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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

FOOD TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY


LABORATORY REPORT

COURSE CODE BNQ 40304

EXPERIMENT NO. EXPERIMENT 1

EXPERIMENT TITLE PICKLING PROCESS

DATE 29/09/2019

GROUP NO. 6

LECTURER/INSTRUCTOR/TUTOR 1) TS. DR. NASRUL FIKRY CHE PA


2) DR. ELIZAH BINTI MOHAMED

DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION 10/06/2019

ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION/DISIPLINE: /5%

INTRODUCTION: /5%

PROCEDURE: /5%

RESULTS & CALCULATIONS /15%

ANALYSIS /15%
DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS FOR
DISCUSSIONS: /20%
LABORATORY REPORT:
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS /15%

CONCLUSION /10%

SUGGESTIONS & RECOMENDATIONS /5%

REFERENCES: /5%

TOTAL: /100%

EXAMINER COMMENTS: RECEIVED DATE AND STAMP:


STUDENT CODE OF ETHICS

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

I hereby declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also admit to

not accept or provide any assistance in preparing this report and anything that is in

it is true.

1) Group Leader (Signature)

Name : LUQMAN BIN YUSOF


Matrix No. : DN 160341

2) Group Member 1 (Signature)

Name : ANIQ AFIFI BIN SELAMAT


Matrix No : DN 160302

3) Group Member 2 (Signature)

Name : MUHAMAD NUR FARID LEONG BIN MUHAMMAD ZAIDI


LEONG
Matrix No : DN 160298
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Figure 1 shows cucumber pickle

One of the famous preservation processes is pickling. Pickling is the sample


soak in high-acid solution, either by adding vinegar or naturally by means of
fermentation. Thus, pickling inhibits the growth of bacteria, fungi or other micro-
organisms and ensure the food well preserve. Moreover, pickling can prolong the
shelf life of the food and inhibit most of microbes from growth in high-acid
condition. Salt, sugar, vinegar, and citric acid are the examples of the main chemical-
based preservatives that commonly applicable to the pickling process. These
preservatives could lower the pH of sample and preservation solution without a
thermal process. Besides, it still considered as safe and stable process. In this
experiment, the activities focus on effect of chemical preservation process on data
harvesting/output response of pH, total soluble solid and moisture content.

Pickling is one of the most famous method in preserving foods. It is


considered as food preservation under fermentation technique as it have quite similar
process in performing it such as very well-known fermentation food is kimchi.
Variety of sample or foods can be preserved using this way and the most prevalent
food being pickled are vegetables and fruits. It is found that most of pickles are
ordinarily made out of cucumber, carrot, chillies, papaya and pineapple. Instead,
pickles providing additional flavour and nutritional to the foods. In this experiment,
cucumber are used and chosen to be pickled. Cucumber is a cheaper and easy to cut
and process for pickling. The other example of pickle is chilies. Chillies pickle one
of the example that familiar seasoning that are served together with Asian dishes
located in street stalls or even fancy restaurant. It can be seen in the middle of the
table or at the corner of the wall placed together with soy sauce, chillies sauce and
pepper. The pickling process can be done easily at home. Homemade pickle is
preferable as it helps in sustaining the food shelf life. Pickling is admired because it
is an easy method to preserve food and helps in slowing down the decaying process
so that the food can be kept longer. It can be done by adding salt, sugar, spices, brine
or vinegar to the food that are desired to be pickled. Vinegar is the famous medium
for pickling. It is suitable as the vinegar itself are in high acidity along with the acid
forms from the food itself helps in controlling and preventing the growth of
microorganisms or bacteria present in the food. In fermentation pickling, the food
itself produces preservatives agent by involving lactobacillus bacteria that produce
lactic acid as the preservative agent (Pickling, Last edited 2018). Eugenia Bone stated
that the most vital thing about using vinegar is its five percent acidity that causes the
changes in flavour, texture and acts as a preservative. Distilled white vinegar and
white wine vinegar are mostly used in pickling process as it does not affect the colour
of most vegetables (Bone, 2009). Fruits and vegetables have natural antioxidants use
to fight against unstable free radicals formed naturally in human body which are
harmful to health. However, cooking in high temperature usually break down some
of the antioxidant due to heat sensitive nutrients. Thus, pickling helps in sustaining
the antioxidants present naturally in the food (Stevens, 2015). Some other benefits of
pickling are it improves food shelf life, fight against bad bacteria, increases good
bacteria and alter the taste of food by adding vinegar as the medium of pickling which
have high acidity that prevents the growth of microorganism that causes deterioration
of food ((C), 2016).
2.0 PROCEDURE

Students need to have prior knowledge of the unit operation and procedure of an
operation for this respective apparatus. It is assumed that students have gone
through the start-up check list with the instructor.

(A) Preparation of pickle solution


1. All the ingredients were weighted all according to the Table 1.

Table 1: Ingredient of fruit/vegetable pickling solution.


Ingredient/cost items Solution

Salt 6 ts

Vinegar 900ml

Water 600ml

Sugar 210g

2. Salt and sugar were dissolved in the water on a slow heating. The solution was
stirred continuously.
3. Vinegar was added, stirred and heating was stopped.

(B) Preparation of fruits and vegetables


4. The cucumber was washed, rinsed and peeled appropriately. The cucumber was
chopped into the appropriate size. One sample was soak in CaCO3 solution in
20 minutes.
5. Washed, rinsed and dried with paper towel.
6. The cucumber was transferred into the plastic container. The pickle solution
was added to the fully immerse and the container was labelled.
(C) Determination of pH
1. 100g of the cucumber was weighted into glass beaker
2. The cucumber was mashed with mortar until watered.
3. The pH strip was dipped into the cucumber.
4. The pH strip was determined by compared the colour of the pH strip to the
colour chart at the pH paper kit and the reading was recorded.

(D) Determination of total soluble solids


1. 20 g of the cucumber was weighted and 100-150 mL of distilled water was
added.
2. The content in the beaker was heated to boiling point and gently boiled for 2-
3 minutes, stirred with glass rod.
3. The content was cooled and achieved temperature below 200C after mixed
thoroughly for 20 minutes.
4. The contents were filtered through a filter paper into a dry vessel and the
filtrate was reserved.
5. 2-3 drops of filtrate were added on the fix prism of the refractometer and the
movable prism was adjusted.
6. The refractive index was read.
7. The reading of the percent sugar was determined and recorded from the table.

(E) Determination of Moisture Content


1. The cucumber was weighted on weighing scale and recorded as W1.
2. The cucumber was heated in drying oven, constant weight was achieved (at
least three (3) repeated data) and recorded as W2.
3. The moisture content was calculate using equation below:

Moisture (%) = W1-W2 X 100


W1
3.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS

Determine pH and total soluble solids of the pickle solution. By using moisture
analyser, determine the moisture content of the fruit or vegetable before treatment and
after 1-hour treatment.

Sample pH Total Moisture Content


soluble
solids W1(g) W2(g) m.c

Sample 1 (Before 6 0.2 69.9871 67.6606 3.32


treatment)
66.6604 4.75

66.5094 4.97

Sample 2 - 4 1.4 73.4328 70.7416 3.66


without soaking in
67.2783 8.38
CaCO3 (After 1-
hour treatment) 67.2563 8.41

Sample 3 – with 4 0.8 71.6625 66.3950 7.35


soak in CaCO3
66.3503 7.41
(After 1-hour
treatment) 66.2875 7.50

Calculation

Moisture content

Example calculation

Sample 1

Moisture (%) = W1-W2 X 100

W1

69.9871−67.6606
Moisture (%) = × 100
69.9871

Moisture (%) = 3.32%


4.0 ANALYSIS

pH against sample type

The analysis of pH versus sample type for type 1 sample 1 (Before treatment),
sample 2 (without soaking in CaCO3), and sample 3 (with soak in CaCO) is recorded
in the graph above. The pattern shows slightly lowered between sample 1 and sample
2 while for the sample 3 there are only few decimal different between it.

Total soluble solid against sample type


The analysis of total soluble solid against sample type for type 1 sample 1 (Before
treatment), sample 2 (without soaking in CaCO3), and sample 3 (with soak in CaCO)
is recorded in the graph above. For the sample 1 the reading is the lowest at 0.2 while
sample 2 and 3 are only slightly different in range but the sample 2 has the highest
reading of total soluble solids.

Moisture content for sample 1 (Before treatment)

moisture content against W2(weight after


drying)
6
moisture content

5
4
3
2
1
0
66.4 66.6 66.8 67 67.2 67.4 67.6 67.8
W2(weight after drying)

The analysis of moisture content versus sample type for type 1 sample 1 (Before
treatment) is recorded in the graph above. The reading of moisture content after
drying process in oven for the sample 1 is declining uniformly as the W2 higher.

Moisture content sample 2 (without soaking in CaCO3)

moisture content (%) against W2(weight


after drying)
7.55
moisture content (%)

7.5

7.45

7.4

7.35

7.3
66.28 66.3 66.32 66.34 66.36 66.38 66.4 66.42
W2(weight after drying)
The analysis of moisture content versus sample type for type sample 2 (without
soaking in CaCO3) is recorded in the graph above. The reading of moisture content
after drying process in oven for the sample 2 is declining steeply as the weight of the
W2 is higher

Moisture content sample 3 (with soak in CaCO3)

moisture content (%) against W2(weight after drying)


10
9
8
moisture content (%)

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
66.5 67 67.5 68 68.5 69 69.5 70 70.5 71
W2(weight after drying)

The analysis of moisture content versus sample type for type sample 3 (with soak in
CaCO3) is recorded in the graph above. The reading of moisture content after drying
process in oven for the sample 3 is declining steeply. The early reading of the sample
are moisture content of 3.66.
5.0 DISCUSSION

Pickling is one of the famous method to preserve food or extending the lifespan
of food. Pickles are usually made from a mixture of vegetables and fruit. Food
preservation also defined as the science which deals with the methods of prevention of
decay or spoilage of food. The method of pickling is the preparation and processing of
a food in a salt-containing salt or acid (normally vinegar) or both in which food can be
stored for months otherwise perishable. The resulting food is called a pickle. If the food
contains sufficient moisture, simply adding dry salt may produce pickling brine. Some
pickling types, most commonly sauerkraut and Korean kimchi, salt the vegetables to
remove excess water, then allow natural fermentation to produce a lactic acid-like
vinegar solution. Other pickles are made by soaking the vegetable in vinegar. Pickling
does not allow the food to be completely sterile before it is sealed, unlike the canning
process. The solution's acidity and salinity makes it an environment where bacteria and
fungi do not grow rapidly.

The producing of pickles included a few steps. First, to guarantee the


contaminating substance was eliminated from the vegetables, the vegetables are rinsed.
After that, by using knife that were provided, the unwanted part of the vegetables such
as skin were peeled. To be specific, the vegetables that used in this process is cucumber.
The next step of pickling process is the cucumber were cut down into small pieces to
improve eating suitability of food and for future processing. The cucumber had been
soaked in calcium carbonate solution (CaCO3) for about 20 minutes. In the process of
soaking, the cucumber will be more firm than before. After 20 minutes, the cucumber
had been rinses by using tap water to eliminate excess calcium carbonate solution.
After that, the cucumber were transferred into a beaker that contain pickle solution. For
the pickle solution, it contains 3 table spoons of salts, 450ml of vinegars, 300ml of
water and 105g of sugar. The same amount of salts, vinegars, water and sugar were
prepared and the cucumber that does not treat with calcium carbonate as second sample
were soak into other pickle solution. Both of the sample were treated for 1 hour. The
third sample which act as control for this experiment is the cucumber were left into
other beaker that does not treated with calcium carbonate and pickle solution.

In this experiment, there are three condition that shows changing pattern for
three samples. First testing to determine all the pattern changes is pH value. Thus, pH
value of this three sample were measured by using pH paper. For the sample 1 (no
treatment), the pH value is 6. In this control sample, the pH value is nearly become
neutral and show that cucumber pH without any treatment is slightly acidic. Then, for
the without soaking with the calcium carbonate, the reading show 4 which is literally
acidic. While for the soaking with the calcium carbonate show the same reading as
second sample which is 4. Both of the reading show same acidic values. Theoretically,
the vinegar had great influence in the solution because most pH value for vinegar is 2.4
which is highly acidic. For sample that soaking in pickle solution with calcium
carbonate pH value had little error because the value must have slightly higher than
sample 2. The calcium carbonate is a carbonic salt which has alkali properties. We can
say that in the pickling process for cucumber is achieved whereas there is a lot of
changes in the samples.

Next, for the testing, total soluble solid (TSS) for the sugar content of sugar
solution were measured because the sugar is the major component for the solution.
From the result that were obtained, the reading for sample with soaking in CaCO3 is
lower than the sample without soaking in CaCO3. After soaking into CaCO3, the sample
texture will become firm than before because CaCO3 interacts with gelling agents such
as pectin to produce or strengthen a gel. So, the sugar in the pickle solution was hardly
absorbed by the samples. Other than that, the first samples that not go through any
treatment shows the lowest sugar content. This is because the absence of sugar in the
samples.

Last but not least, moisture content for each different condition is measured by
calculate the dry weight of the samples. All the sample will had been dried in drying
oven and measured until all shown constant reading. For the third sample which soak
in CaCO3 reading is lower than second because of the osmosis process that occurs
between pickle solution and cucumber. Osmosis process are the movement of water
molecules through a selectivity permeable membrane. Theoretically, the reading must
be increasing through the sample. This happened due to some errors. Sample 1 shown
the lowest moisture content because it has its own cucumber water content.
6.0 ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS

1. What are the preservative aspects that you have learned in this experiment?

Preservative are define as the substance capable of inhibiting or retarding


degradation of food cause by microorganism. Food preserving and processing
methods divided into three aspects which are physical processing, biological
processing and chemical processing (Amit, Uddin, Rahman, Islam, & Khan,
2017). The experiment conducted the preservative of cucumber based on
chemical processing. The cucumber is preserve by pickling using conventional
method. The quality of the preservative method also can be improved by
chemically treatment.

2. What is the purpose of adding salt, sugar and vinegar into the solution?

Using natural preserving agent such as sugar and salt can chemically reduce the
water contain and inhibit the growth of microorganism. The present of sugar
and salt in the solution cause dehydration which attempts to reach equilibrium
with the salt or sugar content of the food causing the drawing the water contain
within the food to the outside and inserting salt or sugar molecules into the food
interior. It suppresses the undesirable microbial activity by increase osmotic
pressure and leads to slowing decay, promote the growth of beneficial bacteria
as well as improve taste. However, vinegar inhibit the growth of microorganism
by introduce acid environment to the solution. Vinegar is a solution that
commonly contain between 5-10% acetic acid and useful at preserving food
because it is an acid that is safe to consume.

3. Why you need to soak fruit/vegetable in CaCO3 solution before immersing into
pickle solution?

Calcium treatment prevent the texture loss of the fruit/vegetable, it helps


maintain the appearance of a food product. Texture affected genetically such as
morphology, cell wall-middle lamella structure, cell turgor, water content as
well as growing condition, environmental factors and production practices of
the plant food (Garcia & Barrett, n.d.). Calcium act as agent that improved tissue
firming by form cross-links between carboxyl groups of the pectin chains,
resulting strengthening of the cell wall. Dipping treatment before immerse into
pickle give extra benefit since the enzyme and substrate release from the injured
cells (peeling, cutting, and shredding) are rinsed, hence avoiding oxidation that
cause browning and off-flavor (Rico & Henehan, 2007).

7.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, pickling method is one of the preservation food that can be eaten
and solution of antibacterial issue because it has highly acidic that can kill the bacteria
inside the food. Pickling method also prevent the bacteria growth because this method
usually remove moisture inside the food whereas the bacteria need water to survive.
Sugar, vinegar and salts most common component that used in pickling process. This
experiment focus on effectiveness of processing and preservation of pickled cucumber
as well as to observe the pH value, moisture content and total soluble solid (TSS) sugar
content. The color of the pickled cucumber also changes into pale from the original
color. The pH values for treated cucumber changes into more acidic which is 4 while
the untreated cucumber is nearly neutral. Thus, it proved that vinegar influence the
samples to become more acidic. For total soluble solid (TSS), the reading were increase
from 0.2 to 1.4 and 0.8. During the process, sample that soaked in calcium carbonate
become more firm and sample become less solubility rather than sample without soak
in calcium carbonate. So, we can say that calcium carbonate has potential to change
soft food become more firm by pickling method. Lastly, moisture content for the first
sample was the lowest because it has its own water while the other two has high
moisture content due to osmosis process in pickle solution.
8.0 SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION

There are some recommendations to improve the hygiene and the quality of the
pickled products. Firstly, the food need to pre-soaked in brine for longer time before
transferring to vinegar. Brine or also known as salt solution such as Nacl CaCO3, this
help to reduces the water content of the food, which would otherwise dilute the vinegar.
This method is particularly useful for fruit and vegetables with a high natural water
content. Secondly, a soft water is recommended for pickle making because hard water
may contribute to undesirable effect on the colour and flavour of pickled products. Soft
water is surface water that contains low concentrations of ions and in particular is low
in ions of calcium and magnesium. Next, as the vinegar is the most important ingredient
in pickle recipes, it should be used in an adequate amount of 5% acidity to protect the
products from any bacteria and illness to consumer. Besides, the packaging of the
pickled products are also crucial to prevent any reaction of the metals with acid or salt,
which simultaneously affect the quality and safety of pickles. Hence, use food-grade
unchipped enamelware, glass, stainless steel, or stoneware utensils. Moreover, size of
the sample need to be small due to have large area reaction for absorption between the
samples and pickle solution. Instead, it is also give some advantages to the consumer
for easy to pick and eat. Lastly, pickled products is recommended to mainly kept under
refrigerated and airtight condition because exposure to heat, freezing, or light will
decrease the quality and the shelf life of canned food.
9.0 REFERENCES

1. Bone, E. (2009). Well-Preserved: Recipes and Techniques for Putting Up Small


Batches of Seasonal Foods.Stevens, C. J. (2015, April 6).

2. Testing The Acidity Of Vinegar. Retrieved from Culture For Health:


https://www.culturesforhealth.com/learn/kombucha/testing-acidity-strength-
vinegar/

3. Calcium Carbonate (CHEBI:3311). Retrieved September 18, 2018


https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/fr/searchId.do?printerFriendlyView=true&locale
=null&chebiId=3311&viewTermLineage=null&structureView=image&

4. Pickling. Retrieved 2017, from Victoria Hansen Food:


http://www.victoriahansenfood.com/knowledgebase/pickling/

5. Are Pickles Good for You? Retrieved November 28, 2018, from Healthline:
https://www.healthline.com/health/food-nutrition/are-pickles-good-for-you#1

6. (C), K. (2016). World Pickling Week. Retrieved from Kilnerjar:


http://www.kilnerjar.co.uk/wpw/whypickle.html#