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Want some great clothing ideas for your family?

Our key for clothing specials in July:

M for men W for women C for children

For under $10

Cotton socks C - made of pure cotton for long wearing
Woollen socks C - to keep young feet warm in winter
Sports socks M - to go with jeans and other casual clothes
Patterned belts W - to go with jeans and other casual clothes

For under $25

Cotton shirts W - for day and evening wear
- five sizes, in designer colours, for that special social
Silk shirts M
T shirts C - hard-wearing, white with a variety of animal motifs
Colour T-shirts M W - cotton and polyester blend, plain colours, no ironing

For under $50

Blue jeans M W - non-shrink, colourfast, small sizes only
Silk shirts M W - plain and patterned, all sizes
Hooded jacket C - protects from the wind, 4 sizes, large strong pockets
jacket W - waterproof with zipper front, all sizes

• Or you can buy a gift voucher so that someone else can choose. These come in $10, $20
and $50 amounts.

Additional monthly specials for July to September

July - $10 voucher with any purchase over $60

- Travel alarm clock worth $19.95 free with purchases of $80
or more!
- Children's backpacks. Free with any credit card purchase
over $75!

Note: Postage and packing charges

These are applied to each order as follows:

Within Australia:

$7.95 per address, regular post

$17.95 for Express Delivery Service (overnight)


Surface Mail (allow a minimum of two months for delivery)

Airmail (allow around two weeks delivery to most destinations)

Questions 8-14

New Book Releases

This book describes the creativity of Aboriginal people living in the driest parts of
A Australia. Stunning reproductions of paintings, beautiful photography and informative
Pocket-sized maps and illustrations with detailed information on the nesting sites and
B migration patterns of Australia. This is a classic booklet suitable for both beginner and
Packed full of information for the avid hiker, this book is a must. Photographs, maps
C and practical advice will guide your journeys on foot through the forests of the
southern continent.
More than-an atlas - this book contains maps, photographs and an abundance of
information on the land and climate of countries from around the globe.
Australia's premier mountain biking guidebook - taking you through a host of national
parks and state forests.
Here's the A-Z of Australian native animals - take an in-depth look at their lives and
characteristics, through fantastic photographs and informative text.
Graphic artists have worked with researchers and scientists to illustrate how these
prehistoric animals lived and died on the Australian continent.
A definitive handbook on outdoor safety - with a specific focus on equipment,
nutrition, first aid, special clothing and bush skills.
Detailed guides to 15 scenic car tours that will take you onto fascinating wilderness
tracks and along routes that you could otherwise have missed.

Questions 15-20


Do you want to hove the best summer holiday ever?
Have you just graduated and want to escape for a unique experience abroad?

Only $1950 will make It all happen!

This unbeatable program fee includes:

• return flight from Sydney to Los Angeles (onward travel in USA not included)

• 3 months' insurance cover

• 2 nights' accommodation on arrival plus meet and greet and airport transfer

• arrival orientation by experienced InterExchange staff

• visa application fees

You also have:

• access to a J l visa enabling you to work in the USA

• an extensive directory of employers

• InterExchange support throughout the program

• 24-hour emergency support throughout the length of the program

Call toll-free 1800 678 738

InterExchange has 50 yeors' experience in international student exchange programs. 18,000

students from around the world travel yearly to the USA on this very program.
InterExchange con also offer you work opportunities in other countries.


InterExchange, one of the world's leading operators of international exchange programs

and related services:

• is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation

• has 700 professional staff in 30 countries worldwide

• was founded in 1947

InterExchange operates these programs for students all around the world. It offers you
trained and travelled staff, plus full support during the application process. You can choose
any job that interests you anywhere in the USA, whether that is working in a law firm in
Boston, a famous ski resort in Colorado or serving coffee and doughnuts in the bzzing
streets of New York. You can select the period you work and the period you travel; you may
want to work for 1 month and travel for 3, or work the entire duration of your stay. The
choice is yours.


• a full-time student at an Australian university or TAFE college

• presently enrolled, or finishing this year, or you have deferred a year of study

• over 18 years old by November in the academic year in which you apply to

• enthusiastic about the experience of a lifetime ...

Sign up now!!

Questions 21-27

File edit View Go Communicator Help

A about Arthur Phillip College G learning methods
B entry requirements H course fees
C orientation for new students I study commitment
D academic counselling service J assessment and results
E credit courses to university K social activities and clubs
F assistance for international students L what's new

Questions 28-40

Section A In the fifth stage, the rapid eye
It is estimated that the average man or movement (REM) stage, the heartbeat
woman needs between seven-and-a-half quickly gets back to normal levels, brain
and eight hours' sleep a night. Some can activity accelerates to daytime heights
manage on a lot less. Baroness Thatcher, and above and the eyes move constantly
for example, was reported to be able to beneath closed lids as if the sleeper is
get by on four hours' sleep a night when looking at something. During this stage,
she was Prime Minister of Britain. Dr the body is almost paralysed. This REM
Jill Wilkinson, senior lecturer in phase is also the time when we dream.
psychology at Surrey University and co-
author of 'Psychology in Counselling Section E
and Therapeutic Practice', states that Sleeping patterns change with age,
healthy individuals sleeping less than which is why many people over 60
five hours or even as little as two hours develop insomnia. In America, that age
in every 24 hours are rare, but represent group consumes almost half the sleep
a sizeable minority. medication on the market. One theory
for the age-related change is that it is due
Section B to hormonal changes. The temperature
The latest beliefs are that the main General Training: Reading and Writing
purposes of sleep are to enable the body rise occurs at daybreak in the young, but
to rest and replenish, allowing time for at three or four in the morning in the
repairs to take place and for tissue to be elderly. Age aside, it is estimated that
regenerated. One supporting piece of roughly one in three people suffer some
evidence for this rest-and¬repair theory kind of sleep disturbance. Causes can be
is that production of the growth hormone anything from pregnancy and stress to
somatotropin, which helps tissue to alcohol and heart disease. Smoking is a
regenerate, peaks while we are asleep. known handicap to sleep, with one
Lack of sleep, however, can compromise survey showing that ex-smokers got to
the immune system, muddle thinking, sleep in 18 minutes rather than their
cause depression, promote anxiety and earlier average of 52 minutes.
encourage irritability.
Section F
Section C Apart from self-help therapy such as
Researchers in San Diego deprived a regular exercise, there are psychological
group of men of sleep between Sam and treatments, including relaxation training
lam on just one night, and found that and therapy aimed at getting rid of pre-
levels of their bodies' natural defences sleep worries and anxieties. There is also
against viral infections had fallen sleep reduction therapy, where the aim is
significantly when measured the to improve sleep quality by strictly
following morning. 'Sleep is essential for regulating the time people go to bed and
our physical and emotional well-being when they get up. Medication is
and there are few aspects of daily living regarded by many as a last resort and
that are not disrupted by the lack of it', often takes the form of sleeping pills,
says Professor William Regelson of normally benzodiazepines, which are
Virginia University, a specialist in minor tranquillisers.
insomnia. 'Because it can seriously
undermine the functioning of the Section G
immune system, sufferers are vulnerable Professor Regelson advocates the use of
to infection.' melatonin for treating sleep disorders.
Melatonin is a naturally secreted
Section D hormone, located in the pineal gland
For many people, lack of sleep is rarely a deep inside the brain. The main function
matter of choice. Some have problems of the hormone is to control the body's
getting to sleep, others with staying biological clock, so we know when to
asleep until the morning. Despite sleep and when to wake. The gland
popular belief that sleep is one long detects light reaching it through the eye;
event, research shows that, in an average when there is no light, it secretes the
night, there are five stages of sleep and melatonin into the bloodstream, lowering
four cycles, during which the sequence the body temperature and helping to
of stages is repeated. induce sleep. Melatonin pills contain a
In the first light phase, the heart rate and synthetic version of the hormone and are
blood pressure go down and the muscles commonly used for jet lag as well as for
relax. In the next two stages, sleep gets sleep disturbance. John Nicholls, sales
progressively deeper. In stage four, manager of one of America's largest
usually reached after an hour, the health food shops, claims that sales of
slumber is so deep that, if awoken, the the pill have increased dramatically. He
sleeper would be confused and explains that it is sold in capsules,
disorientated. It is in this phase that tablets, lozenges and mixed with herbs.
sleep-walking can occur, with an average It is not. effective for all insomniacs, but
episode lasting no more than 15 minutes. many users have weaned themselves off
sleeping tablets as a result of its

Questions 1-7


Dear Friend,

Please join us for our annual Walk for Charity. Starting in Weldown, you and your friends can choose a delightfu

The money raised will provide support to help people all over the world. Start collecting your sponsors now and

See you on Sunday 14 May,

V Jessop
Walk Co-ordinator

P S. Well done to last year's walkers for helping to raise a grand total of £21,000.
The money has already been used to build a children's playground.

30 km: 8-10 am 20 km: 8 - 10.30 am
10 km: 8 - 11.30 am

The organisers reserve the right to refuse late-comers.

CLOTHING should be suitable for the weather. If rain is forecast, bring some protection and be prepared for al

ROUTE MAPS will be available from the registration point. The route will be sign-posted and marshalled. Wh
Free car parking available in car parks and on streets in Weldown.

For the 10 and 20 km routes, a bus will be waiting at Fenton to take walkers back to Weldown; The bus will leav

Questions 8-14

The Week's Best

Wild Rose
(Tuesday 19.00)
This TV drama is about a young private detective employed by a team of New York businessmen who send he
have no record of any robberies.
Animal Planet
(Wednesday 23.00)
This is a classic black-and-white film from the forties in which astronaut Charlie Huston crash-lands on a plan

Strange Encounter
(Saturday 21.00)
Suspense is skilfully built up in this clever, small-scale supernatural story. A young couple view a deserted old
meet their. ancestors.

The Longest Walk
(Tuesday 21.30)
Ffyona Campbell is nearly there.

Copyright © 2007 IELTS-Exams

Questions 15-20


International Students' Orientation Programme

What is it?
It is a course which will introduce you to the College and to Bingham. It takes place in the
week before term starts, from 24th - 28th September inclusive, but you should plan to arrive
in Bingham on the 22nd or 23rd September.

Why do we think it is important?

We want you to have the best possible start to your studies and you need to find out about all
the opportunities that college life offers. This programme aims to help you do just that. It
will enable you to get to know the College, its facilities and services. You will also have the
chance to meet staff and students.

How much will it cost?

International students (non-European Union students)
For those students who do not come from European Union (EU) countries, and who are not
used to European culture and customs, the programme is very important and you are
strongly advised to attend. Because of this, the cost of the programme, exclusive of
accommodation, is built into your tuition fees.
EU students
EU students are welcome to take part in this programme for a fee of £ 195, exclusive of
accommodation. Fees are not refundable.

Accommodation costs (international and EU students)

If you have booked accommodation for the year ahead (41 weeks) through the College in
one of the College residences (Cambourne House, Hanley House, the Student Village or a
College shared house), you do not have to pay extra for accommodation during the
Orientation programme. If you have not booked accommodation in the College residences,
you can ask us to pre-book accommodation for you for one week only (Orientation
Programme week) in a hotel with other international students. The cost of accommodation
for one week is approximately £ 165. Alternatively, you can arrange your own
accommodation for that week in a flat, with friends or a local family.

What is included during the programme?

Meals: lunch and an evening meal are provided as part of the programme, beginning with
supper on Sunday 23rd September and finishing with lunch at midday on Friday 28th
September. Please note that breakfast is not available.

Information sessions: including such topics as accommodation, health, religious matters,

welfare, immigration, study skills, careers and other 'essential information'.

Social activities: including a welcome buffet and a half-day excursion round Bingham.

Transport: between your accommodation and the main College campus, where activities will
take place.

Questions 21-27
Student Accommodation
The College offers five basic accommodation options. Here is some information to help
you make your choice
A CAMBOURNE HOUSE - self-catering, student residence, located in the town centre
about 2 miles from the main College campus. Up to 499 students live in 6, 7 and 8
bedroom flats, all with en-suite shower rooms. Rent is £64 per week, including bills (not
telephone). Broadband Internet connections and telephones, with communal
kitchen/dining and lounge areas. Parking space is available, with permits costing £60 per

B STUDENT VILLAGE - features 3, 4, 5 and 7 bedroom, self-catering shared houses for

250 students close to the main College campus. Rent is £60 per week inclusive of bills
(except telephone). Parking is available with permits costing £90 for the academic year.
C HANLEY HOUSE - a second, modern, self-catering residence in the town centre for 152
students. Eighteen rooms per floor with communal kitchens, lounges, bathrooms and
toilets. Rent is £53 per week including bills (not telephone). There is no space for parking

D GLENCARRICK HOUSE - a privately-owned and managed student residence in the

town centre above a multi-storey car park, close to a major nightclub and housing 120
students. Rooms are allocated by the College Accommodation Service. Rents range from
£58.50 to £68.50 for a single en-suite room or larger en-suite room respectively. A small
extra charge is made for electricity.

E HOUSE SHARES - this recent initiative is a range of shared houses for 140 students,
conforming to standards set by us to meet all legal safety requirements. A room in a shared
house costs between £45 and £55 per week, exclusive of bills, and will be within a 4-mile
radius of both campuses. As with halls of residence, the rent is payable termly.

Questions 21-27


The glow-worm belongs to a family of beetles known as the lampyridae or fireflies. The
fireflies are a huge group containing over 2000 species, with new ones being discovered all
the time. The feature which makes fireflies and glow-worms so appealing is their ability to
produce an often dazzling display of light. The light is used by the adult fireFlies as a signal
to attract a mate, and each species must develop its own 'call-sign' to avoid being confused
with other species glowing nearby. So within any one area each species will differ from its
neighbours in some way, For example in the colour or pattern of its light, how long the pulses
of light last, the interval between pulses and whether it displays in flight or from the ground.

The fireflies' almost magical light has attracted human attention for generations. It is
described in an ancient Chinese enryclopaedia written over 2000 years ago by a pupil of
Confucius. Fireflies often featured in Japanese and Arabian folk medicine. All over the world
they have been the inspiration for countless poems, paintings and stories. In Britain, for
example, there are plenty of anecdotes describing how glow-worms have been used to read by
or used as emergency bicycle lamps when a cyclist's batteries have failed without warning.
Early travellers in the New World came back with similar stories, of how the native people of
Central America would collect a type of click beetle and release them indoors to light up their
huts. Girls threaded them around their feet to illuminate the forest paths at night.
Fireflies very similar to those we see today have been found fossilised in rocks which were
formed about 30 million years ago, and their ancestors were probably glowing long before
then. It is impossible to be sure exactly when and where the first firefly appeared. The highest
concentrations of firefly species today are to be found in the tropics of South America, which
may mean either that this is where they First evolved, or simply that they prefer the conditions
Wherever they first arose, fireflies have since spread to almost every part of the globe. Today
members of the firefly family can be found almost anywhere outside the Arctic and Antarctic

As with many insects, the glow-worm's life is divided into four distinct stages: the egg, the
larva (equivalent to the caterpillar of a butterfly), the pupa (or chrysalis) and the adult. The
glow-worm begins its life in the autumn as a pale yellow egg. The freshly laid egg is
extremely fragile but within a day its surface has hardened into a shell. The egg usually takes
about 35 days to hatch, but the exact time varies according to the temperature, from about 27
days in hot weather to more than 45 days in cold weather. By the time it is due to hatch, the
glow-worm's light organ is fully developed, and its glow signals that the egg will soon hatch.
After it has left the egg, the larva slowly grows from a few millimetres into the size and shape
of a matchstick. The larval stage is the only time the insect can feed. The larva devotes much
of its life to feeding and building up its food reserves so that as an adult it will be free to
concentrate all its efforts on the task of finding a mate and reproducing. Throughout its time
as a larva, approximately 15 months, the glow-worm emits a bright light. The larva's light is
much fainter than the adult female's but it can still be seen more than five metres away.
In the final stage of a glow-worm's life, the larva encases itself in a pupa) skin while it
changes from the simple larva to the more complex adult fly. When the adult Ay emerges
from the pupa the male seeks a female with whom it can mate. After mating, the female lays
about 120 eggs. The adult flies have no mouth parts, cannot eat and therefore only live a few
days. When people talk of seeing a glow-worm they normally mean the brightly glowing
adult female.

In some countries the numbers of glow-worms have been falling. Evidence suggests that there
has been a steady decrease in the British glow-worm population since the 1950s and possibly
before that. Possible causes for the decline include habitat destruction, pollution and changes
in climate. Thousands of acres of grassland have been built upon and glow-worm sites have
become increasingly isolated from each other. The widespread use of pesticides and fertilisers
may also have endangered the glow-worm. Being at the top of a food chain it is likely to
absorb any pollutants eaten by the snails on which it feeds. The effect of global warming on
rainfall and other weather patterns may also be playing a part in the disappearance of glow-
worms. A lot more research will be needed, however, before the causes of the glow-worm's
gradual decline are clear.

Although glow-worms are found wherever conditions are damp, food is in good supply and
there is an over-hanging wall, they are most spectacular in caves. For more than 100 years the
glow-worm caves in New Zealand have attracted millions of people from all over the world.
The caves were first explored in 1887 by a local Maori chief, Tane Tinorau, and an English
surveyor, Fred Mace. They built a raft and, with candles as their only light, they floated into
the cave where the stream goes underground. As their eyes adjusted to the darkness they saw
myriad lights reflecting off the water. Looking up they discovered that the ceiling was dotted
with the lights of thousands of glow-worms. They returned many times to explore further, and
on an independent trip Tane discovered the upper level of the cave and an easier access. The
authorities were advised and government surveyors mapped the caves. By 1888 Tane Tinorau
had opened the cave to tourists.

Questions 1-14



A Appointments
Please telephone 826969 (8.30am - 5.00pm: Mon - Fri). We suggest that you try to see the
same doctor whenever possible because it is helpful for both you and your doctor to know
each other well. We try hard to keep our appointments running to time, and ask you to be
punctual to help us achieve this; if you cannot keep an appointment, please phone in and let
us know as soon as possible so that it can be used for someone else. Please try to avoid
evening appointments if possible. Each appointment is for one person only. Please ask for a
longer appointment if you need more time.

B Weekends and Nights

Please telephone 823307 and a recorded message will give you the number of the doctor
from the Centre on duty. Please remember this is in addition to our normal working day.
Urgent calls only please. A Saturday morning emergency surgery is available between
9.30am and 10.00am. Please telephone for home visits before 10.00am at weekends.

C Centre Nurses
Liz Stuart, Martina Scott and Helen Stranger are available daily by appointment to help you
with dressings, ear syringing, children's immunisations, removal of stitches and blood tests.
They will also advise on foreign travel, and can administer various injections and blood
pressure checks. For any over 75s unable to attend the clinic, Helen Stranger will make a
home visit. AII three Centre Nurses are available during normal working hours to carry out
health checks on patients who have been on doctors' lists for 3 years.

D New Patients
Within 3 months of registering with the Centre, new patients on regular medication are
invited to attend a health check with their doctor. Other patients can arrange to be seen by
one of the Centre Nurses.

E Services Not Covered

Some services are not covered by the Centre e.g. private certificates, insurance, driving and
sports medicals, passport signatures, school medicals and prescriptions for foreign travel.
There are recommended fees for these set by the National Medical Association. Please ask at

F Receptionists
Our receptionists provide your primary point of contact-they are all very experienced and
have a lot of basic information at their fingertips. They will be able to answer many of your
initial queries and also act as a link with the rest of the team. They may request brief details
of your symptoms or illness - this enables the doctors to assess the degree of urgency.

G Change of Address
Please remember to let us know if you decide to relocate. It is also useful for us to have a
record of your telephone number.

Questions 10-14



Meal Breaks
(minimum company
0-4 hrs nil
4-6 hrs 15 mins
6-8 hrs 30 mins
8-12 hrs 60 mins (taken as 2 x 30 mins)
12-24 hrs 75 mins (taken as 2 x 30 mins + 1 x 15 mins)
Your section staffing board will show the times when these breaks are to be taken.

Please note
It is your responsibility to check that the total break time shown on the staffing sheets
accurately reflects the breaks that you take. Any discrepancies should be raised with your
Staff Co-ordinator immediately.


Food handlers are those concerned with preparing and serving unwrapped food.
Food handlers should report any instance of sickness, diarrhoea and/or stomach upset
experienced either while at work or during a holiday to a member of the Personnel
Management team. Any infections of ear, nose, throat, mouth, chest or skin should also be
reported to a member of the Personnel Management team.
Food handlers need to have an annual dental examination by the company dentist.
Alternatively, a current certificate of dental fitness may be produced from their own
dentist. This applies to all permanent staff who handle food.

Questions 15-21

Bramley College International Scholarships

There are seven types of scholarship offered by Bramley College to enrolled international
students to assist with the costs of their courses. With the exception of applications for
scholarship category E, all newly-enrolled international students are automatically considered
for these scholarships. The scholarship is awarded in the student's first year as a credit to
second semester course fees. In all subsequent years, the scholarship is awarded as a credit to
first semester course fees. The scholarships are awarded once per year unless otherwise stated.

The scholarship categories are:

A One scholarship of A$2000 for the most outstanding students entering the Foundation
Studies Program from each of the following countries: Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand.
An additional six scholarships are available for students from other countries. These
scholarships are offered on two dates, to students in the March and June intakes of the
program. Scholarships are awarded on the basis of first semester results.
B Three scholarships providing 25% of course fees for the duration of the course to the three
most outstanding State Certificate of Education (SCE) students entering a Diploma or
Certificate program. Scholarships are awarded on the basis of the previous year's SCE
C Seventeen scholarships providing 25% of course fees for the duration of the course to
outstanding Diploma or Certificate students entering each Bramley College School: three
each in the Schools of Business and Engineering; two in the School of Applied Science;
two in the School of Environmental Design and Construction; two in the School of Art and
Design; two in the School of Social Sciences and Communications; one in the School of
Biomedical and Health Science; one in the School of Education and one in the School of
Nursing. Scholarships are awarded on the basis of first semester results.
D One scholarship of A$4000 per annum for the duration of the course to the most
outstanding student entering the Diploma in Communication. Scholarships are awarded on
the basis of first semester results.
E Nine scholarships of A$3000 per annum for the duration of the course to the most
outstanding students commencing any Advanced Certificate course. Scholarships are
awarded on the basis of Basic Certificate results (not SCE results). Note that applicants
need to apply for this scholarship on the Bramley College International Scholarship
Application Form.
F One full-fee scholarship to the most outstanding student commencing a Diploma in Art
and Design (Photography) course. This scholarship is offered every second year, and is
awarded on the basis of results obtained in the Certificate in Design course.
G Four half-fee scholarships to outstanding students of Bramley College's Singapore campus
for the final year of the two-year Certificate in Business Studies to be completed in
Melbourne, Australia. Scholarships are awarded on the basis of first year results.

Questions 22-27

Using the Internet and CD-ROM databases in the Library

Bramley College now has full electronic information resources in the College Library to
you in your studies. On CD-ROM in the library we have about fifty databases, including
many statistical sources. Want to know the average rainfall in Tokyo or the biggest export
earner of Vanuatu? It's easy to find out. Whether you are in the School of Business or the
School of Art & Design, it's all here for you.

You can conduct your own CD-ROM search for no charge, and you can print out your
results on the library printers using your library photocopying card. Alternatively, you can
download your results to disk, again for no charge, but bring your own formatted floppy
disk or CD-ROM. If you are not sure how to conduct a search for yourself, library staff can
do it for you, but we charge $20 for this service, no matter how long or how short a time it

All library workstations have broadband access to the Internet, so you can find the web-
based information you need quickly and easily If you are unfamiliar with using the Internet,
help is available in several ways. You can start with the online tutorial Netstart; just click on
the Netstart Icon on the Main Menu. The tutorial will take you through the basic steps to
using the Internet, at any time convenient to you. If you prefer, ask one of the librarians for
internet advice (best at quiet times between 9.00am and 11.30am weekdays) or attend one of
the introductory group sessions that are held in the first two weeks of each term. Sign your
name on the list on the Library Bulletin Board to guarantee a place, as they are very popular.

A word of warning: demand for access to library workstations is very high, so you are
strongly advised to book a workstation, and we have to limit your use to a maximum of one
hour at any one time. Make your booking (for which you will receive a receipt) at the
information Desk or at the enquiry desks in the Media Services Area (Level 1). Also, use of
the computers is limited to Bramley students only, so you may be asked to produce your
Student Identification Card to make a booking, or while using the workstations.

Questions 28-40
Greater efficiency in water use is needed to meet the growing
demands of a changing world
A Per capita water usage has been on an upward trend for many years. As countries
industrialise and their citizens become more prosperous, their individual water usage
increases rapidly. Annual per capita water withdrawals in the USA, for example, are about
1,700 cubic metres, four times the level in China and fifty times the level in Ethiopia. In
the 21st century, the world's limited supply of renewable fresh water is having to meet
demands of both larger total population and increased per capita consumption. The only
practicable ways to resolve this problem in the longer term are economic pricing in
conjunction with conservation measures.
B Agriculture consumes about 70% of the world's fresh water, so improvements in irrigation
can make the greatest impact. At present, average efficiency in the use of irrigated water in
agriculture may be as low as 50%. Simple changes could improve the rate substantially,
though it is unrealistic to expect very high levels of water-use efficiency in many
developing countries, faced as they are with a chronic lack of capital and a largely
untrained rural workforce. After agriculture, industry is the second biggest user of water
and, in terms of value added per litre used, is sixty times more productive than agriculture.
However, some industrial processes use vast amounts of water. For example, production of
1 kg of aluminium might require 1,500 litres of water. Paper production too is often very
water-intensive. Though new processes have greatly reduced consumption, there is still
plenty of room for big savings in industrial uses of water.
C In rich countries, water consumption has gradually been slowed down by price increases
and the use of modern technology and recycling. In the USA, industrial production has
risen fourfold since 1950, while water consumption has fallen by more than a third. Japan
and Germany have similarly improved their use of water in manufacturing processes.
Japanese industry, for example, now recycles more than 75% of process water. However,
industrial water consumption is continuing to increase sharply in developing countries.
With domestic and agricultural demands also increasing, the capacity of water supply
systems is under growing strain.
D Many experts believe that the best way to counter this trend is to impose water charges
based on the real cost of supplies. This would provide a powerful incentive for consumers
to introduce water-saving processes and recycling. Few governments charge realistic
prices for water, especially to farmers. Even in rich California, farmers get water for less
than a tenth of the cost of supply. In many developing countries there is virtually no charge
for irrigation water, while energy prices are heavily subsidised too (which means that
farmers can afford to run water pumps day and night). Water, which was once regarded as
a free gift from heaven, is becoming a commodity which must be bought and sold on the
open market just like oil. In the oil industry, the price increases which hit the market in the
1970s, coupled with concerns that supplies were running low, led to new energy
conservation measures all over the world. It was realised that investing in new sources was
a far more costly option than improving efficiency of use. A similar emphasis on
conservation will be the best and cheapest option for bridging the gap between water
supply and demand.
E One way to cut back on water consumption is simply to prevent leaks. It is estimated that
in some of the biggest cities of the Third World, more than half of the water entering the
system is lost through leaks in pipes, dripping taps and broken installations. Even in the
UK, losses were estimated at 25% in the early 1990s because of the failure to maintain the
antiquated water supply infrastructure. In addition, huge quantities of water are consumed
because used water from sewage pipes, storm drains and factories is merely flushed away
and discharged into rivers or the sea. The modern approach, however, is to see used water
as a resource which can be put to good use - either in irrigation or, after careful treatment,
as recycled domestic water. Israel, for instance, has spent heavily on used water treatment.
Soon, treated, recycled water will account for most farm irrigation there. There are ether
examples in cities such as St Petersburg, Florida, where all municipal water is recycled
back into domestic systems.
F Another way of conserving water resources involves better management of the
environment generally. Interference with the ecosystem can have a severe effect on both
local rainfall patterns and water run-off. Forest clearings associated with India's Kabini
dam project reduced local rainfall by 25%, a phenomenon observed in various ether parts
of the world where large-scale deforestation has taken place. Grass and other vegetation
acts as a sponge which absorbs rainfall both in the plants and in the ;round. Removal of
the vegetation means that rainfall runs off the top of the land, accelerating erosion instead
of being gradually fed into the soil to renew ground water.
G Global warming is bound to affect rainfall patterns, though there is considerable
disagreement about its precise effects. But it is likely that, as sea levels rise, countries in
low-lying coastal areas will be hit by seawater penetration of ground water. Other
countries will experience changes in rainfall which could have a major impact on
agricultural yield - either for better or for worse. In broad terms, it is thought that rainfall
zones will shift northwards, adding to the water deficit in Africa, the Middle East and the
Mediterranean - a grim prospect indeed.
Questions 1-8


Australia's biggest daily to find the selection of job ads - helping

perfect position for you

Saturday Job Guide

A Government Positions (New South Wales)

B Higher Education (Academic staff)
C Primary and Secondary Schools (Academic staff)
D Hospitals and Medical (Medical staff)
E IT and Computing
F Accountancy and Finance (Private)
G Hospitality and Kitchen Staff
H Self-employment Opportunities
I Rural Posts (incl. farm work)
J Casual Work Available

Monday - Friday Job Highlights

Local Government

Hospital and Medical

Government Health Vacancies (New South Wales)

Questions 9-14

There are four easy ways to book seats for performances:

- in person
The Box Office is open Monday to Saturday, 10 am-8 pm.

- by post
Simply complete the booking form and return it to Stanfield Theatre Box Office, PO Box 220,
Stanfield, ST55 6GF AII cheques should be made payable to Stanfield Theatre.

- by telephone
Ring 01316 753219 to reserve your tickets or to pay by credit card (Visa, Mastercard and
Amex accepted).

- on-line
Complete the on-line booking form at


Saver: £2 off any seat booked any time in advance for performances from Monday to
Thursday inclusive, and for all matinees. Savers are available for children up to 16 years old,
over 60s and full-time students.

Supersaver: half-price seats are available for people with disabilities and one companion. It
is advisable to book in advance. There is a maximum of eight wheelchair spaces available and
one wheelchair space will be held until one hour before the show (subject to availability).

Standby: best available seats are on sale for £6 from one hour before the performance for
people eligible for Saver and Supersaver discounts and thirty minutes before for all other

Group Bookings: there is a ten per cent discount for parties of twelve or more.

Schools: school parties of ten or more can book £6 Standby tickets in advance and will get
every tenth ticket free.

Please note: we are unable to exchange tickets or refund money unless a performance is
cancelled due to unforeseen circumstances.

Gift vouchers for any value can be bought at the Box Office.

Questions 15-27

A involves the use of library books or other articles, it
However difficult you find it to arrange your time, it will helps to keep details of the titles and authors on small
pay off in the long run if you set aside a certain part of cards in a card box. It is also a good idea to log these
the day for studying - and stick to it. It is best to make alphabetically so that you can find them easily - rather
a weekly allocation of your time, making sure that you like keeping telephone numbers. It's all too easy to
have enough left for recreational activities or simply to read something and then forget where it came from.
be 'with' yourself: reading a novel or watching a
television programme. F
Make use of equipment that is available to you. If you
B find a useful article in the library, it is best to make a
As part of your weekly schedule, it is also advisable to copy of the relevant pages before you leave. Then,
consider exactly what you have to do in that week, and when you get back to your study, you can mark the
make sure that you tackle the most significant tasks article and make any comments that you have in the
first, leaving the easier or less urgent areas of your margin.
work until later.
C If you are working on a topic your teacher has set, but
On a physical level, make sure that you have an area finding it hard to concentrate, it may be that you
or space for studying. Don't do it just anywhere. If you actually need to take your mind right off it for a period
always study in the same place, preferably a room of of time. 'Airing the mind' can work wonders
your own, you will find it easier to adjust mentally to sometimes. After a period away from the task, having
the activity when you enter that area. You should have not thought about it at all, you may return to it
everything that you might need at hand. refreshed and full of ideas.

Make sure that all the physical equipment that you Similarly, it may help to discuss a topic with other
use, such as a desk, chair etc. is at a good height for people, especially if you feel that you have insufficient
you. If you use a personal computer, there are plenty ideas, or too many disorganised ideas. Bring your
of guidelines available from the government on topic up in conversations at meal times or with other
posture, angles, lighting and the like. Consult these students and see what they have to say. You don't
and avoid the typical student aches and pains. want to copy their ideas but listening to what they think
about something may well help you develop or refine
E your own thoughts.
If you are doing a long essay or research paper which

Questions 22-27


From Paragraph to Essay Media Use The Job for Me
Of particular relevance to Open to all students, this Finding it, applying for it and
students who wish to improve course focuses on the many getting it. Where can it all go
their organisational skills and ways we can profit wrong? Written and oral
who feel that their final linguistically from the radio course with simulation
product is never clear enough. and television. Use of video exercises using authentic
Thursday 10-12 essential. Group projects form newspaper advertisements.
Kiran Singh part of course. Friday 10-11.30
Tuesday 9-11 Fabbeh AI-Hussein
B Steve Ansell
Communicate by Mail J
Owing to the popularity of F Can I Help You?
last term's course, this is a The Short Story Practical course for students
repeat. Requests for A venture into the world of who wish to improve their
information, notification of popular writers. One story is telephone skills. Breaks the
personal details and selected for adaptation into a ice for newcomers. No written
enclosures will be looked at. short play and group skills required.
Please note that this is not a performance. Pre-arranged Wednesday 3-5
business course. groups welcome. Mike Vas
Friday 2-4 Thursday 11-1.30
Cella Rice Mrs Owen K
The Customer is Always
C G Right
Source Material Caught for Speeding An interesting angle - how do
How do you gather Open to all students. Simple you reply to letters from
information for a project or eye exercises to help you skim customers? What tone is best
paper? A practical course and scan. How to be selective and when? How do you
which looks at sources of on the page. Using headings, achieve results?
information and how to use topic sentences and paragraphs Wednesday 11-1
cataloguing systems. for easy access. Cella Rice
Monday 10-11 Wednesday 11-1
Kiran Singh Mrs Owen
Tense about Tenses
D H For those who worry about
Express Yourself Quote Me if You Must their individual words - a look
An advanced course suitable The do's and don'ts of using at tenses and other aspects of
for students who are about to source material. How to the language through poetry
step into organisations where incorporate it into your own and song. Good voice helps
they may have to voice their work in an acceptable way. but not essential!
opinions in various forums. How not to plagiarise other Saturday 10-12
Monday 12-2 people's articles, books etc. Steve Ansell
Dave Parrin Tuesday 9-10.30
Dr Johnson

Remains of the pterosaur, a cousin of the dinosaur, are found on every continent.
Richard Monastersky reports
A Pterosaurs stand out as one of nature's great success stories. They first appeared during the
Triassic period, 215 million years ago, and thrived for 150 million years before becoming
extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period. Uncontested in the air, pterosaurs colonised all
continents and evolved into a vast array of shapes and sizes.
B Until recently, most scientists would not have put pterosaurs in the same class as birds in
terms of flying ability. Because pterosaurs were reptiles, generations of researchers imagined
that these creatures must have been cold-blooded, like modern snakes and lizards. This
would have made flying awkward, as they would have lacked the endurance to power their
muscles for long periods of time.
C In the past three decades, however, a number of fossil* discoveries have prompted
researchers to re-examine their views. The new picture of pterosaurs reveals that they were
unlike any modern reptile. From a fossil discovered in Kazakhstan, scientists suspect that
pterosaurs had a covering resembling fur. If so, this detail provides evidence of a warm-
blooded body that could maintain the kind of effort needed to stay in the air. Indeed,
scientists now believe that many pterosaurs were gifted air¬borne predators, built to feed
while in flight. And, in fact, such controversy has surrounded pterosaurs since the first
discovery of one in the early 1700s.
D Cosimo Alessandro Collini, the first natural historian to study the fossil and describe it, was
unable to classify it. It was not until 1791 that the great French anatomist Georges Cuvier
deduced that the animal was in fact a flying reptile, whose fourth finger supported a wing. He
named the fossil Pterodactylus, combining the Greek words for wing and finger. A few
decades later, the name pterosaur, or winged reptile, was adopted to describe the growing list
of similar fossiIs.
E In 1873, a remarkable pterosaur specimen came to light that confirmed Cuvier's deduction.
Unlike earlier fossils, this new find near the Bavarian town of Solnhofen contained delicate
wing impressions, establishing definitely that the extinct reptile was capable of flight. Even
though over a thousand pterosaur specimens are known today, such wing impressions remain
rare. Normally only bones survive the fossilisation process.
F But how pterosaurs learnt to fly remains a matter for disagreement. Most researchers
conclude that pterosaurs are descended from a small tree-dwelling reptile that spent its life
jumping between branches. This creature would have spread its limbs, and used flaps of skin
attached to its limbs and body to help it to land gently on the ground. Over many generations
the fourth finger on each of its front 'arms' would have grown longer, making the skin surface
larger and enabling the animal to glide farther. Meanwhile, the competing argument holds
that pterosaurs developed from two-legged reptiles that ran along the ground, perhaps
spreading their arms for balance. Through gradual growth, the front arms would then have
evolved into wings. This difficult issue will only be resolved with the discovery of earlier
forms of pterosaurs.
G 'It's very difficult to say how pterosaurs changed over time because the earliest fossils we
have are of pterosaurs whose fourth finger has already transformed into a wing,' says Fabio
dalla Vecchia, an Italian researcher. In fact, the earliest known pterosaurs came from the
mountains of northern Italy, where he has spent years searching for flying reptiles. These
species have shorter wings than later forms, but there is evidence that they were skilful fliers,
capable of catching fish over open water. Proof of this has been found in the fossil of a
Eudimorphodon, a 215-million-year-old pterosaur found near Bergamo, Italy. Under a
microscope, several fish scales can be seen in the abdomen of the specimen -the remains of
the pterosaur's last meal.

The Pterosaur: a flying reptile that lived during the time of the dinosaur
H A different but equally impressive sight is the life-size model of Quetzalcoatlus northropi,
which stares down at visitors in the Museum of Flying in Santa Monica, California. It has a
beak the size of a man and wings wider than those of many of the planes exhibited nearby.
This pterosaur had wings over 11 metres wide, making it the largest flying animal ever
I Quetzalcoatlus represents the height of pterosaur evolution. 'Unlike smaller pterosaurs, it
could use natural currents to stay in the air without having to move its wings continuously,'
said Paul MacCready, an aeronautical engineer. 'As pterosaurs got larger, they discovered the
benefits of gliding on air currents, making use of a free energy source. With their hollow
bones, these pterosaurs had a very light construction, ideal for such activity.'
J As we walked beneath the Quetzalcoatlus model in Santa Monica, MacCready pointed out its
similarity to sailplanes, the most efficient kind of aeroplanes. Both have long slender wings
designed to fly with minimum power. During flight, sailplane pilots routinely search for
places where heat rises from sun-baked earth, creating hot air currents called thermals.
Undoubtedly, Quetzalcoatlus would have used thermals as well, lazily circling over the river
deltas that once covered parts of Texas.
K The triumphant reign of pterosaurs ended with this giant flier. At the end of the Cretaceous
period 65 million years ago, a meteorite or comet slammed into the Earth. That calamity -
and other events-wiped out roughly three quarters of all species, including all pterosaurs and
dinosaurs. But before their disappearance, pterosaurs enjoyed unequalled success. They flew
into sunny skies before any other vertebrate. For 150 million years they sailed the winds on
the strength of a fragile finger. What a glorious ride they had.
Your Chinese Horoscope 2003
Astrologer Neil Somerville suggests the Year of the Goat will be
one of healing. It was a Goat year that the first human organ
transplant was performed and it appears that there will be more
medical breakthroughs
Start Me Up
For someone leaving the safety of full-time employment to face
the risks and challenges of running their own business, Start Me
Up by Toney Fitzgerald is
not a bad learning tool.
Maggie Hamilton
Graeme Berwick
The Autobiography of Pat Cash
The book covers Pat Cash's tennis career from junior Davis Cup
member to Wimbledon champion. Cash also frankly shares his
opinion on all matters relating to professional tennis.
Gardens by the Sea showcases gardens all over the world. Some
are grand, some are humble, but each of these stunning creations
bears witness to the gardener's dedication in the face of the
harsh realities of seaside living.
Joanne Dover
Gordon Bain
Walking Home with Marie-Claire
This is a story about Pauline in Grade 6 at a primary school in
the 70s. She meets a new friend, Marie-Claire with a very
unusual family. But why won't Marie-Claire let Pauline meet her
family? The book portrays the lives of families struggling to
understand each other's points of view.
Splendours of an Ancient Civilisation
This book is the perfect coffee table book for lovers of Ancient
Egypt. Its appeal lies in the colour photography and the
illustrations. They include detailed close-ups of the most
impressive and well-known objects and buildings of the time.
Merle Morcom
Myffanwy Bryant
Never Count Out the Dead
Police Officer John Sully is tricked into driving thirteen-year-
old Shay Storey to an isolated spot, where her mother, Dee, is
waiting to kill him. Sully miraculously survives and Dee flees
to Mexico, where she abandons her daughter. Sully is contacted
by a journalist who offers to help him catch Dee and find her
Fresh Flavours of India
This is a mouth-watering book packed with innovative ideas that
reflect the author's passion for his homeland's cuisine. The
author offers dishes from contemporary India with
straightforward recipes that burst with flavour and aroma.
Phillip Knowles
Gordon Bain
Reviews are adapted from reviews first appearing in Good Reading (magazine)
Questions 6-14

Legal information on call

What is Dial-A-Law?
Dial-A-Law is a library of pre-recorded messages to provide general
information on specific topics of law. You can call this service 24 hours
a day, 7 days a week and listen to any tape from our complete library of
pre-recorded messages.
Dial-A-Law provides information, not legal advice. Each legal problem is
different so if you have a legal problem you should talk to a solicitor.
If you don't have a solicitor, the Legal Referral Service can refer you to
a solicitor in your area.
While the Dial-A-Law information service is available 24 hours a day, the
Legal Referral Service is open only during normal business hours.

What if I need a solicitor?

If you listen to a Dial-A-Law message after business hours, you can phone
the Legal Referral Service during business hours the following day on the
number given to you at the end of the message.
If you listen to a Dial-A-Law message during business hours and decide you
want a referral to a solicitor, press the appropriate number when prompted
and you will be automatically transferred to the Legal Referral Service.
You will be given the names of up to three solicitors in your suburb who
practise in the specific area of law you require. You can simply arrange
an appointment with one of these solicitors. Then you must contact the
Legal Referral Service to obtain a referral letter. You must hand this to
the solicitor at the beginning of your interview He or she will give you
an initial interview of up to 30 minutes free of charge.
During the interview the solicitor will tell you if you have a legal case,
what is involved, approximately how long it should take to solve the
problem, and how much it is likely to cost. Then, if you and the solicitor
agree, you may hire the solicitor to handle your problem at his or her
normal fee.

Law Institute Victoria, Dial-A-Law and the legal referral service

Copyright © 2007 I
Questions 15-26

Which direction for a career?

To examine your career options, you should • What are the most demanding aspects of
first gather as much inform-ation as this work?
possible. • What is the most preferred method of
Here are some places where you can get • Are there courses which will prepare me
advice. for this work?

School Parents, friends, relatives

Your careers library will have some basic Relatives and friends can be helpful in giving
information on a variety of occupations. Ask you insights into the daily routine of an
the librarian questions like: occupation. By questioning them, you can
expand your knowledge of the work. Another
• What does someone with this job do? option is to use this group to arrange industry
• What subjects do I need to study? contacts or check out possible vacancies.
• What courses are available?
• How long will it take to train? Universities and colleges
These institutions have careers advisors for
Also use careers advisors to expand your list prospective students. You can also take
of career ideas by finding out about related advantage of their open days. During these
options. Many schools have work days, you can have a look at the facilities
experience programs which give you the offered- and chat to the students and
chance to check out a job which interests lecturers.
Career Information Centres Don't forget the Internet. One great site to
Resources in these centres include printed start at is the government careers directory.
information about jobs, and tertiary study
reference materials such as university and Getting it all together
college handbooks. There are 12 Career You will no doubt. gather lots of information,
Information Centres throughout the country. but it is easy to forget details, so you should
Assistance from staff is also available. collect the infor¬mation using a folder or
filing system. Check that your information is
Employers kept up-to-date.
You could talk to employers in areas you
find interesting. You might ask them
questions such as:

Questions 27-40

Life in an international orchestra

A Playing in a big international D If a rehearsal is held in the morning of a concert, it
orchestra is one of life's most probably takes place in the concert hall. In the
exciting experiences, yet it is morning, everybody will still be in casual clothes but
also a very tough job. in the evening they will change into formal dress.
Players are part of a team of Most will arrive at least an hour early to unpack and
eighty or more musicians inspect their instruments - violinists to check their
playing some of the world's strings and bow, woodwind players to check their
greatest music. They work reeds and change them if need be, and everyone to
very long hours - turning up run over any difficult passages of music. If they want
early for rehearsals on dark, a bit of peace and quiet some members of the
cold, winter's mornings in a orchestra may even hide themselves away in the
chilly, empty hall; working toilets or creep down to the boiler room! Players
till late in the evening on the whose instruments are too big for them to carry, such
night of a concert; travelling as timpani, harps and double-basses, will arrive on
on trains and planes at all the platform before the rest to make their last minute
hours of the day and night; checks.
eating and sleeping when
they can; trying to play well E About five minutes before the concert is due to start,
when they are tired or everybody except the leader or concert master, files
hungry or have a headache. on and takes their place. Then the leader comes on to
There's not much time left a round of applause from the audience and calls for
for home, family or friends. silence, while the oboist sounds the note A. The rest
In fact, their 'family' is the of the orchestra tune their instruments to this note.
rest of the orchestra. The Finally, on comes the conductor, to more applause,
musicians share the hectic and, when there is quiet once more, the concert
pace and the worries, but begins.
they also share the
wonderful moments when F However well the orchestra may have rehearsed,
they are all playing together problems may still occur. In a warm, crowded concert
and feel on top of the world. hall the acoustics are different from those in a cool,
empty building, and this can change the balance of
B Much of an orchestra's time the sound. Also, the instruments may go out of tune
is spent in rehearsal. The after some time in a warm atmosphere.
players may already know
the music by heart, but every G Musicians, like actors, are aware of the audience;
conductor has his or her own they notice whether the audience is a good one or not.
ideas about how a piece of A good audience will listen and respond to the music,
music should be played. That whereas a difficult audience coughs and fidgets
is one reason why rehearsals throughout the performance. Above all, the musicians
are necessary. Another are also aware of whether they are playing well, not
reason is the problem of just individually but as a team. Knowing they are
orchestral balance of sound. giving a good performance makes all the difference at
With the rest of the orchestra the end of a long, hard day
around them, players cannot
always hear themselves
properly (sometimes not at
all), and so they cannot
gauge the balance of sound
between their own
instruments or section and
the rest of the orchestra. At
rehearsals this is something
that the conductor is able to
put right.
C Some conductors like to go
through a piece of music bar
by bar, stopping the
orchestra each time they
want to make a comment.
Others let an orchestra play
for long stretches at a time,
then go back to a particular
point they want to rehearse
again. Whatever the
conductor's method, it is
important that the musicians
are happy with it. If the
players don't like the
conductor they can become
very difficult, interrupting
the session with questions or
complaints. At one time
conductors, such as
Toscanini, used to get such
fine performances out of an
orchestra by shouting at the
musicians and almost
frightening them into playing
well. That sort of behaviour
would not work with most
orchestras today. After all,
orchestral musicians are
highly trained and
experienced people and they
should be treated with

Questions 1-5
12-3 6-12 CLOSED SUNDAYS For a Family Treat or
that Special Occasion...




TEL: NORWICH 420988/588980






NORWICH (01603) 571122

Questions 6-14
Leam to act introduces people to a broad range of acting techniques. It is specially
geared to those with little or no aging experience. The atmosphere is relaxed and
unthreatening and great emphasis is placed on devel¬oping the confidence and abilities
of people who may initially be a little apprehensive!


Brazilian Street Percussion
Samba percussion workshop. Lift your spirits with the taste of carnival! It doesn't matter
whether you're an experienced musician or a complete beginner, you'll be creating
complex exotic rhythms in no time.
African Storytelling
The magical African story-telling tradition of narration, poetry and proverbs (mainly
from Ghana and Nigeria). An event for all the family.

• We have classes for dancers of all abilities.
• Previous experience is not essential.
• AII you need to bring is a pair of soft shoes and enthusiasm.
• Classes are held in a number of places and at different times.
• We guarantee you a warm welcome.


New singers are invited to join our choir, formed in 1993, to perform a wide variety of
music in Cambridge. We meet every Wednesday evening from 7.3 9.30 pm, and this term
we are rehearsing for a special concert with audience participation on Saturday 1st
An ability to sight-read and previous experience in choral singing is desirable, although
not essential.


An intensive workshop for beginners
Saturday 13th and Sunday 14th October
This unusual workshop offers instruction in effective ways to draw in colour. Activities
will include study of light and shade and ways to express mood and emotion in colour.
The small class ( 12 students} assures maximum attention for each student. Professional
quality materials are included in the fee of £95.

Questions 15-20


Most of the courses at Canterbury College locally and nationally via the British Library.
only take up four days of the week, leaving All students are encouraged to use the Open
one day free for independent study. Access Information Technology Centre
The atmosphere at the College is that of an situated on the first floor. This has a variety
adult environment where a relationship of of computing, word processing and desktop
mutual respect is encouraged between publishing software.
students and tutors.
Canterbury is a student city with several Bookshop
institutes of Further and Higher Education. A branch of Waterstone's bookshops is
The city centre is just a five-minute walk located on campus, where you can buy a
from the College, easily accessible in lunch range of stationery, drawing equipment,
or study breaks. artists' materials and books, as well as many
Canterbury College has developed strong other useful items you may need.
international links over the years and, as a Children's Centre
result, many students have the opportunity of The College Children's Centre has places for
visiting and working in a European country under 5s with some subsidised places being
in the course of their studies. available to students. Places are limited, so,
if you are interested, apply early to reserve a
place by contacting Linda Baker on the
Students' Union and SRC College telephone number.
All students are automatically members of
the Canterbury College Students' Union Refectory
(CCSU) and can attend meetings. The Union This provides refreshments between 08.30
is very active and is run by an Executive and 19.00 with hot meals served three times
Committee elected by students in the a day. Healthy eating options are available.
Autumn Term. The President is elected every
Summer Term to provide continuity for the Coffee Shop
next academic year. Representatives from This is open during normal College hours
each area of study form the Student and serves light snacks and drinks. Proceeds
Representative Council (SRC) which allows from the Coffee Shop go to the Students'
every student a say in Union affairs. In Union.
addition to representing students internally Crypt Restaurant
in the College on the Academic Board and This is a training restaurant which offers
with a subcommittee of the College good quality cuisine in pleasant
Corporation, the CCSU also belongs to the surroundings. Meals are very reasonably
National Union of Students which represents priced and you are invited to sample the
the interests of students nationally. The students' highly skilled dishes when the
Union also arranges and supports restaurant is open to the public during the
entertainments, sporting activities and trips. week. Reservations can be made on
Learning Resources Centre (LRC) Chapel View Restaurant
The Corey Learning Resources Centre This is another training restaurant and is set
provides easy access to a wide range of up as a quick-service facility which offers a
printed and audiovisual learning materials selection of snacks and main courses at a
which can help students with coursework. modest price.
There is ample space for quiet independent
study and there are also areas for group
work. Resources provided include books,
journals, audio and video cassettes and CD-
ROMs. Inter-library loans are available

Questions 21-27


This course will enable students to experience performing arts and the media at a basic level.
It will give them the experience to decide if they wish to pursue an interest in this field and to
develop their potential and adaptability for working in a performance company in either a
performing or a technical role.

The aim of this course is to provide a thorough grounding in business-related skills and a
comprehensive knowledge of business practice. It is for students with a business studies
background who can manage a heavy workload that will contain a greater degree of academic

This course provides progression to a range of higher levels. Units will include maintaining
employment standards, salon management duties, providing facial massage and skin care,
instruction on makeup, lash and brow treatments, artificial nail structures and ear piercing.

This course is designed to develop skills used in leisure operations. It covers preparing for
and conducting physical activities, maintenance of facility areas, building relationships with
participants and colleagues, handling sports equipment and health and safety issues.

This course gives a foundation for a career in caring for children, the elderly or people with
special needs. Core units are Numeracy, Communication and Information Technology. Work
placements are an important part of the course.

This course is designed to provide a foundation in graphic and visual communication skills.
Students complete units in picture composition and photographic processing alongside
elements of graphic design, and gain hands-on experience of desktop publishing and

This course is designed to provide an introduction to the construction industry. Units covered
include Heat, Light and Sound, Introduction to the Urban Environment, Communication
Processes and Techniques and Properties of Materials. AII students complete vocational
assignments which are integrated with work experience with reputable companies.

The qualifications gained and the skills developed on this course will provide a good basis for
gaining employment in office work. In addition to word processing, the course also covers
spreadsheets, computerised accounting, databases and desktop publishing. AII students are
given chances to develop their confidence, and advice and information is given on job search
skills, presentation techniques and personal appearance.
y of
The history of the cinema in its first thirty years is one of major and, to this day, unparalleled
expansion and growth. Beginning as something unusual in a handful of big cities-New York,
London, Paris and Berlin-the new medium quickly found its way across the world, attracting
larger and larger audiences wherever it was shown and replacing other forms of
entertainment as it did so. As audiences grew, so did the places where films were shown,
finishing up with the `great picture palaces' of the 1920s, which rivalled, and occasionally
superseded, theatres and opera-houses in terms of opulence and splendour. Meanwhile, films
themselves developed from being short "attractions" only a couple of minutes long, to the
full-length feature that has dominated the world's screens up to the present day.

Although French, German, American and British pioneers have all been credited with the
invention of cinema, the British and the Germans played a relatively small role in its
worldwide exploitation, It was above all the French, followed closely by the Americans, who
were the most passionate exporters of the new invention, helping to start cinema in China,
Japan, Latin America and Russia. In terms of artistic development it was again the French
and the Americans who took the lead, though in the years before the First World War, Italy,
Denmark and Russia also played a part.

In the end, it was the United States that was to become, and remain, the largest single market
for films. By protecting their own market and pursuing a vigorous export policy, the
Americans achieved a dominant position on the world market by the start of the First World
War. The centre of film-making had moved westwards, to Hollywood, and it was films from
these new Hollywood studios that flooded onto the world's film markets in the years after the
First World War, and have done so ever since. Faced with total Hollywood domination, few
film industries proved competitive. The Italian industry, which had pio neered the feature
film with spectacular films like Quo vadis? (1913) and Cabiria (1914), almost collapsed. In
Scandinavia, the Swedish cinema had a brief period of glory, notably with powerful epic
films and comedies. Even the French cinema found itself in a difficult position. In Europe,
only Germany proved industrially capable, while in the new Soviet Union and in Japan the
development of the cinema took place in conditions of commercial isolation.

Hollywood took the lead artistically as well as industrially. Hollywood films appealed
because they had better-constructed narratives, their special effects were more impressive,
and the star system added a new dimension to screen acting. If Hollywood did not have
enough f its own resources, it had a great deal f money to buy up artists and technical
innovations from Europe to ensure its continued dominance over present or future

The zest f the world survived partly by learning from Hollywood and partly because
audiences continued to exist for a product which corresponded to needs which Hollywood
could not supply. As weil as popular audiences, there were also increasing audiences for
films which were artistically more adventurous or which dealt with the issues in the outer

None of this would have happened without technology, and cinema is in fact unique as an art
form. In the early years, this art farm was quite primitive, similar to the original French idea
of using a lantern and slides back in the seventeenth century. Early cinema programmes were
a mixture of items, combining comic sketches, free-standing narratives, serial episodes and
the occasional trick or animated. film. With the arrival of the feature length narrative as the
main attraction, other types of films became less important. The making of cartoons became
a separate branch of film-making, generally practised outside the major studios, and the
same was true f serials. Together with newsreels, they tended to be shown as short items in a
programme which led to the feature.

From early cinema, it was only Americana slapstick comedy that successfully developed in
both short and feature format. However, during this 'Silent Film' era, animation, comedy,
serials and dramatic features continued to thrive, along with factual films or documentaries,
which acquired an increasing distinctiveness as the period progressed. It was also at this time
that the avant-garde film first achieved commercial success, this time thanks almost
exclusively to the French and the occasional German film.

Of the countries which developed and maintained distinctive national cinemas in the silent
period, the most important were France, Germany and the Soviet Union. Of these, the
French displayed the most continuity, in spite f the war and post-war economic uncertainties.
The German cinema, relatively insignificant in the pre-war years, exploded on to the world
scene after 1919. Yet even they were both overshadowed by the Soviets after the 1917
Revolution. They turned their back on the past, leaving the style f the pre-war Russian
cinema to the émigrés who fled westwards to escape the Revolution.

The other countries whose cinemas changed dramatically are: Britain, which had an
interesting but undistinguished history in the silent period; Italy, which had a brief moment
of international fame just before the war; the Scandinavian countries, particularly Denmark,
which played a role in the development f silent cinema quite out of proportion to their small
population; and Japan, where a cinema developed based primarily on traditional the-atrical
and, to a lesser extent, other art forms and only gradually adapted to western influence.