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BEC198-2 REVIEWER

Basic Engineering Correlation (Algebra Reviewer)

1. Three transformers are directly proportional to the KVA cost P30, 000. The cost of each transformer is directly proportional to the KVA rating and each has a
constant of proportionally of 0.9, 0.8 and 0.6, respectively. Find the cost of the KVA transformer.
P13, 500

2. What is the sum of the following sequence of terms 18, 25, 32, 39, . . . ,67?
340
Sol. formula aK = a1 + (n-1) (d)
a1 = 18, aK = 67, d = 7
67 = 18 + (n-1) (7)  n = 8
𝑛 8
Sn = (a1 + aK) = (18 + 67) = 340
2 2

3. A train, an hour after starting, meets with an accident which detains it an hour, after which it proceeds at 3/5 of its former rate and arrives three hour after the
time; but had the accident happened 50 miles farther on yhe line, it would have arrived one and one-half hour sooner. Find the length of the journey.
800/9 miles
Sol. Let s = normal speed of the train
Let d = distance of the journey
0.6s = speed after accident
𝑑
= normal time of the journey
𝑠
𝑑−𝑠 𝑑
For the 1st scenario: 1 + 1 + - = 3  0.6s [2 + 𝑑−𝑠
0.6𝑠
− 𝑑𝑠] = [3] 0.6s
0.6𝑠 𝑠
1.2s + d – s – 0.6d = 1.8s  d – 0.6d = 1.8s – 1.2s + s
0.4𝑑 1.6𝑠
=  d = 4s
0.4 0.4
50 𝑑−𝑠−50 𝑑
For the 2nd scenario: 2 + + - = 3 – 1.5
𝑠 0.6𝑠 𝑠
50 𝑑−𝑠−50 𝑑
0.6s [2 + + − ] = [1.5] 0.6s
𝑠 0.6𝑠 𝑠
1.2s + 30 + d – s – 50 – 0.6d = 0.9s
1.2s – s – 0.9s + d – 0.6d – 50 + 30 = 0
-0.7s + 0.4d = 20  substitute d = 4s
-0.7s + 0.4 (4s) = 20  s = 22.222 mph
Then d = 4 (22.222) = 88.8 miles = 800/9 miles

4. Ten less than four times a certain number is 14. Determine the number.
6
Sol. Let x = be the number
4x – 10 = 14  4x = 24
4𝑥 24
= x=6
4 4

5. The roots of a quadratic equation are 1/3 and 1/4. What is the equation?
12x2 - 7x + 1=0
1 1
Sol. (𝑥 − ) (𝑥 − ) = 0
3 4
1 1 1
𝑥2 − 𝑥 − 𝑥 + =0
3 4 12
1 1 1
12 (𝑥2 − 𝑥 − 𝑥 + ) = 0
3 4 12
12x2 - 7x + 1 = 0

6. The geometric mean of 4 and 64:


16
Sol. geometric mean = √𝑎𝑏 = √(4)(64) = 16

7. A certain company manufactures two products, X and Y, and each of these products must be processed on two different machines. Product X requires 1 minute of
work time per unit on machine 1 and 4 minutes of work time on machine 2. Product Y requires two minutes of work time per unit on machine 1 and 3 minutes of
work time per unit on machine 2. Each day, 100 minutes are available on machine 1 and 200 minutes are available on machine 2. To satisfy certain customers, the
company must produce at least 6 units per day of product X and at least 12 units of product Y. If the profit of each unit of product X is P50 and the profit of each unit
of product Y is P60, how many of each product should be produced in order to maximize the company's profit?
X = 20 units, Y = 40 units
Sol. X + 2y = 100  x = 100 - 2y
4x + 3y = 200  substitute x  4 (100-2y) + 3y = 200
400 - 8y + 3y = 200  -5y = -200
−5𝑦 −200
=  y= 40 units
−5 −5
X = 100 – 2 (40) = 20 units

8. If 4y3 + 18y2 + 8y - 4 is divided by 2y + 3, the remainder is:


11
−3
Sol. 4 18 8 -4 divide
2
-6 -18 15
= 4, 12, -10, 11

9. The square of a number increased by 16 is the same as 10 times the number. Find the number.
8, 2
Sol. x2 + 16 = 10x
x2 – 10x + 16 = 0  (x – 8) (x – 2) = 0
Therefore x = 8, x = 2

10. The seating section in a coliseum has 30 seats in the first row, 32 in the second row, 34 seats in the third row and so on, until the tenth row is reached, after which
there are ten rows each containing 50 seats. Find the total number of seats in the section.
890
Sol. First 10 rows: n = 10, d = 2, a1 = 30
𝑛 10
Sn = [2a1 + (n-1) (d)] = [2 (30) + (10-1) (2)]
2 2
Sn = 390  390 + 50 (10) = 890

11. If the roots of an equation are zero, then they are classified as
Trivial solutions

12. An airplane went 360 miles in 2 hours with the wind and, flying back the same route, it took 3 3/5 hours against the wind. What was its speed in still air?
140 mph
Sol. Let x = speed of airplane
Let y = speed of the wind
360 360
X+y= plus X - y =  cancel y
2 3.6
2𝑥 280
=  x = 140 mph
2 2

13. Find the fourth proportion to 3, 5 and 21.


35
3 5
Sol. =
21 𝑥
3x = 21 (5)  x = 35

14. Two jet planes travelling towards each other takeoff at the same time from two airports located 3000 miles apart. If they passed each other after two hours,
determine the speed of each plane if one plane is flying at a speed 100 mph faster than the other.
700 and 800 mph
Sol. Let x = speed of slower airplane
Let x + 100 = speed of other plane
2x + 2 (x + 100) = 3000
2x + 2x + 200 = 3000
4x = 2800  x = 700 mph
x + 100 = 700 + 100 = 800 mph

15. Round off 0.003086 to three significant figures.


0.00309

16. It is sequence of numbers that successive terms differ by a constant.


Arithmetic progression

17. At 2:00 pm, an airplane takes off at 340 mph on an aircraft carrier. The aircraft carrier moves due south at 25 kph in the same direction as the plane. At 4:05 pm,
the communication between the plane and aircraft carrier was lost. Determine the communication range in miles between the plane and the carrier.
557 miles

18. A manufacturing firm maintains one product assembly line to produce signal generators. Weekly demand for the generators is 35 units. The line operates for 7
hours per day, 5 days per week. What is the maximum production time per unit in hours required for the line to meet the demand?
1 hour
Sol. 35x = (7) (5)  x = 1 hour

19. Ana is 5 years older than Beth. In 5 years, the product of their age is 1.5 times the product of their product ages. How old is Beth now?
20
Sol. Let x = Beth’s age
X + 5 = Ana’s age
(x + 5) (x + 10) = 1.5x (x + 5)
X + 15x + 50 = 1.5x2 + 7.5x
2

0.5x2 - 7.5x – 50 = 0  x = 20

20. A chemist of a distillery experimented on two alcohol solutions of different strengths, 30% alcohol and 60% alcohol, respectively. How many cubic meters of each
strength must be used in order to produce a mixture of 50 cubic meters that contain 40% alcohol?
33 1/3, 16 2/3 m3
Sol. 0.3x + 0.6y = 50 (0.4)
0.3x + 0.6y = 20
X + y = 50  x = 50 - y
0.3 (50 - y) + 0.6y = 50 (0.4)  15 - 0.3y + 0.6y = 20
0.3y = 5  y = 16 2/3 m3
x = 33 1/3 m3

21. Subtracting 2.6 x 103 from 8.26 x 104 is:


8.0 x 104
Sol. 8.26 x104 - 2.6 x103 = 8.0 x 104

2. The time requires by an evaluator to lift a weight varies directly with the weight and the distance through which it is to be lifted and inversely as the power of the
motor. If it takes 30 seconds for 10 hp motor to lift 100 lbs. through 50 feet, what size of motor is required to lift 800 lbs. in 40 seconds through a distance of 40 feet?
48 hp.
Kwd pt
Sol. t = k=
𝑝 𝑤𝑑
(10) (30) 3
K= =
(100) (50) 50
3
Kwd ( ) (800) (40)
50
P= = = 48 hp.
𝑡 (40)

23. Find the 30th term of the arithmetic progression 4, 7, 10 . . .


91
Sol. aK = a1 + (n-1) (d)
a30 = 4 + (30-1) (3) = 91

24. Convergent series is a sequence of decreasing numbers or when the succeeding term is _______ than the preceding term.
Lesser

25. In the equation x2 + x = 0, one root is x equal to:


None of these.

26. How many liters of water must be added to 35 liters of 89% hydrochloric acid solution to reduce its strength to 75%?
6.53 liters
Sol. let x = liters of water to be added
35 (0.89) = (35 + x) (0.75)  x = 6.53 liters

27. Round off 34.2814 to four significant figures.


34.28

28. Solve algebraically:


11y2 - 3x2 = 41
4x2 + 7y2 = 32.
(± 1, ± 2)
Sol. (-3x2 + 11y2 = 41) 4
(4x2 + 7y2 = 32) 3
-12x2 + 44y2 = 164 plus 12x2 + 21y2 = 96  cancel 12x2
65y2 = 260
x = ± 1, y = ± 2

29. Determine the sum of the progression if there are 7 arithmetic means between 3 and 35.
171
Sol. a1 = 3, ak = 35; n = 7 + 2 = 9
𝑛 9
Sn = (a1 + aK) = (3 + 35) = 171
2 2

30. Crew No. 1 can finish installation of an antenna tower in 200 man-hours while Crew No. 2 can finish the same job in 300 man-hours. How long will it take both
crews to finish the same job, working together?
120 man-hour
Sol. Let x = time for both crew to finish the same job
1 1 1
+ =  x = 120 man-hour
200 300 𝑥

31. In how many minutes after 3:00 P.M will the minute hand of a clock coincide with the hour hand?
16.364
Sol. let x = the time that the minute hand coincide with the hour hand
x
Minute = 60 min = 360 ( ) = 6x
60
360 x
Hour = ( ) = 0.5x
12 60
6x = 0.5x + 90  x = 16.364

32. In a class of 40 students, 27 students like Calculus and 25 like Geometry. How many students liked both Calculus and Geometry?
12
Sol. let x = students who like both Calculus and Geometry
Total = calculus + geometry +both
Both = - total + calculus + geometry
Both = - 40 + 27 + 25 = 12
33. The electric power which a transmission line can transmit is proportional to the product of its design voltage and current capacity, and inversely to the
transmission distance. A 115 - kilovolt line rated at 100 amperes can transmit 150 megawatts over 150 km. How much power, in megawatts can a 230 kilovolt line
rated at 150 amperes transmit over 100 km?
675
kvc
Sol. power =
𝑑
d 150 45
k = power ( )  (150) [( )( )] =
𝑣𝑐 115 100 23
(45/23)(230)(150)
Power = = 675
100

34. The electrical resistance of a wire varies as its length and inversely as the square of its diameter. If a 100 m long and 1.25 mm in diameter has a resistance of 30
ohms, find the length of the wire of the same material whose resistance and diameter are 25 ohms and 0.74 mm respectively.
30 m
kl
Sol. resistance =
𝑑2
R𝑑 2 (30) (1.25)2 15
k= = =
𝑙 100 32
R𝑑 2 (25) (0.75)2
l= = 15 = 30 m
𝑘 ( )
32

35. What time after 3 o'clock will the hands of the clock be together for the first time?
3:16.36
Sol. 6x = 0.5x + 90
5.5x = 90  x = 16.36
Time: 3:16.36

36. A pump can pump out water from a tank in 11 hours. Another pump can pump out water from the same tank in 20 hours. How long will it take both pumps to
pump out water in the tank?
7 hours
Sol. let x = time that both pumps pump out the water in the tank
1 1 1
+ =  x = 7 hours
11 20 𝑥

37. If the sum is 220 and the first term is 10, find the common difference if the last term is 30.
2
Sol. Sn = 220, a1 = 10, aK = 30, d=?
n
Sn = (a1 + aK)
2
n
220 = (10 + 30)  n=11
2
n
Sn = [2a+ (n-1) d]
2
11
220 = [2(10) + (11-1) d]  d = 2
2

38. Equal volumes of two different liquids evaporated at different but constant rates. If the first is totally evaporated in 6 weeks and the second in 5 weeks, when will
the second be one-half the volume of the first?
4 2/7 weeks
t
Sol. v1 = v0 (1 − )
6
t
v2 = v0 (1 − )
5
t 1 t
v0 (1 − ) = v0(1 − )  cancel v0
5 2 6
t 1 t
1− = −
𝑠 2 12
t t
[0.5] 60 = [− + ] 60
12 5
30 = -5t + 12t  30 = 7t
30
t= or 4 2/7 weeks
7

39. MCMXCIV is a Roman numeral equivalent to:


a. 1994

40. Find the 100th term of the sequence 1.01, 1.00, 0.99,. .
0.02
Sol. n = 100, a1 = 1.01, d = - 0.01
aK = a1 + (n-1) d
a100 = 1.01 + (100 - 1) (- 0.01) = 0.02

41. At what time after 12:00 noon will the hour hand and minute hand of the clock first form an angle of 120°?
12:21.818
Sol. 6x = 0.5x + 120
5.5x = 120  x = 21.818
Time: 12:21.818
42. Solve the simultaneous equations:
3x - y = 6
9x - y = 12.
(1, -3)
Sol. (3x - y = 6) -1 = -3x + y = -6
-3x + y = -6 plus 9x – y = 12  cancel y
6x 6
= x=1
6 6
-3 (1) + y = - 6  y = -3

43. A merchant has three items on sale: namely, a radio for P50, a clock fo P30, and a flashlight for P1. At the end of the day, she has sold a total of 100 of the three
items and has taken exacly P1000 on the total sales. How many radios did he sale?
16
Sol. Let x = number of radios sold out
Let y = number of clocks sold out
Let z = number of flashlight sold out
x + y + z = 100 -- eq.1
50x + 30y + z = 1000 -- eq.2
(50x + 30y + z = 1000) minus (x + y + z = 100)
49x + 29y = 900
Assume x = 16  49 (16) + 29y = 900  y = 4
x + y + z = 100  16 + 4 + z = 100  z = 80
Check: 50 (16) + 30 (4) + 80 = 1000
1000 = 1000 therefore x = 16

44. What is the sum of the first 10 terms of the geometric progression 2, 4, 8, 16, . . . ?
2046
1−𝑟 𝑛 1−210
Sol. Sn = a1 ( )=2( ) = 2046
1−𝑟 1−2

45. In a commercial survey involving 1000 persons on brand preferences, 120 were found to prefer brand x only, 200 persons prefer brand y only, 150 persons prefer
brand z only, 370 prefer either brand x or y but not z, 450 prefer brand y or z but not x, and 370 prefer either brand z or x but not y, and none prefer all the three
brands at a time. How many persons have no brand preference with any of the three brands?
280
Sol. No brand pref. = 1000 – 120 – 200 – 150 - (370 – 120 - 200) - (450 – 200 - 150) - (370 – 120 - 150) = 280

46. Which number has four significant figures?


0.01414

47. A club of 40 executives, 33 likes to smoke Marlboro and 20 likes to smoke Philip Morris. How many like both?
13
Sol. Both = -Total + Marlboro + Phillip Morris = - 40 + 33 + 20 = 13

48. The arithmetic mean of 80 numbers is 55. If two numbers namely 250 and 850 are removed, what is the arithmetic mean of the remaining numbers?
42.31
Sol. 80 (55) – 250 - 850 = 78x  x = 42.31

49. There are 9 arithmetic means between 11 and 51. The sum of the progression is:
341
Sol. n = 11, a1 = 11, aK = 51
11
Sn = (11 + 51) = 341
2

50. If a two digit number has X for its unit digit and Y for its tenth digit, represent the number.
10Y + X

51. In the series 1, 1, 1/2, 1/6, 1/24. . . Determine the 6th term.
1/120
1
(24)
Sol. = 1/120
5

52. Round off 149.691 to the nearest integer.


150

53. The sum of two numbers is 21, and one number twice the other. Find the numbers.
7 & 14
3x 21
Sol. x + 2x = 21  = x=7
3 3
2x = 2 (7) = 14

54. The probability for the ECE board examinees from a certain school to pass the Mathematics subject is 3/7 and that for the Communication subject is 5/7. If none
of the examinees failed in both subjects, how many examinees from the school took the examination?
28
3x 5x
Sol. + − 4 = x  x = 28
7 7

55. Solve for x that satisfies the equation 6x2 - 7x - 5 = 0.


5/3 or -1/2
Sol. 6x2 – 7x -5 = 0
(2x + 1) (3x - 5) = 0
x = 5/3, x = -1/2

56. Three transformers are rated 5 KVA, 10 KVA and 25 KVA, respectively. The total cost of the three transformers is P15, 000.00. If the cost of each transformer is
proportional to its KVA rating multiplied by the factor 1, 0.8 and 0.6 respectively, find the cost of the 10 KVA transformer.
P4, 286
Sol. 5x + 8x + 15x = 15000
28x = 15000  x = 535.71429
8x = 8 (535.71429) = P4, 286

57. Solve the simultaneous equations:


2x2 - 3y2 = 6
3x2 + 2y2 = 35.
x 3 or -3; y 2 or -2
Sol. (2x2 - 3y2 = 6) 2 = 4x2-6y2 = 12
(3x2 + 2y2 = 35) 3 = 9x2 + 6y2 = 105
4x2 -6y2 = 12 plus 9x2 + 6y2 = 105  cancel 6y2
13𝑥 2 117
=
13 13
x = ±3, y = ±2

58. The sum of the progression 5, 8, 11, 14, . . . Is 1025. How many terms are there?
25
n
Sol. Sn = [2a+ (n-1) d]
2
n
1025 = [2(5) + (n-1) (3)]
2
2050 = 10n + 3n2 - 3n
3n2 + 7n - 2050 = 0  n = 25

59. If x varies directly as y and inversely as z, and x = 14 when y = 7 and z = 2, find the value of x when y = 16 and z = 4.
16
ky
Sol. x =
𝑧
xz (14)(2)
k= = =4
𝑦 7
(4)(16)
x= = 16
4

60. The arithmetic means of 6 numbers is 17. If two numbers are added to the progression, the new set of the numbers will have an arithmetic mean of 19. What are
the two numbers if their difference is 4?
23, 27
Sol. (6) (17) + x + (x + 4) = (19) (8)
102 + 2x + 4 = 152 = 2x = 152 – 102 -4
2x 46
=  x = 23
2 2
x + 4 = 23 + 4 = 27

61. The sum of Kim's and Kevin's ages is 18. In 3 years, Kim will be twice as old as Kevin. What are their ages now?
5, 13
Sol. x = age of Kim, y = age of Kevin
2 (x + 3) = y + 3
x + y= 18  y = 18 – x
2 (x + 3) = 18 – x + 3 substitute y
2x + 6 = 18 – x + 3
3x = 21 – 6 = 3x = 15
3x 15
= x=5
3 3
y = 18 – 5 = 13

62. The intensity of sound varies directly as the strength of the source and inversely as the square of the distance from the source. Write the equation to the describe
relation.
I=k/d2

63. Determine the sum of the infinite series 1/3 + 1/9 + 1/27 +. . .
1/2
1 1
Sol. a1 = , r = , n = 9999
3 3
1
Sn = (1-1/39999/ 1-1/3) = 1/2
3
64. For a particular experiment, you need 5 liters of 10% solution. You find 7% and 12% solutions on the shelf. How much of the 7% solution you mix with the
appropriate amount of the 12% solution to get 5 liters of 10% solution?
2
Sol. let x = amount of 7% sol
Let y = amount of 12% sol
0.07x + 0.12y = 5 (0.1)
x+y=5y=5–x
0.07x + 0.12 (5 - x) = 0.5 substitute y
0.07x + 0.6 – 0.12x = 0.5  -0.05x = -0.1
−0.05 −0.1
= x=2
0.05 0.05

65. Find the sum of the roots of 5x2 - 10x + 2 = 0


2
5±√15
Sol. x = =2
5

66. Maria is 36 years old. Maria was twice as old as Anna was when Maria was as old as Anna is now. Jow old is Anna now?
24
Sol. let 36 – x = age of Maria x years ago
Let 36 - 2x = age of Anna x years ago
36 – X = 2 (36 - 2x)
36 - X = 72 - 4x
−3x −36
=  x = 12
−3 −3
Age of Anna now = age of Maria x years ago  36 - 12 = 24

67. Find the ratio of an infinite geometric progression if the sum is 2 and the first term is 1/2.
3/4
1−𝑟𝑛
Sn = a1 ( )
1−𝑟
1 1−𝑟 9999
2= ( )
2 1−𝑟
1−𝑟 9999
4=( )  r = 3/4
1−𝑟

68. A tank is fitted with two pipes. The first pipe can fill the tank in 10 hours. But after it has been open for 3 hours, the second pipe is opened and the tank is filled up
in 4 hours more. How long would it take the second pipe alone to fill tha tank?
13.33 hr.
1 1
Sol. Pipe 1* Rate = , time = 3 hours, volume = ( ) (3 hours)
10 10
1 1 1
Pipe 2* Rate = , time = 4 hours, volume = ( + ) (4 hours)
𝑥 𝑥 10
Combined* V1 + V2 = 1 tank
1 1 1
( ) (3 hours) + (
10 𝑥
+ 10 ) (4 hours) = 1  x = 13.33 hr.

69. How many kg of cream containing 25% butter fat should be added to 50 kg of milk containing one percent butter fat to produce milk containing 2% butter fat?
2.174
Sol. let x = Kg. of cream containing 25% butter fat
0.25x + 50 (0.01) = (50 + x) (0.02)
0.25x + 0.5 = 1 + 0.02x
0.23x = 0.5  x = 2.174

70. The electrical resistance offered by an electric wire varies directly as the length and inversely as the square of the diameter of the wire. Compare the electrical
resistance offered by two pieces of wire of the same material, one being 100 m long and 8 mm in diameter, and the other 50 m long and 3 mm in diameter.
R1 = 0.28 R2
kl
Sol. R =
𝑑2
3 2 8 2
𝑅2 𝑑 2 𝑅1 𝑑 2 𝑅2 (1000) 𝑅1 (1000)
=  =
𝑙 𝑙 50 100
1.8 x10-7R2 = 6.4 x10-7R1
R1 = 0.28 R2

71. A stack of bricks has 61 bricks in the bottom layer, 58 bricks in the second layer, 55 bricks in the third layer, and so on until there are 10 bricks in the last layer.
How many bricks are there all together?
639
Sol. an = a1 + (n - 1) d
10 = 61 + (n - 1) (-3)
10 = 61 – 3n + 3
10 = 64 – 3n
-54 = -3n  n = 18
n
Sn = [2a + (n-1) d]
2
18
Sn = [2(61) + (18-1) (-3)]
2
Sn = 639

72. A 100 g of water are mixed with 150 g of alcohol (p = 790 kg/cu.m.). What is the specific volume of the resulting mixtures? Assuming that the two fluids mix
completely.
1.20 cu cm/g
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
Sol. Specific volume =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠
Total mass = mw + ma = 100g + 150g = 250 g
𝑚𝑤 𝑚𝑎 0.1 0.15
Total volume = + = + = 2.899x10-4 m3 = 289.9 cm3
𝑝𝑤 𝑝𝑎 1000 790
289.9 𝑐𝑚3
Specific volume = = 1.20 cm3/g
250𝑔

73. One number is 5 less than another. If the sum is 135, what are the numbers?
65, 70
Sol. x + (x + 5) = 135
2x 130
=  x = 65
2 2
x + 5 = 65 + 5 = 70

74. The denominator of a certain fraction is three more than twice the numerator. If 7 is added to both terms of the fraction, the resulting fraction is 3/5. Find the
original fraction.
5/13
x+7 3
Sol. =
3+2𝑥+7 5
5x + 35 = 6x + 30  x = 5
Denominator = 3 + 2 (5) = 13
Answer: 5/13

75. An inexperienced statistical clerk submitted the following statistics to his manager on the average rate of production of transistorized radios in an assembly line:
"1.5 workers produced 3 radios in 2 hours." How many workers are employed in the assembly line working 40 hours per week if weekly production is 480 radios?
12
(480) (1.5)
Sol. x = 40 = 12
( )(3)
2

76. Find the mean proportion of 4 and 36.


12
a x
Sol. mean proportion = =
𝑥 𝑟
= √𝑎𝑟 = √(4)(36) = 12

77. An automobile is travelling at a velocity of 10 mph. If the automobile mileage meter already reads 20 miles, find the mileage meter reading after 3 hours.
50 miles
Sol. let x = # of hours
y = mileage meter reading
y = 20 + 10x = 20 + 10 (3) = 50 miles

78. Find the sum of 1, -1/5, 1/25, . . .


5/6
1
Sol. a1 = 1, r = −
5
19999
1−5
Sn = 1 ( ) = 5/6
1+15

79. A man is 41 years old and his son is 9. In how many years will the father be three times as old as his son?
7
Sol. let x = # of years
(41 + x) = 3 (9 + x)
41 + x = 27 + 3x
2x 14
= x=7
2 2

80. A tank is fitted with an intake pipe that will fill it in 4 hours, and an outlet pipe that will empty it in 9 hours. If both pipes are left open, how long will it take to fill
the empty tank?
7.2 hr.
Sol. let x = time it will take to fill the empty tank
1 1 1
- =
4 9 𝑥
5 1
=
36 𝑥
5x 36
= x = 7.2 hrs.
5 5

81. Find the 1987th digit in the decimal equivalent to 1785/9999 starting from the decimal point.
8
1785
Sol. = 0.178517851 (repeating digit decimal #)
9999
Note: The four repeated digits are 1, 7, 8 & 5.
1987
= 496.75  496 (4) = 1984
4
Thus 1984TH digit = 5
1985TH digit = 6
1986TH digit = 7
1987TH digit = 8

82. A mechanical engineer who was awarded a P450, 000.00 contract to install the machineries of an oil mill failed to finish the work on time. As provided for in the
contract, he has to pay a daily penalty equivalent to one-fourth of one percent of the contract price for the first ten days of the delay, one-half percent per day for the
next ten days and one percent per day for every day thereafter. If the total penalty paid was P60, 750.00, how many days was the completion of the contract
delayed?
26 days
1
Sol. ( ) (0.01) (450000) (10) + (0.005) (450000) (10) + (0.01) (450000) x = 60750
4
4500x = 27000  x = 6
Total # of days = 10 + 10 + x = 10 + 10 + 6 = 26 days

83. A man started driving his car at a certain time from a certain place. On arrival at his destination at the precise appointed time, he said, "If I had averaged 6 miles
per hour faster, I would have been 5 minutes early. But if I had averaged 5 mph slower, I would have been 6 minutes late." Find how far he had driven.
15 miles
Sol.

84. Pedro started running at a speed of 10kph. Five minutes later, Mario started running in the same direction and catches up with Pedro in 20 minutes. What is the
speed of Mario?
12.5 kph
Sol. let s = speed of Mario
5
10(𝑡 + ) = st
60
25 1
10 ( ) = ( 𝑠)  s = 12.5 kph
60 3

85. The equation whose roots are the reciprocal of the solutions of 2x2 - 3x - 5 = 0.
5x2 + 3x – 2 = 0
Sol. (2x - 5) (x + 1) = 0
5
x = , x = -1
2
2
Reciprocal: x = -1, x =
5
2 3x 2
(X - ) (x + 1) = x2 + -
5 5 5
2
Or 5x + 3x – 2 = 0

86. In certain Board Examination, 119 examinees too the Shop Machinery subjected, 104 examinees took the Power Plant Machinery subject and 115 examinees took
the Industrial Plant Machinery subject. Seventy-eight (78) conditioned examinees took only Shop Machinery and Power Machinery subjects. Seventy-one (71)
conditioned examinees took only the Power Plant Machinery and Industrial Plant Machinery subjects. Eighty-five (85) conditioned examinees took only Industrial
Plant Machinery and Shop Machinery subjects. Fifty-four took all the three subjects. How many examinees took the Certified Plant Mechanic board examination?
158
Sol. Total = 104 + 119 + 115 – 78 – 71 – 85 + 54 = 158

87. If a train passes as many telegraph poles in one minute as it goes miles per hour, how far apart are the poles?
88 ft.
1 mi. 5280 ft. 1 hr.
Sol. ( )( )( ) (1 min) = 88 ft.
1 ℎ𝑟. 1 𝑚𝑖. 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛.

88. A man 38 years old has a son of ten years old. In how many years will the father be three times as old as his son?
4
Sol. let x = # of years
(38 + x) = 3 (10 + x)
(38 + x) = 30 + 3x
8 = 2x  x = 4

89. In Algebra, the operation of root extraction is called as _____.


Evolution

90. Pedro can paint a fence 50% faster than Juan and 20% faster than Pilar and together they can paint a given fence in 4 hours. How long will it take Pedro to paint
the same fence if he had to work alone?
10
Sol. let x = time that Pedro needs to paint the fence alone
1.5x = Pedro’s time
1.2x = Pilar’s time
1 1 1 1
+ + =
𝑥 1.5𝑥 1.2𝑥 4
x = 10
91. There are 9 arithmetic means between 11 and 51. The sum of the progression is:
341
𝑛 11
Sol. Sn = (a1 + aK) = (11 + 51) = 341
2 2

92. The number 1.123123123. . . Is


Rational

93. Which of the following numbers should be changed to make all the numbers from an arithmetic progression when properly arranged?
20/14

94. How many significant digits do 10.097 have?


5

95. Find the sum of the infinite geometric progression 6, -2, 2/3, . . .
9/2
1
Sol. r =− , a1 = 6
3
19999
1−𝑟𝑛 1+
Sn = a1 ( ) = 6 ( 3 1 ) = 9/2
1−r 1+ 3

96. The time required for two examinees to solve the same problem differ by two minutes. Together they can solve 32 problems in one hour. How long will it take for
the slower problem solver to solve the problem?
5 minutes
Sol. let x = minute/time of the slower solver
Let x – 2 = time of the faster solver
60 60
+ = 32  x = 5 minutes
𝑥 𝑥−2

97. An equipment installation job in the completion stage can be completed in 50 days of 8 hours’ day work, with 50 men working. With the contract expiring in 40
days, the mechanical engineer contractor decided to add 15 men on the job, overtime not being permitted. If the liquidated damages is P5, 000 per day of delay, and
they are paid P150 per day, will the engineer be able to complete the job on time? Would he save money with the addition of workers?
Yes, P44, 750 savings
Sol. (50 days) (50 workers) = 65 workers (x days)
x = 39 days with 65 workers
Salaries for the 50 worker  50 x 50 x 150 = 375000
Salaries for the 65 worker  65 x 39 x 15 = 38025
They need to pay extra P5250 for salaries but they have a saving of 50000 from the penalties
Total savings: 10 (5000) – 5250 = P44, 750

98. An airplane flying with the wind, took 2 hours to travel 1000 km and 2.5 hours in flying back. What was the wind velocity in kph?
50
Sol. let x = velocity of airplane
Let y = velocity of wind
1000
Velocity with the wind x + y =
2
1000
Velocity against the wind x – y =
2.5
x + y = 500 plus x – y = 400 cancel y
2𝑧
= 900  x = 450
2
1000
450 – Y =  y = 50
2.5

99. If a = b, then b = a. This illustrates which axiom in Algebra?


Symmetric Axiom

100. The tens digit of a certain two-digit number exceeds the unit's digit by four and is one less than twice the unit's digit. Find the number.
95
Sol. let x = unit digit
x + 4 = 2x – 1  x = 5
Tens digit = 4 + 5 = 9
The number is 95.

101. One pipe can fill a tank in 6 hours and another pipe can fill the same in tank in 3 hours. A drain pipe can empty the tank in 24 hours. With all three pipes open,
how long will it take to fill in the tank?
2.18 hrs.
Sol. Let x = time to fill the tank
1 1 1 1
+ – =  x = 2.18 hrs.
6 3 24 𝑥

102. An equipment installation job in the completion stage can be completed in 40 days of 8 hours’ day work with 40 men working. With the contract expiring in 30
days, the mechanical engineer contractor decided to add 10 men on the job, overtime not being permitted. If the liquidated damages is P2, 000 per day of delay, and
the men are paid P80 per day, will the engineer be able to complete the job on time?
Yes, P16, 000 would be saved
Sol. (40 days) (40 men) = (50 men) (x days)
X days = 32 days
Savings from penalty: (40-32) (2000) = 16000
Add: Salaries = [36 x 50 x 80] – [40 x 40 x 80] = 0
Total savings: P16, 000

103. It takes Butch twice as it takes Dan to do a certain piece of work. Working together they can do the work in 6 days. How long would it take Dan to do it alone?
9 days
Sol. let x = time of Dan to do the work alone
Let 2x = time of Butch to do the work alone
1 1 1
+ =  x = 9 days
𝑥 2𝑥 6

104. Robert is 15 years older than his brother Stan. However, "y" years ago, Robert was twice as old as Stan. If Stan is now "b" years old b.y, find the value of (b-y).
15
Sol. let b = age of Stan now
Let 15 + b = age of Robert now
2 (b - y) = 15 + b – y
2b – 2y = 15 + b – y
b – Y = 15

105. Mike, Loui and Joy can mow the lawn in 4, 6 and 7 hours, respectively. What fraction of the yard can they mow in 1 hour if they work together?
84/47 hr.
Sol. let x = fraction of the yard that they can mow in 1 hr.
1 1 1 1
+ + =  x = 84/47 hr.
4 6 7 𝑥

106. The volume of hemisphere varies directly as the cube of its radius. The volume of a sphere with 2.54 cm radius is 20.75 cm3. What is the volume of a sphere with
3.25 cm radius of the same kind?
43.47 cm3
Sol. V = kr3
𝑣 20.75
k= = = 1. 26624269
𝑟3 2.54 3
V = K (3.25)3 = 1.26624269 (3.25)3 = 43.47 cm3

107. Add the following and express in meters: 3 m + 2 cm + 70 mm.


3.09 m
2 70
Sol. 3 + + = 3.09 m
100 1000

108. From the time 6:15 PM to the time 7:45 PM of the same day, the minute hand of a standard clock describe an arc of:
540o
Sol. 6:15  7:45 = 1 hr. 30 min. / 90 min.
90
(360 o) = 540o
60

109. A clock has dial face 304.80 mm in radius. The minute hand is 228.60 mm long while the hour hand is 152.40 mm long. The plane of rotation of the minute hand
is 50.80 mm above the plane of rotation of the hour hand. Find the distance between the tips of the hands of the clock at 5:40 AM.
233 mm
Sol. At 5:40, minute hand is at 8, which is 8 (30⁰) = 240⁰ ccw from 12
At 5:00, hour hand is at 5, 5 (30⁰) = 150⁰ cw from 12
30⁰ 0.05⁰
And moves at a rate of =
ℎ𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛
At 5:40, position of hour hand = 150⁰ + 40 (0.5⁰) = 170⁰
Angle between minute hand and hour hand = 240⁰ - 170⁰ = 70⁰
Using law of cosines: x2 = (152.40)2 + (228.60)2 – 2 (152.40) (228.60) cos70⁰
x2 = 75483.72 – 69677.28cos70⁰ = 51652.68671
d = distance between the tips of the hands
d2 = x2 + 50.802 = 51652.68671 + 2580.64 = 54233.32671
d = √54233.32671 = 232.88 = 233 mm

110. A certain manufactured part can be defective because it has one or more out of the three possible defects: insufficient tensile strength, a burr, or a diameter
outside of tolerance limit. In a lot of 500 pieces: 19 have a tensile strength defects, 17 have a burr, 11 have an unacceptable diameter, 12 have tensile strength and
burr defects, 7 have tensile strength and diameter defects, 5 have burr and diameter defects and 2 have all three defects. Determine:
How many of the pieces have no defects?
How many pieces have only burr defects?
How many pieces have exactly 2 defects?
475, 2, 18

111. Mary is 24 years old. Mary is twice as old as Ana when Mary was as old as Ana is now. How old is Ana?
18
Sol. let x = # of years ago
Let 24 – x = age of Ana now
24 = 2[2x – 24]
24 = 4x – 48
4𝑥 24
4x = 24  = x=6
4 4
24 – 6 = 18

112. The electrical resistance of wire made of a certain material varies as its length and inversely as the square of the diameter. If the wire 200 meters long and 1.25
mm in diameter has a resistance of 60 ohms, find the length of the wire of the same material, whose resistance and diameter are 5 ohms and 0.65 mm, respectively.
4.51 m
𝑘𝑙
Sol. R =
𝑑2
𝑅𝑑 2 (60)(1.25)2 15
K= = =
𝑙 200 32
𝑅𝑑 2 (5)(0.65)2
l= = 15 = 4.51 m
𝑘
32

113. A man leaving his office on one afternoon noticed the clock at past two o'clock. Between two three hours, he returned to his office noticing the hands of the
clock interchanged. At what time did he leave the office and the time that he returned to the office?
2:26.01, 5:12.17 P.M.
Sol. *memorize clock drawing*
𝑥
Let x = 25 +
12
𝑥
Let y = 10 +
12
𝑥 𝑥
10+12 10+12
x = 25 +  12 [25 + ]
12 12
𝑥
12x = 300 + 10 +  x = 26.01 mins.
12
Time when he left his home: 2:26.01
26.01
y = 10 + = 12.17 mins.
12
Time when he returned home: 5:12.17 P.M.

114. A medium unshaded lamp hangs 8 m directly above the table. To what distance should it be lowered to increase the illumination to 4.45 times the former value?
Illumination intensity varies inversely to the square of the distance.
3.79 m
Sol. let x = intensity
𝑘
l= ; kd2 = l
𝑑2
82 = 4.45d2  d = 3.79 m

115. Roberto is 25 years younger than his father. However, his father will be twice his age in 10 years. Find their ages now.
15 and 40
Sol. let x = age of Roberto
Let 25 + x = age of his Father
2 (x + 10) = (25 + x + 10)
2x + 20 = 25 + x + 10
x = 25 + 10 – 20 = 15
25 + x = 25 + 15 = 40

116. A storage battery discharges at a rate which is proportional to the charge. If the charge is reduced by 50% of its original value at the end of 2 days, how long will
it take to reduce the charge to 25% of its original charge?
3
Sol. 0.5x = 2 days
x = 4 days (total days before it become 0%
0.76x = 3

117. Prior to the last IBP elections, a survey was conducted in a certain barangay in Metro Manila to find out which of three political parties they like best. The results
indicated that 320 like KBL, 250 like LABAN and 180 liked INDEPENDENTS. But of these, 160 like both KBL and LABAN, 100 liked both LABAN and INDEPENDENTS and
70 like both KBL and INDEPENDENTS. Only 30 said they like all the three parties and none admitted that they did not like any party. How many voters are there in the
barangay?
450
Sol. Total = KBL + LABAN + INDEPENDENT + ALL/NEITHER – BOTH
Total = 320 + 250 + 180 - 160 – 100 – 70 + 30 = 450

118. A man left his home at past 3:00 o'clock P.M as indicated in his wall clock. Between 2 and 3 hours after, he returned home and noticed the hands of the lock
interchanged. At what time the man leave his home?
3:31.47 P.M
𝑦
Sol. x = 30 + -- eq.1
12
𝑥
y = 15 + -- eq.2  substitute eq.2 in eq.1
12
𝑥 𝑥
15+12 15+12
x = 30 +  [𝑥 = 30 + ] 12
12 12
𝑥
12x = 360 + 15 +  x = 31.47 minutes
12
Therefore, the time when he left home was 3:31.47 P.M

119. Given: f(x) = (x+ 3) (x - 4) +4. When f(x) is divided by (x - k), the remainder is k. Find k.
4
Sol. f (x) = (x + 3) (x – 4) + 4 = x2 – 4x + 3x – 12 + 4
f (x) = x2 – x – 8  remainder = f (k)
f (k) = k2 – k – 8 
k = k2 – k – 8
k2 – 2k – 8 = 0
(k – 4) (k + 2) = 0
k1 = 4, k2 = -2

120. A & B working together can finish painting the house in six days. A working alone, can finish it in five days less than B. How long will it take each of them to finish
the work alone?
10 days for A
15 days for B
Sol. let x = A
Let y = B
1 1 1
+ =  x = 10
𝑥 𝑥+5 16
x + 5 = 10 + 5 = 15

121. A statistical clerk submitted the following reports: ""The average rate of production of radios is 1.5 units for every 1.5 hours of work by 1.5 workers."" How many
radios were produced in one month by 30 men working 200 hours during the month?
4000
200 30
Sol. x = ( ) ( )(1.5) = 4000
1.5 1.5

122. A piece of paper is 0.05 in thick. Each time the paper is folded into half, the thickness is doubled. If the paper was folded 12 times, how thick in feet the folded
paper will be?
17.06
Sol. a1 = 0.05, r = 2, n = 12
1−212 1 ft.
Sn = 0.05 ( ) = 204.75 in. x = 17.06
1−2 12 𝑖𝑛.

123. A job could be done by eleven workers in 15 days. Five workers started the job. They were reinforced with four more workers at the beginning of the 6th day.
Find the total number of days it took them to finish the job.
20.56 days
Sol. 25 + 9x = 11 (15)  x = 15.56
x = 15.56 + 5 = 20.56 days

124. Six times the middle digit of a three-digit number is the sum of the other two. If the number is divided by the sum of its digits, the answer is 51 and the
remainder is 11. If the digits are reversed the number becomes smaller by 198, find the number.
725
Sol. Let h = hundreds place
Let t = tens place
Let u = units place
Let number = 100h + 10t + u
6t = h + u  h – 6t + u = 0 – eq.1
100ℎ+10𝑡+𝑢 11
(h + t + u) [ ] = [51 + ℎ+𝑡+𝑢 ] (h + t + u)
ℎ+𝑡+𝑢
100h + 10t + u = 51h + 51t + 51u + 11  combine like terms
100h – 51h + 10t – 51t + u – 51u = 11
49h – 41t – 50u = 11 – eq.2
Reversed digits: 100u + 10t + h = 100h + 10t + u – 198  combine like terms
100h – h + 10t – 10t + u – 100u – 198 = 0  99h – 99u = 198
h – u = 2  h = u + 2 – eq.3
Substitute to eq.1: u + 2 – 6t + u = 0  2u – 6t = -2
Substitute to eq.2: 49 (u + 2) – 41t – 50u = 11
49u + 98 – 41t – 50u = 11  2 [-u – 41t = -87] = -2u – 82t = -174
Add: 2u – 6t = -2 and -2u – 82t = -174  get t = 2
Substitute t: 2u – 6(2) = -2  get u = 5
Substitute t & u: h = 5 + 2  get h = 7
Therefore the number is 725

125. Given that "w" varies directly as the product of x and y and inversely as the square of z and that w = 4 when x = 2, y = 6 and z = 3. Find the value of "w" when x =
1, y = 4 and z = 2.
3
kxy
Sol. w =
𝑧2
𝑤𝑧 2 (4)(3)2
k= = =3
𝑥𝑦 (2)(6)
(3)(1)(4)
w= =3
22
126. A man driving his car at a certain speed from his house will reach his office in 6 hours. If he increased his speed 15 mph, he would reach his office 1 hour earlier.
Find the distance from his office to his house.
450 miles
𝑑
Sol. s =  d = st  6s = 5 (s+15)
𝑡
6s = 5s + 75  s = 75
d = 6s = 6 (75) = 450 miles

127. Determine x, so that x, 2x + 7, 10x - 7 will be a geometric progression.


7, -7/6
(10𝑥−7) (2𝑥+7)
Sol. =
(2𝑥+7) 𝑥
10x – 7x = (2x + 7)2
2

10x2 - 7x = 4x2 + 28x + 49


6x2 – 35x – 49 = 0
x = 7, x = -7/6

128. Solve for the values of x and y in 4x + 2y = 5 and 13x - 3y = 2.


(1/2, 3/2)
(5−4𝑥)
Sol. 4x + 2y = 5  y =
2
13x – 3y = 2 substitute y
5−4𝑥
[13x – 3 ( ) = 2] 2 = 26x – 15 + 12x = 4
2
38x = 19
x = 1/2, y = 3/2

129. Determine the k so that the equation 4x2 + kx + 1 = 0 will have just one real root.
4
Sol. 4x2 + kx + 1 = 0  (B2 – 4AC) = 0
A = 4; B = k; C = 1
B2 – 4AC = 0
k2 – 4 (4) (1) = 0
k2 = 16  k = ± 4

130. An airplane travels from points A and B with the distance of 1500 km and a wind along its flight line. If it takes the airplane 2 hours from A to B with the tailwind
and 2.5 hours from B to A with the headwind, what is the velocity?
675 kph
Sol. let x = velocity of airplane
Let y = velocity of wind
1500 1500
x+y= plus x – y =  cancel y
2 2.5
2x = 1350  x = 675 kph

131. How many numbers between 10 and 200 are exactly divisible by 7? Find their sum.
27 numbers; sum
Sol. n =27, smallest number larger than 10 that is divisible by 7 = 14
Largest number smaller than 200 that is divisible by 7 = 196
(196−14)
Thus, the no. of numbers between 10 and 200 that are divisible by 7 = 1 + = 27
7
Thus there are 27 numbers between 10 and 200 that are divisible by 7.

132. A gasoline tank of a car contains 50 liters of gasoline and alcohol, the alcohol comprising 25%. How much of the mixture must be drawn off and replaced by
alcohol so that the tank will contain a mixture of which 50% is alcohol?
16.67 liters
Sol. let x = amount of mixture
0.75x = 50 (0.75 – 0.5)  x = 16.67 liters

133. In a pile of logs, each layer contains one more log than the layer above and the top contains just one log. If there are 105 logs in the pile, how many layers are
there?
14
Sol. a1 = 1, d = 1, Sn = 105
𝑛
Sn = [2a + (n-1) d]
2
𝑛
105 = [2 (1) + (n-1) (1)]  n = 14
2

134. Two thousand (2000) kg of steel containing 8% nickel is to be made by mixing a steel containing 14% nickel with another containing 6% nickel. How much of each
is needed?
500 kg, 1500 kg
Sol. x + y = 2000  x = 2000 – y
0.14x + 0.06y = 2000 (0.08)
0.14 (2000 – y) + 0.06y = 160
280 – 0.14y + 0.06y = 160
−0.08𝑦 −120
=  y = 1500 kg
−0.08 −0.08
x = 2000 – 1500 = 500 kg

135. A boat man rows to a place 4.8 miles with the stream and black in 14 hours, but that he can row 14 miles with the stream in the same time as 3 miles against the
stream. Find the rate of the stream.
0.8 mile per hour
Sol. Let v1 = velocity of boatman
v2 = velocity of stream
Total time = 14 hours
4.8 4.8 4.8 (𝑣1 +𝑣2 )+4.8 (𝑣1 +𝑣2 )
+ = 14 
(𝑣1 +𝑣2 )(𝑣1 −𝑣2 )
= 14
𝑣1 +𝑣2 𝑣1 −𝑣2
4.8𝑣1 −4.8𝑣2 +4.8𝑣1 +4.8𝑣2
= 14  9.6v1 = 14𝑣1 2 - 14𝑣2 2
𝑣1 2 −𝑣1 𝑣2 +𝑣1 𝑣2 −𝑣2 2
14 3
=  14𝑣1 – 14𝑣2 = 3𝑣1 + 3𝑣2
𝑣1 +𝑣2 𝑣1 −𝑣2
11v1 = 17v2  v1 = 1.545v2 – eq.1
Substitute: 9.6 (1.545v2) = 14 (1.545𝑣2 )2 - 14𝑣2 2
14.832v2 = 19.418𝑣2 2  v2 = 0.8 mile per hour

136. Gravity causes a body to fall 16.1 ft. in the first second, 48.3 ft. in the 2nd second, 80.5 ft. in the 3rd second. How far did the body fall during the 10th second?
305.9 ft.
Sol. d = 32.2, n = 10, a1 = 16.1
a10 = a1 + (n-1) d = 16.1 + (10 – 1) (32.2) = 305.9 ft.

137. Solve for x : 10x² + 10 x² + 1 = 0.


-0.113, -0.887
Sol. 10x + 10x2 + 1 = 0
x = - 0.113, x = - 0.887

138. An airplane travels from points A and B with a distance of 1500 km and a wind along its flight line. If it takes the airplane 2 hours from A and B with the tailwind
and 2.5 hours from B to A with the headwind, what is the velocity?
675 kph
Sol. let x = velocity of airplane
Let y = velocity of wind
1500 1500
x+y= plus x – y =  cancel y
2 2.5
2x = 1350  x = 675 kph

139. A jogger starts a course at a steady rate of 8 kph. Five minutes later, a second jogger starts the same course at 10 kph. How long will it take the second jogger to
catch the first?
20 min
𝑑
Sol. s =  d = st
𝑡
8 (t+5) = 10t
8t + 40 = 10t
2𝑡 40
=  t = 20 min
2 2

140. A rubber ball is made to fall from a height of 50 ft. and is observed to rebound 2/3 of the distance it falls. How far will the ball travel before coming to rest if the
ball continues to fall in this manner?
250
Sol. let Sd = dist. downward
Let Su = dist. upward
2
a = 50, r =
3
1−𝑟𝑛 𝑎1 50
Sd = a1 ( ) or  2 = 150
1−𝑟 1−𝑟 (1− )
3
100
a=
3
100
( 3 )
Su = 2 = 100
(1− )
3
Total distance = 100 + 150 = 250

141. The resistance of the wire varies directly with its length and inversely with its area. If a certain piece of wire 10 m long and 0.10 cm in diameter has a resistance
of 100 ohms, what will its resistance be if it is uniformly stretched so that its length becomes 12 m?
144
𝑘𝑙
Sol. R = , Let V = volume of wire
𝐴
𝑉 𝑘𝑙
V = AL; A = R= 𝑉 = k’ (L) 2
𝐿
𝐿
When R = 100 and L = 10
100 = k’ (10)2  k‘= 1
When L = 12,
R = (1) (12)2 = 144
142. Ten liters of 25% salt solution and 25 liters of 35% salt solution are poured into a drum originally containing 30 liters of 10% salt solution. What is the percent
concentration of salt in the mixture?
0.1955
Sol. 10 + 15 + 30 = 55
0.25 (10) + 15 (0.35) + 30 (0.1) = 55x
x = 0.1955

143. A & B can do the job in 42 days, B & C for the same job in 31 days, C & A also for the same job in 20 days. If A & C work together, how many days can they do the
same job?
19
1 1 1
Sol. A & B = job/day, B & C = job per day, C & A = job/day
42 31 20
1 1 1
Let A = , B = , C =
𝑥 𝑦 𝑧
1 1 1
A&B= + =
𝑥 𝑦 42
1 1 1
B&C= + =
𝑦 𝑧 31
1 1 1
C&A= + =
𝑧 𝑥 20
1 1 1 1
+ + =
𝑥 𝑦 𝑧 𝑑
2 2 2 1381
Add all three aligning like terms getting + + =
𝑥 𝑦 𝑧 13020
1 1 1 1 1381
Multiply by : getting + + =
2 𝑥 𝑦 𝑧 26040
1 1381
=  cross-multiply 1381d = 26040  d = 19
𝑑 26040

144. A pipe can fill a tank in 14 hours. A second pipe can fill the tank in 16 hours. If both pipes are left open, determine the time required to fill the tank?
7.47 hr.
1 1 1
Sol. + =  x = 7.47 hr.
14 16 𝑥

145. A man rows downstream at the rate of 5mph and upstream at the rate of 2mph. How far downstream should he go if he is to return in 7/4 hours after leaving?
2.5 miles
Sol. let x = # of miles
𝑥 𝑥 7
+ =  x = 2.5 miles
5 2 4

146. Solve for the value of x.


2x - y + z = 6
x - 3y - 2z = 13
2x - 3y - 3z = 16
2
Sol. (Calcu mode) MODE – 5: EQN – 2 – INPUT AS IT IS  x = 2

147. Find the value of w in the following equations:


3x - 2y + w = 11
x + 5y - 2w = -9
2x + y - 3w = -6.
3
Sol. (Calcu mode) MODE – 5: EQN – 2 – INPUT AS IT IS  w = 3

148. A boat travels downstream 2/3 of the time as it goes going upstream. If the velocity of the river's current is 8 kph, determine the velocity of the boat in still
water.
40 kph
Sol. let x = velocity of boat
2
x – 8 = (x + 8)
3
2𝑥 16
x–8= +
3 3
1 40
𝑥
3 3
1 = 1  x = 40 kph
3 3

149. A survey of 100 persons revealed that 72 of them had eaten at restaurant P and that 52 of them had eaten at restaurant Q. Which of the following could not be
the number of persons in the surveyed group who had eaten at both P and Q?
24
Sol. Total = P + Q + Neither – Both
Total = 72 + 52 – 100 = 24

150. It takes an airplane one hour and forty-five minutes to travel 500 miles against the wind and covers the same distance in one hour and fifteen minutes with the
wind. What is the speed of the airplane?
342.85 mph
Sol. let x = speed of airplane
Let y = speed of wind
500 500
x–y= plus x + y =  cancel y
1.75 1.25
4800
2x =  x = 342.85 mph
7

151. "A besiege fortress is held by 5700 men who have provisions for 66 days. If the garrison losses 20 men each day, for how many days can the provisions hold
out?"
76
𝑛 5700𝑛 5720𝑛 20𝑛2
Sol. S = (5700 + 5720 – 20n)  s = + -
2 2 2 2
s = 5710n – 10n2  5700 (66) = n (5710 – 10n)
1
[10𝑛2 − 5710𝑛 + 376200 = 0]
10
2
n – 571n + 37620 = 0  (n – 495) (n – 76) = 0
Therefore n = 495, n = 76

152. At what time will the hands of a clock be in straight line between 7:00 o'clock and 8:00 o'clock in the morning? (Note: The hour hand is opposite that of the
minute hand?)
7:5.4545 AM
Sol. When the hands of the clock are in the same straight line but not together, they are 30 minutes spaces apart
Therefore, minute hand will have gain only 5 min. spaces
55 min. spaces are gained in 60 min.
60 60
5 min spaces are gained in ( )(5) min = min.
55 11
60
Therefore, required time = min = 5.4545 min.  7:5.4545 AM
11

153. A production supervisor submitted the following report on the average rate of production of printed circuit boards (PCB) in assembly line: ""1.5 workers produce
12 PCB's in 2 hours."" How many workers are employed in an assembly line working 40 hours each per week with a weekly production of 8000 PCB's?
50
Sol. No. of man-hours to produce 12 PCB = (2) (1.5) = 3
No. of man-hours to produce 8000 PCB = x (40) = 40x
3 40𝑥
By ratio and proportion: =  x = 50
12 8000

154. "The polynomial x^3 + 4x^2 - 3x + 8 is divided by x - 5, then the remainder is:"
218
Sol. x3 + 4x2 – 3x + 8 (divisor x – 5)  x2 + 9x + 42
+ x3 – 5x2
9x2 – 3x + 8
+ 9x2 – 45x
42x + 8
+ 42x – 210
218

156. Two or more equations are equal if and only if they have the same _____.
Solution set

157. On one job, two power shovels excavate 20,000 cubic meters of earth, the larger shovel working for 40 hours and the smaller for 35 hours. On another job, they
removed 40,000 cubic meters with the larger shovel wotking 70 hours and the smaller working 90 hours. How much earth can each move in 1hour working alone?
347.83 m3/hr for larger shovel, 173.91 m3/hr for smaller shovel
Sol. Let x = large shovel amount of earth moved in 1 hr.
Let y = small shovel amount of earth moved in 1 hr.
40x + 35y = 20000 – eq.1
70x + 90y = 40000 – eq.2
Simplify:
1
(40x + 35y = 20000)  7 [8x + 7x = 4000]  56x + 49y = 28000
5
1
(70x + 90y = 40000)  8 [7x + 9y = 4000]  56x + 72y = 32000
10
Subtract: 56x + 49y = 28000 and 56x + 72y = 32000
Getting – 23y = - 4000  y = 173.91 m3/hr.
40x + 35y = 20000 – eq.1
40x + 35 (173.91) = 20000  x = 347.83 m3/hr.

Basic Engineering Correlation (Trigonometry Reviewer)

1. What will be the length of the two other sides of a right triangle if the opposite side of a 60 degrees’ angle is 4V cm _____"
*8cm, 4 cm
Sol. *right triangle drawing with 90⁰, 60⁰, 30⁰ - y as hypotenuse, 4√3 as opposite, x as adjacent
sin60⁰ sin30⁰
Use sine law: =
4√3 𝑥
𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛60⁰ 4√3 sin30⁰
=
𝑠𝑖𝑛60⁰ sin60⁰
CALCU (DEG) x = 4 cm
sin60⁰ sin90⁰
=
4√3 𝑦
𝑦𝑠𝑖𝑛60⁰ 4√3 sin90⁰
=
𝑠𝑖 𝑛60⁰ sin60⁰
CALCU (DEG) x = 8 cm

2. The expression sin16° sin14° + cos16° cos14° is equivalent to


*Cos 2°
Sol. use: cos (u – v) = cosucosv + sinusinv
cos16⁰cos14⁰ + sin16⁰sin14⁰ = cos (u – v)
Cos (16⁰ - 14⁰) = Cos 2°

Shortcut:
sin16° sin14° + cos16° cos14° = -0.416
Cos 2° = -0.416

3. If tan a = 1/2 — and tan = -3/5, then the value of tan (a + 8) is


*11/7
1 3
Sol. tan a = ; tan b =
2 5
1 3
(tan 𝑎+tan 𝑏) ( 2 +5 )
Find: tan (a + b)  tan (a + b) = = 1 3 = 11/7
1−tan 𝑎 tan 𝑏 [1−( )( )]
2 5

4. What is the value of sin [3 if cos p = 3/5?


*sec 0 = 0.8
3 𝑦
Sol. cosꝋ = (3 as x, 5 as r), sinꝋ =
5 𝑟
r2 = x2 + y2
y2 = r2 – x2
y = √52 − 32 = 4
𝑦 4
sinꝋ = = = 0.8
𝑟 5

5. A central angle of 45 degrees subtends an arc of 12 cm. What is the radius of the circle?
*15.82 cm (BONUS!!!)
Sol. Formula Radius = arc length / central angle in rad
𝜋 𝜋
Central angle in rad = (45 x )=
180 4
12𝑐𝑚
r= 𝜋 = 15.28 cm
4

6. The exact radian measure of 180o is


* ? (ANSWER SA BBL)
𝜋
Sol. 180⁰ x = π (ANSWER NG SOLUTION)
180⁰

7. Solve for x by logarithm, log x2 - log (2x/5 = 7.58.


*15207576
2𝑥
Sol. CALCU MODE: log10 (x2) - log10 ( ) = 7.58
5
Shift solve: x = 15207576

8. If arc tan x + arc tan (1/3) = π /4, the value of x is ______.



1 𝜋
Sol. CALCU MODE (RAD) tan-1(x) + tan-1( ) =
3 4
Shift solve: x = ½

9. A road is tangent to a circular lake. Along the road and 12 miles from the point of tangency, another road opens towards the lake. From the intersection of the two
roads to the periphery of the lake, the length of the new road is 11 miles. If the new road will be prolonged across the lake, find the length of the bridge to be
constructed.
*2.09 miles
Sol. Let the bridge length be x miles: 11 (11+x) = 122
Shift solve: x = 2.09 miles

10. A strip of 640 sq. m is sold from a triangular field whose sides are 96, 72 and 80 meters. The strip is of uniform width "h" and has one of its sides parallel to the
longest side of the field. Find the width of the strip.
* 7.059 m
Sol. *memorize the figures*
Use cosine law:
962 = 802 + 722 – 2 (80) (72) cosα  α = 78.14⁰
802 = 962 + 722 – 2 (96) (72) cosɤ  ɤ = 54.64⁰
722 = 802 + 962 – 2 (80) (96) cosβ  β = 47.22⁰
𝑎
cot54.64⁰ =  a = hcot54.64⁰

𝑏
cot47.22⁰ =  b = hcot47.22⁰

b1 = 96 – a – b
b1 = 96 - hcot54.64⁰ - hcot47.22⁰
b1 = 96 – h [cot54.64⁰ + cot47.22⁰]
ℎ ℎ
A = (b1 + b2)  640 = {[96 – h [cot54.64⁰ + cot47.22⁰] + 96}
2 2
1280 = 192h – h2 (cot54.64⁰ + cot47.22⁰)
h2 (cot54.64⁰ + cot47.22⁰) – 192h + 1280 = 0
h = 110.34, h = 7.059 m

11. The expression sin25x sin5x is equivalent to


* 2sin15xsin10x
(𝑎+𝑏) (𝑎−𝑏)
Sol. use: sin a + sin b = 2sin times cos
2 2
(25𝑥+5𝑥) (25𝑥−5𝑥)
sin25x + 5x = 2sin times cos
2 2
= 2sin15xsin10x

12. The area of the sector determined by an angle of 60° in a circle of radius 5 cm is
* 13.09 cm2
𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒
Sol. formula (πr2) ( )
3600
60
(π (5) ) ( ) = 13.09 cm2
2
360

13. Three times the sine of a certain angle is twice of the square of the cosine of the same angle. Find the angle.
* 30o
Sol. let x = the angle
3sinx = 2cos2x  3sinx = 2 (1 – sin2x)
3sinx = 2 – 2sin2x
2sinx + 3sinx – 2 = 0
(2sinx – 1) (Sinx + 2) = 0
1
2sinx – 1 = 0  sinx =
2
1
x = sin-1( ) = CALCU (DEG) = 30o
2

14. If sin A = 2.5x and cos A = 5.5x, find the value of A in degrees.
* 42.47 (ANSWER SA BBL)
Sol. sin A = 2.5x
Cos A = 5.5x
sin 𝐴 2.5𝑥
=
cos 𝐴 5.6𝑥
2.5
Tan A =
5.5
2.5
A = tan-1 ( ) = 24.44⁰ (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)
5.5

15. One leg of a right triangle is 20 cm and the hypotenuse is 10 cm longer than the other leg. Find the length of the hypotenuse.
* 25 cm
Sol. figure* x + 10 as hypotenuse, 20 as opposite, x as adjacent
x2 + 202 = (x + 10)2
x2 + 400 = x2 + 20x + 100  cancel x2
20𝑥 300
=  x = 15
20 20
Hypotenuse: x + 10 = 15 + 10 = 25 cm

16. Which of the following is an even function?


* f (x)=5 COSx
Sol. Rule: f (- x) = f (x) even
F (- x) = - f (x) odd
Y (x) = 5cos(x)
y (-x) = 5cos(-x) = 5 COSx = even

17. The sides of a triangle lot are 130m, 180m, and 190m. This lot is to be divided by a line bisecting the longest side and drawn from the opposite vertex. Find the
length of the line (1) and the area of each lot (A).
* L125 m, A5612 sq. m
Sol. *memorize the figure*
Cosine law: 1802 = 1902 + 1302 – 2(190) (130) cosα  α = 65.45⁰
L2 = 1302 + 952 – 2 (130) (95) cos65.45⁰
L = 125m
𝑎+𝑏+𝑐 130+95+125
Heron’s formula: s = = = 175
2 2
A = √𝑠(𝑠 − 𝑎)(𝑠 − 𝑏)(𝑠 − 𝑐) = √175(175 − 130)(175 − 95)(175 − 125)
A = 5612 sq. m

18. If A is in the III quadrant and cos A = -15/17, find the value of cos (1/2) A.
* - (1/17)1/2
Sol. cos A = (-15/17)
Find: cos (A/2)
Use half angle identity/formula:
15
1+𝑐𝑜𝑠𝐴 1+(− ) 1
Cos (A/2) = √ ==√ 17
= ±√
2 2 17
Since x & y in quadrant III is negative  cos (A/2) = - (1/17)1/2

19. Ship "A" started sailing N 40o 32' E at the rate of 3 mph. After 2 hours, ship "B" started from the same port soing S 45o 18' E at the rate of 4 mph. After how many
hours will the second ship be exactly south of ship "A"?
* 4.37 hours
Sol. Let 4t = total distance traveled by ship B
6 + 3t = total distance traveled by ship A
𝑠𝑖𝑛40⁰32′ 𝑠𝑖𝑛45⁰18′
By sine law: =
4𝑡 6+3𝑡
𝑠𝑖𝑛40⁰32′
(6 + 3t) ( ) = 4t
𝑠𝑖𝑛45⁰18′
5.485853734 + 2.742926867t = 4t
1.257073133t = 5.485853734
t = 4.37 hours

20. Two speedboats simultaneously sailed out from port A on a 10 km radius circle lake towards point B directly opposite of port A. The first boat took the shortest
route and reached the destination in 1 hour. The boat has to pass by port C before proceeding to port B. At what speed will it run in order to arrive at port B at the
same time with the first boat?
* 27.32 kph
𝑑 𝑑
Sol. d = rt, r = but r =
𝑡 1ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟
Let (0, 0) center of lake, (-10, 0) port A, (10, 0) port B, (x,√100 − 𝑥 2) port C
d = [distance from A to C] + [distance from C to B]
d = [(√𝑥 + 10)2 + (−√100 − 𝑥 2 )2 ] + [(√𝑥 − 10)2 + (√100 − 𝑥 2 )2 ]
d = [√𝑥 2 + 20𝑥 + 100 + 100 − 𝑥 2 ] + [√𝑥 2 − 20𝑥 + 100 + 100 − 𝑥 2 ]
d = √20𝑥 + 200 + √−20𝑥 + 200 = √300 + √100 = 10√3 + 10 = 27.32 km
𝑑 27.32𝑘𝑚
r= = = 27.32 kph
1 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 1 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

21. The reference angle of 0 = 210° is


* 30°
Sol. ꝋ = 210⁰
ꝋR = ꝋ - 180⁰ = 210⁰ - 180⁰ = 30°

23. The angle that is supplementary to 45o 15' 25" is


* 44.743o (ANSWER SA BBL)
Sol. Supplementary = 180⁰
180⁰ - 45⁰ 15' 25" = 134.743⁰ (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)

24. If 77o + 0.40x = arc tan (cot 0.25x), find x.


* 20o
Sol. 77⁰ + 0.4x = tan-1(cot0.25x)
Tan (77⁰ + 0.4x) = cot0.25x
90 - (77⁰ + 0.4x) = 0.25x  x = 20o

25. If A + B + C = 180o and tan A + tan B + tan C = 5.67, find the value of tan A tan B tan C.
* 5.67
Sol. A + B + C = 180⁰
A + B = 180⁰ - C
Tan (A + B) = tan (180⁰ - C)
(tan 𝐴+tan 𝐵) (tan 1800 −tan 𝐶)
=  cancel tan 180⁰
(1−tan 𝐴 tan 𝐵) (1+𝑡𝑎𝑛1800 tan 𝐶)
Tan A + tan B = -tan C + tan A tan B tan C
Tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A tan B tan C
But tan A + tan B + tan C = 5.67

26. The angle of elevation of the top point D of a tower A is 23o30'. From another point B the angle of elevation of the top of the tower is 55o30'. The points A and B
are 217.45 m. apart and on the same horizontal plane as the foot (point C) of the tower. The horizontal angle subtended by A and B at the foot of the tower is 90o.
Find the height of the tower CD.
* 90.59 m
Sol. *memorize the figure*
𝐶𝐷
tan23.5⁰ =  CD = tan23.5⁰AC
𝐴𝐶
𝐶𝐷
tan55.5⁰ =  CD = tan55.5⁰BC
𝐵𝐶
BC + AC = (217.45)2  BC = √217.452 − 𝐴𝐶 2
2 2

tan23.5⁰AC = tan55.5⁰ √217.452 − 𝐴𝐶 2


AC = 208.3458245
CD = tan23.5⁰ (AC) = tan23.5⁰ (208.3458245) = 90.59 m

28. The simplified form of sin4 0 —cos4 0 is


* 2sin2 0-1
Sol. sin4 ꝋ - cos4 ꝋ
sin4 ꝋ - (1 – sin2ꝋ) 2
sin4 ꝋ - (1 - 2 sin2ꝋ + sin4 ꝋ)  2sin2 0-1

29. The simplified form of cos (A— B)—cos (A + B) is


* 2sinAsinB
Sol. cos (A – B) – cos (A + B)
(CosAcosB + sinAsinB) - (cosAcosB - sinAsinB)  cancel cosAcosB = 2sinAsinB

30. If cot 2A cot 68o = 1, then tan A is equal to _______.


* 0.194
1 1
Sol. ( ) ( )=1
tan 2𝐴 𝑡𝑎𝑛68⁰
1 = tan2Atan68⁰
1
tan2A =
𝑡𝑎𝑛68⁰
1
[𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( )]
𝑡𝑎𝑛68⁰
2A/2 =  CALCU (DEG) = 11
2
Tan (11) = 0.194

31. The exact degree measure of 0.5π is


* 90o
𝜋 𝜋 180⁰
Sol. 0.5π = ( )( )= 90o
2 2 𝜋

32. Solve for G if csc (11G - 16o) = sec (5G + 26o).


*5 degrees
Sol. csc (11G - 16⁰) = sec (5G + 26⁰)
11G - 16⁰ = 90⁰ - (5G + 26⁰)
16G = 90⁰ - 26⁰ + 16⁰
16𝐺 80⁰
=  G = 5 degrees
16 6

33. A ladder 5 m long leans against the wall of an apartment house forming an angle of 50 degrees, 32 minutes with the ground. How high on the wall does it reach?
* 3.86 m
Sol. *figure – x as opposite, 5 as hypotenuse, and 50⁰32’ as angle
𝑥
CALCU (DEG): Sin50⁰32’ =  x = 5sin50⁰32’ = 3.86 m
5

34. A regular dodecagon is inscribed in a circle of radius 24. Find the perimeter of the dodecagon.
* 149.08
360
Sol. = 15⁰
24
x = 24sin15⁰
Perimeter = 24 (24sin15⁰) = 149.08

35. The measure of 2.25 revolutions counterclockwise is


* 805 degrees (ANSWER SA BBL)
Sol. Counter clockwise: 360 Clockwise: -360
2.25 x 360 = 810 (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)

36. Determine the amplitude and the phase shift for the function f(t)= 2 sin (3x + 4)
* 2 and 4/3
Sol. y = A sin (Bx + C) + D
A = amplitude = 2
2𝜋
Period =
|𝐵|
𝐶 4
Phase shift = − = − ( ) = - 4/3
𝐵 3
Vertical shift = D

37. Solve angle A of an oblique triangle with vertices ABC, if a = 25, b = 16 and C = 94 degrees and 6 minutes.
* 55 degrees and 32 minutes (ANSWER SA BBL)
Sol. *memorize figure*
c2 = a2 + b2 – 2abcosɤ  c2 = 252 + 162 – 2 (25) (16) cos94⁰6’  c = 30.63
a2 = b2 + c2 – 2 (b) (c) cosα  252 = 162 + 30.632 – 2 (16) (30.63) cosα
α = 54⁰29’ 55.91’’ = 54 degrees and 30 minutes (ANSWER NG SOLUTION)

38. The terminal side of the angle θ = 500o in standard position is in quadrant.
* II
Sol. 500⁰ - 360⁰ = 140⁰  is in Quadrant II

39. Determine the period of the curve y = sin (1/2) x


* 720⁰
1
Sol. y = sin 𝑥
2
2𝜋
Period = 1 = 4π
2
360⁰
4π x = 720⁰
2𝜋

40. Solve for x in the given equation: arc tan (x +1) +arc tan (x - 1) = arc tan (12).
*1.34
Sol. CALCU METHOD (RAD) tan-1 (x+1) + tan-1 (x-1) = tan-1 (12)  x = 1.34

41. Two towers AB and CD are of equal height. At a point between them in the line AC joining their bases, the angle of elevation of the nearer tower was observed to
be 60o. Then at 24 m from the same point in a direction perpendicular to AC, the angle of elevation of the top of the towers are 45o for the nearer tower and 30o for
the other. Find the height of the towers (h) and their distance apart (x).
* h=29.38m, x=61.83 m
Sol.

42. If 3x = 9y and 27y = 81z, find x/z.


* 8/3
Sol. 3x = 9y  ln3x = ln9y  xln3 = yln9
𝑙𝑛81
𝑥𝑙𝑛3 [(𝑙𝑛27 𝑧) 𝑙𝑛9]
=  cancel ln3
𝑧𝑙𝑛3 𝑧𝑙𝑛3
𝑥 𝑙𝑛81 𝑙𝑛9
= = 8/3
𝑧 𝑙𝑛27 𝑙𝑛3

43. Which of the following is a co terminal angle of θ = 265o?


* –95o
Sol. 360⁰ - 265⁰ = 95⁰ (clockwise)  –95o

44. The terminal side of 0 if cote > 0 and sec () >0 is in quadrant
*I
𝑥 𝑥
Sol. cotꝋ = cosꝋ =
𝑦 𝑟
x & y must be (+)  x & y are (+) at Quadrant I

45. Given: x = (cos B Tan B - sin B) / cos B. Solve for x if B = D45 degrees.
*0
Sol. x = (cos45tan45 - sin45) cos45 = 0

46. The perimeter of an isosceles right triangle is 6.6824. Its area is


*2
6.6824
Sol. 2a + √2a = 6.6824  a = = 1.96
(2+√2)
2 2
√2 𝑎 √2 (1.96)
h = a2 – ( ) = (1.96)2 − ( ) = 1.38
2 2
1 1
A = BH = (1.38) (√2(1.96)) = 1.92 ~ 2
2 2

47. Simplify: 4 cos y sin y (1 - 2 sin 2y)


* sin 4y
Sol. 4cosysiny (1 - 2sin2y)
2sin2y (1 – 2sin2y)
2sin2y (cos2y) = sin 4y

48. The angle of elevation of the top of the tower A from the foot of tower B is twice the angle of elevation of the top of tower B from the foot of tower A. At a point
midway between the two towers, the angles of elevations of the top of the towers are complimentary. If the two towers are 120 m apart, what are the heights of the
towers?
*40 m and 90 m
Sol. Height of tower A = AH
Height of tower B = BH
𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒
Tan =
𝑎𝑑𝑗𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝐴
For Tower A* tan2ꝋ =  A = 120 tan2ꝋ
120
2 tanꝋ 240tanꝋ
Since tan2ꝋ = A=
1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 ꝋ 1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 ꝋ
120
For Tower B* tanꝋ =  B = 120 tanꝋ
𝐵
𝐴
@midpoint: tanβ =  A = 60 tanβ
60
𝐵
Tower B* tan (β - 90⁰) =
60
1
Since tan (β - 90⁰) =
tan 𝛽
1 𝐵 60
= B=
tan𝛽 60 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛽
60 3600
(A) (B) = (60𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛽 𝑥 ) = 3600  A =
𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛽 𝐵
240𝑡𝑎𝑛ꝋ 3600 3600 30
A= but A = = =
1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 ꝋ 𝐵 120𝑡𝑎𝑛ꝋ 𝑡𝑎𝑛ꝋ
30 240𝑡𝑎𝑛ꝋ
Therefore, =  30 – 30tan2ꝋ = 240tan2ꝋ
𝑡𝑎𝑛ꝋ 1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 ꝋ
1 1
270tan2ꝋ = 30  tan2ꝋ =  tanꝋ =
9 3
1
240 ( )
3
A= 1 2
= 90 m
1−( )
3
1
B = 120 ( ) = 40m
3

49. Find the value of x in the equation csc x + cot x = 3.


*? /5 (ANSWER SA BBL)
1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
Sol. Since cscx = and cotx = we can rewrite it to
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥
1 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥 1+𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑥
+ =3 = 3  1 + cosx = 3 sinx
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑥
Square both sides (1 + cosx = 3sinx) getting 1 + 2cosx + cos2x = 9sin2x
Since sin2x = 1 – cos2x  1 + 2cosx + cos2x = 9 (1 – cos2x)
1 + 2cosx + cos2x = 9 – 9cos2x
10cos2x + 2cosx – 8 = 0
2 (5cos2x + cox – 4) = 0
2 (5cosx – 4) (cosx + 1) = 0
By zero-product property: 5cosx – 4 = 0; cosx + 1 = 0
4
cosx = and cosx = -1
5
4
x = cos-1 ( ) and x = π
5
Thus x = arccos (4/5) (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)

50. Find the other parts of the triangle given a = 48°,1C = 57 degrees’ b = 47 units.
* 75 °, 36.16 units
Sol. *right triangle - 57⁰ & 48⁰ as angle, b = 47 as hypotenuse*
β = 180⁰ – 57⁰ – 48⁰ = 75°
𝑠𝑖𝑛75⁰ 𝑠𝑖𝑛48⁰
=  a = 36.16 units
47 𝑎

51. A clock has a dial face 12 inches in radius. The minute hand is 9 inches long while the hour hand is 6 inches long. The plane of rotation of the minute hand is 2
inches above the plane of rotation of the hour hand. Find the distance between the tips of the hands of the clock at 5:40 a.m.
* 9.17 in
Sol. At 5:40, minute hand is at 8, which is 8 (30⁰) = 240⁰ cw from 12
At 5:00, hour hand is at 5, 5 (30⁰) = 150⁰ cw from 12
30⁰ 0.05⁰
And moves at a rate of =
ℎ𝑟 𝑚𝑖𝑛
At 5:40, position of hour hand = 150⁰ + 40 (0.5⁰) = 170⁰
Angle between minute hand and hour hand = 240⁰ - 170⁰ = 70⁰
Cosine law: x2 = 62 + 92 – 2 (6) (9) cos70⁰
x2 = 117 – 108cos70⁰  x2 = 80.06182452
d = distance between the tips of the hands
d2 = 80.06182452 + 22 = 84.06182452
d = 9.17 in

52. The expression 2cos6x cos2x is equivalent to


* Cos8x + cos4x
1
Sol. cosucosv = [cos (u + v) + cos (u - v)]
2
1
cos6xcos2x = 2 ( ) [cos (6x + 2x) + cos (6x - 2x)]
2
cos6xcos2x = Cos8x + cos4x

53. The solution set of the equation (tan x) 2 — 1 = 0 on the interval [0°, 360°) is ~{30°,90°,150°1}
* {45°,135°,225°,315°1}
Sol. (tanx) 2 – 1 = 0  tanx = ± 1
x = tan-1(1) = 45°  180⁰ + 45⁰ = 225°
x = tan-1(- 1) = - 45⁰ = 180⁰ - 45⁰ = 135°  180⁰ + 135⁰ = 315°

54. If the terminal side of angle 13 contains the point (-5, -7) then 13 is equal to
* 234.46°
−5 5
Sol. tanꝋ = ( )  ꝋ = tan-1 ( ) = 35.54⁰
−7 7
β = 90⁰ - ꝋ + 180⁰ = 90⁰ - 35.54⁰ + 180⁰ = 234.46°

55. Simplify the expression: (sin B + cos B tan B) / cos B.


* 2 tan B
[sin β + cos βtan β]
Sol.  cancel cos β
cos β
Tan β + tan β = 2 tan B

56. A 40 m high tower stands vertically on a hillside (sloping ground) which makes an angle of 18o with the horizontal. A tree also stands vertically up the hill from the
tower. An observer on top of the tower finds the angle of depression of the top of the tree to be 26o and the bottom of the tree to be 38o. Find the height of the tree.
* 10.62 m
𝑠𝑖𝑛72⁰ 𝑠𝑖𝑛56⁰
Sol. =  y = 45.89
𝑦 40
𝑠𝑖𝑛12⁰ 𝑠𝑖𝑛116⁰
=  h = 10.62 m
ℎ 45.89

57. Triangle ABC is a right triangle with the right angle at C. CD is perpendicular to AB. BC = 4, and CD = 1. Find the area of the triangle ABC.
* 2.07
Sol. *memorize the figure*
𝑠𝑖𝑛90⁰ 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼
=  α = 14.48⁰
4 1
β = 90⁰ - 14.48⁰ = 75.52⁰
1
ɤ = 14.48⁰  cos14.48⁰ =  y = 1.03
𝑦
x = √𝑦 2 + 42 = √1.032 + 42 = 4.13
4.13+1.03+4
s= = 4.58
2
A = √4.58(4.58 − 4.13)(4.58 − 1.03)(4.58 − 4) = 2.07

58. If sin A = 4/5, A is in quadrant II, sin B = 7/25, B is in quadrant I. Find sin (A + B).
* 3/5
4 3
Sol. sin A = cos A = −
5 5
7 24
Sin B = cos B =
5 25
Sin (A + B)  sin A cos B + cos A sin B
4
( ) (24
25
3 7
) + (− ) ( ) = 3/5
5 5
5

59. A and B are summit of two mountains rise from a horizontal plain, B being 1200 m above the plain. Find the height of A, it being given that its angle of elevation as
seen from a point C in the plain (in the same vertical plane with A and B) is 50o, while the angle of depression of C viewed from B is 28o58' and the angle subtended at
B by AC is 50o.
* 3002.33 m
Sol. *memorize the figure*
1200
Sin28o58' =  y = 2477.799407
𝑦
𝑠𝑖𝑛28⁰58′ 𝑠𝑖𝑛50⁰
=  x = 3919.268436
2477.799407 𝑥

Sin50⁰ =  h = 3002.33 m
3919.268436

60. 174 degrees is equivalent to _____ mils.


* 3094
Sol. Degrees to Mils: 1 degree = 160/9 mils
160
174 x = 3094
9

61. Which of the following is arccos (n)?


* UNDEFINED

62. A cyclic quadrilateral has the sides AB = 8 cm; and CD = 12 cm. The fourth side DA forms the diameter of the circle. Find the area of the circle.
* 316.68 sq. cm
14.42
Sol. By Pythagorean Theorem: hypotenuse2 = 82 + 122  hyp = 14.42  r = = 7.21
2
2 2
A = πr = π (7.21) = 163.31 sq.cm (2) = 326.62 sq.cm.

63. If tan 25 = m, find the value of tan (tan 155 - tan 115) / (1 + tan 115 x tan 155). (Note: all angles are in degrees).
* (1 - m2) / 2m
(𝑡𝑎𝑛155−𝑡𝑎𝑛115)
Sol. = tan (155 – 115)
(1+𝑡𝑎𝑛155+𝑡𝑎𝑛115)
Tan (155 – 115) = tan40
Using cofunction formula: tan40 = cot50
1 1
( )= 2𝑡𝑎𝑛25
𝑡𝑎𝑛50 ( )
1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 (25)
1−𝑡𝑎𝑛2 (25)
 (1 - m2) / 2m
2𝑡𝑎𝑛25

Basic Engineering Correlation (Solid Mensuration Reviewer)

1. It is a quadrilateral two and only two of whose sides are parallel


* trapezoid

2. Five pointed figure in a


* star

3. The volume of any cone is equal to


* 1/3 BH

4. It is a polyhedron whose six faces are all squares.


* Cube

5. What is the length of the diagonal of a cube of edge 7 cm


* 12.12 cm
Sol. diagonal of a cube = s √3 = 7 √3 = 12.12 cm

6. A section of a sphere when a plane passing through the center and diameter. Creating the largest section called
* great circle

7. Each of the faces of a regular hexahedron is a


* square

8. A cone and a cylinder have the same height and the same volume. Find the ratio of the radius of the cone to the radius of the cylinder.
* 1.732
Sol. hCONE = hCYLINDER; VCONE = VCYLINDER
1
VCONE = πr2 h; VCYLINDER = πr2 h
3
1
π rcone2 h = π rcylinder2 h
3
π rcone2 h = 3 π rcylinder2 h  cancel π and h
rCONE = √3 rCYLINDER
𝑟𝐶𝑂𝑁𝐸
= √3 = 1.732
𝑟𝐶𝑌𝐿𝐼𝑁𝐷𝐸𝑅

10. It is desired that the volume of the sphere be tripled. By how many times will the radius be increased?
* 31/3
4
Sol. V = π r3
3
4
4 [3𝜋 (𝑟𝑥)3 ]
3V = π (r x) 3  V =
3 3
4
4 [3𝜋 (𝑟𝑥)3 ]
3
πr =  cancel π r3
3 3
12 4𝑥 3 3
=  x3 = 3  x = √3 = 31/3
4 4

11. In Heron's formula, the symbol’s’ stands for


* (a + b + c)/2

12. Find the measure of the diagonal of a rectangular parallelepiped of dimensions 2 x 3 x 8.


* 0.07 (ANSWER SA BB)
Sol. diagonal of a rectangular parallelepiped = √𝑙2 + 𝑤 2 + ℎ2
d = √22 + 32 + 82 = √77 = 8.77 (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)

13. In a plane figure, diamond is also known as


* Rhombus

14. Find the weight of a snowball 1 ft. in diameter if the wet compact snow of which the ball is made weighs 25 lbs/ cu. ft.
* 13.09 lb.
4 4 1 3 𝜋
Sol. VSNOWBALL = π r3 = π ( ) =
3 3 2 6
𝜋 𝑙𝑏𝑠. 25𝜋
Weight = v x o = ft3 x 25 = = 13.09 lb.
6 𝑓𝑡.3 6
15. The area for a trapezoid is represented by
(𝑎+𝑏) ℎ
* bh 
2

16. An Egyptians pyramid of the Giza has a square base of edge 6miles. If its altitude is 15miles, determine the
* 180 cu.mi
1
Sol. V = b h where b = s2
3
1
V = (6)2 (15) = 180 cu.mi
3

17. The sum of the interior angles of a polygon is 540o. Find the number of sides.
*5
Sol. Sum of interior angles = 180⁰ (n – 2)
540⁰ = 180⁰ (n – 2)
540⁰ = 180⁰n - 360⁰
180⁰𝑛 900⁰
= n=5
180⁰ 180⁰

18. Prisms are named according to their?


* Bases

19. The approximate surface area of an ellipse is


* Fir2

20. It is desired that the volume of the sphere be tripled. By how many times will the radius be increased?
* 31/3
4
Sol. V = π r3
3
4
4 [3𝜋 (𝑟𝑥)3 ]
3V = π (r x) 3  V =
3 3
4
[3𝜋 (𝑟𝑥)3 ] 4
= π 𝑟 3  cancel π r3
3 3
4𝑥 3 12 3
=  x3 = 3  x = √3 = 31/3
4 4

21. The bounding cylindrical surface of a cylinder is called


* Lateral surface

22. It is the perpendicular distance between the two bases of a frustum of a cone.
* Altitude

23. Points on the same


* Collinear

24. What is the area, in inches2, of a parabola with a base if 15 cm and height of 20 cm.
* 200
2 2
Sol. A = (b h) = (15) (20) = 200
3 3

25. If a lateral area of a right circular cylinder is 88 cm3 and its volume is 220 cm3, find its radius.
* 5 cm
Sol. Lateral surface area = 2 π r h, V = π r2 h
2𝜋𝑟ℎ 88 44
= h=
2𝜋𝑟 2𝜋𝑟 𝜋𝑟
44
220 = π r2 ( )  cancel π r  220 = 44r
𝜋𝑟
r = 5 cm

26. A cone has a base area of 30in? and a lateral area which is 4.5 times bigger than the base area. The surface area of the cone in in' is
* 165
Sol. Surface area = Lateral surface area + Base area
SA = 4.5 (30) + 30 = 165

27. How many elements are needed in solving a truncated cylinder?


*2

28. It is a rectangle whose length is equal to its width


* Square

29. a solid bounded by a conical surface (lateral surface) whose directrix is a closed curve, and a plane (base) which cuts all the elements.
* Cone

30. The lateral area of a cylinder with a circumference of 50 cm and a height of 4 cm is


* 200 units
Sol. LSACYLINDER = 2 π r h, Circumference = 2 π r
LSACYLINDER = 200

31. What is the distance, in cm, between two vertices of a cube that are farthest from each other if an edge measures 8 cm?
* 13.86
Sol. d = s√3 = 8 √3 = 13.86

32. If the radius of the circle is decreased by 20%, by how much is the area decreased?
* 0.56 (ANSWER SA BBL)
Sol. A = π r2, new r = 1 – 20% = 0.8r
New A = π (0.8r) 2 = π (0.64r2)
𝜋 0.64𝑟 2
= 0.64. The decrease then is 100 – 64 = 0.36 (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)
𝜋 𝑟2

33. Find the volume a right circular cone to be obtained from a sector of radius 26 cm and whose central angle measure 138.5°?
*700 n (ANSWER SA BBL)
𝜋 3601𝜋
Sol. s = r ꝋ = 26 [138.50 𝑥 ]=
1800 180
But s = circumference of base of the cone
3601𝜋 3601
s=2πr =2πr r=
180 360
3601 2
h = √262 − 𝑟2 = √262 − ( ) = 24
360
1
V = π r2 h
3
1 3601 2
V= π( ) (24) = 800π (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)
3 360

34. A quarter circle has a radius of 8 units. What is its area?


* 16n sq. units
𝜋𝑟 2 𝜋(8)2
Sol. A = = = 16π sq. units = 16n sq. units
4 4

35. A prism whose lateral edges are perpendicular to its bases; its lateral faces are rectangles
* Right

36. A window glass is 5 ft. by 7 ft. What is its area?


* 35ft
Sol. A = b h = (6) (7) = 35ft

37. A regular hexagon pyramid has a slant height of 4 cm and the length of each side of the base is 6 cm. Find the lateral area.
* 72 cm
1 1
Sol. LA = Perimeter x slant height = P L
2 2
1
LA = (6) (6) (4) = 72 cm
2

38. A central angle of 45o subtends an arc 12 cm. What is the ratio of the circle?
* 15.28 cm
Sol. Formula Radius = arc length / central angle in rad
𝜋 𝜋
(450 𝑥 )=
1800 4
12𝑐𝑚
= 𝜋 = 15.28 cm
4

39. A portion of the prism included between the base and a plane not parallel to the base cutting all the edges.
* Truncated prism

40. It is a polyhedron having for bases two polygons in parallel planes and for lateral faces triangles or trapezoids
* Prismatoid

41. It is a part of a circle bounded by a chord and an arc.


* Segment

41. One of the diagonals of a rhombus is 25 units and its area is 75 units2. Determine the length of the side.
* 12.85 units
1
Sol. Area of rhombus = d1 d2
2
1
75 = (25) (d2)  d2 = 6
2
𝑑1 2 𝑑 2 25 2 6 2
b = √( ) + ( 22 ) = √( 2 ) + (2) = 12.85 units
2

42. It is a solid bounded by a closed surface every point of which is equidistant from a fixed point called the center.
* Sphere

43. The area of a circle is 89.42 in2. What is the length of the side of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle?
* 5.335 in.
Sol. A = π r2  89.42 = π r2  r = 5.335 in.

44. It is a solid which is bounded by planes


* Polyhedron

45. These are the intersections of the edges in a polyhedron


* Vertices

46. The area of the rhombus is 132 m2. If its shorter diagonal is 12 m, find the longer diagonal.
* 22 m
1 2𝐴 2 (132)
Sol. Area of rhombus = d1 d2  d2 = = = 22 m
2 𝑑1 12

47. A regular dodecagon is inscribed in a circle of radius 24. Find the perimeter of the dodecagon.
* 153.25 units (ANSWER SA BBL)
Sol. a = √(24)2 + (24)2 − 2(24)2 cos30⁰ = 12. 423
Perimeter = 12 a = 12 (12. 423) = 149.076 units (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)

48. Every section of a cone made by a plane passing through its vertex & containing two points of base is a
* Triangle

49. Water flows in a pipe 1/4 ft. in diameter and 24 ft. in length. What is the volume of the water in the pipe?
*3π/8 ft3
Sol. V = π r2 h
d = 0.25  r = 0.125, h = 24
0.25 2
V=π( ) (24) = 3π/8 ft3
2

50. Determine the volume of a right truncated triangular prism. The base has sides loft, 9ft and 12ft. The sides perpendicular to the base have the height of 8.6 ft., 7.1
ft., and 5.5 ft., respectively
* 311 ft3
Sol. V = B L, B = Area of the base
[8.6+7.1+5.5]
L = Sum of the length of sides/ # of sides = = 7.067
3
[10+9+12]
s= = 15.5
2
B = √15.5 (15.5 − 10) (15.5 − 9) (15.5 − 12) = 44.039
V = B L = (44.039) (7.067) = 311 ft3

51. A certain angle has a supplement 4 times its complement. What is the angle
* 60°
Sol. Let x = the angle
Let y = supplementary angle
Let z = complementary angle
x + y = 180, x + z = 90  x = 90 – z, y = 4z
(90 – Z) + 4z = 180
3𝑧 90
=  z = 30
3 3
x = 90 – z = 90 – 30 = 60°

52. A regular dodecagon is inscribed in a circle of radius 24. Find the perimeter of the dodecagon.
* 149.08 units
Sol. a = √(24)2 + (24)2 − 2(24)2 cos30⁰ = 12. 423
Perimeter = 12 a = 12 (12. 423) = 149.08 units

53. The lateral area of the right circular water tank is 92 cm2 and its volume is 342 m3. Determine its radius.
* 7.43 cm
Sol. LA = 2 π r h, V = π r2 h
ℎ 92
2πr πr= π r cancel  2 π r
2 2
46
h=
𝜋𝑟
46
V = π r2 h  342 = π r2 ( )  r = 7.43 cm
𝜋𝑟

54. The mean proportional between bases is


* 13. sort (b)

55. A metal washer 1-inch in diameter is pierced by a 1/2-inch hole. What is the volume of the washer if it is 1/8-inch thick?
* 0.074-inch
Sol. V = π r2 h = π h (r12 – r22)
1
V = π ( ) [0.52 – 0.252] = 0.074-inch
8

56. Two triangles have equal bases. The altitude of one triangle is 3 units more than its base while the altitude of the other is 3 units less than its base. Find the
altitudes if the areas of the triangles differ by 21 units2.
* 4 and 10
Sol. (x – 3) and (x + 3)
1 𝑥 𝑥
A = b h, D = (x + 3) – (x – 3)
2 2 2
2 [𝑥2 (𝑥 + 3) − 𝑥2 (𝑥 − 3)] = (21) 2
x (x + 3) – x (x – 3) = 42
x2 + 3x – x2 + 3x = 42  cancel x2
6𝑥 42
= x=7
6 6
(x – 3) = (7 – 3) = 4
(x + 3) = (7 + 3) = 10

57. A right circular cone has a base radius of 10 m. and an altitude of 20 m. Determine its volume.
* 666n
1 1
Sol. V = π r2 h = π (10)2 (200) = 666π
3 3

58. In plane geometry, two circular arcs that together make up a full circle are called?
* conjugate arcs

59. The volume of a water in a spherical tank having a diameter of 4 m is 5.236 m3. Determine the depth of the water in the tank.
* 1.0 m
1 1
Sol. V = π h2 (3r – h) = π h2 (3 (2) – h)
3 3
[(5.236) 3] [𝜋ℎ2 (6−ℎ)]
=
𝜋 𝜋
[(5.236) 3]
= – h + 6h23
𝜋
[(5.236) 3]
h3 – 6h2 = −  h3 – 6h2 = - 5
𝜋
h (h2 – 6h) = - 5  h = 5
h2 – 6h = -5  h2 – 6h + 5 = 0
(h – 5) (h – 1) = 0
h – 5 = 0, h – 1 = 0
h = 5 & h = 1.0 m

60. It is a polyhedron of which two faces are equal polygons in parallel planes and the other faces are parallelograms.
* Prism

61. A section of a sphere when a plane passing through the center and diameter. Creating the largest section called
* Great circle

62. The ratio of the volume of the two spheres is 27:343 and the sum of their radii is 10. Find the radius of the smaller sphere.
*3
4
27𝑉 𝜋𝑟1 3 4
Sol. = 34  cancel V and π
343𝑉 𝜋𝑟2 3 3
3
27 𝑟1 3𝑟 3 27
= 3  = ( 1)
343 𝑟2 343 𝑟2
3 27 𝑟1 3 𝑟1
√ =  =  3𝑟2 = 7𝑟1
343 𝑟2 7 𝑟2
3r2 = 7 (10 – r2)
10𝑟2 70
3r2 = 70 – 7r2  =
10 10
r2 = 7, 3r2 = 7r1  3 (7) = 7 (r1)  r1 = 3 (smaller radius)

63. Find the increase in volume of a spherical balloon when its radius is increased from 2 to 3 inches.
* 79.59 in3
4 4
Sol. VSPHERE = π r23 - π r13
3 3
4 4
VSPHERE = π (3)3 - π (2)3 = 79.59 in3
3 3

64. Which formula cannot be used to compute the area for a circle?
* Eld2/4

65. The circumference of a great circle of a sphere is 18 π. Find the volume of the sphere.
* 3053.6 units3
2𝜋𝑟 18𝜋
Sol. C = 18 π, =  cancel 2 π
2𝜋 2𝜋
4 4
r = 9, V = π r = π (9) = 3053.6 units3
3 3
3 3
66. Assuming that the earth is a sphere whose radius is 6400 km, find the distance along a 3o arc at the equator of the earth's surface.
* 335.10 km
𝜋
Sol. s = r ꝋ = 6400 (3 𝑥 0 ) = 335.10 km
180

67. Find the area, in cm2, of a regular octagon inscribed in a circle of radius 10 cm.
* 283
Sol. a = √102 + 102 − 2(10)2 𝑐𝑜𝑠45⁰ = 7.654
(10+10+7.654)
s= = 13.827
2
A = √13.827 (13.827 − 10)2 (13.827 − 7.654) = 35.35661
Total A = 8 (35.35661) = 282.85 ~ 283

68. The side of a triangle are 8 cm. 10 cm and 14 cm. Determine the radius of the inscribed circle.
* 2.45cm
𝐴 (8+10+14)
Sol. r = , s = = 16
𝑠 2
(√16 (16−8)(16−10)(16−14))
r= = √6 = 2.45cm
2

69. The side of a triangle are 8 cm. 10 cm and 14 cm. Determine the radius of the circumscribing circle.
* 7.14 cm
𝑎𝑏𝑐 (8+10+14)
Sol. r = ,s= = 16
4𝐴 2
A = √16 (16 − 8)(16 − 10)(16 − 14) = 16 √6
(8)(10)(14)
r= = 7.14 cm
4 (16√6)

70. The side of a right triangle are 8, 15 and 17 units. If each side is doubled, how many units2 will the area of the new rectangle?
* 240
Sol. (doubled sides = 16, 30, 34)
(16+30+34)
s= = 40
2
A = √40 (40 − 16)(40 − 30)(40 − 34) = 240

71. What is the volume of a frustum of a cone whose upper base is 15 cm in diameter and lower base is 10 cm in diameter with an altitude of 25 cm
* 3180.87 cm3 (ANSWER SA BBL)

Sol. V = (A1 + A2 +√𝐴1 𝐴2 ), d1 = 15cm  r1 = 7.5 cm, d2 = 10 cm r2 = 5 cm
3
225
A1 = πr12 = π (7.5)2 = π
4
A2 = πr22 2
= π (5) = 25π
25 225 225
V= ( 𝜋 + 25𝜋 + √( 𝜋) (25𝜋)) = 3108.87 cm3 (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)
3 4 4

72. A regular hexagonal pyramid has a slant height of 4 cm and the length of each side of the base is 6 cm. Find the lateral area.
* 72 cm2
1 1
Sol. LA = PL = (6) (6) (4) = 72 cm2
2 2

73. The area of the region bounded by two concentric circles is called?
* Annulus

74. A cone and a cylinder have the same height and the same volume. Find the ratio of the radius of the cone to the radius of the cylinder.
* 1.732
1
Sol. VCONE = π r12 h, VCYLINDER = π r22 h
3
1
π r12 h = π r22 h  cancel π h
3
𝑟1 2 3𝑟2 2 𝑟1 2
= ( ) =3
𝑟2 2 𝑟2 2 𝑟2
𝑟1
= √3 = 1.732
𝑟2

75. A piece of wire of length 50 m is cut into two parts. Each part is then bent to form square. It is found that the total area of the square is 100 m2. Find the
difference in length of the sides of the two squares.
* 6.62 m
Sol. x + y = 50  x = 50 – y
𝑥 2 𝑦 2
( ) + ( ) = 100
4 4
𝑥2 𝑦2
16 [
16
+ 16 ] = 100 (16)
x2 + y2 = 1600  (50 – y)2 + y2 = 1600
2500 – 100y + y2 + y2 = 1600
2y2 – 100y + 900 = 0  y2 – 50y + 450 = 0
y = 11.77, 38.23
When y = 11.77, x = 38.23
When y = 38.23, x = 11.77
38.23 11.77
– = 6.62 m
4 4

76. A rectangular octagon is inscribed in a circle of radius 10. Find the area of the octagon.
* 282.8 units
Sol. a = √102 + 102 − 2(10)2 𝑐𝑜𝑠45⁰ = 7.654
(10+10+7.654)
s= = 13.827
2
A = √13.827 (13.827 − 10)2 (13.827 − 7.654) = 35.35661
Total A = 35.35661 (8) = 282.8 units

77. A piece of wire is shaped to enclose a square whose area is 169 cm2. It is then reshaped to enclose a rectangle whose length is 15 cm. The area of the rectangle is?
* 165 cm2
Sol. A = s2  169 = s2  s = 13
P = 13 (4) = 52
[52−15(2)]
Side of rectangle = = 11
2
ARECTANGLE = 15 (11) = 165 cm2

78. The apothem of a polygon is the ______ of its inscribed circle.


* Radius

79. The lateral faces are equal isosceles trapezoids.


* Frustum of pyramid

80. The tangent and a secant are drawn to a circle from the same external point. If the tangent is 6 inches and the external segment of the secant is 3 inches, then the
length of the secant is ______ inches.
* 12
Sol. AC x CB = (CD) 2
(𝐶𝐷)2 (6)2
AC = = = 12
𝐶𝐵 3

81. Find the increase in volume of a spherical balloon when its radius is increased from 2 to 3 inches.
* 79.59 in
4 4
Sol. V = π r3 = π (32 – 22) = 79.59 in
3 3

82. The angle of a sector is 30o and the radius 15 cm. What is the area of the sector in cm2?
* 58.9
1 1 𝜋
Sol. A = r2 ꝋ = (15)2 ( ) = 58.9
2 2 6

83. A rectangle ABCD, which measures 18 cm by 24 cm, is folded once perpendicular to diagonal AC so that the opposite vertices A and C coincide. Find the length of
the fold.
* 22.5 cm
√𝑎4 +𝑎2 𝑏 2 √184 +(18)2 (24)2
Sol. L = = = 22.5 cm
𝑏 24

84. If an equilateral triangle is circumscribed about a circle of radius 10 cm, determine the side of the triangle?
* 34.64 cm
𝑠3 3
Sol. r =  4 √ s2 r = s3
3 4
√ 𝑠2 4
4
3
[4√4 𝑠 2 (10)]
𝑠3
=  cancel s2  s = 34.64 cm
𝑠2 𝑠2

85. If a regular polygon has 27 diagonals, then it is a?


* Nonagon
𝑛 [𝑛 (𝑛−3)]
Sol. D = (n – 3)  27 =
2 2
54 = n2 – 3n  n2 – 3n – 54
(n – 9) (n + 6) = 0
n = 9, n = -6  n= 9 (nonagon)

86. The volume of a sphere is 36 &#960 m3. The surface area of this sphere in m2 is?
* 36 π
4
Sol. VSPHERE = π r3
3
36𝜋 4 4
4 = π r3  cancel π  r = 3
𝜋 3 3
3
SA = 4 π r2 = 4 π (3)2 = 36 π

87. Polygons are classified according to the number of?


* Sides

88. One side of a regular octagon is 2. Find the area of the region inside the octagon.
* 19.3
1 1
Sol. sin22.5 –  x =  x = 2.61
𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛22.5
(2.61+2.61+2)
s= = 3.61
2
A = √3.61(3.61 − 2.61)2 (3.61 − 2) = 2.41
Total A = 8 (2.41) = 19.3

Basic Engineering Correlation (Analytic Geometry Reviewer)

1. The graph of the polar equation: r = 2cos0 is a


* Circle
Sol. Circles in polar are represented by the equation: r = ± acosꝋ & r = ± asinꝋ

2. Classify the conic represented by the equation x2 + 4xy + 5 y2 - x + 2y + 1 = 0


* ellipse
Sol. since x2 and y2 is (+) the equation is an ellipse

3. The graph of the polar equation: r = I l is


* A parabola

4. What is the slope of the line 4x-5y +6 = 0?


* 4/5
−5𝑦 (4𝑥−6)
Sol. 4x – 5y + 6 = 0  =  cancel -5
−5 −5
𝟒 6
y= x +  the slope is 4/5
𝟓 5
Note: y = mx + b, m as slope and b as y intercept

5. The point of intersection of the lines x — 2y+4 0 and —3x + y —2 =0 is


* (0, 2)
Sol. x – 2y + 4 = 0  x = 2y – 4
(2−𝑦) 1 2
- 3x + y – 2 = 0  x = = y–
−3 3 3
1
3[2y – 4] = [
3
𝑦 − 23] 3
5𝑦 10
6y – 12 = y – 2  = y=2
5 5
x = 2y – 4 = 2 (2) – 4 = 0

6. The conic given by the equation? +4xy+5y2 -x+ 2y+1 =0 is


* Hyperbola

7. Find the slope of a line having a parametric equation of y = 4t + 6 and x = t + 1.


*4
Sol. y = 4t + 6 and x = t + 1  t = x – 1
y = 4 (x – 1) + 6 = 4x – 4 + 6 = 4x + 2  that’s why the slope is 4

8. Find the equation of a straight line with a slope of 3 and a y-intercept of 1.


* 3x - y + 1
Sol. y = mx + b
y = 3x + 1  3x - y + 1

9. An equation of the line with x and y intercepts 7 and -7, respectively, is


*x-y-7=0
𝑥 𝑦
Sol. use intercept form + =1
𝑎 𝑏
𝑥 𝑦
a = 7, b = -7  7 [ + ] = (1) 7
7 −7
x–y=7x-y-7=0

10. The line joining the points (3, -1) and (-3, 2) has equation
* x + 2y – 1 = 0
Sol. (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)  (3, -1) and (-3, 2)
(𝑦2 −𝑦1 )
y – y1 = (x – x1)
(𝑥2 −𝑥1 )
(2−(−1))
y – (-1) = (x – 3)
(−3−3)
3
y+1= (x – 3)  2[y + 1] = [ −1
2
(𝑥 − 3)] 2
−6
2y + 2 = - (x – 3)
2y + 2 = - x + 3  x + 2y – 1 = 0

11. The set of all points in a plane such that the sum of the distances of a point from some fixed points on the plane is a constant is a/an
* Ellipse

12. The distance from the point (5, 2) to the line 8x - 6y +2 = 0 is


*3
(𝐴𝑥1 +𝐵𝑦1 +𝐶)
Sol. d =
± √𝐴2 +𝐵2
8x – 6y + 2; (5, 2)
(8 (5)+(−12)+2)
d= =3
√(8)2 +(−6)2

13. If (3,-5) is the midpoint of (-1,-3) and (x, y), then the values of x and y are
* x = 7, y = -7
(−1+𝑥)
Sol. = 3  -1 + x = 6  x = 7
2
(−3+𝑦)
= -5  -3 + y = -10  y = -7
2

14. The distance between the given lines 3x + 2y —2 =0 and 3x +2y-6 =0 is


* 1.12
Sol. 3x + 2y - 2 = 0
3x +2y - 6 = 0
2𝑦 (−3𝑥+6)
=
2 2
−3
y= x + 3  (0, 3)
2
Distance of 3x + 2y - 2 = 0 to (0, 3)
d = (3 (0) + 2 (3) – 2)/ √32 +22 = 1.12

15. The major axis of the elliptical path in which the earth moves around the sun is approximately 186,000,000 miles and the eccentricity of the ellipse is 1/60.
Determine the apogee of the earth.
* 94,550,000 miles
𝑚𝑎𝑗𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠 186000000 186000000 1 186000000
Apogee = ( )e + ( )=( )( )+( )
2 2 2 60 2
Apogee = 94,550,000 miles

16. A line 4x + 2y -2 = 0 is coincident with the line


* 8x + 4y – 4
Sol. Coincident are two lines/shapes that lie exactly on top of each other
4x + 2y -2 = 0 when multiplied by 2  8x + 4y – 4 = 0
2 2
17. The length of the semi-transverse axis of the graph of 𝑥 9 − 𝑦 4 = 1 is
*2
𝑥2 𝑦2
Sol. - =1
9 4
𝑥2 𝑦2
Standard equation of hyperbola: - =1
𝑎2 𝑏2
a2 = 9, a = 3; b2 = 4, b = 2

18. The equation of the line through (1, 2) and perpendicular to 6x - y +5 =0 is


* x + 6y – 13 = 0
Sol. (1, 2) is perpendicular to 6x – y + 5 = 0  y = 6x + 5  m2 = 6
(𝑚1 (6)) 1 1
m1m2 = -1  = −  m1 = −
6 6 6
y – y1 = m (x – x1)  6 [y – 2] = [− 16 (𝑥 − 1)] 6
6y – 12 = – x + 1  x + 6y – 13 = 0

19. If the distance between the points (h, 2) and (0, 4) is 2 then the value of h is
*0
Sol. (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)  (h, 2) and (0, 4)
Vertical. distance = 4 – 2 = 2
So h must be 0 to keep the distance 2
Horizontal distance = h – 0 = 0

20. The length of the latus rectum for the ellipse 16x2 + 25y2 = 400 is equal to1
* 6.4
16𝑥 2 +25𝑦 2 400 𝑥2 𝑦2
Sol. =  + =1
400 400 25 16
2𝑏 2 2 (16)
Latus rectum = = = 6.4
𝑎 5
21. The graph of the polar equation: r = 2 + 2cos9 is a
* Cardioid
𝑎
Sol. Note: equation for cardioid is r = a ± b cosꝋ and r = a ± b sinꝋ where =1
𝑏

22. Find the angle formed by the lines 2x + y — 8 = 0 and x + 3y + 4 = 0


* 45°
3𝑦 𝑥−4 1
Sol. x + 3y + 4 = 0  = y=−
3
𝑥 − 43  m1 = − 13
3 3
2x + y – 8 = 0  y = -2x + 8  m2 = -2
1
𝑚1 +𝑚2 (− )+(−2)
ꝋ = tan ( ) = tan—[ 3 1 ] = 45°
1−𝑚1 𝑚2 1−(− )(−2) 3

23. The equation of a line that intercepts the x-axis at x = 4 and the y-axis at y = -6 is,
* 3x - 2y
Sol. (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)  (4, 0) and (0, -6)
𝑦2 −𝑦1 −6−0
y – y1 = (𝑥 − 𝑥1 )  y – 0 = (x - 4)
𝑥2 −𝑥1 0−4
2 (y) = [32 (𝑥 − 4)] 2
2y = 3x – 12  3x – 2y – 12 = 0

24. Find the distance between the lines 3x + y - 12 = 0 and 3x + y - 4 = 0


* letter d.) 8/the square root of 10
Sol. 3x + y – 12 = 0
3x + y – 4 = 0  y = - 3x + 4  (0, 4)
Distance between (0, 4) and 3x + y – 12 = 0
𝐴𝑥1 +𝐵𝑦1 +𝐶 3 (0)+1 (4) +(−12) 𝟖
d= = = = 2.53
± √𝐴2 +𝐵2 − √32 +12 √𝟏𝟎

25. Find the polar coordinate of the point (-3, A/3)


* (012, 150°)
2
Sol. (-3,√3)  r = √(√3) + (−3)2 = √3 + 9 = √𝟏𝟐
√3
ꝋR = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( ) = -30⁰
−3
Since ꝋ is in QII  ꝋ = 180 + ꝋR = 180⁰ – 30⁰ = 150°

26. To simplify the equation x2 + 4y2 + 6x +16y + 21= 0 by translation of axes, the origin must be moved to
* (-3, -2)
Sol. x2 + 4y2 + 6x + 16y + 21 = 0
(x2 + 6x + 9) + 4y2 + 16y = -21
(x + 3)2 + 4 (y2 + 4y + 4) = -21 + 9 + 16
(𝑥+3)2 4 (𝑦+2)2 4
+ =
4 4 4
(𝑥+3)2 (𝑦+2)2
+ = 1  (h, k) = (-3, -2)
4 1

27. Given the equation of the parabola x2 = 4y – 20. Locate its vertex.
* (0, 5)
Sol. x2 = 4y – 20
(x – h)2 = 4p (y – k)  V at (h, k)
x2 = 4 (y – 5)  h = 0, k = 5
V = (0, 5)

28. Find the equation of a straight line with a slope of 1/2 and y-intercept 3.
* x - 2y + 6 = 0
1
Sol. m = , b = 3 y = mx + b  2 [y] = [12 𝑥 + 3] 2
2
2y = x + 6  x - 2y + 6 = 0

29. Determine the coordinates of the point which is two-fifths of the way from the point (1, -5) to the point (6,10)
* (3, 1)
Sol. Division of a line segment
x = x1 + r (x2 – x1)
y = y1 + r (y2 – y1)
2
(x1, y1) as (1, -5); (x2, y2) as (6, 10); r =
5
2
x=1+ (6 – 1) = 3
5
2
y = -5 + (10 – (-5)) = 1
5
(x, y) = (3, 1)

30. Find the area of the circle whose equation is x2 + y2 = 6x - 8y.


* 25 &
Sol. x2 + y2 = 6x – 8y
x2 – 6x + y2 + 8y = 0
(x2 – 6x + 9) + (y2 + 8y + 16) = 0 + 9 + 16
(x - 3)2 + (y + 4)2 = 25
r = 5, A = πr2 = π (5)2 = 25π

31. How far from the y-axis is the center of the curve 2x2 +2y2 + 10x - 6y - 55 = 0?
* -2.5
Sol. 2x2 + 2y2 + 10x – 6y – 55 = 0
2x2 + 10x + 2y2 – 6y = 55
25 9 25 9
2 (𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + ) + 2 (𝑦 2 − 3𝑦 + ) = 55 + +
4 4 2 2
5 2 3 2
2 (𝑥 + ) + 2 (𝑦 − ) = 72
2 2
𝟓 3
V (h, k) = (− , )  Distance from y = -2.5
𝟐 2

32. Which of the following lines is parallel to the line 6x — 4y = 7?


* 3x - 2y = 15
Sol. 6x – 4y = 7
−4𝑦 −6𝑥+7 𝟑 7 3
= y= x-  m1 =
−4 −4 𝟐 4 2
3x – 2y = 15
−2𝑦 −3𝑥+15 𝟑 15 3
= y= x-  m2 =
−2 −2 𝟐 2 2
Therefore 3x – 2y = 15

33. The slope of the line passing through (-2,2) and (3,12).
*2
Sol. (x1, y1) as (-2, 2) and (x2, y2) as (3, 12)
𝑦2 −𝑦1 12−2 10
m= = = =2
𝑥2 −𝑥1 3−(−2) 5

34. A line 4x + 2y -2 = 0 is coincident with the line


* 8x + 4y - 4
Sol. (4x + 2y -2) 2 coincide with 8x + 4y - 4

35. The parabolic antenna has an equation of y2 + 8x = 0. Determine the length of the latus rectum.
*8
Sol. Latus rectum = 8; y2 = -8x

36. 14. A line through (-5, 2) and (1, -4) is perpendicular to the line through (x, -7) and (8, 7). Find x.
*-4
𝑦2 −𝑦1
Sol. m1 =  (x1, y1) as (-5, 2); (x2, y2) as (1, -4)
𝑥2 −𝑥1
−4−2 −6
m1 = = = -1
1−(−5) 6
𝑦2 −𝑦1 7−(−7)
1= =  (x1, y1) as (x, -7); (x2, y2) as (8, 7)
𝑥2 −𝑥1 8−𝑥
8 – x = 14  x = 8 – 14 = - 6

37. Find the eccentricity of the curve 9x2 - 4y2 - 36x + 8y = 4


* 1.8
Sol. 9x2 – 4y2 – 36x + 8y = 4
9x2 – 36x – 4y2 + 8y = 4
9 (x2 – 4x + 4) – 4 (y2 + 2y + 1) = 4 + 36 – 4
9 (𝑥−2)2 −4(𝑦+1)2 36
=
36 36
(𝑥−2)2 (𝑦+1)2
- =1
4 9
√𝑎2 +𝑏 2 √4+9
e= = = 1.8
𝑎 2

38. If the points (0,0), (2, 0), and (1, k) are vertices of an equilateral triangle then a value of k is
* 2 (ANSWER SA BBL)
Sol. *memorize figure*
Distance between (0, 0) (2, 0)
d = √(2 − 0)2 + (0 − 0)2 = 2
Distance between (0, 0) (1, k)
d = √(1 − 0)2 + (𝑘 − 0)2
2 = √12 + 𝑘 2  22 = 12 + k2
k2 = 22 – 12 = 3  k = ± √𝟑 (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)

39. Find the inclination of the line passing through (-5, 3) and (10, 7).
* 14.93
𝑦2 − 𝑦1 7−3 4
Sol. m = = =
𝑥2 −𝑥1 10−(−5) 15
4
ꝋ = tan-1 ( ) = 14.93
15

40. What is the equation of the line that passes thru (4, 0) and is parallel to the line x - y - 2 = 0
*x-y-4
Sol. x – y – 2 = 0  y = x – 2; m = 1
(4, 0); m = 1
y – y1 = m (x – x1)
y – 0 = 1 (x – 4)  y = x – 4
x–y–4=0

41. What are the coordinates of the center of the curve x2 + y2 - 2x - 4y - 31 = 0


* (1, 2)
Sol. x2 + y2 – 2x – 4y – 31 = 0
x2 – 2x + y2 – 4y = 31
(x2 – 2x + 1) + (y2 – 4y + 4) = 31 + 1 + 4
(x – 1)2 + (y – 2)2 = 36
V (h, k) = (1, 2)

42. If a line through (-5, 2) and (1, -4) is parallel to the line through (x, -7) and (8, 7) then x =
* 22
𝑦2 −𝑦1 −4−2 −6
Sol. m = = = = -1
𝑥2 −𝑥1 1−(−5) 6
𝑦2 −𝑦1 7−(−7)
m=  -1 =
𝑥2 −𝑥1 8−𝑥
-8 + x = 14  x = 22

43. Find the distance between the given lines 4x - 3y = 23 and 4x - 3y = -7


*6
Sol. 4x – 3y = 23
−3𝑦 −4𝑥+23 4 23
= y= x-
−3 −3 3 3
23
(0, − ) & 4x – 3y = - 7
3
23
𝐴𝑥1 +𝐵𝑦1 +𝐶 4 (0)+(−3)(− )+7 3
d= = =6
± √𝐴2 +𝐵2 √4 2 +(−3)2

44. The equation of the directrix of the parabola y2 = 20x is


* x = -5
Sol. y2 = 20x; Note* y2 = 4px
Directrix: x = - p
y2 = 4 (5) x
Directrix: x = - 5

45. The center of a circle is at (1, 1) and one point on its circumference is (-1, -3). Find the other end of the diameter through ( -1, -3).
* (3, 5)
Sol. (x1, y1) as (-1, -3); (x2, y2) as (1, 1)
H. D. = 1 – (-1) = 2
V. D. = 1 – (-3) = 4
@ (x, y) (1, 1)
x = 1 + H. D. = 1 + 2 = 3
y = 1 + V. D. = 1 + 4 = 5

46. Two vertices of a triangle are (2, 4) and (-2, 3) and the area is 2 square units, the locus of the third vertex is
* x - 4y = -10
Sol. (x1, y1) as (2, 4); (x2, y2) as (-2, 3)
A = 2 sq. units
*memorize matrix*
4 = [6 + 4x – 2y] – [3x + 2y – 8]
4 = 6 + 4x – 2y – 3x – 2y + 8
4 = x – 4y + 14  x - 4y = -10

47. The focus of parabola y2 = 16x is at:


* (4, 0)
Sol. y2 = 16x  y2 = 4 (4) x  p = 4  (4, 0)

48. The diameter of a circle described by 9x2 + 9y2 = 16 is


* 𝟒 (ANSWER SA BBL)
9𝑥 2 +9𝑦 2 16
Sol. =
9 9
16 16 16
x2 + y2 =  r2 = r=√
9 9 9
4 4 𝟖
r = ; d = 2r = 2 ( ) = (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)
3 3 𝟑

49. Find the distance between the points A (4, 7) and B (-1, -5).
* 13
Sol. d = √(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )2 + (𝑦2 − 𝑦1 )2 = √(−1 − 4)2 + (−5 − 7)2 = 13

50. The equation 25x2 + 16y2 - 150x + 128y + 81 = 0 has its center at
* (3, -4)
Sol. 25x2 – 150x + 16y2 + 128y + 81 = 0
25 (x2 – 6x + 9) + 16 (y2 + 8y + 16) = -81
25 (x – 3)2 + 16 (y + 4)2 = -81
C (h, k) = (3, -4)

51. Find the equation of the line where x-intercept is 2 and y-intercept is -2.
*x-y-2
𝑥 𝑦
Sol. + =1
𝑎 𝑏
𝑥 𝑦
2[ + ] = [1] 2
2 −2
x–y=2x–y–2=0

52. Find the inclination of the line passing through (-2,4) and (2,7)
* 36.87
Sol. (x1, y1) as (-2, 4); (x2, y2) as (2, 7)
7− 4 3
m= =
2−(−2) 4
3
CALCU [DEG] ꝋ = tan-1 ( ) = 36.87
4

53. A horizontal line has a slope of


* Zero

54. To simplify the equation x2 + 4y2 + 6x +16y+ 21= 0 by translation of axes, the origin must be moved to
* (-3, -2)
Sol. x2 + 4y2 + 6x + 16y + 21 = 0
x2 + 6x + 4y2 + 16y = - 21
(x2 + 6x + 9) + 4 (y2 + 4y + 4) = -21 + 9 + 16
(x + 3)2 + 4 (y + 2)2 = 4
C (h, k) = (-3, -2)

55. Find the eccentricity of the curve 9x2 –16y2 –144 = 0


* 1.25
9𝑥 2 −16𝑦 2 144
Sol. =
144 144
𝑥2 𝑦2
- =1
16 9
√𝑎2 +𝑏 2 √16+9
e= = = 1.25
𝑎 4

56. Find the eccentricity of the curve 9x2 —16y2 —144= 0


* 1.25
9𝑥 2 −16𝑦 2 144
Sol. =
144 144
𝑥2 𝑦2
- =1
16 9
√𝑎2 +𝑏 2 √16+9
e= = = 1.25
𝑎 4

57. In the equation y = x2 + x + 1, where is the curve facing?


* Downward

58. Find the acute angle of rotation such that the transformed equation of 6x2 +31y + 4y2 + x y = 0 will have no x' y' term.
* 53.13°
Sol. 6x2 + xy + 4y2 + 31y = 0
𝐵 1
tan2ꝋ = =
𝐴−𝐶 6−4
1
2ꝋ 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 (2)
=  ꝋ = 13.28
2 2

59. The equation of the line through (1, 2) and perpendicular to 6x + y — 4 = 0 is


* x - 6y + 11 = 0
Sol. 6x + y – 4 = 0  y = -6x + 4, m1 = -6
1
m2 = ; (1, 2)
6
6 [y – 2] = [16 (𝑥 − 1)] 6
6y – 12 = x – 1  x - 6y + 11 = 0

60. The equation of the line with a slope 47 and y-intercept -2 is


* 4x – 5y – 20 = 0
4
Sol. m = *y = mx + b
5
5 [y] = [45 𝑥 − 4] 5
5y = 4x – 20  4x – 5y – 20 = 0

61. The polar equation r = 1 when transformed into a rectangular equation is cos° —4sin
* x – 4y = 1
Sol. r = 1, x = cosꝋ, y = sinꝋ
cosꝋ - 4sinꝋ = r
x – 4y = 1

62. Given three vertices of a triangle whose vertices are A (1, 1), B (3, -3) and (5, -3). Find the area of the triangle.
* 4 sq. units
Sol. *memorize the matrix*
1
A= [-3 + 5 – 9] – [-15 – 3 + 3]
2
1 1
A= [-7 + 15] = (8) = 4 sq. units
2 2

63. A line with slope equal to — 2 has an inclination of


*116.57°
Sol. ꝋL = tan-1 (m) = tan-1 (-2) = - 63.43⁰
ꝋ = 180⁰ + ꝋL = 180⁰ + (-63.43⁰) = 116.57°

64. What is the distance between the centers of the circle x2 + y2 + 2x + 4y - 3 = 0 and x2 + y2 - 8x - 6y + 7 = 0?
* 7.07
Sol. x2 + y2 + 2x + 4y – 3 = 0
(x2 + 2x + 1) + (y2 + 4y + 4) = 3
(x + 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 3  C = (-1, -2)
x2 + y2 – 8x - 6y + 7 = 0
(x2 – 8x + 16) + (y2 – 6y + 9) = -7
(x – 4)2 + (x – 3)2 = -7  C = (4, 3)
d = √(4 − −1)2 + (3 − −2)2 = 7.07

65. The area of hexagon ABCDEF formed by joining the points A (1, 4), B (0, -3), C (2, 3), D (-1, 2), E (-2, -1) and F (3, 0) is _________ square units.
* 20
Sol. *memorize the matrix*
1 1
A= [(2 + 1 + 6 + 9 + 8) – (-4 – 4 – 9 + 0 + 3)] = (40)
2 2
A = 20

66. Determine B such that 3x + 2y -7 = 0 is perpendicular to 2x - By + 2 = 0.


*3
Sol. 3x + 2y – 7 = 0
2𝑦 −3𝑥+7 3 7 3
= y=− x+
2
getting m1 = −
2
2 2 2
𝐵𝑦 2𝑥+2 2𝑥 2 2
2x – By + 2 = 0  = y= + getting m2 =
𝐵 𝐵 𝐵 𝐵 𝐵
1 2 1
Since perpendicular: m2 = −
𝑚1
 =− 3
𝐵 −
2

2 2 2𝐵 6
=  = B=3
𝐵 3 2 2

67. Find the distance between the A (4, -3) and B (-2, 5).
* 10
Sol. d = √(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )2 + (𝑦2 − 𝑦1 )2 = √(−2 − 4)2 + (5 − (−3))2 = 10

68. The equation of a line that intercepts the x-axis at x = 5 and the y-axis at y = -4 is
* 88x – 10y = 40 (ANSWER SA BBL)
𝑥 𝑦
Sol. + =1
𝑎 𝑏
𝑥 𝑦
20 [5 + −4] = [1] 20
4x – 5y = 20  8x – 10y = 40 (ANSWER SA SOLUTION)

69. Find the value of k for which the equation x2 + y2 + 4x - 2y - k = 0 represents a point circle.
* -5
Sol. x2 + y2 + 4x – 2y – k = 0
x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 – 2y + 1 = k
(x + 2)2 + (y – 1)2 = k + 4 + 1
k + 5 = 0  k = -5

70. What is the length of the latus rectum of the curve x2 = 20y
*20
Sol. x2 = 20y, Note: x2 = 4py
Latus rectum = 4p  L.R = 20

71. Find the acute angle of rotation such that the transformed equation of 6x2 + 3xy+ 4y2 +x-y =0 will have no x' y' term.
* 28.15°
𝐵 3
Sol. tan2ꝋ = =
𝐴−𝐶 6−4
3
2ꝋ 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( )
2
=  ꝋ = 28.15⁰
2 2

72. Find the coordinates of the point P (2, 4) with respect to the translated axis with origin at (1,3).
* (1, 1)
Sol. *study quadrants of points*

73. Determine the equation of the circle whose radius is 5, center on the line x = 2 and tangent to the line 3x - 4y + 11 = 0.
* (x - 2) 2 + (y + 2) 2 = 25
Sol. r = ± 5
Equation 1: 3x – 4y + 11 + 25 = 0
3x – 4y + 36 = 0
Equation 2: 3x – 4y + 11 – 25 = 0
3x – 4y – 14 = 0
Equation of Circle: (x – 2)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25

74. The equation x2 + y2 - 8x – 2y + 1 = 0 describes


* An ellipse centered at (4, 1)

75. Find the equation of a circle whose center is at (3, -5) and whose radius is 4.
* (x - 3) 2 + (y + 5) 2
Sol. (h, k) = (3, - 5); r = 4
(x – 3)2 + (y + 5)2 = 42
(x – 3)2 + (y + 5)2 = 16

76. The line passing through the focus and is perpendicular to the directrix of the parabola.
* Axis of the parabola

77. What is the equation of the line joining the points (3, -2) and (-7, 6)?
* 4x + 5y – 0
𝑦2 −𝑦1
Sol. y – y1 = (x – x1)
𝑥2 −𝑥1
6−(−2)
y – (-2) = (x – 3)
−7−3
5 [y + 2] = [− 45 (𝑥 − 3)] 5
5y + 10 = - 4x + 12  4x + 5y – 2 = 0

78. The angle formed by the lines y = -2x +8 and y =1x- -4 is


* 45°

79. In general quadratic equation, if the discriminant is zero, the curve is a figure that represents a/an _______.
* Parabola

80. The directrix of a parabola is the line y = 5 and its focus is at the point (4, -3). What is the length of the latus rectum?
* 12
Latus rectum = 4p

81. A line, which is perpendicular to the x-axis, has a slope to


* Infinity

82. A line passes thru (1, -3) and (-4, 2). Write the equation of the line in slope-intercept form.
*y–x–2
𝑦2 −𝑦1
Sol. y – y1 = (x – x1)
𝑥2 −𝑥1
2−(−3)
y – (-3) = (x – 1)
−4−1
y + 3 = -1 (x – 1)
y + 3 = -x + 1
y+x+2=0
y=-x–2
83. The line segment connecting (x, 6) and (9, y) is bisected by the point (7, 3). Find the values of x and y.
* 5, 0
Sol. (x, 6) (7, 3) (9, y)
H. D. = 9 – 7 = 2
H. D. = 7 – x = 2  x = 5
V. D. = 6 – 3 = 3
V. D. = 3 – y = 3  y = 0

84. Determine the coordinates of the point which is three-fifths of the way from the point (2, -5) to the point (-3, 5).
* (-1, 1)
3
Sol. x = x1 + r (x2 – x1); r =
5
y = y1 + r (y2 – y1)
3
x=2+ (-3 – 2) = -1
5
3
y = -5 + (5 + 5) = 1
5

85. Which of the following points lie on the fourth quadrant?


* (-4, 27r13)
Sol. Q IV – (+, -)  (5, -77r16)

86. The midpoint of the line segment between P1(x1, y1) and p2(-2, 4) is P (2, -1). Find the coordinates of P1.
* (6, -6)
Sol. (x1, y1) as (-2, 4); M = (2, -1)
H. D. = (2 – (-2)) = 4
V. D. = (-1 – 4) = -5
x1 = 2 + 4 = 6
y1 = -5 + -1 = -6

87. A locus of a point which moves so that it is always equidistant from a fixed point (focus) to a fixed line (directrix) is a _______.
* Parabola

88. A parabola having a span of 30m and a height of 20m has an area of
* 400
2 2
Sol. A = bh= (30) (20) = 400
3 3

89. An equation of the line that is parallel to 3x-6y = -1 and passes through the point (2, 2) is
* x – 2y + 2 =0
Sol. 3x – 6y = -1
−6𝑦 −3𝑥−1 1 1
= y= x+
6
−6 −6 2
1
m = ; (2, 2)
2
2 [y – 2] = [12 (𝑥 − 2)] 2
2y – 4 = x – 2  x – 2y + 2 = 0

90. If the product of the slope of any two straight line is negative 1, one of these lines are said to be
* Perpendicular

91. Find the slope of the line defined by y - x = 5.


*1
Sol. y – x = 5  y = x + 5  m = 1

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS:
1. A pump discharging nine (9) GPM requires thirty six (36) hours to fill tank with water. If the pump is replaced by one that will discharge sixteen (16) GPM, how long
will it take to fill the tank?
*20.25 hr.

3. The time required for an elevator to lift a weight varies directly with the weight and the distance through which it is to be lifted and inversely as the power of the
motor. If it takes 30 seconds for a 10 hp motor to lift 100 lb through 50 ft, what size the motor is required to lift 800 lb in 40 seconds through 40 feet
*48 hp
Sol. Let t = time, w = weight, d = distance, p = power
𝑘𝑤𝑑 𝑘 (100)(50)
t=  30 =  k = 0.06
𝑝 10
𝑘𝑤𝑑 (0.06)(800)(40)
t=  40 =  p = 48 hp
𝑝 𝑝

4. The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 11. If the digits are reversed, the resulting number is seven more than twice the original number. What is the original
number?
*38
Sol. Let x = tens number, Let y = units number
x + y = 11 – eq.1
xy  10x + y
Reverse to yx  10y + x
10y + x = 2 (10x + y) + 7
10y + x = 20x + 2y + 7
8y – 19x = 7 –eq.2
Multiply eq.1 by 8  8 (x + y = 11)  8x + 8y = 88  rearrange to 8y + 8x = 88
Subtract 8y + 8x = 88 and 8y – 19x = 7 getting 27x = 81  x = 3
x + y = 11  3 + y = 11  y = 8
Therefore the number is 38

5. Find the value of x that will satisfy the following expression: square root of x - 2 = square root of x + 2.
*none of these

6. Find the exact value of sin 22. 5 cos 22.5


*sin45/2
Sol. sin 22. 5 cos 22.5 = 0.35355...
Sin45/2 = 0.35355

7. If (2 log x to the base 4) - (log 9 to the base 4) =2, find x.


*12
Sol. 2log4 (x) – log4 (9) = 2
x = 12

9. If 3x = 9y and 27y = 81z, find z/x.


* 3/8
Sol. Sol. 3x = 9y  ln3x = ln9y  xln3 = yln9
𝑙𝑛81
𝑥𝑙𝑛3 [(𝑙𝑛27 𝑧) 𝑙𝑛9]
=  cancel ln3
𝑧𝑙𝑛3 𝑧𝑙𝑛3
𝑧 𝑙𝑛27 𝑙𝑛3
= = 3/8
𝑥 𝑙𝑛81 𝑙𝑛9

10. A corner lot of land is 35 m on one street and 25 m on the other street, the angle between the two lines of the street being 82°25'. The other two lines of the lot
are respectively perpendicular to the lines of the streets. What is the worth of the lot at P 180 per sq. m?
*P139, 270.00

11. The equation x2 +y2 - 4x+ 6y -6 = 0 describes


*a circle of radius 13 centered at (2, -3)

12. The conic given by the equation? +4xy+5y2 -x+ 2y+1 =0 is


*ellipse

13. It is the set of all points in a plane such that the sum of the distances of a point from fixed points on the plane is constant.
*ellipse

14. Find the values of x in the equation 24x² + 5x - 1 = 0.


*(1/8, -1/3)
Sol. CALCU METHOD: MODE 5: EQN 3 INPUT VALUES GETTING x = 1/8, x = -1/3

15. A man travels in a motorized banca at the rate of 15 kph from his barrio to the poblacion and come back to his barrio at the rate of 12 kph. If his total time of
travel back and forth is 3 hours, the distance from the barrio to the poblacion is
*20 km
𝐷 𝑥 𝑥
Sol. D = rt  =t + =3
𝑟 15 12
Multiplying both sides with 60 we get 4x + 5x = 180
9x = 180  x = 20 km

16. Solve for the value of "a" in the equation a8 - 17a4 + 16 = 0


*±2
Sol. Let x = a4 and x2 = a8  x2 – 17x + 16 = 0
17±√172 −4(1)(16) 17±15
Using quadratic formula: x = =
2 2
Thus, x1 = 1, a4 = 1, a = ±1
x2 = 16, a4 = 16, a = ±2

17. The equation x2 + y1 -8x 2y + 1 = 0 describes


*an ellipse centered at (4,1)

18. If one third of the air in a yank is removed by each stroke of an air pump, what fractional part of the total air is removed in 6 strokes?
*0.9122