered with wire gauze to prevent soil entering
• Upto 12m in depth
• Discharge is small, for domestic use
TUBE WELLS

• Form of deep well with a steel tube or pipe inserted.


• Blind hollow steel pipes or perforated pipes(strainer pipes) are used
in this well
• 5-20cm diameter pipes, depth mm
• Quantity of water available from tube well is more than other types
of well. About 40-50litres/sec
• Water is safe & does not need purification

• TUBE WELLS MAY BE CLASSIFIED AS:


a. SHALLOW TUBE WELLS:DEPTH- ABOUT 20 m
YIELD- ABOUT 20 m3/HOUR
b. DEEP TUBE WELLS:DEPTH-ABOUT 50m to 600 m
YIELD-ABOUT 800 m3/HOUR(200litres/sec)
• THE TUBE WELLS MAY ALSO BE CLASSIFIED AS:
1. STRAINER TYPE TUBE WELLS
2. CAVITY TYPE TUBE WELLS
3. SLOTTED TYPE TUBE WELLS

STRAINER TYPE CAVITY TYPE SLOTTED PIPE


TUBE WELL TUBE WELL
Cavity Type Tube Well: It essentially consists of a blind pipe in its
entire length. The bottom is extended up to the aquifer where
sufficient water is available. The well is developed by pumping at a
faster rate after construction. Loose formation material
surrounding the bottom will flow with water and a cavity is
formed. The size of the cavity influences the yield of a well.

Perforated Type Tube Well: This type of tube well is constructed


by installing perforated pipes. Perforations are made by drilling the
pipe. Then the perforated portion is covered with coir or jute rope.
The purpose of the rope is to act as a strainer. These are
recommended only when water is very near to the ground surface
or for temporary water supply.
Springs:A NATURAL OUTFLOW OF GROUND WATER AT THE EARTH’S SURFACE IS CALLED SPRING.
A PERVIOUS LAYER SANDWITCHED BETWEEN TWO IMPERVIOUS LAYERS GIVE RISE TO A NATURAL
SPRING.
THE WATER OF THE SPRING MAY CONTAIN SOME TYPE OF SALTS AND MINERALS SO IF REQUIRE, THE
WATER SHOULD BE TREATED TO MAKE IT SUITABLE FOR DRINKING.
• Artesian Springs
• Gravity springs
• Surface springs
Artesian springs:
• If impervious layer above the aquifer is fissured or punctured this typeof spring is
formed
• When water bearing layer has too much of hydraulic gradient and is enclosed
between two impervious layers, artesian spring is developed
Gravity springs:
• This type of spring develops when
ground water table gets exposed
somewhere due to ups & downs in
the ground surface.

Surface springs:
• It is developed when an
impervious stratum which is
supporting the ground water
reservoir is out cropped.
Quality of water
Requirements for wholesome water:
• Free from bacteria & diseases
• Colorless, odorless, tasty
• Should not corrode pipes
• No objectionable matter
• Should have dissolved Oxygen & carbonic acid to remain fresh for long time

Impurities in water:
1. Suspended impurities
2. Colloidal
3. Dissolved impurities
Suspended Impurities:
Algae, Protozoa, Silt, Clay, Bacteria etc – Cause diseases, produce turbidity, color
and Odour
Dissolved Impurities:

Calcium and Bicarbonates Cause temporary hardness


Magnesium Carbonates, sulphates, Permanent hardness, develops
chlorides corrosiveness of boilers
Sodium Bicarbonates & Alkalinity, softening effect
Carbonates
Sulphates Foaming in stream boilers
Fluorides Mottled enamel of teeth
Chlorides Bad taste

Metals Manganese Black and brown water


Iron oxide Red water, taste , corrosive to
metals, hardness
Lead Lead poisoning
Arsenic Poisoning
Silver Discolourization of skin, eyes
Boron Affects central nervous system
Nitrates Blue baby conditions, acidity

Gases Oxygen Corrosiveness to metals


Carbon dioxide Acidity & corrosiveness
Hydrogen sulphide Rotten egg odour, Acidity,
corrosiveness
Organic Impurities
Suspended/ Vegetable Color, odour, acidity, taste
dissolved Dead Animals Disease causing germs

Living organisms in Water:


1. Viruses: Poliomyelitis, infectious hepatitis and coxsackie virus present in
human feces. Gastroentritis is caused by virus. About 0.4 mr/lit of free
available residual chlorine with a contact period of about 30min is sufficient to
inactivate infectious hepatitis virus.
2. Microscopic organisms: Algae, protozoa, fungi and Actinomysetes
• Algae: Chlorophyll bearing One celled plant lifes
Characteristic examination of Water:
1. Physical
2. Chemical
3. Bacteriological
4. Microscopical

Physical Examination:
1. Color test: due to Fe and Mn combined with organic matter, very fine suspended
particles. Tintometer is used to measure color on platinum cobalt scale. The unit
of color on cobalt scale is the color produced by one milligram of platinum cobalt
in a litre of distilled water. Less than 5 not greater than 25.( 1g CoCl2 in 1lit of
water= 500Hazen)
2. Taste and Odour: Measured by threshold odour number. Water to be tested is
mixed with odor free water and the mixture at which the odour becomes
undetectable is determined. Not more than 3 for public water. Taste of phenol
may give taste to water.
3. Temperature: desirable temperatures are 4C – 10C. Above 25C are unfit.
4. Turbidity: Measure of the resistance of water to the passage of light through it.
The standard unit of turbidity developed by one part of Fuller’s Earth which
should be in the form of finely divided silica, in a million parts of distilled water
For drinking water 2.5-10 ppm is the safe limit.
Most common turbidimeter are the Baylis and Jackson turbidimeter.
Jackson’s Turbidimeter:

Chemical Examinations: tests are carried out for:
1. Total Solids: Measure of suspended and dissolved matter. Filtration or
evaporation. Weigh the residue. Should not exceed 500 ppm
2. Hardness: Temporary hardness due to bicarbonates of Ca and Mg called
as carbonate hardness. Can be removed by adding lime solution or by
boiling.
Permanent hardness or non carbonate hardness is due to sulphates,
Chlorides and nitrates of Ca and Mg.
When the soap destroying power of the water is equal to 14.25 mg of CaCo3
in a litre of water is equal to one degree of hardness. Drinking water can have
hardness of 5-8 degree.
3. Chlorides: Chlorine with other elements. NaCl presence indicates pollution
from sewage.
Amount of chlorides for potable water should not exceed 250 mg/lit
Titration with AgNO3 and K2Cr2O2 determines the amount of chlorides
4. Iron and Manganese
• Causes stains on plumbing fixtures and textiles.
• Gives taste and odor due to organisms whose life depends on iron compounds.
Such water is known as ‘Red water’.
• Iron and Mn put together – 0.3 ppm
Lead:
• Causes Lead poisoning
• 0.1 ppm
• Found in water that have contact with lead pipes, containers & paints
Chromium:
• Indicates pollution due to industrial waster since not found in natural waters.
• 0.05 ppm
Copper:
• Indicates pollution due to presence of copper sulphate in food,
• 3.0 ppm
Zinc:
• Same difficulties as copper
• Not more than 15ppm
Arsenic:
Poisonous
Limits to 0.05 ppm
Aluminium:
• Found due to use of aluminium utensils, no pathological implications
• Removed by sedimentation and filtration
5. Ph Value
Alkalinity is caused by bicarbonates of Ca and Mg or Carbonates of Na, Ca, Mg and Mn.
Ph for potable water should be between 7 to 8.5
6. Chlorine
It is not found in natural waters. Its presence in due to disinfection process with
chlorine. Cl remains as residual Cl for safety against pathogenic bacteria. 0.1 to 0.2 ppm.
More of it cause unpleasant taste.
7. Nitrogen and its compounds
Albuminoid nitrogen: Nitrogenous matter decomposed. Related to color and colloidal
matter. Not to exceed 0.3 ppm
Ammonia or Free Nitrogen
Indicates decomposing organic matter. Not to exceed 0.15 ppm
Nitrite Nitrogen: indicates the presence of organic matter that is not fully oxidized.
Biologically active.
Nitrate Nitrogen
Indicates end product of decomposition of organic matter. Not to exceed 45ppm
Dissolved gases
Hydrogen Sulphide
Objectionable beyond 1 ppm. ‘Rotten egg ‘ smell anf tarnishes metals
Methane
Not to exceed 1.4ppm. Found in ground water, lighter than air, hence escapes and
creates explosive sound
CO2
Indicates the decomposition of organic matter. In ground water maybe upto 50ppm
Its presence is tested by lime water, if turns white, co2 is present
O2
water absorbs O2 from atmosphere. Algae and other tiny organisms also supply O2 to
water. Required to keep the water fresh.
Flourine
0.6 to 1.5ppm
Prevents dental carries and mottling of the enamel of the teeth of infants
Phenol
Indicates pollution by industry. Not to be above 0.001 ppm
Biological Tests
1) Total count of bacteria: The bacteria present in the milliliter of water is counted. The sample of
water is diluted, 1ml of sample of water is diluted with 99ml of sterilised water and then this
mixed with 10 milliliter of agar of gelatin. This kept in the incubator at 37degree for 24 hours.
After this is removed from the incubator the bacterial colonies are formed. Then counted on
microscope
2) Bactria Coli test: There are 2 test, first is the presumptive and second confirmative.
In the presumptive test definite amount of diluted sample of water in standard fermentation tubes
containing lactose broth as culture medium is kept in incubator at 37deg C for 24 hrs. I f some gas is
produced in the tubes, it indicates presence of B-coli.
In confirmation test the sample in kept in brilliant green lactose bile as culture medium for 48 hrs at 37
deg C. If gas is formed it indicates the presence of Bcoli.

In the membrane filter technique, water is filtered through sterilized membrane which holds back all
bacteria. It is then put into culture medium endo’s medium for 24 hrs ar 37 deg C and after incubating,
is counted for colonies f bacteria under microscope.

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