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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

Sustainable Solutions Paper

Franklin Komla Atadja

DBA Strategy

October 20th, 2012

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

The proposal for the sustainable solutions paper was to choose three competitive

organizations in an industry. The two best organizations in the industry should be named and at

least founded more than five years ago. These organizations should run profit and loss financial

statements. Some convincing information was to be presented for the need for the sustainable

solutions to the chosen organization.

The selected organizations are in the personal and home care products industry. The best

competitor in the industry is the Procter & Gamble and was founded in 1837 headquartered in

Cincinnati, Ohio. This company has 126,000 employees and operates in five segments; beauty,

grooming, health care, fabric care and home care. Procter & Gamble markets its products

through mass merchandisers, grocery stores, membership clubs, and drugs stores in 180

countries. Its net incomes for 2010, 2011 and 2012 were as follows; $12, 736, 000, $11,797,000

and $10,756,000. The second best organization is Church & Dwight Company Incorporated

which was founded in 1846 and headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey. The company has 3,500

employees and operates in three segments namely consumer domestic, consumer international,

and specialty products. The Church & Dwight Company sells its products through supers-

markets, mass merchandiser, wholesale clubs, drugstores, convenience stores, pet specialty

stores , and dollar stores. The company’s net income for 2009, 2010, and 2011 were as

follows;$243,500,00,$270,700,000, and $309,600,000.The third organization is Colgate

Palmolive Company which was founded in 1806 and headquartered in New York City, New

York. The company has 38,000 employees and operates in the oral, personal and home care

segments. The Colgate Palmolive Company products are sold worldwide. The company’s net

income in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were as follows; S2, 291,000, $2,203,000, and $2, 431, 00. All

the dollar values were in thousands.

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

The selected organization for the sustainable solution paper is Colgate Palmolive

Company. This company falls within the personal and home care products industry. Colgate is

rated the third competitor in the industry and has marketing and manufacturing facilities all over

the world. Colgate Palmolive Company is an organization that uses large amount of energy and

water in its manufacturing processes. The by-products of these manufacturing activities are large

amount of wastes, contaminated water and Carbon dioxide (C02) emission. The first importance

of the paper is to help Colgate Palmolive Company reduce the large amount of wastes to save

cost in manufacturing products. Second to reduce amount of water used and contaminated. Third

to slash the amount of Carbon dioxide generated and emitted into the atmosphere. Commenting

on the CO2 emission the importance is due to climate changes or global warming. Organizations

should start contemplating and implementing measures to help protect the Earth from further

deterioration by human beings.

The preview of the sustainable solution paper includes: the purpose section, executive

summary, introduction, stakeholder identification & value analysis, general force analysis,

demographic segmentation, Porter’s five forces analysis, detailed value chain analysis, detailed

SWOT & SCOT analysis, integrating the analysis, alignment & goals analysis, complexity

analysis, life cycle assessment and references.

Executive Summary

Colgate Palmolive Company was founded in the 1806 and has a headquarters in New

York. It has 38,000 employees who helped to manufacture pet nutrition food, personal, oral, and

home care products. The company has successfully made a net profit for the past three years.

General Force Analysis

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

The economic changes, terrorist activities and political unrest have affected businesses

worldwide with slow growths and less profit. Prices of raw materials have sky rocketed and

organizations have no choice than purchasing these materials. These prices are gradually passed

on to the final consumers. Some consumers may have decided not to patronize the highly priced

personal and home care products. This action will make organizations to visualized low profits.

Slow growth, government regulatory pressures and environmental awareness have also

challenged organizations to search for new innovations for growth and sustainability.

Stakeholders Identification and Value Analysis

Due to the advent of globalization much greater problems have arose for stakeholders in

organizations to address with strategic business management approach. Colgate Palmolive

Company has addressed some of these issues through the building of an organizational culture

where customers, employees, investors and business partners work together to create

sustainability and continuous growth.

Demographic Market Segmentation

This concept is applied by Colgate Palmolive Company in marketing variety of products

to various age groups. For example women and girls are inclined purchasing facial, hair, and nail

products. Special whitening toothpaste is also sold to the population with tooth sensitivity and

gum diseases.

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Normally firms in industries with differentiated products do not compete head on with

each other. However, firms in the personal and home care products industry have a different

story, because their products are almost the same. Therefore, these organizations compete on

pricing of their products, branding and customer satisfactions.

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

The Detailed Value Chain Analysis

Colgate Palmolive Company has its planners and management trained to use and reduce

the total costs in the value chain activities. The reduction costs accord Colgate Palmolive

Company the chance of reducing the prices of their products to the final consumers. In this wise

larger Colgate Palmolive Company products are daily purchased from the market stocks, thus

greater profit for the company.

SWOT/SCOT Analysis

Colgate Palmolive Company uses the SWOT and SCOT analysis to find a quick review

of its strategic strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities. Both analyses helped Colgate to

invest appropriately into product innovation, differentiation, cost reduction, marketing, and

technology to enhance its competition and growth in the personal and home care industry.

Summary Focus

Stockholders value creation is the key to Colgate’s business sustainability and

profitability because shareholders are playing major role in seeing that, the business is being

operated profitably. Colgate Palmolive Company has additionally a sustainable organizational

culture where there are reorganization of synergies between the firm and its stakeholders to

create maximum value economically, socially, and ecologically.

Human resources recruiting qualified and skillful employees helped Colgate Palmolive

Company to be competitive and sustainable. The first time hires are experienced and

knowledgeable to adequately fit into Colgate’s workforce and teams. Finance and procurement

departments also purchased raw materials in bulk and at discounted prices per unit of materials.

Operations and management are constantly training employees to produce quality and non-

conformance products. The three top threats for Colgate Palmolive Company are faked products

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

entering the market in Colgate Palmolive Company’s name, the global economic problems, and

changes in the retail scenario. The three top opportunities for Colgate are also restructuring

initiatives, products target to the rural areas, and the general intensive planning initiatives within

and outside Colgate Palmolive Company.

Key Takeaways

The company has 38,000 employees and operates in the oral, personal and home care

products segment. The Colgate Palmolive Company products are sold worldwide. The

company’s net income in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were as follows; S2, 291,000, $2,203,000, and

$2, 431, 00. All the dollar values were in thousands.

Colgate Palmolive Company has initial public offerings and therefore prudent for Colgate

Palmolive Company executives to work closely with shareholders for their support in sustainable

management ventures. Employees understanding their values and taking charge of their

responsibilities in Colgate Palmolive Company will add financial values to the company to be

sustainable.

Colgate Palmolive Company adopted shoppers’ sight because of the frequent changings

in consumers want and need. These are important in driving new products development and led

to the introduction of soft-soap ensembles, liquid hand soap and an environmentally friendly

dishwashing liquid soaps.

“Market shares in toothpaste, mouthwash, manual toothbrush, bar soaps, body wash,

shampoos, household cleaners and fabric conditioners are increased”(2012). With all these

pronouncements from Colgate Palmolive Company personnel, it meant the company was doing

alright in terms of sales and profits.

Integration of Concepts

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

Stakeholder Identification and Value Analysis

In the era of globalization and international security problems businesses need to address

these issues; corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainable development and the stakeholder

approach to strategic management. Wheeler advocated that, “new technologies and economic

globalization have prompted changes in the way businesses are operated worldwide” (2003).

More importantly, large numbers of customers, employees, investors and business partners are

dependently ushered to associate and work together. Stockholders value creation is the key to

Colgate’s business operation, profitability, growth and sustainability.

“In December 2004, Colgate Palmolive Company initiated a four year restructuring

program for accelerating growth and generating additionally revenues “(Colgate Palmolive

Company, 2012). Consumers growing desire for environmentally friendly cleaning products led

to the development of Palmolive pure and clear which phosphate free is, contains biodegradable

cleaning ingredients and packaged and with 25%- 75% post-consumer recycled plastic. These

values created are mostly for both short and long term goals. Thompson argued that, “the year of

our renewed efforts to reduce our costs, and that focus continues and is succeeding. Organic

sales throughout the year 2011 are encouraging and have balanced volume, price and have met

the challenge. Market stores are strong and growing. Market shares in toothpaste, mouthwash,

manual toothbrush, bar soaps, body wash, shampoos, household cleaners and fabric conditioners

are increased”(2012). With all these pronouncements from Colgate personnel, it meant the

company was well aligned for greater sales and profits.

Evidence and Implications

The global economy has adversely affected the personal care products industry among

others. Low per capital income and rising cost of raw materials, labor, foreign exchange and

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

interest rates have also crippled the growth and profitability firms in this industry. Economic

changes, terrorist activities and political unrests have also brought in unprecedented slow growth

in businesses, inflation, and deflation for personal care products. To continue, globalization and

international security concerns have challenged businesses to address corporate social

responsibility (CSR), and sustainable development issues. These factors promoted large number

of consumers, employees, investors and business partners dependently working together as teams

for success. Colgate Palmolive Company has an organization culture where efforts are made to

associate the firm and its stakeholders to maximize economic, social and ecological values.

Colgate Palmolive Company has a value of that nature enhanced through linkages in outbound

logistics, operations, inbound logistics, marketing & sales, and services offering. Colgate’s

ability to address the total costs in these chains of activities made the company to achieve more

profit margins. In the marketing and sales sector Colgate Palmolive Company has an excellent

work being done. Marketers are able to identify customers’ needs and also helping to generate

more sales. There are support channels for customers after they have purchased products.

Frequent Colgate employees in- store visits are made to see how products look on the store

shelves and also to notice any defect in the manufacturing processes. Human resources

management is trained to hire only competent employees to join the Colgate workforce.

Technological advancement and procurement of raw materials are also well advanced. Modern

manufacturing equipment have been purchased and installed at the various facilities to boost

production.

In the PCP industry low cost leadership is a requirement for firms to remain competitive and

have edge against their competitors. Colgate can purchase its raw materials from developing

countries and also move some of its production facilities to those countries. The goal is to

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

manufacture products with less variable cost. The reason is that, the profit made by Colgate is the

direct result emanating from the difference in what customers are willing to pay for the product

and the cost of the company’s production.

Gaining a market beachhead by Colgate over its competitors will be laudable. Since

Colgate has presence in more than 200 countries it can relocate some of its production facilities

to Africa, Asia and South America where prices of commodities, power and labor are cheaper

comparatively to those in the developed countries. Economics of scale concepts can then be

implemented to produce larger units of products which are then shipped to developed countries

to be sold for more money. Colgate will then have a competitive edge over its rivals in the

industry because of lower cost of its products.

Market entry through process innovation is a strategy Colgate Palmolive Company can

apply. For instance, Colgate can invest more money in its research and development to work on

using only natural, plants or herbs as the main ingredients in its products. The product innovation

can be expensive initially, but it would pay off in the future. In addition, due to petroleum

product causing irritations, skin diseases and cancers to consumers, it is more likely these natural

products will be patronized.

After the SWOT analysis, it is noticed product recalls as an internal weakness which

Colgate Palmolive Company can address through carefully and consistently following standard

operating procedures in their manufacture processes. Second the imitated or faked products

being sold under Colgate Palmolive Company brand name should be stopped with rigid legal

issues being addressed to the perpetrators of these offences. In the Porters Five Forces analysis it

was noticed that, there were rivalry among existing firms. This can be reduced through

collaboration, alliances, mergers and acquisitions.

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

Colgate Palmolive Company product differentiation can be achieved by the company

investing more into research and development. The goal is to find new materials and ingredients

to manufacture differentiated products from the other firms within the personal care products

industry.

General Force Analysis- Remote Environment

The General Force Analysis is a tool used in assessing organizations stands and

performances in relation to economic problems, political unrests, terrorist attacks and threats to

developed countries.

General Force Analysis

Economic changes, terrorist activities and political unrests have resulted in businesses

slow growth, inflation, and decreased demand for personal care products. The Global economy

has also suffered depression that led to low per capital incomes rising costs of raw materials,

labor, foreign exchange and interest rates for manufacturers within the personal and home care

industry. Firm’s purchasing raw materials at higher prices to manufacture products have no

choices than sifting that cost to the final consumers. High prices of personal care products will

force consumer to opt out purchasing these products. The final outcome is the firms are

downsized in profits and growth. The personal care products industry include a variety of

products like fragrances, make up, hair care, sunscreens, tooth paste, products of bathing, nail

care, and shaving. But unfortunately these personal care products contain raw materials such as

propylene glycol which comes from petroleum. By analyzing the risks- associated with toxic

materials in personal care products, companies have to invest in research and development to

render product safety to explore raw materials like natural and herbal products. (Report linker,

2012). Innovation in the personal care industry had strengthened enabling soap and cleaning

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

compound manufactures to maintain growth. In the U.S. slow growth has driven innovation due

the population environmental awareness and increase regulatory pressure (Rehtmeyer, J., 2010).

The environmental friendly green products which are continuing to expand in popularity called

for higher prices.

Demographic segmentation is market segmentation executed by taking various

demographic factors, such as age, gender, and social class into consideration. On demographic

bases certain personal care products like old spice, axe, etc. are mostly used by the younger

generations. Women and girls are also inclined to facial, hair, and nail care. Colgate-Palmolive

markets their products to a variety of different age groups. They sell both adult and kids

products. For the adults, they have a variety of different products that consumers can buy

depending on their needs. For example, they sell whitening toothpaste, toothpaste for people with

tooth sensitivity, and toothpaste for people with gum issues. The profitability and demand of

these personal care products will be based on the percentage of the population purchasing or

using them.

Economics

Procurement of raw materials and equipment are carried out by qualified procurement

officers, thus Colgate Palmolive Company purchased items on discounted and on bulk prices.

This helps the company to save costs in the variable factors which eventually brings the cost of

unit’s price low.

Technology

Modern manufacturing equipment have been purchased and installed at the various

facilities to boost production.

Demographics/Social/Culture

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

Consumers of personal and home care products range from various ages. To name a few,

there are teens, women, men and elderly people. These age groups in different cultures are

identified with the type of personal care products they need. As such organizations manufactured

products to suit to their needs and purchases.

Government/legal/Military

Government bye-laws and regulations in different countries are putting pressure on

companies about the way they operate. Toxicity of nutrients in the products and taxes to pay to

the home government are putting much toil on companies all over the world. Some governments,

lobbyist, Non- Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) and consumers are demanding for

environmental friendly products to purchase. In a nutshell these groups are canvassing for

products which help to protect the environment and the Earth.

Physical environment

In the personal and home care industry, there are large numbers of companies

manufacturing products for the consumers. Therefore, there is much higher bidding for raw and

component materials. Prices of these materials are therefore relatively high for the companies.

Implications of General Forces (Threats and Opportunities)

Global economic crises coupled with high prices of raw materials and changes in the

retail scenes are the biggest threats to Colgate Palmolive Company. However, restructuring

initiatives, growing of notable products to various markets, and targeting new market sectors are

some opportunities Colgate Palmolive Company can tap on to be ahead of its competitors.

Porter’s Five Forces Industry Analysis: External- Industry Environment

Firms in any industrial sector have the ability not to compete head on with other firms if

only their products are differentiated. However, in the personal product care industry all their

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products look the same, and it is really difficult to avoid head on competition. It meant that most

of the business activities follow the same concepts of manufacturing. Firms in the personal care

industry can only compete on pricing, customer satisfaction and brand image. Therefore all these

firms need to invest a substantial amount of money in research and development to find suitable

way of reducing the variable costs on their production.

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Personal, home, oral care product industry

Rivalry among existing firms 0-3

Threat of new entrants 7-10

Threat of substitute products 0-3

Bargaining power of buyers 0-3

Exit barriers and excess capacity 7-10

Bargaining power of suppliers 7-0

Degree of differentiation 0-3

Scale to learning economics 0-3

Bargaining power of buyers

In this industry consumers or buyers have the ability to purchase one brand from the

other based on prices. Due to this fact, it is absolutely very important for firms in the industry to

reduce production cost of their products to enable consumers to purchase more. More purchases

will economically help the firms to make more profits.

Scale to learning economics

The personal care product industry is enormous with a wide range of product offers to

consumers. But due to rivalry these firms have engaged in price wars and increase brand image

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building in other to gain more market shares. According to Colgate Palmolive Company’s 10-

K’s “the company has gained additional market shares for the past three years”.

Exit barriers

In the personal and home care products industry exit barriers are high because the

products of the firms are specific and the regulations in the industry are strong. Contracts with

suppliers are difficult to be canceled.

Threat of new entrants

It is normally difficult for new firms to get a foothold in the personal industry because the

first mover firms have already established. They have been able to set the industry’s regulations

and have also acquired the government licenses to manufacture these personal care products.

Bargaining power of suppliers

In the personal care products industry customer relationship and limited shelves capacity

of participating distribution chains are crucial. For example, there is competition between Procter

& Gamble, Church & Dwight, and Colgate Palmolive Company for shelve spaces in the stores.

Enough shelve space will give the firm room to stock more products for consumers to buy. The

shelve space condition can also become a barrier to entering for new entrants.

Detailed Value Chain Analysis: Internal Environment

Colgate Palmolive Company have planners and management personnel who used the

value chain analysis to link in-bound logistics, operations, out-bound logistics, marketing &

sales, and services offering. Through this the company reduces much cost in rendering the value

chain activities to increase profitability, growth and sustainability.

Customized Value Chain Activities

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Colgate Capabilities Range

In-bound logistics 0 -3

Out-bound logistics 7-10

Operations 7-10

Marketing and Sales 4-6

Services 7-10

Infrastructure 0-6

H/R management 7-10

Technological development 0-3

Procurement 7-10

Cost Advantage 0-3

Differentiation 7-10

Colgate Palmolive Company Skill/Capabilities & Implications of Competitive Analysis

1. In-bound logistics: The receiving and warehousing of raw and component materials are
mostly fast and on time.

2. Operations: The processing of inputs into finished goods with high asset utilization is
paramount and picking up.

3. Out-bound: The warehousing and distribution of finished products are immediately


carried out with fleet of hired trucks. This alleviates the fewer inventories for the finished
products, thus a cost saver.

4. Marketing & Sales: The identification of customer needs and the generation of sales are
well architected by skillful marketers within Colgate Palmolive Company.

5. Services: The support for customers after products are sold to them is done through
customer complaint department. The consumer insight officers and regular Colgate Palmolive
Company employees do frequent store visits to acquaint themselves with products defects and
aesthetic nature of products on store shelves.

6. Infrastructure: Control systems, buildings and equipment have been installed to increase
production.

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7. H/R management: The personnel in this department are well trained and skillful to recruit
qualified employees.

8. Technological Development: There are available technologies to support value creating


activities. For example new modern equipment’s were purchased, and the old machines
frequently serviced.

9. Procurement: Raw materials, equipment and other supplies are purchase in bulk and
discounted prices to save money.

10. Differentiating: R & D focusing on the activities to differentiate products has led to
increase in Colgate’s core competencies and capabilities to outperform the some competitors in
the industry.

Detailed SWOT Analysis

Colgate Palmolive Company is among the first movers into the personal care products

industry. The SWOT analysis concepts have been applied to find a quick overview of Colgate

Palmolive Company’s strategic situation.

SWOT Factor Matrix

Location of factor Type of factor

Favorable Unfavorable

Internal Strengths Weaknesses

Focus on innovation Product recalls

Market leadership

Diversified operations

External Opportunities Threats

Restructuring initiatives Threats of faked products

Intense planning initiatives Changes in retail scenario

Grow oral market Global economic issues

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Target rural markets

SO strategies

Colgate Palmolive Company has one of the biggest brands in the personal care product

industry. It is one of the market leaders globally with excellent research and development, thus

focused on innovation and new product development. Colgate Palmolive Company has

diversified its business into oral care, personal care, home care and pet & nutrition. In addition it

has an excellent advertising methods and brand visibility of products in over 200 countries.

ST strategies

Faked and imitated products being sold under Colgate Palmolive Company’s brand could

hurt the company losing some of its loyal customers. Intense and increasing competition among

the firms in the industry can see Colgate losing some of its market shares. The changes in retail

scenario of unbranded and local products globally are of a challenge to Colgate’s business. The

global economic condition of increasing prices of commodities and low consumer purchasing

power can hurt Colgate’s products being purchased from the shelves.

WO strategies

Colgate Palmolive Company’s market share is limited due to the presence of other help

strengthen the company’s market shares and brand.

SCOT Factor Matrix

SCOT Analysis

Factors Important scale range Fit Rating


Score

Degree of differentiation 7 – 10 -3 to -5

Rivalry among firms 4–7 0 to 3


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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

Scale to learning economics 7 – 10 -3 to -5

Threat of substitutes 4–7 -2 to -3

Marketing & sales 4–7 0 to 3

Services 7 – 10 -3 to -5

Technology 7 – 10 5 to 8

Cost advantage 7 – 10 -3 to -5

SO, ST, CO, & CT strategies

After reviewing the SCOT analysis scores, Colgate Palmolive Company need to invest

largely into product differentiation, product cost reduction, marketing & sales, and technology

development in other to grow and be competitive in the personal care industry.

Culture Type

Colgate Palmolive Company has a sustainable organizational culture where there are

reorganization of synergies between the firm and its stakeholders to create maximum value

economically, socially, and ecologically .Colgate Palmolive Company offers consumer products

like oral, personal, household, fabric care and pet nutrition items in over 220 countries. It owns

more than 80 brands across various product categories. “Colgate Palmolive Company’s desire to

attract more customers uses integrated marketing communication which comprises of a mix of

traditional, new media and promotion activities “(Colgate Palmolive Company 2008 Annual

Report).

Analyzing the Company Strategy Type- Part 11

Strategy Type

The personal care product industry (PCP) has a competitive market, therefore firms

within have to ensure they are implementing strategies to ensure success and growth.

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Supporting Argument

On that note Colgate Palmolive Company uses the differentiation and low cost strategies

to survive in the market. Some low cost strategies Colgate employs are continuous improvement

in its operating efficiencies. Modern machinery and equipment are frequently installed and were

being operated on higher asset utilization (AU). Experience curve concepts have been applied to

train production line operators to change over and run batches in the possible shortest time to

save money.

Analyzing the Company Strategy Moves

Customer relationship management has been promoted in Colgate’s facilities whereby

employees use a technique of better understanding and servicing their loyal customers. Suppliers

on the other hand affects Colgate’s value, therefore they do business with suppliers who give

them lowest prices and best quality commodities. This will not only reduce raw materials costs,

but also keep them highly competitive due the low costs of products.

Relevant Strategy Moves

The cost reduction can become a barrier to competitors in the industry who cannot reduce

costs. According to Colgate’s 10-k, product quality, innovation, brand recognition and marketing

capabilities will determine the success of the company. It is believed that, the new product

development and quality is a must in the PCP industry in order to be competitive.

The product differentiation has some influence on investment in brand, research and

development and innovations. With these strategies carefully and successfully implemented

Colgate will able to compete and maintain an edge over existing and new entrants to the PCP

industry. “On economics of scale Colgate utilized its machineries and employees to produce

more units of products on a larger scale.” (www.investopedia.com). In the case of the PCP

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industry being highly competitive, economics of scale is the bona-fide competitive requirement

to use to succeed against other rivals.

Supporting Argument

In the PCP industry low cost leadership is a requirement for firms to remain

competitive and have edge against their competitors. Colgate can purchase its raw materials from

developing countries and also move some of its production facilities to those countries. The goal

is to manufacture products with less variable cost. Because the profit made by Colgate is the

direct result emanating from the difference in what customers are willing to pay for the products

and the cost of the company’s production.

Gaining a market beachhead by Colgate over its competitors will be laudable. Since

Colgate has presence in more than 200 countries it can relocate some of its production facilities

to Africa, Asia and South America where prices of commodities, power and labor cheaper

comparatively to prices in the developed countries. Economics of scale concepts can then be

implemented to produce larger units of products which are then shipped to developed countries

to be sold for more money. Colgate will then have a competitive edge over its rivals in the

industry because of lower cost of its products.

Market entry through process innovation is a strategy Colgate can apply. For instance,

Colgate can invest more money in its research and development to work on using only natural,

plants or herbs as the main ingredients in its products. The product innovation can be expensive

initially, but it would pay off in the future. In addition, due to petroleum product causing

irritations, skin diseases and cancers to consumers, it is more likely these natural products will be

patronized.

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Colgate Palmolive Company can also employ the strategic acquisitions, mergers and joint

venture partnership with bigger firms like Unilever in Africa, Asia and South America to firmly

enter these new markets.

Enterprise Level Strategy

Human resources recruiting qualified and skillful employees will help Colgate Palmolive

Company to be competitive and sustainable because money will not be used in retraining the

hired employees. Finance and procurement purchasing raw materials in bulk will reduce the

price per unit of the material, thus saving cost. Operations and management training employees

to produce quality and non- conformance products will help save cost. Also producing products

that are ordered and needed will reduce the cost of inventory. In nutshell, Colgate Palmolive

Company has to initially draw up a strategy of how to recruit skillful employees who will work

together in teams to help the company to be sustainable to the future. Freeman said “Strategies

management actively plots a new direction for the firm and to consider how the firm can affect

the environment as well as the environment affecting the firm” (1984). Colgate uses a great

amount of electricity and water, therefore the reduction in energy and water usage will save cash

for other investments. Material wastes and environmental pollution will save the company

money and the earth from degradation. Since the company has initial public offerings it will be

prudent for Colgate Palmolive Company executives to also work closely with shareholders for

their support in sustainable management ventures. All employees understanding their values and

taking charge of their responsibilities in Colgate Palmolive Company will add financial values to

the company to be sustainable.

Threats

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Colgate Palmolive Company has some threats from its competitors and private labeled

companies. Frequent product recalls are a concern to Colgate’s business growth and profits.

Opportunities

Colgate Palmolive Company can restructure and plan to tap into the rural markets in Asia,

Africa and South America. Initiatives like mergers, acquisitions and Joint ventures can

strengthened the company for leadership in the personal and home care products industry.

Integrating the analysis

The global economy has adversely affected the personal care products industry among

others. Low per capital income and rising cost, raw materials, labor, foreign exchange and

interest rates have crippled the growth and profitability firms in the industry. Economic changes,

terrorist activities and political unrests have also brought in unprecedented slow growth in

businesses, inflation, and deflation for personal care products. To continue, globalization and

international security concerns have challenged businesses to address corporate social

responsibility (CSR), and sustainable development issues. These factors promoted large number

of consumers, employees, investors and business partners dependently working together as teams

for success. Colgate Palmolive Company has an organization culture where efforts are made to

associate the firm and its stake holders to maximize economic, social and ecological values.

Colgate Palmolive Company has a value of that nature enhanced through linkages in outbound

logistics, operations, inbound logistics, marketing & sales, and services offering. Colgate’s

ability to address the total costs in these chains of activities made the company to achieve more

profit margins. In the marketing and sales sector Colgate Palmolive Company has an excellent

work being done. Marketers are able to identify customers’ needs and also generate more sales.

There are support channels for customers after they have purchased products. Frequent Colgate

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employees in-store visits are made to see how products look on the store shelves and also to

notice any defect in the manufacturing processes. Human resources management is trained to

hire only competent employees to join the Colgate workforce. Technological advancement and

procurement of raw materials are also well advanced.

Procurement of raw materials and equipment are carried out by qualified procurement

officers, thus Colgate Palmolive Company purchased items on discount and on bulk bases. This

helps the company to save costs in the variable factors which eventually brings the cost of unit’s

price low. After the SWOT analysis, it is noticed product recalls are internal weakness which

Colgate Palmolive Company can address through carefully and consistently following standard

operating procedures in their manufacture processes. Second the imitated or faked products

being sold under Colgate Palmolive Company brand name should be challenged and stopped.

Intensive brand patenting and legal issues against the perpetrators of these offences should be

elevated to save Colgate Palmolive Company’s brand image. In the Porters Five Forces analysis

it was noticed that, there were rivalry among existing firms. This can be reduced through

collaboration, alliances, mergers and acquisitions.

Colgate Palmolive Company product differentiation can be achieved by the company

investing more into research and development. The goal is to find new material and ingredients

to manufacture differentiated products from the other firms within the personal and home care

products industry.

Analyzing the strategy type

The personal care product industry (PCP) has a competitive market, therefore firms

within have to ensure they are implementing strategies to ensure success and growth. On that

note Colgate Palmolive Company uses the differentiation and low cost strategies to survive in the

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

market. Some low cost strategies Colgate employs are continuous improvement in its operating

efficiencies. Modern machinery and equipment are frequently installed and were being operated

on higher asset utilization (AU). Experience curve concepts have been applied to train

production line operators to change over and run batches in the possible shortest time to save

money.

Customer relationship management has been promoted in Colgate’s facilities whereby

employees use a technique of better understanding and servicing their loyal customers. Suppliers

on the other hand affects Colgate’s value, therefore they do business with suppliers who give

them lowest prices and best quality commodities. This will not only reduce raw materials costs,

but also keep them highly competitive due the low costs of products. This cost reduction can

become a barrier to competitors in the industry who cannot reduce costs. According to Colgate’s

10-k, product quality, innovation, brand recognition and marketing capabilities will determine

the success of the company. It is believed that, the new product development and quality is a

must in the PCP industry in order to be competitive.

The product differentiation has some influence on investment in brand, research and

development and innovations. With these strategies carefully and successfully implemented

Colgate will able to compete and maintain an edge over existing and new entrants to the PCP

industry. “On economics of scale Colgate utilized its machineries and employees to produce

more units of products on a larger scale.” (www.investopedia.com). The case in the PCP industry

being highly competitive, economics of scale is the bona-fide competitive requirement to use to

succeed against other rivals.

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

Alignment and Goals Analysis

Successful organizational strategy implementation calls for structural, personnel and

resources alignment. Strategies are normally formed around a set of supporting structures and

practices which are called alignment. In order for the alignment to be successful, organization

structures, human skills, resources, support systems and incentives should support the goals set.

Alignment Checklist and Unit Goals


Alignment Check list Yes No
People Our people have the necessary skills to make the yes
strategy work.
They support the strategy yes
Their attitude s are aligned with the strategy no
They have resources they need to be successful yes

Incentives Our rewards system is aligned with the strategy yes


Everyone has performance goals aligned with the no
strategy
Structure Units are optimally organized to support the strategy yes
Supportive The many things we do around here- pricing, the way yes
Activities we handle customers, fulfill orders, etc. –support the
strategy
Culture Our culture and strategy are well matched. no

Supporting Argument

The elements of Colgate Palmolive Company strategy alignment involving people,

incentives, supportive activities, organizational structure, culture and leadership are well aligned.

The only lapses and deviation is the Colgate employees’ attitude towards the strategy alignment.

The first reason of the employee’s failure is because Colgate has workers from diverse cultures

and the way strategies are aligned is different from theirs. Therefore, these employees might not

support all strategies brought up. So time and effort are needed to persuade these employees to

change to support strategies and their alignments. Second, the employees’ failure to support

25
Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

strategies is pronounced because Colgate always draws strategies from the top management to

the bottom employees. In business set up’s where employees are not given the chance to

contribute in strategy formations, they are fully bound not to support them during their

implementation. The remedy to employees not supporting Colgate’s strategies can be corrected

to include all ranks of employees in the initial strategies planning, formation, implementation

and alignment.

Action Plan Analysis Diagram

Colgate Pamolive
Strategic Goals

R&D
Sale and Manufacturing
markenting

innovation and $429m net profit


new natural from sales of economies of
productis newly developed scale production
development by natural products of natural
2016 by 2020 products by 2017

Look new
employ full time markerts for
scientists and natural products purchase and
engineers by 2014 in Asia, Africa and instal new
South America machinery to
facilities to
manufacture new
Marketing and sales natural produces
make requistion employees start by 2015
for $200M from advertizing and find
corporate toward cost price /unit
R&D work by 2013 product. searching for
buyers to the natural hire and train old
products at production
U.S.Eroupe and operators on
Canada by 2015 natural products
26 and machinary by
2015
Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

Action Plan Analysis

Since the strategies of Colgate Palmolive Company is to enter new markets in Asia,

Africa and South America with new products made from only natural ingredients. Research and

development will make a requisition of $200M from the corporate headquarters by 2013. Full

time scientists and engineers will be hired by 2014 to start research work on the natural product

innovation. Marketing and sales representatives will start campaigning and advertising for the

new natural products by 2015 in the U.S., Europe and Canada. At the same look for new

markets in Asia, Africa, and South America. Manufacturing department will start hiring and

training line operators on the new natural products and the new machinery. In the same year

purchasing and installment of new machinery will be done at selected facilities. Research and

development will launch the new natural products by 2016. By 2017, mass production of the

natural products will commence. By 2020 it is estimated that Colgate will make a net profit of

$429M from the sales of the new natural products.

Relevant Action Plan

GOALS: Develop new natural ingredients to use in the manufacturing of Colgate products.
. Meet forecast demand from 2016-2020
. Accommodate innovation, trials and the manufacture of the new products
. Achieve improvement in asset utilization of machines, quality, customer services and cost.

PERFORMANCE METRICS:
. Year 2013: Research and development will make a requisition for $420m from the corporate
headquarters.

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

. Year 2014: Research and development hire full time scientists and engineers to carry out the
natural product development processes.

. Year 2015: Marketing and sales will start to campaign, advertise for the new products in the
United States, Europe and Canada, and also pegging the cost price/unit of the new products. At
the same time search for new market segments in Asia, Africa, and South America.
Manufacturing is to purchase, install new machinery, hire and train line production operators on
the new natural products and on the new machinery.

.Year 2016: Research and development produce the initial sets of the natural products for trial
through the pilot plant.

.Year 2017: Manufacturing starts large scale production of the all-natural ingredients products
for sales.

Year 2020: Achieve an estimated $429M net profit from the sales of the natural products.

ACTION STEPS
Year 2013
What Who When
Requisition for $429M R &D January 2013
Year 2014
Hire Scientists/Engineers R &D January 2014
Year 2015
Campaign; advertise for new products Marketing & Sales January 2015
and estimate cost unit/price for product
Search for new markets in Africa, Marketing & Sales June 2015
Asia and South America
Purchase and install new machinery, Manufacturing September 2015
Hire and train production operators
on products and machines
Year 2016
Pilot plant to produce new products R&D January 2016
for trials
Year 2017
Start of the large scale production Manufacturing January 2017
Year 2020
Achieved $429M net profit from sales Marketing/ Sales/Finance January 2020

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Sustainable Solution Paper Franklin Komla Atadja

MANUFACTURING UNITS WORKS WITH……. TO WHEN


Construction and machinery Manage entire construction/ Start Sept.2015
Installation process
Installation unit
&
Legal Handle all licenses pertaining Start June 2015
Production of new products

Customers Form customer services Start May 2015


Ordering system, shipment
And complaint department

FINANCIAL IMPACT ESTIMATE

Cost:
Expense Capital = $40 million
Capital = 100 million
Equipment = 60 million
Total investment = 200 million

29
30

There is rivalry and intense competition among the first movers namely Procter & Gamble,

Church & Dwight Company Incorporated and Colgate Palmolive Company. The only way firms
Year2017 Year2018 Year2019 Year2020

Revenue Price/Unit $0.305 $0.305 $0.270 $0.120

Cost/Unit $0.225 $0.193 $0.150 $0.095

Units $415m $724m $840m $2071m

Revenue $145m $220m $226m $248m

Net Profit $52m $81m $100m $196m

Total Net Profit = $429million

Supporting
Argument
in this industry can be profitable is through differentiation and low cost leadership. Colgate

Palmolive Company has invested funds to research and development to formulate different

products. Colgate Palmolive Company has always purchased equipment, machineries, raw and

component materials from cheap sources and on discounted prices. Colgate Palmolive Company

has decided to strategically gain a market beachhead, make market entry through process

innovations and through product differentiation. Basically, Colgate Palmolive Company is going

to develop new natural products from 2017, and it is going to target rural markets in Asia, Africa

and South America. Colgate Palmolive Company has drawn an action plan from 2015 to 2020 on

the natural products development to scale of economies production in some identified facilities

worldwide. The action plan consists of goals, performance, metrics, action steps, manufacturing

units and the financial impact estimate. Colgate Palmolive Company is going to make a

requisition for $200million from its corporate headquarters in 2013. In 2014 research and
31

development (R&D) will hire some full time Scientists and Engineers to carry out the natural

product development and innovation processes. In 2015 couple of things will be done, marketing

and sales will start to campaign, advertise and find the cost price per unit of the new natural

products. At the same time, they will start searching for new markets in Asia, Africa, and South

Africa. Manufacturing department will purchase and install a set of new machinery towards the

natural products production. In 2016 R&D will produce the natural products through the pilot

plant for trials. In 2017 manufacturing will start the large scale production of the natural products

for sales. The period from 2017 to 2020 it is estimated that Colgate Palmolive Company will

make a net profit of $429 million from the sale of these new products. The company will start

selling new products in the rural markets in Africa, Asia and South America with the goal of

being profitable, competitive and finding new markets.

Fitness Landscape Analysis

Colgate Palmolive Company continued to develop innovated new products as the key

driver of its profitable growth. Colgate Palmolive Company has established global consumer

innovation centers which focuses on the development of insight driven innovation providing

value added new products across all price points. Marketing personnel are working closely with

scientists, researchers, external organizations, and academia to ensure technology is in place to

meet both short and long term consumer’s needs and goals (Colgate Palmolive Company 2011

Annual report).

Description of Fitness Landscape and Analysis

Traditionally manufacturing assembly lines were continuously loaded with large amount

of products on the conveying belts. Where employees hand reached and single packed them into

boxes for shipment. Presently due to business process engineering (BPR) modern automation
32

and mechanization machines have been purchased and installed in most of the Colgate’s

facilities. The newer machines operate at 190 revolutions per minute (RPM) and above. In this

wise larger quantities of products are manufactured within a short period of time. Also traditional

packaging was manually done by hand. But with the advent of technologies modern packaging

robots are currently packing at Colgate Palmolive Company’s manufacturing facilities

worldwide as a cost saving measure. Scientific management has also played a dominant part

through the development where complex tasks are broken into simpler tasks which are timed

exactly and given to the front line manufacturing operators to follow to achieve more

productivity and efficiency (Colgate Palmolive Company, 2012).

The automation, mechanization, scientific management, and innovations have accorded

impetus to Colgate Palmolive Company to produce enough products to meet the global demand

of its customers. This has made it possible for Colgate Palmolive Company to maintain its new

and return customers and also be competitive in the personal care industry with new products.

It is clear from the foregoing discussion that, Colgate Palmolive Company has

evolutionary agendas which has helped the company scored much higher goals in providing new

and useful products to consumers worldwide. In business terms this sounds very positive for

Colgate, because the more useful and new products a company supplies to the market, the more

likely are those products to be purchased. With large purchases from Colgate’s brand the more

profit margins will the company gain.

Boid Analysis

Colgate Palmolive Company has always shown a commitment to their deeply held values

and the principals of conducting business with integrity, honesty, and respect. Colgate’s

employees are viewed as ambassadors of the company working together for a common good. All
33

Colgate employees are part of the global team members who are committed to working together

by sharing ideas, technologies, and talent to sustain a profitable growth (Colgate Palmolive

Company, 2012).

“Boid Analysis” Systems Description and Analysis

Colgate led with respect to create an environment where people genuinely care about

each other to reach their potential full. Colgate Palmolive Company has diverse employees from

all over the world. These employs are from different cultures and have variable educational

backgrounds. All employees from these different cultures are successfully worked together to

help coordinate Colgate’s growth. For example, Colgate Palmolive Company was named one of

the “100 Best Companies for working mothers” in 2004 by working mothers’ magazines. In

2012 the human right report card on America business awarded an “A” for Colgate Palmolive

Company’s support of diversity in its workplace.

Colgate has ethically unpowered its employees with a policy and practice to maintain the

highest ethical standards by creating a workplace devoid of inappropriate or unlawful behavior.

Employees are encouraged to share their concerns with the company without fear of any

retaliation on any circumstances. Colgate Palmolive Company has equally privileged its

employees to take charge in the way they work, thus controlling their working environments,

manufacturing facilities to render excellent products to consumers.

However, some companies within the Personal care industry restrict and defined rules to guide

their employees in day to day activities without any flexibility. The freedom and flexibility

accorded to Colgate Palmolive Company employees has the impacted way employees control

their working styles to benefit customers, the employees, Stakeholders and the company in

general.
34

Industry Evolution Modeling

Colgate Palmolive Company has a survival strategy by following the personal home care

industry’s tread in competing. New products are being researched on and produced. Once the

new products are manufactured the older non-profitable products are dropped from the Colgate

brand. Comparing this action to the leaves in a tree, the older ones become: matured, yellowed,

and dropped out, whiles the new ones emerge on the branch to replace them for sustaining the

purpose of food manufacturing and growth.

Industry Evolution Modeling Description and Analysis

All companies in the personal care industry use a counter strategy where employees in

the Research and development (R&D) are on the lookout for new products development from

other rival companies. Since the products in the industry are not so much different, companies

copy each other to produce exactly the same products offering to the market. Colgate Palmolive

Company managers and employees are constantly trying to identify problems, and proposing a

rational solution to them. These rational solutions are paramount to the eminence, existence and

progress of Colgate Palmolive Company. Fish booms in reference to sustainable models were to

conserve fishes and only catching appropriate amount to the market for sales and profit. Through

the above effort the fishing industry can be sustained into the future. Equally, Colgate Palmolive

Company learns from all errors cropping out in its manufacturing processes and finds new

solutions preventing them from future occurrences. Anytime an error occurs investigations were

carried out and corrective measures implemented. For instance in preventing manufacturing

errors employees have been encouraged to cross check each other’s work. Inputs into computers,

batches formulation and change overs are carefully supervised by Lead technicians and Team

Advisors to prevent errors or faults. Colgate employees are cross transferred and trained in others
35

departments to acquaint themselves with the way things are done. With time this important

learning concepts of manufacturing are spread to the entire facilities. New strategies are formed

and emerged to help guide Colgate Palmolive Company employees to innovate on new products

desired by customers and those being produced by competing rival companies. Environmentally,

Colgate Palmolive Company has initiated recycling programs in its manufacturing facilities,

where cardboards, waste papers, bottles and plastics are individually separated for recycling.

Large amount of cardboard boxes shipped to Colgate’s facilities are reused before being

recycled.
36

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

contaminated underground water & watershed


Polluted air & gasses
Contaminated soil.

Natural Nutrients. Technical nutrients


carbon dioxide,
smoke and
contaminated
waste water Plastic bottles,
barrels,
Domes, cup
Harvesting
Natural resources Deodorants & Liquid body
eg. water, air washes productions
Extracting Deodorants & liquid
body washes empty
containers from
Waste from consumers
Plastic bottles, manufacturing
cups, barrels deodorants and
Domes body washes Empty Plastic
bottles, barrels,
cups, domes

Acumulating waste

Life Cycle Assessment

As companies try to meet the demand for environmental accountability they are finding

newer tools that require a significant amount of time to learn and implement in their

organizations. Colgate Palmolive Company in 2009 made a decision to develop a tool that would

customized and relevant to its needs on global basis. “For Colgate it was essential to have the

ability for users to set up their own life cycle scenarios according to regional packaging end of
37

life schemes and regional energy grids”(Hamilton, M., & Millon, J., 2009). The testing phase at

Colgate is underway and hopefully the performance of the current tool version will be a

sufficient start for promoting LCA thinking throughout the packaging and the designing

community. Colgate Palmolive Company has implemented the lean manufacturing methods in

most of its facilities to help reduce the amount of waste generated from production. Component

materials such as barrels, cups, domes, bases, plastics, cardboard boxes are reuse to cut cost in

recycling. Colgate has the goals of reducing energy use per ton of production by 25%, carbon

dioxide emission by 25%, water use by 40% and waste water contaminate by 30%

(Colgate.Com, 2010). Colgate has started purchasing renewable energy and using energy

reduction bulbs in its facilities. Planting of trees and shrubs around Colgate facilities for

afforestation with the aim of supporting the climate changing goal is in progress. Since Colgate

Palmolive Company uses a large amount of energy and water in its production activities, the

likely prototype projects will be in solar and wind power. Newer water harnessing methods like

dugout bore holes and water recycling processes will be looked into and addressed.

Conclusion

Colgate Palmolive Company is in the personal and home care products industry and rated

the third competitor in the industry .Colgate Palmolive Company is an organization that uses

large amount of energy and water in its manufacturing processes. The by-products of these

manufacturing activities are largely in wastes, contaminated water and Carbon dioxide (C02)

emission.

The costs reduction programs of Colgate Palmolive Company will accord the chance of

reducing the prices of their products to the final consumers. In this wise larger Colgate Palmolive

Company products will be purchased from the market stocks and shelves, thus giving greater
38

profit margins for the company. Colgate Palmolive Company will be relocating some of its

production facilities to Africa, Asia and South America where prices of commodities, power and

labor are cheaper comparatively to those in the developed countries. Mass production of products

in these locations will be enhanced and then these products are shipped to developed countries to

be sold for more money. Colgate will then have a competitive edge over its rivals in the industry

because of the lower cost of its products.

The new strategies of Colgate Palmolive Company are to enter new markets in Asia,

Africa and South America with new products made from only natural ingredients. Research and

development will launch the new natural products by 2016 and anticipated that by 2020 the

company will make a net profit of $429M from the sales of these new natural products

Colgate Palmolive Company has initiated recycling programs in its manufacturing

facilities, where cardboards, waste papers, bottles and plastics are individually separated for

recycling. Large amount of cardboard boxes shipped to Colgate’s facilities are reused before

being recycled. Colgate has also started purchasing green renewable energy and using energy

reduction bulbs in its facilities. Trees and shrubs are being planted around Colgate facilities for

afforestation with the aim of supporting the Earth sustainability initiatives.

Colgate Palmolive Company adhering to the environmentally protection goals has

decided to annually reduce energy use per ton of production by 25%, carbon dioxide emission by

25%, water use by 40% and waste water contaminate by 30% (Colgate.Com, 2010). Since

Colgate Palmolive Company uses a large amount of energy and water in its production activities.

Newer wind, solar and water harnessing methods like dugout bore holes and water recycling

processes will be looked into in the future and addressed. All the above efforts will help Colgate
39

Palmolive Company to be sustainable as an organization and also protect the Earth from further

deteriorating.
40

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