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PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATION: The professional association provides

a means through which united efforts can be made to elevate standards of
nursing education and practice. It also offers a means of voicing opinions,
developing abilities and keeping informed of new trends.
The professional association provides a mean through which ones own
professional development can be channelled with authority because of its
representative character.


 To bring nursing organizations together in a world wide body.

 To advance the socio economic status of the nurses and the profession of
nursing worldwide.
 To influence global and domestic health policy.
 To focus for a better carrier for nurses.








1) Professional nursing associations provide an opportunity for professional nurses to

develop a bigger picture of nursing and health care overall.
2) Membership with professional association also gives nurses an opportunity to be
in control of their professional destiny.
3) It can lead to an increased awareness of nursing issues and support for collective
actions among nurses.
4) It also provides nurses in exchange ideas and collaborates on issues and projects
they face the challenges of providing quality health care.
5) It provides nurses with a competitive edge because they become active, informed
members of their profession.
6) It results in educational, personal and professional development opportunities
provided by the associations professional journal, scholarship and seminars.
7) They also provide opportunity for visibility, support, access to industry leaders
and partners.
8) It also provides a number of networking opportunities. Members can attend
conventions, seminars and award dinners.


A union is an organization that brings together different people in the same profession. For
example, there are engineer unions and teachers' unions. There are also many unions in the
medical and health care professions. Nursing labor unions have become extremely visible in
the past decade mostly due to their goals of obtaining better wages and working conditions
for their members, and improved nurse-to-patient ratios.
As responsibilities, independence, and authority of nurses increase, unionism and collective
bargaining mechanisms have become important strategies for nurses to improve working
conditions in some countries.

Meaning of union
A union or labor organization is any organization in which employees participate for the
purpose of dealing with their employer about grievances, labour disagreements, wages, hours
of work, and conditions of employment.
Unions, through size of the membership, have greater power in their relationship with the
employer than does a single individual or even small group.

A union is a formal and legal group that works through a collective bargaining
agent to present desires to management formally, through the legal context of
the National Labor Relations Board(NLRB).

Objectives of unions
 Wages: employees and their union can be expected to ask for wages which are comparable to those
in similar jobs in the local market.
 Promotions: unions will insist that length of service be a factor in promotions.
 Layoffs: the union will insist that seniority play a part in regulating layoffs; qualifications being equal,
the junior service employees will be paid off first.
 Discipline: employees will be disciplined for just cause; this is standard in all labor agreements.
 Grievances procedures: the union will insist that a grievance procedure be established whereby
management decisions will be reviewable by representatives of management and the union; if there is
still disagreements, the dispute will be referred to arbitration.
 Fringe benefits: pensions, vacations and holidays, social insurance, and general welfare programs will
be part of the negotiations, with an attempt to make them comparable to the trend in our society.

Purposes of union
Unions are a group of workers who band together for the purpose of representing their
members’ interests related to conditions of employment.
 To contracts conditions such as unacceptable nurse-patient ratio.
 To play role in determining standards of care.
 To adjust pay scales, benefits, dependable procedures for scheduling vacations and all other
conditions important to nurses.
 To create government-funded programs to fund and encourage nursing education.
 To protect RNs from violence and harassment on the job.
 To mandating safe RN-to-patient ratios at all healthcare facilities.
 To protect the employee from unfair employer treatment, such as, being passed over for a promotion
without an explanation, failure to post job opportunities, biased interview practices, unreasonable or
unsafe staff scheduling , excessive overtime, and unfair transfers, layoffs or terminations.
 To provide a mechanism whereby nurse can address issues, such as staffing and quality of care,
thereby controlling and maintaining their own practice


 In general, nurses who are satisfied in their workplace unionize.
 It only occurs when nurses feel powerless that they initiate attempts to
 Persistent job stress and increased physical demands.
 Need for communicating concerns or complaints to management without
fear of losing job.
 Issues relating to job such as poor wages, unsafe staffing, health and safety
issues, mandatory overtime, poor quality of care, job security.

 Nurses must know their legal rights and the rights of the manager.
 Nurses must act clearly within the law at all times.
 Nurses must report to NLRB, if a manager acts unlawfully.
 Nurses must have information of regular meetings.
 Nurses must set meetings times conviently.


The manager must :
 Be well versed with the law related to nurses rights.
 Act clearly within the law.
 Find out the reasons the nurses want collective action.
 Discuss and deal with the nurses problems and grievances.

Unions in India
“The primary collective bargaining unit is the union.”
Nurses unions or their collective bargaining power is the most vital and indirect determinant
of working conditions. Strong union and its bargaining strength determine the conditions and
facilities of work.
Collective bargaining is the process of sharing power between a union (organized labor) and
the employer (management) for the purpose of resolving issues with selected aspects of

TNAI ( Trained nurses association of india)

TNAI is a national professional association of nurses. The level of organization moves to
district, state, national level.
To uphold in every way the dignity of the nursing profession.
To promote a sense of spirit decorps among all nurses.
Recommends state government to appoint a nurses as a nursing director.
Improvement of living and working condition of nurses.
It helps to develop leadership ability.
It helps to share and solve professional problems.
It gives scholarships for nurses who wish to go on for advance study.
Publishing nursing journal in india.
Future plans
Furthering service education programme.
Furthering continued nursing education programme.
Centre to care for senior citizens.
Adoption of village and health centres.
New York Professional Nurses Union
Nurses at the Lenox Hill Hospital are supported by the New York Professional Nurses Union.
This grassroots organization began in 1985 when nurses realized none of the large existing
unions could represent their interests. The nurses knew only they could represent themselves.
The goal of these nurses is to make a contribution to Lenox Hill Hospital while maintaining
respect for the profession and the people in the profession.
Northern Michigan Hospital Registered Nurses
The Northern Michigan Hospital Registered Nurses, is an unconventional union in that it is
based online, meaning there are no union meetings or membership committees. The members
have exclusive access to the union's website. Nurses at the Northern Michigan Hospital came
together and developed the website, the sole purpose being to keep everyone informed and to
make any issues public.
SEIU Healthcare Florida Local 1991
The SEIU Healthcare Florida Local 1991 represents more than 5,000 nurses in the southeast
area of Florida. The majority of members work in the Jackson Health System and at Florida
International University. Since its inception, the union has successfully worked for better
wages and working conditions for its members. Another successful and yet ongoing goal of
the union is to improve the nurse-to-patient ratio in the Jackson Health System.
Health Care Employees Union, District 1199
More than 22,000 health care professionals in New England are members of the Health Care
Employees Union, District 1199. Striving for better quality of life for the professionals and
nurses in New England, their families and patients, this union gives those health care
professionals a vehicle to pursue these goals.
National Education Association
The National Education Association (NEA) had 2.6 million members as of 2002. It is the
largest U.S. labor union and includes all types of educational personnel. Its membership
spans beyond teachers and includes administrators, support staff and substitutes. The NEA
even has a student program.
Service Employees International Union
The Service Employees International Union (SEIU) is the second largest union in the United
States, with nearly 1.5 million members as of 2002. It represents workers in the service
sector, which includes health care, public services and property services. Members include
nurses, bus drivers, child-care providers, private security personnel and janitors.
United Food and Commercial Workers
The third largest U.S. labor union, the United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW), had
1.3 million members as of 2002. It represents workers in the food industry, namely those who
work in supermarkets, food processing plants and packinghouses.
The Teamsters
The fourth largest union in the U.S. is the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, typically
known as the Teamsters. The Teamsters is one of the best known labor unions, as well,
including some notoriety in the past for alleged ties to organized crime. But it serves more
than 1.3 million members (as of 2002) and includes workers from more than 20 different
The AFSCME stands for American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees. It
is the fifth largest labor union in the United States, with more than 1.3 million members (as of
2002). Members work in the local and state governments, including corrections, law
enforcement, health care and other public service occupations.
Other Large Unions
Other large unions in the United States (membership in parentheses, all data from 2002):
American Federation of Teachers (770,090 members), United Auto Workers (638,722),
United Steelworkers of America (532,234) and the American Postal Workers Union

Advantages of union self defense

Improving Work Environment
All three unions work hard to ensure that all nurses in California work under the best
conditions possible. The unions believe that when nurses have a good work environment they
are able to provide better medical care and attention to their patients, and the entire health
care system benefits. Collective bargaining power means that the unions are much more
powerful than individual nurses when working with hospitals and clinics to improve work
culture and environments.
Promoting Legislation
The unions bring issues that most concern nurses directly to lawmakers. All unions feel that
improved legislation not only helps nurses practice better patient care, it also helps the
California medical system.The Nurse Alliance of California lobbies both local and state
government on issues that most concern nurses. The National Nurses Association sponsors
legislation supporting nurses such as the Ratio Law that limits the maximum allowable RN-
to-patient ratio.
Better Work Contracts
Many of the nurses' union activities center around providing nurses with the best possible
environment for themselves and their patients. However, a large component of union activity
is also focused on materially improving nurses' work contracts. In mid-2010 the United
Nurses Association was instrumental in an agreement that increased wages by 3.5 percent and
enhanced sick leave cash-out options for all California nurses.
Supporting Mentoring Programs
The unions recognize many of their goals require a network of connected and supportive
nurses who regularly communicate amongst themselves and have a sense of community. As
such the California Nurses Association has a strong mentoring program designed to support
nurses' efforts to improve patient care and gain greater professional achievements. The Nurse
Alliance of California also offers professional development programs and supports a
mentoring program for registered and non-registered nurses.

Disadvantages of union self defense

Restricted Membership
The Labor Relation Code specifies that a union's members must have the title of an
employee. This, in turn, prevents some individuals in the nursing profession -- including
student nurses, private-practice nurses, managers and nursing instructors -- from becoming
union members. These individuals have affiliation with the nursing sector but do not have an
umbrella wing to represent them. As unions play a key role in uniting members of the nursing
profession, denying individuals membership because they do not fit the code's employee
description sets a rift between these individuals and employed nurses.
Lack of Autonomy
Nurses' unions present employed nurses with a safety net by advocating for their rights and
making key decisions affecting their work life. The concept of self-management threatens the
importance of representing nurses by unions; therefore, unions resist employers' attempts to
increase nurses' autonomy. This limits nurses' self-governance and leadership skills; after all,
they rely on a larger body to secure their rights.
Management Conflicts
Nurses' employers sometimes endure stalled productivity due to conflicts of interest with a
nursing union. For example, the management cannot easily make decisions and changes on
pay scales and benefits concerning their employees without consulting with the union.
Protests and strikes in defiance of such measures would lead to a waste of a time. Employers
cannot easily terminate the employment of a union nurse whose performance falls below
standard, as there must be consultation with the union, which offers support to the nurse.
Possibility of Not Accepting Nurses' Advancement
Trade unions may resist advancement of education and experience in the field of nursing,
suggests Scott Chisholm Lamont, a registered nurse. The union principle encourages senior
nurses to hold higher positions, regardless of the academic advancement of younger nurses.
This limits the quality of service offered and denies nurses bearing advanced academic
qualification from holding equal or higher positions to senior nurses.
Divided Loyalty
Membership to a trade union represents a contract between the nurse and the union. Failure to
comply with the union's rules and regulations makes the nurse liable to disciplinary action as
specified by the union. The union also requires nurses to maintain their loyalty to its actions;
if there is a strike, the nurse must participate. This makes nurses liable to the union and their

Nurses' Bill of Rights

Registered nurses promote and restore health, prevent illness, and protect the people entrusted
to their care. They work to alleviate the suffering experienced by individuals, families, groups
and communities. In so doing, nurses provide services that maintain respect for human
dignity and embrace the uniqueness of each patient and the nature of his or her health
problems, without restriction with regard to social or economic status. To maximize the
contributions nurses make to society, it is necessary to protect the dignity and autonomy of
nurses in the workplace. To that end, the following rights must be afforded:
1. Nurses have the right to practice in a manner that fulfills their obligations to society and to
those who receive nursing care.
2. Nurses have the right to practice in environments that allow them to act in accordance with
professional standards and legally authorized scopes of practice.
3. Nurses have the right to a work environment that supports and facilitates ethical practice, in
accordance with the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements.
4. Nurses have the right to freely and openly advocate for themselves and their patients, without
fear of retribution.
5. Nurses have the right to fair compensation for their work, consistent with their knowledge,
experience and professional responsibilities.
6. Nurses have the right to a work environment that is safe for themselves and for their patients.
7. Nurses have the right to negotiate the conditions of their employment, either as individuals or
collectively, in all practice settings.

Union pros and cons

Reasons why nurses join unions
1. To increase the power of the individual
2. To communicate feelings/ideas to others in the organization and influence decision-
3. To reduce discrimination and favouritism
4. A social need to be accepted
5. A requirement of employment
6. A belief it will improve patient outcomes and care.
Reasons not to join unions
1. A belief that unions promote a socialist state
2. A need to demonstrate individualism and social status
3. A belief that professionals should not unionize
4. An identification with management
5. A fear of reprisal from the employer
6. A fear of loss of income associated with strikes

Benefits of union to nurses

Several authors claim that unions have positive effects for nurses and patients:
1. Improving safe standards and effective patient advocacy
2. Setting nurse-patient ratios, standards for needle safety, and limiting overtime
3. Higher wages for those nurses represented by unions

Nurses concerns about unionization

Unionization and collective bargaining raise a number of concerns for nurses:
Threat to job security
Many nurses struggle with the image of a union member. Many perceive unions as of a lower
class status than a professional, and don’t like the idea of perhaps having to walk a picket
line. However, those nurses supporting unionization point out that:
 other professionals belong to unions such as doctors and airline pilots
 it is less professional to accept low pay and poor benefits and working conditions
 control over practice is a sign of a profession
The concern here for nurses is that some actions of unions, such as work slow downs or
strikes, may put the patients and their health care needs at risk.
•Again supporters of unions say that:
–poor working conditions, such as mandatory overtime for nurses and
–shortages of staff also threaten patient safety
–it is better for everyone to take action and correct these conditions
•Laws around union strike action provide health care facilities time to take the necessary
measures to protect patients from risk. These measures might include discharging patients to
home earlier than usual or transferring patients to other facilities.
 Conflict may occur between nurses who have chosen to join a union and those who do not, but who
will reap the gains in the contract that union nurses have fought for during bargaining.
 Collective bargaining units may have different requirements for membership. Some require all
employees to be a member and pay union dues or fees (closed shop). In some countries, closed shop is
 Other unions may leave membership open to those who are interested and then these people would
pay dues (open shop).
Job security
 In some jurisdictions or situations, nurses may be in danger of losing their jobs. For example,
increased wage demands by nurses may mean a hospital may need to cut the number of nurse
positions available overall in the agency.
 Or nurses may experience reprisal from angry administrators if they choose to participate in
union action.
 In many countries, laws protect nurses from unfair job loss or discrimination practices by
employers by way of well defined grievance procedures.


INTRODUCTION :- The concept of collective bargaining was introduced very late in india,
as trade unions were formed only in the 20th century. The concept of collective bargaining
attained significance only after 1962. The term ‘collective’ in collective bargaining is used
because both the employer and employees come together and put a collective effort to
establish mutually agreeable terms and conditions for employment. The phrase ‘ collective
bargaining’ is said to be coined by Sydney and Beatrice webb; and great Britain I said to be
the ‘home of collective bargaining’. Bargaining is the process of debating, discussing and
even threatening so as to arrive at an amicable agreement for those being represented.
Due to rapid social
change and dissatisfaction with values and norms, the nurses are also striving towards
collective bargaining in order to meet their professional and personal needs. Although the
nursing profession has been represented by a professional association say trained nurses
association of india since 1908, interest in labour unions is increasing due to administrative
practices, support the interest in labour unions.

 According to jucious ,“ collective bargaining refers to a process by which

employers on one hand and representative of the employees on the other hand,
attempt to arrive an arrangements covering the conditions under which employees
will contribute and be compensated for their services.”
 According to Tudwig Teller “ Collective bargaining is an agreement
between a single employer or an association of employers on the one hand &
a labour union on the other, which regulates the terms & conditions of
 Collective Bargaining is a procedure by which the terms and conditions of workers
are regulated by agreements between their bargaining agents and employers.

Objectives Of Collective Bargaining

To maintain cordial relationship between the employer and the employees.

To protect the rights and interest of workers through collective action and keeping in mind
that all the workers are treated on equality basis and it should be emphasized that unilateral
decision on the part of the employee dosen’t occurs.

To resolve the differences between nurse employees and management through negotiation.

To have a peaceful co-existence for the mutual benefits and progress.

To bargain from a position of strength without exploiting the weakness.

To promote industrial democracy and harmony.

Characteristics of collective bargaining

collective: collective bargaining is a two way group process where the employers
representative and employees representatives sit together to negotiate terms of employment.

Strength: both the patients in collective bargaining is strong and equal.

Dynamic: it is a dynamic and that go on changing over a period and grows and expand the
way of agreement, the way of implementation and way of discussion.

Continuous: it provides a mechanism for continuing and organized relationship between

management and trade unions.

Flexibility: it is flexible and continuous process. It is not static as there much scope of
compromise for reaching to a mutual agreement.

Improvement: it is method to improve the employer-employees relation in the organization

and resolve management and employees conflict.

Voluntary: both parties come to the negotiation table voluntarily in order to go in particular
negotiation. It is based on discussion , mutual trust, and understanding.

Formal: it is a formal process in which certain employment related issues are to be regulated
at national, organizational and workplace levels.

Representation: collecting bargaining is between the representatives of employees and

management. The management does not directly deal with employees. It carries negotiations
with the representatives/executives of unions/ associations.

Types of activities in collective bargaining :-

1. Distributive bargaining : In this type of collective bargaining one party is at gain
whereas other party is at loss. The common economic issues discussed under this are
wages, salary, and other economical issues.
2. Integrative bargaining : In this type, the bargaining is so that both parties are at gain,
in planning and implementing a better training program or better evaluation
techniques in job. Example of integrative bargaining is training of employees for
particular work, and programme, special evaluation system for performance
3. Attitudinal structuring : when there are too many conflicts between both the parties,
the restructuring of attitude is required to maintain smooth organizational relations.
Here the attitudes of the persons working in the organization are worked upon like
trust and distrust, hostility.
4. Intra organization bargaining : in this type the workers and the management try to
build up consensual relationship among their own groups . there may be conflicts
among the employee union or within the management, so market manager works with
the employees and finance manager may oppose increase in wages or may urge the
union to stop strike which help to proptect the interest of the consumers.


Importance to society

1. Collective bargaining leads to industrial peace in the country.

2. It results in establishment of a harmonious industrial climate which supports, which
helps the pace of a nation’s efforts towards economic and social development since
the obstacles to such a development can be reduced considerably.
3. The discrimination and exploitation of workers is constantly being checked.
It provides a method or the regulation of the conditions of employment of those who
are directly concerned about them.

Importance to employers

1. It becomes easier for the management to resolve issues at the bargaining level rather
than taking up complaints of individual workers.
2. Collective bargaining tends to promote a sense of job security among employees and
thereby tends to reduce the cost of labor turnover to management.
3. Collective bargaining opens up the channel of communication between the workers
and the management and increases worker participation in decision making.
4. Collective bargaining plays a vital role in settling and preventing industrial disputes.

Importance to employees

(1) Collective bargaining develops a sense of self respect and responsibility among the
(2) It increases the strength of the workforce, thereby, increasing their bargaining
capacity as a group.
(3) Collective bargaining increases the morale and productivity of employees.
(4) It restricts management’s freedom for arbitrary action against the employees..
(5) The workers feel motivated as they can approach the management on various matters
and bargain for higher benefits.
(6) It helps in securing a prompt and fair settlement of grievances.

It provides a flexible means for the adjustment of wages and employment conditions to
economic and technological changes in the industry, as a result of which the chances for
conflicts are reduced

Prerequisites of collective bargaining-

 Existence of truly representative & strong trade union.

 Existence of progressive management.
 Absence of any pressure either on the employer or on the worker.
 Existence of a measure of parties of strength or bargaining power between the trade union
& management.
 Delegation of authority to an officer involved in negotiation.
 Acceptance of a fact finding approach by the management as well as the union.Stability
of organizations of workers & employers.

Levels of collective bargaining

(a)Economy-wide (national):

• Bargaining is a bipartite or tripartite form of negotiation between union

confederations, central employer associations and government agencies.

• It aims at providing a floor for lower-level bargaining on the terms of employment,

often taking into account macroeconomic goals.

(b) Sectoral bargaining:

• It aims at the standardization of the terms of employment in one industry, includes a

range of bargaining patterns.

• Bargaining may be either broadly or narrowly defined in terms of the industrial

activities covered and may be either split up according to territorial subunits or
conducted nationally.

(c)company level:

 This is supplementary type of bargaining.

• It involves the company and/or establishment.

• It emphasizes the point that bargaining levels need not be mutually exclusive.
Subject matter of collective bargaining-
 Union recognition & scope of bargaining unit.
 Management rights
 Union security
 Strikes & lockout
 Union activities & responsibilities
 Wages
 Working hours & working conditions
 Job rights & seniority
 Discipline, suspension & discharge
 Grievance handling & arbitration
 Health& safety Insurance & benefit programs

Advantages of collective bargaining :-

 Collective bargaining allows smooth functioning of organization.
 It helps in managing conflicts.
 It helps in retention of employees in the industry.
 It facilitates better planning.
 It discourages strike like problems in the company.
 It helps in providing flexible adjustment of wages and conditions of employment.
 It helps in better implementation of decision due to the direct involvement of both the

Disadvantages of collective bargaining :-

– Reduced individuality

– Other union members may outvote one’s decisions

– All union members and management must conform to terms of contract

without exception

– Disputes are not handled with individual and management only; less room for
personal judgment

– Must pay union dues even if one does not support unionization

Process of collective bargaining :-

The process of collective bargain involve negotiation and discussion between the
management and union. It is a complex process involving a number of procedures,
techniques and tools. This process comprise of five main steps:

7 phase
Enforcing 2
agreement Discussion


Preparatory phase

In this following activities are carried out:

 Selection of negotiation team: it consist of representative of both the parties. They

should have adequate knowledge and skills for negotiation. They must know when to listen ,
when to speak, when to stand their ground, when to concede and when to make counter
proposal. Timing is important.
 Identification of problem .
 Examination of situation, and issues for negotiation
 Collection of date: enough supporting date is kept ready. Initially time is spent to
related to issues.

Discussion phase
This following activities are carried out during discussion phase:
 Decide an appropriate time and set a proper climate for negotiation.
 Decision on ground rules.
 Maintenance of mutual trust and understanding.
 Involve in active listening asking questions, observation, and summarizing
 Collective bargaining.

Possible Alternatives or Proposal Phase

During this phase, there is:

 Initial opening of statements.
 Possible alternatives/opinions to resolve the issues by both parties.
 Brainstorming.

Bargaining Phase

During bargaining phase, both parties involves in the following activities:

 Problem – solving
 Proposals are set forth

Settlement Phase
After the bargaining phase, settlement phase starts with:

 Consensus agreement on common decision

 Negotiated change

Formalizing the Agreement

 Drafting of agreements: after good faith bargaining, a formal document must

prepare. It should be simple, clear and concise.
 Signing the agreement: Both parties sing the agreement and abide by its terms
and conditions.

Enforcing the Agreement

To have the agreement effective and meaning, it should be enforced or implemented


Principle of collective bargaining:

Principle for the management:

1. The management must develop and consistently follow a realistic labour policy, which
should be accepted and carried out by its representatives.
2. The management must grant recognition to the trade union/ association without any
reservation and accept it as a constructive force in an organization.
3. The management should assure the employees goodwill will always exist. It should
periodically examine the rules and regulations to determine the attitude and degree of
comfort of its employees and gain their goodwill and cooperation.
4. The management should extend fair treatment to the trade union in order to make it a
responsible and conservative body.
5. The management should not wait for the trade union to bring employee grievances to its
notice but should rather create the conditions in which employees can approach the
management themselves, without involving the trade union/ association.
6. The management should deal only with the one union or association in the organization.
7. While weighing economic consequences of collective bargaining the management should
place greater emphasis on social considerations.

Principles for the trade union:

1. In view of the rights granted to the organised labour, the trade union should eliminate
racketeering and other undemocratic practices within their own organization.
2. Trade union leader should appreciate the economic implications of collective bargaining,
for their demands and generally met from the income and resources of the organizations
in which their members are employed.
3. Trade union leader should not imagine that their only function is to secure higher wages,
shorter hours of work and better working conditions fro their members. They and their
members have an obligation to assist the management in the elimination of waste and in
improving the quality and quantity of production.
4. Trade union leader should assist in the removal of such restrictive rules and regulations
that are likely to increase costs and prices and reduce the amount that can be paid out as
5. Trade union leaders should resort to strike only when all other methods of the settlement
of a dispute have failed.

Principles for both union and management:

1. Collective bargaining should be made an education as well as bargaining process. It

should offer to trade union leaders an opportunity to present to the management the
wants, desires, grievances and attitudes of its employees and make it possible for the
management to explain to union leaders and through them, to its employees the economic
problems which it is confronted with.
2. The management and trade union must look upon collective bargaining as a means of
finding the best possible solutions and not as a means of acquiring as much as one can
while conceding the minimum. There must be an honest attempt at solving problems.
3. Both parties to a dispute should command the respect of each other and should have
enough bargaining power to enforce the terms of agreement that they may arrive at.
4. There must be mutual confidence and good faith, and a desire to make collective
bargaining effective in practice.
5. There should be an honest, able and responsible leadership, for only this kind of
leadership will make collective bargaining effective and meaningful.
6. The two parties should meticulously observe and abide by all the national and state laws
which are applicable to collective bargaining.
7. Both parties must bear in mind the fact that collective bargaining is, in a sense, a form of
price fixation and that the success of any collective bargaining depends, in the final
analysis, on whether the management and the trade union do a good job of ensuring that
the price of labour is properly adjusted to other prices.

Importance of collective bargaining in nursing:

 Nurses are apparently striving towards collective bargaining in order to meet their
professional and personal needs.
 It raise the status of the profession socially and economically.
 It requires a favourable organizational climate,freedom of associations and problem
solving attitude.
 It increases nurses participation in decision making.
 Collective bargaining results better understanding between nurse,client and other
administrative staff.
 Nurses have improved their economic and general welfare by organizing through
collective bargaining.
 The downsizing of nursing staff, systems redesign, and oppressive management
practices have created such poor nursing practice environments that improvement in
wages no longer is viewed as the primary purpose of collective bargaining.
 Collective bargaining provides safe practice environment free of mandatory overtime
and other work issues.
 It increase the quality health outcomes for patient.
 It improve the present patient care environment.

 Masih Shabnam. Essential of Nursing Management in service & education. ed
2nd.jalandhar:Lotus publisher ;2012, Pp – 367-72.

 B. T. Basavanthappa. Nursing Administration. 1st ed. Jaypee Publishers; 2002, P-


 B. T. Basavanthappa. Nursing Administration. 2nd ed. Jaypee Publishers; 2002, P-


SUBJECT: Advanced Nursing Practice



SUBMITTED TO: Respected Mam

Mrs. Archna Garg

Vice Principal & Assistant Professor

SUBMITTED BY: Ms. Gauri Sharma

M.Sc(N)1st Year

SUBMITTED ON: Jan 1, 2016