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St.

Scholasticas College Tacloban

Maharlika Highway, Brgy. Campetic, Palo, Leyte

School Year 2019-2020

BASIC EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

“Influence of Social Media on the Knowledge and Attitude of Mothers toward Polio
Immunization in (Barangay), Sagkahan, Tacloban City”

In partial fulfilment in Practical Research 2

Celis, Amor C.
Gargantilla, Jeliane M.
Pagay, Mary Therese S.
Villones, Salvacion Lorelie N.

2019

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CHAPTER 1

Background and Rationale

Children benefit a passive immunity that is passed on from their mothers in the form

of an antibody known as Colostrum; the first form of milk produced during the last few months

of pregnancy which promotes growth, health and immunity. However once the antibody decrease

in number children lose passive immunity (oseph, 2019). Hence, the American Academy of

Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that kids get combination immunization vaccines to combat

diseases such as chickenpox (varicella), Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Measles, Mumps,

Poliomyelitis and many more. In addition, the World Health Organization emphasizes that

immunization is a proven tool in controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases

and is estimated to avert between 2 to 3 million deaths each year.

Currently, the Department of Health, declared an outbreak of Poliomyelitis with two

cases caused by vaccine-derived poliovirus. Poliomyelitis affects the central nervous system of

an infected person and is transmitted from one person to another through the faecal-oral route, or

in a common vehicle (contaminated food and water) and multiples in the intestine. However, due

to the controversy of the immunization of Dengvaxia vaccine that begun in November 2017

which has caused the deaths of 600 people composed mostly of children, made parents become

hesitant to have their kids vaccinated. Moreover, social media platforms also increase

misperception of information regarding immunization beset by dissemination of fake news

(Flores, 2018). Researches shows that the Internet fuels controversial issues related to

vaccination and durably influence public opinion (Lepitit, 2016) and hence promote anti-

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vaccination misinformation since unsubstantiated safety concerns presented as scientific

information are readily available on the internet(Hoffman,2019).

Vaccine hesitancy is a growing and threatening trend, increasing the risk of disease

outbreak and defeating Health Authorities’ Strategies especially to non-curable diseases. This

triggered the group to conduct a research regarding the Influence of Social Media on the

Knowledge and Attitude of Mothers toward Polio Immunization.

Statement of the Problem

The general objective of the study is to determine the Influence of Social Media on the

Knowledge and Attitude of Mothers toward Polio Immunization in (Barangay), Sagkahan,

Tacloban City.

Specifically, this study aims to:

1. Determine the demographic profile of the mothers in ( Barangay), Sagkahan, Tacloban

City in terms of:

a) Age

b) Highest Educational Attainment

c) Occupation

d) Religion

e) Age of Child

2. Determine the medium used by the respondents to gather information.

3. Determine the level of awareness toward Polio and Polio immunization of mothers in

(Barangay), Sagkahan, Tacloban City.

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Statement of the Hypothesis

Null Hypotheses (Ho):

1. The influence of social media will not cause any effect toward mothers’ attitude on Polio

Immunization among their respective children.

2. There will be no significant difference between mothers who use social media as a

source of information and mothers who do not have any social media accounts.

3. There is no correlation between the influence of social media and mothers’ attitude on

Polio Immunization.

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Conceptual Framework

Influence of Social Media on the


The researchers used the cross-
Knowledge and Attitude of Mothers
sectional survey in gathering the
toward Polio Immunization in
data.
(Barangay), Sagkahan, Tacloban City

Demographic profile of the respondents:

a. Age
Respondent’s source/s of information b. Highest Educational Attainment
c. Occupation
d. Religion
e. Age of the child

Social Media Peers

Knowledge and Attitude of Mothers’ toward


Polio Immunization

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Significance of the Study

This research will benefit the following;

Health Science Divisions

The research is pivoted on providing factual data which aims to help the public by

contributing on public health. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST), which is

the country’s national agent of scientific researches and the Department of Health (DOH) would

be the firsthand science sectors that could utilize the entailing results for further intervention

and developments.

Medical Degree Programs

This study is actually geared on different kinds of fact finding having to utilize different.

It will then benefit the programs of Nursing Department. Nursing is a college medical program

which specializes in the field of public health. The research’s approaches are in line with the

field’s professional practices.

St. Scholastica’s College Tacloban

The school is a research oriented institution of which all students undergo probations by

means of scientific virtues. The study and the output will help the succeeding junior researchers

in terms of the research field to be chosen, procedural paradigms, as well as the technical

writing of research.

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The Researchers

In the first place, the researchers were all curious having to observe and determine the

relation of the Influence of Social Media on the Knowledge and Attitude of Mothers toward

Polio Immunization. The study

Scope and Limitations

The study primarily is focused on the assessment of the Influence of Social Media on

the Knowledge and Attitude of childbearing Mothers from 15-49 years old who have children

from 0-59 months old toward Polio Immunization in (Barangay), Sagkahan, Tacloban City,

Leyte. The respondents were taken from the top 5 barangays from Sagkahan who have the

highest rate of mothers and children below 5 years old namely Barangay 1, Barangay 2,

Barangay 3, Barangay 4, Barangay 5. The variables used in the study were the demographic

characteristics of the respondents such as the age, religion, educational attainment, occupation,

age of the child.

The study will be conducted in a short-term basis from August 2019- December 2019. Time

constraint will be expected to be encountered in this research. Funds will be limited to certain

relevant activities of the conduction of the research.

Review of Related Literature

Immunizations have been one of the greatest public health achievements of all time and

have dramatically lowered rates of communicable diseases around the world. The lower

prevalence of previously common infectious diseases is due to immunizations (Stronach, 2015).

Immunization is the process of protecting people from infectious diseases through a vaccine.

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This has resulted in vaccines being labeled as one of the most cost-effective ways of preventing

disease and improving health (Ministry of Health, 2015).

The rise of the informed health consumer has grown alongside the evolution of the

internet and mothers are now able to carry out extensive research before committing to getting

their child vaccinated. However, the readily available information on vaccine risks or side

effects, including the rare but serious ones, may cause mothers to choose not to vaccinate their

child (Best, 2014). According to Betsch et al., 2012, social media have contributed to the spread

of false and highly damaging myths around vaccines and immunizations that are impacting on

mothers' decision-making processes when it comes to vaccinating their children. The internet

has contributed greatly to spreading knowledge worldwide, but with the evolving format of the

internet it has become difficult to determine which information is true.

Several studies have examined the crucial role that mothers' vaccination behaviors play

in reducing disease spread and severity among children, few have evaluated the connection

between mothers’ social media use and their decision on whether or not to vaccinate their child,

specifically in relation to dengue, DPT (Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus) polio, and measles

vaccines (Elsevier, 2014).

The Dengvaxia issue occurred when Sanofi Pasteur announced that the vaccine, which

has been administered to grade-schoolers in the Philippines, can only be effective for those who

have been previously infected with dengue. It has also been reported that the immunization

program of the Philippines has been experiencing a decrease in the immunization rate (Lun,

2018). Dengvaxia’s sale and distribution has been suspended in Philippines but due to the fear

resulting from this controversy, mothers are now refusing to vaccinate their children even

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against vaccine preventable diseases, giving rise to a phenomenon known as Vaccine Hesitancy

(Fatima et al., 2018).

According to Mckee et al., 2016, parental refusal of vaccines is a growing a concern for

the increased occurrence of vaccine preventable diseases in children. The most commonly

reported reason had for refusing one or more vaccines was other people or media reports.

Stories in the popular media, such as social media and large-scale news outlets, are often

sensationalized to elicit higher ratings and oftentimes spotlight a rare incident in which a child

suffers as a result of an unforeseen side effect of a vaccine (Fredrickson, 2016).

Accounts noting these rare occurrences breed fear in the hearts and minds of mothers,

who overestimate the dangers associated with vaccinations. Some fearful mothers balk at the

timing of immunizations. Fear can influence some mothers to choose to delay vaccines so their

child does not receive more than one vaccine at a time. They fear that simultaneously

administering multiple vaccines may overload their child's immune system, and they think that

allowing all of the vaccinations to occur according to the recommended schedule will make the

safety risk greater. As a result of this logic, many choose to delay vaccines in order to better

protect their children (Balk, 2017).

Hilton et al., 2016 showed that some mothers fear an overload of the immune system

caused by combination vaccines. Additionally, the perception that vaccination is more risky

than non-immunization and issues of harm, distrust and access might play a role in refusing

childhood vaccination. According to Sporton et al., 2015, mothers who refused vaccination

made a well-considered decision based on an assessment of the benefits and the risks of

vaccination, the child’s susceptibility to the potential disease, and the acceptance of

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responsibility for that decision. According to the study conducted by Brunson, 2014, social

networks play a key role in mothers' vaccination decision-making.

Mothers make vaccination decisions in concert with their social networks, broadly

defined here as including the people they interact with as well as the sources of information they

consult.

Definition of Terms

1. Social Media – is an interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the

creation and sharing of information, ideas , career interests, and other forms of

expression via virtual communities and network.

2. Immunization - the process whereby a person is made resistant to an infectious disease,

typically by the administration of a vaccine.

3. Immunity – the ability to resist particular infection or toxin by the specific action of

antibody or sensitized white blood cell.

4. Antibody – a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific

antigen.

5. Colastrum – the first secretion from mammary glands after giving birth, rich in

antibody.

6. Chickenpox (varicella) - a very contagious infection caused by the varicella-zoster

virus that mainly affects children and results in a characteristic skin rash that form itchy

blister

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7. Diphtheria - is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria which

causes a thick covering in the back of the throat and can lead to difficulty in breathing,

heart failure, paralysis, and even death.

8. Tetanus -.an illness caused by Clostridium bacteria that lives in soil, saliva, dust and

manure ais characterized by muscle spasms.

9. Pertussis - also known as whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease

caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is known for uncontrollable,

violent coughing which often makes it hard to breathe.

10. Measles - is caused by infection with the rubeola virus that lives in the mucus of the

nose and throat of an infected child or adult.

11. Mumps - is a contagious disease that is caused by a virus Mumps rubulavirus which

causes fever and swelling

12. Poliomyelitis - Polio, short for poliomyelitis, or infantile paralysis, is an infectious

disease caused by the poliovirus.

13. Word Health Organization- an agency of the United Nations established to promote

health and control communicable diseases.

14. Vaccine - stimulates the body's own immune system to protect the person against

subsequent infection or disease.

15. Vaccination - is the administration of a vaccine which contains a microorganism or

virus in a weakened or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism to help the

immune system develop protection from a disease.

16. Vaccine Hesitancy - is a reluctance or refusal to be vaccinated or to have one's children

be vaccinated.

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