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Question Bank
EE-7th SEM

S No. Subject Code Subject

1 324731(24) Switchgear & Protection

2 324732(24) Electrical Drives

3 324733(24) Modern Control System

Energy Auditing and

4 324734(24)

5 324742(24) Systems Software(Elective-II)

Department of Electrical Engineering
Session 2017-18
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Question Bank

Branch EE

Semester VII

Subject Switchgear and Protection

Subject Code 324731(24)

Department of Electrical Engineering
Session 2017-18
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UNIT – 1
1 a)Discuss duty performed by tripping relay. 2

b) What is universal torque equation? Using that equation, derive the characteristics of 6
(i) Impedance relay (ii) Reactance relay and (iii) Mho relay.

2 a) Define the following terms in content with IDMT relays (i) PSM (ii) TMS. 2
b) Explain the principle of instantaneous over current relay. How their characteristics
differ from I.D.M.T. relay? 6

3 a) Define selectivity and pickup value of a relay. 2

b) The calculated short circuit current through a feeder is 1200Amp. An over current
relay of rating 5Amp is connected for protection of feeder through a protective
transformer having a ratio of 1000/5.

Calculate the operating time of relay when it has plug setting of 0.8sec. The following
characteristic of relay is given below:

PSM 1.3 2 4 6 10 20
Time in sec 20 10 6.5 3.5 3 2.2

4 a)Define the following terms;(i)Pickup value (ii)Operating time 2

b) Reference to figure given below.
Fault current=2000A.Relay R1 set on 100%,LTR=200/1 Relay.R2 set on 125%.For
discrimination the time gradient margin between the relays R1 & R2 is 0.5 second.
Determine the time of operation of two relays assuming that the both the relays have the
characteristic as shown in the following table and R1 and TMS=0.2

PSM = 2.0 3.6 5 8 10 15 20

Time in seconds = 10 6 3.5 3.15 2.8 2.2 2.1

for a time multiplier of 1.Also determine the time setting multiplier for R2.
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5 a)What are the fundamental requirements of protective relaying? 2
b)Define 30° connection of directional relay. Why is the connection done? Where and
how is the connection done? 6

6 a)Enlist names of four instantaneous electromagnetic relays. 2

b)Explain the basic principle of operation of a differential relay. Describe the working
of this type of relay for 6
(i) An internal fault, and
(ii) A -through fault

7 a)What is the role of circuit breaker in substation? 2

b)Give the constructional features, principle of working of a directional over current
relay.Draw its characteristic. 6

8 a)Define PSM and TMS. 2

b)An IDMT type over current relay is used to protect a feeder through 500/1A CT. The
relay has PS of 125% and TMS = 0.3. Find the time of operation if a fault current of 6
5000 A flows through feeder:
PSM: 2 3 5 8 10 15
Time for unity TMS: 10 6 4.5 3.2 3 2.5
(100% current = 1 A).

9 a)Show the location of auxiliary contacts of C.B. in trip circuit. 2

b)Determine the time of operation of an IDMT relay of rating 5A and having setting of
125% and TMS=0.5.The relay is connected through a C.T of 400/5 A. The fault current
is 4000A.The operating time for PSM of 8 is 3.2.

10 a)What is a protective relay? State its function. 2

b)Derive operating characteristics of
(i) An impedance and 6
(ii) A reactance relay
Explain how you provide direction features to these relays.
11 a)What do you mean by ‘reach of relay’? (2+6) 2
b)Explain the principle of operation of IDMT relay. How is the directional characteristic
introduced? 6

12 With suitable diagram on impedance plane explain that a reactance relay operates even 8
when a load of nearly unity power factor is connected to the line but it does not operate
for normal load connected to line.
13 Describe the following in few lines/words: 8

(i)Pick-up current
(ii)Drop out voltage
(iii)Balance point
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(iv)Power swing
(v)Burden of relay
(v)Flag indicator

14 Describe the construction and principle of operation of an induction type over current 8
relay. Derive the torque equation.

15 What is the drawback of reactance relay? To give directional property to reactance 8

relay, mho relay is used in place of directional relay? Explain this drawing suitable
diagram on impedance plane.

16 What is impedance relay? Show its characteristics on R-X diagram. Give the 8
characteristics of three zone impedance relays with directional unit.

17 With a neat sketch, explain the working of induction type directional over current relay. 8

18 On an impedance plane draw a long length transmission line. Select a point on the line 8
up to which protection is to be given. Draw the characteristic of distance relay through
the point. Starting from generalized torque expression derive the characteristic equation
of the relay.
19 Discuss Instantaneous over current relay with neat sketch and also explain the 8
phenomena of ‘snap action’.

20 From generalized torque expression logically design mho relay. 8

Unit – 2
21 a)The occurrence of short circuit between stator windings of alternator is rare, why so? 2

b)A 13.8 kV, 125MVA star connected alternator has a synchronous reactance of 1.4 Ω 6
per phase and negligible resistance. It is protected by Merz-Price balanced current
system which operates when out of balance current exceeds 10% of full load current.If
the neutral point is earthed through a resistance of 2Ω,determine what portion of
windings is protected against earth fault.

22 Draw a schematic diagram of a Merz-Price circulating current method of protecting an 8

alternator. Explain the operating principle.
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23 a)If field suppression system were not present in an alternator, which fault would 2
damage the stator winding? (2+6)
b)A 6.6kV, 5MVA star connected alternator has a reactance of 1.5ohm per phase and 6
negligible resistance. Merz-Price protection scheme is used which operates when the out
of balance current exceeds 25% of the full load current. The neutral of the generator is
grounded through a resistance of 8ohms.Determine the proportion of the winding which
remains unprotected against earth fault.

24 a)Why field winding of an alternator cannot be directly switched off from supply? 2
b)Explain stator and rotor fault protection of a generator. (2+6)

25 a)Why protection of generator is most complex ? 2

b)Solve any two of the following: 6

(i) Bus bar protection with differential and frame leakage.

(ii) Loss of excitation protection in generators.
(iii) Protection against unbalanced loading and interturn fault protection.

26 a)Enlist various types of faults that can occur on an alternator. 2

b)Explain how power factor of load seen by an alternator varies when gradual loss of 6
excitation occurs ? Discuss the protection scheme using this phenomenon.

27 a)Enlist the faults and abnormal operating conditions in generator. (2+6) 2

b)Restricted earth fault protection is provided to an alternator through delay,but it does 6

not protect complete winding. Justify this statement.

28 a)What is magnetizing inrush current? (2+6) 2

b)How it is distinguished from fault current? Suggest a protective scheme which 6

protects a transformer against fault but does not operate in case of magnetizing inrush

29 A 3-phase transformer 0.433/11 kV line volts is connected in Y/Δ, respectively and the 8
protecting transformer on the 0.433 kV side has a current ratio of 600/5. What must be
the current ratio of current transformers on HV side and how they should be connected ?

30 A 3 phase 33 kV / 66 kV transformer is connected in star / delta and the protecting 8

current transformer on the low-voltage side have a ratio of 300/5. What will be the ratio
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of the current on the high voltage side?
31 A 3 phase, 20 MVA, 11 kV star connected generator is protected by the current balance 8
system of protection. If the ratio of CTs is 1200/5, the minimum operating current of the
relay is 0.75A and the neutral resistance is 6.5Ω, calculate the percentage of each phase
of stator winding which is unprotected against earth faults when the machine is
operating at normal voltage.
32 Describe the construction and working of harmonic restrained differential relay. State its 8
33 Explain with reasons the connection of CTs for protecting a delta/star transformer. 8
Justify your scheme of protection for:

(i)internal fault, and

(ii)external fault,by showing current distribution in the scheme.

34 A 6600 V, 3 phase turbo alternator has maximum continuous rating of 2000 kW at 0.8 8
p.f. and reactance 12.5%. It is equipped with merz price circulating current protection
which is set to operate at fault current not less than 200 A. Find what value of the
neutral earthing resistance leaves 10% of the winding unprotected ?
35 A 50 MVA 132kV/66kV Δ/Y,3-phase power transformer is protected by percentage 8
differential relay if CTR=300/5 located at Δ winding;CTR=1200/5 at Y connected
winding. Determine (i) Output current at the load (ii) relay current at full load
(iii)minimum relay current to permit 25% overload.

36 Draw the differential protection scheme of a bus bar connected to four feeders. Explain 8
its operation.
37 What is the necessity of bus bar protection ? Describe a frame leakage protection 8
applicable to metal clad switch boards.
38 Describe the following in view of station Bus-zone protection. 8

(i)Importance of bus bar protection

(ii)Desirable features of bus protection scheme

(iii)Causes of bus zone fault

(iv)Methods of bus-zone protection

39 Describe the principle of bus bar protection based on voltage differential system. How 8
does it overcome the problems of current transformers?
40 A 5000KVA, 6600V, star connected alternator has a synchronous reactance of 2Ω/phase 8
and 0.5 Ω resistance. It is protected by a Merz price balanced current system which
operates when the out of balance current exceeds 30% of the load current. Determine
what proportion of the alternator winding is unprotected if the star point is earthed
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through a resistor of 6.5 Ω ?

Unit – 3
41 a)Does Merz-Price provides back up protection or over load protection? 2

b)Explain directional and current grading scheme of feeder protection. 6

42 a)What is unit and non-unit type protection? 2

b)Draw the schematic diagram of the carrier current protection scheme of lines.Also 6
explain its working principle.

43 a)What is meant by time graded protection? (2+6) 2

b)Answer the following in few words: 6

(i)Is the operation of relays affected by capacitive current of translay system of

protection of feeders?
(ii)What is the minimum time interval which can be permitted for the two adjacent
circuit breakers to operate in radial feeders?
(iii)What type of protective device is used for protection of an alternator against
(iv)In which winding of the transformer magnetizing in-rush current flows?
(v)Which harmonic component is more in in-rush current than a fault current?
(vi)Which equipment is protected by Buchholz relay?

44 a)What is ‘Pilot relaying scheme’? 2

b)Explain the directional comparison method of carrier protection. Why it is used in - 6

impedance or other type of non unit protection.

45 a)State the main elements of the current carrier protection. (2+6) 2

b)Describe the directional comparison carrier current protection scheme using carrier
blocking system. 6

46 a)Why carrier blocking scheme is superior to carrier permitting scheme ? 2

b)Explain the working principle of the carrier current protection scheme of lines with
diagram. State its applications. 6
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47 a)Why selectivity of O.C. relays used in long transmission line protection is poor? 2
b)Explain the necessity of using 3-zone stepped distance protection scheme to achieve
fast protection for transmission line. 6

48 a)What do you mean by radial and ring feeder? 2

b)Discuss the protection scheme of ring main feeder. 6

49 a)Draw a single line diagram of power system. Mark different sections clearly. 2

b)Explain how power swing affects distance protection. 6

50 Enlist and briefly explain different protection scheme of transmission lines. 8

51 Sketch the block diagram of carrier current protection of transmission line.Also discuss 8
the function of line trap and coupling capacitor.
52 Answer the following questions in few lines/words: 8
(i)What is unit type protection?
(ii)Give the example of unit type and non-unit type protection?
(iii)What is meant by time graded protection?
(iv)What type of delay is suitable for radial feeder protection?
(v)What type of relay is suitable for current graded protection?
(vi)Can Merz-Price system is employed for protection of ring mains and duplicate
(vii)Why Merz-Price protection is not suitable beyond 33kV?

53 a) Considering stability, what is the drawback of three step distance protection scheme? 2
b) Describe how carrier aided distance protection scheme overcomes this drawback.

54 Discuss, directional comparison carrier current protection. 8

55 Draw phase comparison carrier current protection scheme in block form and 8
explain the function of each block.

56 What are the advantages of distance protection over other type of protection of feeders? 8
Describe any type of impedance relay.

57 Write short notes on the following: 8

(i) Translay protection of a three phase feeder.

(ii)Split conductor protection.

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58 a)What do you mean by power swing ? 2
b)Discuss the performance of mho relay during power swing.

59 Describe the trip circuit diagram of 3-zone distance relay used for the protection of a 8
transmission line. Why 3-zones are necessary? How their reach setting and time setting
is done?

Unit – 4
60 a)Draw a simplified block diagram of static relay, indicating main components. 2

b)Explain clearly, how a phase comparator is used in protective relay?. 6

61 a)Enlist the advantages of static relays over electromagnetic relays. (2+6) 2

b)Show that the amplitude and phase comparators are dual to each other.

62 a)Define seal-in-coil. (2+6) 2

b)Explain static differential relay with neat block diagram and schematic scheme.

63 a)Static relays are superior to electro-magnetic relays,why? 2

b)With the help of suitable phasor diagrams explain how an amplitude comparator can 6
be made to act as cosine phase comparator for signals S1 and S2 .

64 a)What is static relay? 2

b)Draw the circuit diagram of integrating type cosine phase comparator and explain its 6

65 An amplitude comparator is to act as a mho relay. Logically determine the two signal 8
inputs to be given to the comparators.

66 Explain coincidence type phase comparator with the help of block diagram and 8

67 Discuss the input phase comparator with quadrilateral characteristics in detail. 8

68 What is hall effect?Explain hall effect sine phase comparator. State its applications. 8
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69 Show that the polar curve of a biased differential relay using a static comparator is a 8
circle. Why does the area out side the circle represent the operating zone ?

70 A static relay has its operating characteristic on impedance plane as shown below. 8

Logically determine the voltage input signals to the cosine phase comparator to achieve
the characteristic.

71 Draw the operating characteristic of distance relay used for the protection of 8
medium length line. Design the relay using cosine phase comparator.

72 Explain the basic principle, working and characteristic of any one of static relay, with 8
schematic scheme.

73 Describe the circuit of a two input static amplitude comparator. How such a comparator 8
be utilized in designing angle impedance relay?

74 With neat sketch and schematic scheme, discuss the principle and working of static 8
differential relay.

75 Describe the input quantities necessary to obtain a quadrilateral distance relay 8

characteristic using(i)asymmetric phase comparator (ii)phase sequence detector

(iii)Multi-input phase comparator.

76 Write short notes on(i)Spikes and Block coincidence technique(ii)Integrating phase 8


77 With the help of simplified block diagram explain the operation of static directional 8
over current relay.

78 (i)Give the advantages of microprocessor based relays 4

(ii)Describe Hall effect sine phase comparators 4

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79 What do you understand by phase comparator? Prove the duality between them with the 8
help of phasor diagram.

Unit – 5
80 a)What is difference between circuit breaking and circuit breaker ? 2

b)In a 220kV system the inductive reactance and capacitance upto location of circuit 6
breaker are 10.0Ω and 0.02µF respectively. A resistance of 800Ω is connected across
the contacts of circuit breaker. Compute the following:

(i)Natural frequency of oscillation

(ii)Damped frequency of oscillation
(iii)Critical value of resistance which will give no transient oscillation
(iv)The value of resistance which will give a damped frequency of oscillation
one-fourth the natural frequency of oscillation.

81 a)Define the restriking voltage. 2

b)Derive an expression for RRRV and explain its effect on operation of circuit breaker 6
under fault condition.
82 a)What is meant by making capacity of a circuit breaker? 2
b)Describe with a neat sketch the axial blast type air blast circuit breaker,its principle of
operation and its limitations. 6

83 a)How does a circuit breaker differ from a switch ? 2

b)A 3 phase, 50 Hz alternator with grounded neutral has an inductance of 1.6 mH per
phase and is connected to the bus bars through a circuit breaker. The capacitance to 6
the earth of a circuit between the alternator and the circuit breaker is 0.0032 µF per
phase. Due to a short on the bus-bars the breaker opens when the r.m.s value of the
current is 8000 A.
Determine the following :
(i) Frequency of oscillations
(ii) Active recovery voltage
(iii) Time for maximum RRRV and
(iv) Maximum RRRV
84 a)Discuss the effect of asymmetry in fault. 2
b)3 phase, 10 MVA, 11 kV generator is connected to a power system, the system
inductance and capacitance per phase are 5mH and 0.04 µF respectively. Calculate: 6
(i) Maximum restriking voltage.
(ii) Frequency of transient oscillation.
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(iii) Average rate of restriking voltage.
85 a)What is circuit breaker?Explain its function. 2

b)A 3-phase short circuit fault occurs just beyond the CBs connected to an alternator. 6
The fault is isolated from ground. After opening of CBs contacts, two CBs are arcing
while arc is interrupted in one C.B. Show that voltage difference between fault point
and neutral is 0.5 Vph.

86 a)What is the difference between circuit breaker and isolator? 2

b)In a short circuit test on a 132kV,three phase system,the breaker gave the following 6
results:p.f of the fault 0.4;recovery voltage 0.95 of full line value;the breaking current is
symmetrical and the restriking transient had a natural frequency of 16kHz.Determine
the rate of rise of restriking voltage.Assume that the fault is grounded.

87 a)Classify circuit breaker. 2

b)In a short circuit test.with earthed neutral on a 132kV,3-phase CB,the p.f of the fault 6
was 0.3,the recovery voltage was 0.95 of full line value,the breaking current was
symmetrical and the restriking transient had a natural frequency of 16000Hz.Estimate
the rate of rise of the restriking voltage.

88 a)What is restriking voltage and recovery voltage? 2

b)What is current chopping phenomenon?A CB interrupts the magnetizing current of a 6

100MVA transformer at 220kV.The magnetising current of transformer is 5% of full
load current.Determine the maximum voltage which may appear across the gap of
breaker when magnetising current is interrupted at 53% of its peak value.The stray
capacitance is 2500µF.The inductance is 30H.

89 A 50Hz,11kV,3phase alternator with earthed neutral has a reactance of 5Ω per phase & 8
is connected to a busbar through a CB.The distributed capacitance upto CB between
phase and neutral is 0.01µF.Find:

(i)Peak restriking voltage

(ii)Frequency of oscillations
(iii)Average RRRV upto first peak.

90 Write technical note on: 8

(i)High Resistance arc interruption

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(ii)Current Zero arc interruption

91 Show how the restriking transient can be damped by connecting a resistance across the 8
contact of a C.B.
92 (i) What is an arc? How the arc is formed in vacuum circuit breaker. Explain. 4+4
(ii) How are the rating of circuit breaker specified?
93 Draw neat figure of low capacity d.c. C.B using high resistance arc interruption 8
principle. Briefly explain how arc interruption occurs in it.

94 What is current chopping? How does it the system insulation? How current chopping is 8
prevented in air blast CBs?

95 In a system of 132kV,the circuit phase to ground capacitance is 0.02µF,and the circuit 8

inductance is 5H.The circuit breaker interrupts a magnetizing current of

(i)The voltage across circuit breaker contacts after the current interruption.

(ii)The value of resistance to be used across the contacts to suppress restriking voltage.

96 Explain the terms recovery voltage,restriking voltage and RRRV.Derive an expression 8

for restriking voltage in terms of system capacitance and inductance.

97 Explain the construction, principle of operation and application of SF6 circuit breakers. 8

98 In a short circuit test on a circuit breaker, the following data was obtained on a 8
frequency transient (i)Time to reach the peak restriking voltage 55µS.

(ii)The peak restriking voltage 100kV.

Determine the:

(i)Natural frequency of the circuit

(ii)Average rate of rise of restriking voltage.

99 Define the term “active recovery voltage”.Discuss the factors which influence active 8
recovery voltage of CB. Explain the principle of circuit interruption.
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Question Bank

Branch Electrical Engineering

Semester VII


Subject Code 324733(24)

Department of Electrical Engineering

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Unit –1

a) Define active and passive load torque. What are the difference between the two? 2
b) Explain what do you understand by steady state stability. What is the main assumption? 6

2 a) Draw block diagram of electrical drive and answer the functions of power modulator. 2

b) Explain four quadrant operation of a motor driving a hoist. 6

a) Write down fundamental torque equation for motor load system. 2

b) A motor is used to drive a hoist. Motor characteristics is given by 6

Quadrant I, II, IV: T=200-0.2N, N-m

Quadrants II, III, IV: T=-200-0.2N, N-m.

Where N is the speed in rpm. When hoist is loaded, the net load torque Tl=100,N-m and

when unloaded net load torque Tl= -80,N-m.Obtain the equilibrium speeds for operation in

all the four quadrants.

4 a) What are the reasons for using load equalization in an electric drive? 2
b) A 6 pole,50Hz 3phase wound induction motor has a flywheel coupled to its shaft. The total 6

moment of inertia of motor -load-flywheel is 1000kg-m2.Load torque is 1000Nm of 10sec

duration followed by a no load period which is long enough for the drive to reach its no load

speed. Motor has a slip of 3% at a torque of 500Nm.Calculate

(i)Maximum torque developed by motor.

(ii)Speed at the end of deceleration period.

Assume motor speed-torque curve to be a straight line in the operating range.

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5 a ) Can a motor load system with a passive load torque have an equilibrium speed at 2
quadrant II? What will be your answer if the load is active?

b) A horizontal belt conveyor moving at a uniform speed of 1.2m/sec transports 6

material at the rate of 100 tonnes/hour. Belt is 200m long and driven by a motor at

(i) Determine the load inertia referred to motor shaft.

(ii) Calculate the torque that motor should develop to accelerate the belt from
standstill to full speed in 8sec.Moment of inertia of motor is 0.1kg-m2.

6 a) Calculate starting time of a drive with following parameters: J=10 kg- 2

m2,T=15+0.5ωm and TL=5+0.6 ωm

b) A motor drives two loads. One has rotational motion. It is coupled to the motor 6
through a reduction gear with a=0.1 and efficiency of 90%.The load has a moment
of inertia of 10kg-m2 and torque of 10N-m.Other load has translational motion and
consists of 1000kg weight to be lifted up at an uniform speed of 1.5m/sec. Coupling
between this load and the motor has an efficiency of 85%.Motor has an inertia of
0.2 kg-m2 and runs at a constant speed of 1420rpm.Determine equivalent inertia
referred to the motor shaft and power developed by the motor.

7 a) State the different components of load torque 2

b) A drive has following equations for motor and load torques: T=(1+2ωm ) and 6
Tl=3√𝜔𝑚 . Obtain the equilibrium points and determine their steady state stability.

8 a) What are the applications of electric drive. 2

b) Draw the block diagram of an electric drive and state essential parts of electric 6
drives and its advantages.

9 a) State advantages of electrical drives 2

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b) What are the various factors that influence the choice of electric drives? 6

10 A motor is equipped with a flywheel is to supply a load torque of 1000N-m for 8

10sec followed by a light load period of 200N-m long enough for the flywheel to
regain its steady state speed. It is desired to limit the motor torque to 700N-m.What
should be the moment of inertia of fly wheel? Motor has an inertia of 10kg-m2.Its
no load speed is 500rpm and the slip at a torque of 500N-m is 5%.Assume Speed
torque characteristics of motor to be a straight line in the region of interest.

Load diagram of a shearing machine shows a periodic fluctuation of torque with 8

11 10000Nm required for 10sec and 1000Nm for 20 sec. The combined inertia of
motor and fly wheel referred o the motor shaft is 1000kg-m2.calculate the
maximum and minimum values of torque and speed. The motor speed torque
characteristics is a straight line given by the equation T=20000-20N,N-m, Where
N is the speed in rpm.

12 A motor equipped with a flywheel has to supply a load torque of 600Nm for 10sec 8
followed by a no load period long enough for the flywheel to regain its full speed.
It is desired to limit the motor torque to 450Nm.What should be the moment of
inertia of the flywheel? The no load speed of the motor is 600rpm and it has a slip
of 8% at torque of 400Nm.Assume motor speed-torque curve to be a straight line in
the operating range. Motor has an inertia of 10kg-m2.

13 A weight of 500kg is being lifted up at a uniform speed of 1.5m/s by a winch 8

driven by a motor running at a speed of 1000rpm.The moment of inertia of the
motor and winch are 0.5 and 0.3 kg-m2 respectively. Calculate the motor torque
and the equivalent moment of inertia referred to motor shaft. In the absence of
weight, motor develops a torque of 100Nm when running at 1000rpm.
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14 A motor is required to drive the take up roll on a plastic strip line. The mandrel on 8
which the strip is wound is 15cm in diameter and the strip builds up to a25cm in
diameter. Strip tension is maintained constant at 1000N.The strip moves at a
uniform speed of 25m/s. The motor is coupled to a mandrel by a reduction gear
with a=0.5.The gears have an approximate efficiency of 87% at all speeds.
Determine the speed and power rating of motor required for this application.

15 Explain that the steady state stability of a drive depends on relative characteristics 8
of the motor and load and not just the motor(or load) characteristics.


16 a) What do you understand by constant torque drive and constant power drive? 2

b) Explain the various classes of motor duty with suitable diagram. 6

17 a) The 10 min rating of a motor used in a domestic mixture is 200 watts. The heating 2
time constant is 40 min and the maximum efficiency occurs at full
load(continuous).Determine the continuous rating.

b) What are the heating and cooling time constants? Derive an expression for 6
temperature rise of an electric motor.

18 a) A motor of small rating can be selected for short time duty. Why? 2

b) A constant speed drive has the following duty of cycles: 6

(i) Load rising from 0 to 400kw :5 min

(ii)Uniform load of 500kw=5 min

(iii)Regenerative power of 400kw returned to the supply:4 min

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(iv)Remains idle for:2 min .

Estimate power rating of motor. Assume losses to be proportional to (power)2 .

19 A motor has continuous rating 100kw.The heating and cooling time constants are 50 min and 8
70min respectively. The motor has maximum efficiency at 80% full load and is employed in an
intermittent periodic load cycle consisting of an load period of 10 min. Calculate the value of
load in KW during the load period.

20 The motor rating is to be selected from a class of motors with heating and cooling time 8
constants of 60 and 90 min respectively. Calculate the motor rating for the following duty

(i)Short time periodic duty cycle consisting of 100kw load for 10 min followed by no load
period long enough for the motor to cool down.

(ii)Intermittent periodic duty cycle consisting of 100kw load period of 10min and no load period
of 10 min. Assume losses to be proportional to (power)2.

21 Derive an expression for overloading duty factor for a short time duty motor. 8

22 a) State the classes of insulating materials used in electric machines depending on temperature 2

b) Explain phase locked loop(PLL) speed control scheme. 6

23 Explain the operation of a closed loop position control scheme. 8


24 a) Why regenerative braking is not preferred in Series motor? 2

b) Explain with sketch how plugging braking is done in dc motor and explain with the supply is 6
disconnected before the load reached zero speed.

25 a) Field control is employed for getting speeds higher than rated and armature voltage control is 2
employed for getting speeds less than rated. why?

b) A 250V dc separately exited motor has an armature resistance of 0.4Ω.The field current is 6
kept constant. The full load speed is 600rpm and full load current is 25amp.The resistance of 1Ω
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is added in series with armature. Find (a)
Speed at full load torque. (b
)Speed at twice the full load torque. (c)
Stalling torque.

26 a) Explain why a dc series motor is more suited to deal with torque over loads than other dc 2

b) A 220V separately excited dc motor has armature resistance of 0.05Ω and speed of 1000rpm 6
and armature current of 100Amp.Find
(i)Resistance to be added in armature circuit to limit braking current to twice the full
load current.
(ii)Initial braking torque
(iii) Braking torque when speed is fallen to 500rpm

27 a) Plot torque speed characteristics of dc shunt motor during dynamic braking. 2

b) A dc machine has simplex wave wound armature with 144coils and 10 turns each. The 6
resistance of each turn is 0.011Ω.The flux per pole is 0.05wb and speed is 200rpm.Find
(a) armature resistance
(b) Torque if a 1000Ω resistance is connected to its terminals.

28 a) What factors limit the maximum speeds of field controlled dc motors. 2

b) Explain multi quadrant operation of separately excited dc motor fed from fully controlled dual 6

29 a) When varying speed by field flux control, flux must be varied in small steps only. Why? 2

b) Draw the performance curves for dc shunt and series motor and show the necessary 6

30 a) State the types of braking used in dc machines. 2

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b) A fully controlled rectifier fed separately excited dc motor is required to operate in motoring 6
and braking operations in the forward direction. Only one full controlled rectifier is available
.What switching arrangement will be required. Explain.

31 a) What are the limitations of conventional Ward Leonard drives? 2

b) A 230V, 1200 rpm, 15A separately excited motor has an armature resistance of 1.2Ω.Motor is 6
operated under dynamic braking wit chopper control. Braking resistance has a value of 20Ω.
i) Calculate duty ratio of chopper for motor speed of 1000 rpm and braking torque
equal to 1.5 times rated motor torque.
(ii)What will be the motor speed for duty ratio of 0.5 and motor torque equal to its
rated torque.

32 A 220V , 1500 rpm, 10A separately excited dc motor is fed from a single phase fully controlled 8
rectifier with an ac source voltage of 230V,50Hz.Ra=2Ω.Conduction can assumed to be
continuous. Calculate firing angles for
(i)Half the rated motor torque and 500 rpm (ii)
Rated motor torque and (-1000)rpm.

33 Explain the transient analysis of separately excited dc motor with armature control. 8

34 Write short notes on 8

(i) Universal motor
(ii)Permanent magnet motors.

35 A 220V,1500 rpm, 50A separately excited motor with armature resistance of 0.5Ω is fed from 3 8
phase fully controlled rectifier. Available ac source has a line voltage of 440V,50Hz.A star delta
connected transformer is used to feed the armature so that motor terminal voltage equals to rated
voltage when converter firing angle is zero.
(i) calculate transformer turns ratio
(ii) Determine the value of firing angle when :
(a)motor is running at 1200 rpm and rated torque.

(b)when motor is running at -800rpm and twice the rated torque.

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36 Explain chopper control of separately excited dc motor 8


37 a) Give the names of different methods for starting of squirrel cage induction motors. 2

b) Derive an equivalent circuit for the dynamic braking of an induction motor and 6
explain why it is necessary to account for the saturation in magnetic circuit.

38 a) Why a single winding single phase induction motor does not have a starting torque? 2

b) Explain self controlled synchronous motor drives. 6

39 a) Why is the power factor of slip power recovery scheme of speed control of induction 2
motor is low?

b) A 3 phase,400V,6 pole ,50Hz , delta connected ,slip ring induction motor has rotor 6
resistance of 0.2Ω and leakage reactance of 1Ω per phase referred to stator. When
driving a fan load it runs at full load at 4% slip. What resistance must be inserted in the
rotor circuit to obtain a speed of 850 rpm. Neglect stator impedance and magnetizing
branch. Stator to rotor turns ratio is 2.2.

40 a) Why high inrush occurs during open circuit transition in star-delta and auto transformer 2
starters of induction motors.

b) A 440V, 50Hz ,6 pole ,Y connected wound rotor induction motor has following parameters 6
ref. to stator.
Rs=0.5Ω, Rr’=0.4 Ω, Xs=Xr'=1.2Ω, Xm=50Ω. An
external resistance is inserted in to rotor circuit so that maximum torque is produced at
Sm=2.The motor which was initially operating on no load is being braked by 1 phase ac
dynamic braking with three lead connection. Calculate the braking current and torque as a ratio
of their full load values for 950 rpm.
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41 a) What is single phasing? Why should it be avoided? 2

b) Draw the diagram of static Kramer drive and explain its working. 6

42 a) Why stator voltage control is suitable for speed control of induction motors in fan and pump 2

b) Draw the diagram of static Scherbius drive and explain its working. 6

43 a) When operating in regenerative braking, the induction motor slip should not be allowed to 2
exceed breakdown slip. Why?

b) Explain V/F control of ac drives with suitable sketch. 6

44 a) Why stator voltage control is inefficient for induction motor speed control? 2

b) Explain Voltage source inverter controlled three phase induction motors. 6


45 a) Define Co efficient of adhesion. In what way it is different from the coefficient of 2


b) Describe the chopper controlled dc traction drive with composite braking. How it is 6
ensured to minimize energy dissipation in dynamic braking?

46 a) State the motors used in traction drives 2

b) Discuss the operation of dc traction drive employing voltage source inverter fed 6
induction motor drive. How composite braking is carried out.

47 a) Why traction drive should have a large torque at low speeds and when just being 2
started? Why the torque required during free running is lower than torque required
during starting?[
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b) An electric train weighing 500 tonnes climbs up gradient with G=8 and following 6
speed-time curve:
(i)Uniform acceleration of 2.5km/hr/sec for 60 sec
(ii) Constant speed for 5min
(iii)Coasting for 3 min
(iv)Dynamic braking at 3kmphps to rest.

The train resistance is 25N/tonne, rotational inertia effect 10% and combined efficiency
of transmission and motor is 80%.Calculate specific energy consumption.

48 a) What is the nature of traction load. 2

b) A train service consists of following: 6

Uniform acceleration of 1kmkphps for 2 min
free running for 30 mins
Coasting for 2 min at a deceleration of 0.1kmkphps
Uniform braking at 1.2kmkphps to stop
A stop of 5 min. Calculate
(a) Distance between the stations (b) Scheduled Speed (c) Average Speed

49 a) What are the factors which effect scheduled speed of train? 2

b) Discuss the difference between main line and sub urban trains? 6

50 a) Why train driven by a separately excited dc motors has better adhesion than train 2
driven by series dc motors

b) Describe the advantages and drawbacks of a semi conductor converter controlled 6

traction drives.

51 Describe load commutated inverter synchronous motor ac traction drive. How does it 8
operate in regenerative braking.

52 Derive an expression for the total tractive effort required to move the locomotive. 8
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Question Bank

Branch Electrical Engineering

Semester VII

Subject Modern Control System

Subject Code 324733(24)

Department of Electrical Engineering

Santosh Rungta Group of Institutions


1 A non linear system is given by 8

G(s)= K / {s(1+s)(1+0.5s)}

Draw a polar plot for K=1 and K=2 when limit cycle exists in the system.

b/X 0 0.2 0.4 1.0 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.0

ǀKnǀ 1 0.954 0.882 0.592 0.367 0.248 0.125 0.064 0

<Kn 0 -6.7 -13.4 -32.5 -46.6 -55.2 -66 -69.8 -90

2 Explain about the describing function of backlash nonlinearity. 8

3 Explain the various nonlinearities introduced in the system and why? 8

4 Define describing function and derive the function for saturation non linearity. 8

5 How can the analysis of a non-linear system using phase plane technique be 8
performed. Explain the describing function of ‘backlash Hysteresis’.
6 Consider a system with an ideal relay s2C(s)=u(s). Determine singular point. 8
Construct phase trajectories corresponding to initial condition. (𝑖)𝑐(0) = 2, 𝑐̇ (0) = 1
(𝑖𝑖)𝑐(0) = 2, 𝑐̇ (0) = 1.5 Take r=2 V and M=1.2V
7 What are describing functions? Derive the describing function of a relay with dead 8
zone and hysteresis.
8 Which are the common non-linearities introduced in a system. 8
9 Explain describing function. 8
10 Define describing function and derive the function for dead zone non linearity. 8
11 State and prove Cayley Hamilton Theorem 8
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12 Compute state transition matrix. Given that 8

𝛼 0 0 𝑤 𝛼 𝑤
A1 = ; A2 = ; A =
0 𝛼 −𝑤 0 −𝑤 𝛼

13 A linear time invariant system is described by following state model 8

𝑥1′ 0 1 0 𝑥1 0 𝑥1
′ =
𝑥2 0 0 1 𝑥2 + 0 [𝑢]; 𝑦=1 0 0 𝑥2
𝑥3′ −6 −11 −6 𝑥
2 𝑥3
Transform canonical
this state state
modelmodel of the system
into canonical stateand draw Also
model. blockcompute
whosetransition 8
matrix. function is
𝑌(𝑠) 10(𝑠 + 4)
𝑈(𝑠) 𝑠(𝑠 + 1)(𝑠 + 3)

15 Obtain state model of the system whose transfer function is given 8

𝑌(𝑠) 10
= 3
𝑈(𝑠) 𝑠 + 4𝑠 2 + 2𝑠 + 1
16 Construct state model of the mechanical system given 8
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17 Convert the following state model of a system into controllable phase variable form 8

18 Construct state model and block diagram for a system characterized by differential 8
𝑦 ′′′ + 6𝑦 ′′ + 11𝑦 ′ + 6𝑦 + 𝑢 = 0

19 Construct state model of the mechanical system by choosing minimum of three state 8

20 Consider matrix A. Compute state transition matrix by any two methods 8

0 1
−2 −3

21 State the Four Stability Theorems of Lyapunov. 8

22 Determine whether the following equation is positive definite or not 8

Q(𝑥1 , 𝑥2 )= 10𝒙𝟏𝟐 + 4𝒙𝟐𝟐 + 𝒙𝟑𝟐 + 2𝑥1 𝑥2 - 2𝑥2 𝑥3 -4𝑥1 𝑥3
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23 Examine stability of the system described by following equation by Krasovaskii’s 8
theorem 𝑥1′ = −𝑥1

𝑥2′ = 𝑥1 − 𝑥2 − 𝑥23

24 Using Lyapunov direct method, find range of K to guarantee stability of the system 8

𝑥1′ 0 0 −𝐾 𝑥1
′ =
𝑥2 1 −1 0 𝑥2
′ 0 1 −1
𝑥3 𝑥3
25 0 0 −𝐾 8
A second order system is described by x’=Ax where A= 1 −1 0 .
0 1 −1
Use Lyapunov theorem and determine stability of the origin of system. Write function
26 Use Krasovaskii’s theorem
Use Lyapunov to show
theorem and that the equilibrium
determine state
stability of thex=0 of the
origin of system
system. Write 8

described by f(x)
function 𝑥1 = −3 𝑥1 + 𝑥2

𝑥2′ = 𝑥1 − 𝑥2 − 𝑥23

27 Is asymptotically stable in the large. −1 1 8

Determine stability of the system described by x’=Ax where A=
−2 −4
And check stability of the system

28 Define (a) Positive definiteness (b) Negative definiteness (c) Positive Semi definite 8
(a) Negative Semi definite

29 Define (a) Quadratic Form (b) Hermitian Form 8

30 Write short note on stability of linear and non linear system. 8
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31 A single input system is described by the following state equation 8

Design a state feedback controller which will give closed loop poles at -1+j2, -1-j2, -6

32 Brief about Control system design via pole placement by state feedback method. 8

33 Explain in brief about Ackerman’s formula for pole placement. 8

34 Explain design of Servo system when plant has an integrator 8

35 −1 1 8
Consider the system described by state model x’=Ax and y=Cx. Where A=
1 −2
and C=1 0
36 Define state observer and its types. Also design a state observer 8

37 Consider a linear system described by the transfer function 8

𝑌(𝑠) 10
𝑈(𝑠) 𝑠(𝑠 + 1)(𝑠 + 2)

Design a feedback controller with a state feedback so that closed loop poles are placed
at -2, -1+j1, -1-j1
38 0 1 0 8
The dynamics of a system is represented by X’= X+ U ; y=2 0X
−2 −3 1
It is desired to design a state observer so that a new pole placement will be at -10,-10

39 Explain design of Servo system when plant has no integrator 8

40 Design a type I servo system when plant transfer function has an integrator 8

𝑌(𝑠) 1
𝑈(𝑠) 𝑠(𝑠 + 1)(𝑠 + 2)

Desired closed loop poles are -2+j2√3, -2-j2√3, -10. The reference input r is a step
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41 𝒕𝒇 8
Let ρ=∫𝒕𝒐 √(𝟏 + 𝒙̇ 𝟐 ) 𝒅𝒕 with the boundary condition x(to)=a, and x(tf)=b. Find the
optimal curve or extremal.
42 A system is described by x1’ = u- x1, x1(0)=1. Find u(t) to minimize the system 8
considering two-point boundary value problem.
𝑱 = ∫ (𝒙𝟏𝟐 + 𝒖𝟐 )𝒅𝒕

43 Determine the optimum input using Matrix Riccati Equation 8

𝟏 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎
∫ 𝑿𝑻 [ ] 𝑿 + 𝑴𝑻 [ ] 𝑴 𝒅𝒕
𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 𝟏

44 Find the extremal of the following function which is subjected to boundary conditions, 8
x(1)=3 and x(tf)=3
𝑷(𝒙) = ∫ (𝟐𝒙(𝒕) + 𝟎. 𝟓𝑥̇ 2 (𝑡))𝒅𝒕
45 State optimum control problem. Derive the Matrix Riccati Equation 8

46 Explain mapping between s-plain and z-plane. 8

47 Obtain discrete Euler Lagrange equation. 8

48 Determine optimal integral curves when performance index is expressed as follows 8

𝑱=∫ ( 𝒙̇ 𝟐𝟏 + 𝒙̇ 𝟐𝟐 + 𝟐𝒙𝟏 𝒙𝟐 )𝒅𝒕
49 𝒕𝒇 8
boundary + 𝒙̇ 𝟐 𝒅𝒕 with
∫𝒕𝒐 √𝟏 conditions are xthe boundary condition x(to)=a,
1(0)=0, x2(0)=0, x1(π/2)=-1,
x(tf)=b. Find optimal
curve/ extremal.

50 Explain the factors that affect the design of optimum controller. 8

Santosh Rungta Group of Institutions

Question Bank

Branch Electrical Engineering

Semester VII

Subject Energy Auditing and Management

Subject Code 324734(24)

Department of Electrical Engineering

Santosh Rungta Group of Institutions

1 Write short notes on (i)Load management (ii) Energy Conservation 8

2 Discuss different renewable sources of energy with special reference the Indian context. 8

3 Discuss in detail the different energy forecasting techniques 8

4 Write down the difference between renewable and non renewable sources of energy 8

5 What do you mean by Energy Management? How is it different from Demand Side Management? 8
6 What is Energy Conservation? Explain 8
7 What are the different types of energy sources? Write their limitation also. 8
8 Explain short term load forecasting 8
9 Explain energy conservation in realistic distribution system 8
10 Discuss different renewable sources of energy with special reference the Indian context. 8
11 Explain the significance of Load management in detail 8


12 Define Firewood Crisis. Explain Solar PV Energy system 8

13 Explain how wind power generation used for large scale electricity generation. 8

14 Explain open loop Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation. 8

15 Explain about super conductors 8
16 Explain in detail the working of wind driven induction generator 8
17 Explain briefly potential of wind energy system. 8
18 Describe about global warming and its effect 8
19 Explain briefly Tidal Power system. 8
20 Explain Wave Energy 8
21 Explain Closed loop Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation. 8
22 What is wind Energy? How do Wind Turbines work 8
23 Define PV effect. Write short notes on different type of Solar energy collectors with neat diagrams. 8
24 Write short notes on (i) Solar Radiation (ii) Power generation using Solar tower concept. 8
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25 What are the main components of a flat plate Solar Collector, explain the function of each 8
26 8
Define Solar Attitude angle. Why orientation is needed in concentrating type collectors?

27 With the help of a neat sketch describe a solar heating system using water heating solar 8
collectors. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method?

28 Explain about different types of non conventional energy sources 8

29 Explain briefly about preventive maintenance. 8

30 How is power factor improvement done? Describe various methods in detail. 8

31 Explain Process Modification. 8

32 Derive Tariff. List the characteristics of Tariff 8

33 What are the limitations of low power factor. Explain in brief 8

34 Explain energy Audit. 8

35 What is the significance of Energy Audit. Explain Different methods of Energy Audit. 8

36 Explain detailed energy audit 8

37 Explain three major energy audit stages in details 8

38 Discuss the methods of audit adopted for A/c and refrigeration system. 8

39 Explain the purpose of Energy Audit and Methodology adopted for audit system. 8

40 How does the tariff support renewable energy 8

41 How does the tariff support energy efficiency, demand side management and demand response 8
42 How does the tariff structure been determined? 8

43 Explain with a neat sketch the working principle of standalone and grid Connected solar 8
system .
44 A consumer has a maximum demand of 200kW at 40% load factor. If the tariff is Rs100 per KW of 8
maximum demand plus 10paise per kWh, find the overall cost per kWh.
Santosh Rungta Group of Institutions
45 The monthly readings of a consumer’s meter are as follows: 8

Maximum demand=50kW

Energy Consumed=36,000kWh

Reactive Energy=23,400 kVAR

If the tariff is Rs. 80 per KW of maximum demand plus 8 paise per unit plus 0.5 paise per unit for each
1% of power factor below 86%, Calculate the monthly bill of the consumer.

46 Suggest some energy conservation measures for Industries. 8

47 Explain Technology Up gradation. 8

48 What are the energy conservation Opportunities in residential building, shopping complexes and 8
University campuses?.

49 Explain The concept and method of energy conservation. 8

50 Discuss the main objectives of Energy Conservation. 8

51 Explain energy conservation and energy conservation opportunities. 8

52 How is the energy cost reduced by energy conservation? 8

53 Describe the role of instrumentation in energy conservation. 8

54 Explain the methodology of upgrading Boiler performance. 8

55 Explain various energy conservation measures in process industries. 8

56 Describe the energy management opportunities in electrical heating and lighting system. 8

57 Describe the energy conservation opportunities in Transportation. 8

58 Explain how the energy conservation can be carried out in compressor. 8

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59 Write Short Notes on (i)Valley Filling (ii) Peak Clipping (iii) Load Shifting 8

60 Briefly explain DSM planning and implementation. 8

61 What is Time Delay pricing 8

62 Explain in detail the load priority technique. 8

63 Explain the steps involved in DSM planning and implementation. 8

64 Discuss briefly Socioeconomic Awareness Programs. 8

65 Explain Energy Efficient equipment. 8

66 Explain the management and organization of Energy Conservation Awareness Programs. 8

67 Explain the Energy Efficient Technology in Electrical System. 8

68 Explain Energy Conservation opportunities in illumination and Industrial sector. 8

69 Describe the benefits of Demand Side Management. 8

70 With the flowchart, explain the management and and organization of Energy Conservation 8
awareness program.

71 What is Time of Day Pricing? With the help of suitable example, explain how this help in an 8
efficient DSM.

72 Explain various DSM strategies from load curve objective view. Mention benefits of strategies . 8

73 Describe the some of the important types of tariff commonly used in Demand Side Management. 8
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Question Bank


Semester VII


Subject Code 324742(24)

Department of Electrical Engineering
Session 2017-18
Santosh Rungta Group of Institutions

1 Explain types of memory available in computer system. 8

2 Explain machine structure of IBM 360/370(Architecture of IBM 360/370). 8

3 What are the difference between C language and Assembly language? 8

4 Explain Addressing modes. 8
5 Explain Data transfer operations. 8
6 Explain Data format of IBM 360/370. 8
7 Explain Instruction format of IBM 360/370. 8

8 Discuss in detail about the overview of system software used in a computer system. 8
9 Explain Compare and branch instructions. 8

10 Explain logical and shift operations. 8


11 What is Translator? Explain its types. 8

12 What is Assemble? Explain types of Assembler. 8

13 What is compiler? Explain with all phases of compiler. 8

14 Explain about the data structure used in design of a two pass assembler. 8
15 Explain Searching techniques. 8

16 Construct the syntax tree for: x =(a*b)+(c*d) 8

17 Translate the arithmetic expression into equivalent postfix notation: 8

18 Show the result of each pass for following list using shell sort: 8
19, 13,05,27,01,26,31, 16,02,09,11,21
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19 Show the result of each pass for following list using bucket sort: 8
424, 887, 807, 709, 882, 616,573,679,180,975,264
20 Show the result of each pass for following list using Interchange sort: 8
19, 13,05,27,01,26,31, 16,02,09,11,21

21 What is Subroutine? Explain its types. 8

22 What is the concept of Macro? Explain Macro Definition, Macro call and Macro 8
Expansion with example.

23 Write a Macro to find greatest among three numbers. 8

24 Write a Macro for swapping of two nos. 8

25 Explain macro instruction arguments with example. 8

26 Explain Conditional macro expansion with example. 8

27 What is Macro processor? Explain Macro processor design and data structures used in 8

28 Explain macro calls within macro with example. 8

29 Give an example of Nested macro. 8

30 What are the steps involve in the implementation of Macro Processor? 8

31 What is loader? And explain working of loader and basic functions of loader. 8

32 What is linker? And explain working of linker and basic functions of linker. 8

33 Explain the following: 8

(i) Absolute loader

(ii) Relocating loader
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(iii) Compiler and Go loader
(iv) Bootstrap loader
34 Explain Dynamic loading with example. 8
35 What is linkage editor? Give the function of the same. 8

36 How linker program is responsible for automatic searching of library? 8

37 Explain relocation and linking concept in detail. 8

38 Explain Program Forms & self Relocation. 8

39 What do you mean by program relocation? 8

40 Explain Linkage Editors. 8

41 Write note on: 8

a. MS-DOS EDIT editor

b. Command line arguments
c. Binary editor
d. Word processor
e. Debugger
f. Loading and manipulating of address and data.
42 What is an editor? Explain its type. 8

43 List out the 4 names of popular editors. 8

Name two command line editors. 8
45 Discuss in detail about an editor and the design of an editor. 8

46 What are the functions of MS-dos editors? 8

47 Explain the structure of MS-DOS in detail. 8