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SPE 145879

SPE 145879 Reservoir/Well Production Assurance Strategies for Successful Field Development Projects Keng Seng Chan, Rahim

Reservoir/Well Production Assurance Strategies for Successful Field Development Projects

Keng Seng Chan, Rahim Masoudi, Abdolrahim Ataei, Nasir H. Darman, Mohamad B. Othman, SPE, PETRONAS

Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition held in Jakarta, Indonesia, 20 –22 September 2011.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is pro hibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract Wells drilled and completed following the approved
must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract Wells drilled and completed following the approved

Abstract Wells drilled and completed following the approved field developed plan (FDP) may not yield satisfactory performance results as predicted at the FDP phase. The gap could be due to accumulation of various uncertainties and risks encountered in each phase of field development planning from reservoir characterization, flow dynamic properties, well reservoir penetration and production optimization, well design, drilling and completion, to well support surface facilities design and implementation.

This paper delineated the issues/challenges in each key task of field development planning focusing on three key areas for

Real field

example cases were used to illustrate the need to improve integration of pre-during-post FDP strategies and approaches. The

paper also provides simple and short check lists on requirements and workflow for helping to assure FDP well production throughout the field life.

improving quality assurance in (1) reservoir simulation, (2) drilling and completion, and (3) production system.

Introduction The today study trend of the Full Field Reviews (FFR) and the Field Development Projects (FDP) are toward using more detail and comprehensive methodologies and modeling/predictive tools. Typically the Field Development Plan is finalized by multi-disciplinary teams after a detail study in geology, geophysics, petrophysics and reservoir engineering sections by using all the historical and available info/data supported by the predictive models/tools. For improving oil and gas recovery, FDP well plan is developed by reservoir model simulation after a successful history match. The best well location and orientation, the required number of wells, the individual well optimum angle and length, and the most suitable type of completion are to be progressively evaluated with cost estimate.

However, the wells drilled and completed following the FDP well plan may not yield the expected production performance. Lack of valid reservoir and layer data, uncertainties in reservoir characterization, PVT and dynamic flow properties may be the main causes but the associated risks should be systematically studied. The well simulation, for instance, and reservoir simulation must be checked for consistency/integrity and monitored/updated by subsequent actual production and pressure data. It is quite obvious that for the success of any development plan to ensure on the expected production assurance, there should be a systematic monitoring-evaluating-updating strategies pre, during, and more importantly post FDP.

Reservoir Simulation Assurance

The quality of the reservoir simulation history match may vary based on the objectives and error tolerance between the

WOR

(Water/Oil Ratio) and GOR (Gas/Oil Ratio), which may shed some light on gas cap gas and aquifer water anomalous flow behaviors, were grossly neglected particularly at the late time (Fig 1).

historical data and simulation results.

Quite often, the focus is on matching the pressure and production rates.

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HM & Simulation Comparison; Water Rate, Cum vs time 2,000 1.8 HisWtrMonRate bbl/d 1,800 A1WaterCD
HM & Simulation Comparison;
Water Rate, Cum vs time
2,000
1.8
HisWtrMonRate bbl/d
1,800
A1WaterCD bbl/d
1.6
HisCumWtr Mbbl
1,600
1.4
A1WaterCum bbl
1,400
1.2
1,200
1
1,000
0.8
800
0.6
600
0.4
400
0.2
200
0
0
01/01/1989
01/01/1990
01/01/1991
01/01/1992
01/01/1993
01/01/1994
01/01/1995
01/01/1996
01/01/1997
01/01/1998
01/01/1999
01/01/2000
01/01/2001
01/01/2002
01/01/2003
01/01/2004
01/01/2005
01/01/2006

Fig 1.

results (solid lines) and the actual production data (solid points).

A comparison between actual vs. simulation history match on water production rate. Note the significant gap between the simulation

For achieving the desired match, a host of “transmissivity multipliers” were applied to limit vertical/lateral flow and flow near the faults sometimes without rigorous physical understanding. Aggravated by using large grid size and homogeneous flow properties description, the prediction for water and gas breakthroughs and the impact on production and recovery can be very optimistic.

For wells planned in such high risk area, a recommended approach is to conduct a sector and single well simulation to study the mechanism of water and gas coning and channeling and to predict production rate and trend corresponding closely to local reservoir conditions (Fig 2). In addition, the sector and single well simulation can also yield optimized well orientation, angle and reservoir penetration length.

well orientation, angle and reservoir penetration length. Fig 2. A sector model simulating number of branches,

Fig 2. A sector model simulating number of branches, angle and length of a multi-lateral well. (Jim Liu, personal communication, 2009)

A full field simulation can then be conducted with optimized sector wells to predict and confirm field production and

recovery.

Drilling and Completion Assurance

Single well simulation can also perform sensitivity studies on well orientation, angle and length (Fig 3) and develop a range

of acceptable well trajectory and well design deviation allowance. Together with petrophysical and rock mechanical drilling

studies, this could generate a road-map for drilling to assure targeted production.

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SPE 145879 3 Fig 3. A single well angle and length optimization based on layer thickness

Fig 3. A single well angle and length optimization based on layer thickness and dip angle in a specific reservoir sector [1].

Based on geological uncertainties and risks due to the potential lithofacies change vs. depth, the potential of drilling through shallow gas or layer of gas hydrates, the risk of drilling through Karsts zone, and unexpected location shift of a fault, initial well drilling trajectory may have to be changed (Fig 4). An alternate plan including completion change should be developed

to assure production drilling.

change should be developed to assure production drilling. Fig 4. An example showing multiple potential well

Fig 4. An example showing multiple potential well trajectories

Production System Assurance

A production system model (Nodal) analysis shall be performed using the reservoir inflow parameters as used in the

simulation model in the corresponding sector (Fig 5).

Focusing on evaluation of vertical lift potential, a suite of sensitivity studies can be conducted for determining proper tubing size, gas lift requirement, and generate a specific VLP hydraulic table for the proposed well and completion

It can also be used to generate different levels of production as a function of skin, an expression of either reservoir flow

restriction or formation damage.

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4 SPE 145879 Fig 5. A typical Nodal Analysis study showing the production sensitivity on inflow

Fig 5. A typical Nodal Analysis study showing the production sensitivity on inflow restriction or formation damage. a requirement for lift optimization or optimizing the tubing size.

This example also shows

FDP Production Optimization Work-Flow For a “Brown Field”, there should be more reservoir and production data available. Existing well production behavior study and production history data analysis should provide more insight to reservoir drive mechanism. Relatively more core and fluid samples shall also be available for SCAL and PVT studies.

A comprehensive production optimization workflow can then be developed for continuous FDP improvement. Fig 6 shows a simple loop of workflow and tasks and their interplay for continuous FDP improvement.

Well Plan Well Plan Mud Loss Mud Loss Initial Production Data Initial Production Data Review
Well Plan
Well Plan
Mud Loss
Mud Loss
Initial Production Data
Initial Production Data
Review Logs and
Review Logs and
Review Logs and
Review Logs and
Key Reservoir
Key Reservoir
Key Reservoir
Key Reservoir
FDP Plan
FDP Plan
Drilling & Completion
Drilling & Completion
Drilling & Completion
Drilling & Completion
Core
Core
Core
Core
Initial Wellbore
Initial Wellbore
Initial Wellbore
Initial Wellbore
Profiles
Profiles
Profiles
Profiles
Approval
Approval
Data Review
Data Review
Data Review
Data Review
Clean-Up & Start-Up
Clean-Up & Start-Up
Clean-Up & Start-Up
Clean-Up & Start-Up
Layers, KhP
Layers, KhP
Cores, Fluids
Cores, Fluids
Contacts
Contacts
PVT, Reactions
PVT, Reactions
Production &
Production &
Production &
Production &
Revised Well Plan
Revised Well Plan
Flow Assurance
Flow Assurance
Flow Assurance
Flow Assurance
Flow Assurance
Evaluation
Evaluation
Evaluation
Evaluation
Evaluation
Laboratory Test
Laboratory Test
Laboratory Test
PVT, K, Pc
PVT, K, Pc
&
& &
Evaluation
Evaluation
Evaluation
Stable Flow
Stable Flow
PI Gap
PI Gap
Simulation Model
Simulation Model
Simulation Model
Simulation Model
Optimized PI
Optimized PI
History Match
History Match
History Match
History Match
Formation Damage
Formation Damage
Formation Damage
FDP Revision
FDP Revision
Lift Optimization
Lift Optimization
Evaluation
Evaluation
Evaluation
& &
Stimulation
Stimulation

Fig 6.

A simple workflow and task loop showing the interplay between key tasks.

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The key tasks are again listed as below:

1. Well Drilling and Completion Implementation and Review

2. Laboratory Test and Evaluation

3. Initial Wellbore Clean-Up and Production Start-Up

4. Initial Production and Flow Assurance Evaluation

5. Formation Damage Evaluation

6. Lift Optimization and Stimulation

7. Production Monitoring and Data Verification

8. Simulation Model History Match and Prediction Revisit

9. Field Production and Recovery Improvement Plan Revision

Task 1. Well Drilling and Completion Implementation and Review First task is to drill following the drilling plan and implement designed completion and well flow control tubular. It is critical that actual well trajectory and any discovery on litho-facies and fault orientation change should be documented and data provided for reservoir model and well production system model update.

During the drilling, the zones of mud loss, volume and rate of mud loss shall also be quantified for pre-production wellbore clean-up and simulation consideration. Fig 7 shows a flow chart for decision making during the drilling operation.

chart for decision making during the drilling operation. Fig 7 . A suggested workflow for checking

Fig 7. A suggested workflow for checking the actual drilling, well test, and comparison with well plan and completion design.

Task 2. Laboratory Test and Evaluation Cores and fluid samples shall be carefully handled on-site and sent for a series of laboratory tests to acquire PVT property and dynamic flow property data. These information and data, together with open-hole log data including layer thickness, pressure and fluid contacts shall be extremely valuable for updating and refining the reservoir simulation and well production system models.

In addition, reservoir fluids (oil, formation water, solution gas and gas -cap gas) shall also be analyzed and check for compatibility with intended workover (brine), wellbore clean-up (solvents and acids) and stimulation (acid and fracturing) fluids for tendency of scaling, emulsification, wax and asphaltene precipitation.

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The following is a comprehensive list of laboratory tests and studies (Fig 8) that can be very useful in improving our reservoir flow and production behavior understanding:

Collect appropriate fluid sample Subsurface sample Single phase Contamination concern Recombined surface sample GOR
Collect appropriate fluid sample
Subsurface sample
Single phase
Contamination concern
Recombined surface sample
GOR and recombination concern
Conduct all the required PVT tests on the sample
QC and Check sample validation
Compositional, flash vaporization and differential liberation tests
QC and develop the fluid model with one of the commercial fluid packages (e.g., PVTi)
Use the correct data for reservoir study
Check the consistency of the data
Trends of GOR, °API, BP or DP
Check against the reservoir P, WOC and GOC
Compositional grading concern
Check the CO2 and H2S contents and comment on potential compartmentalization and non-
equilibrium concern
Geochemistry Analysis (if required!)
Other Considerations
For Brown fields: How the applied PVT model comply with the production data?
How reliable can the PVT model capture the changes with the production life of the reservoir?
How is the affect of various injections (e.g., water, gas, chemical) on the fluid model

Fig 8. A list of suggested laboratory tests and studies including sample handling, quality control, data consistency checks and impact to production.

Task 3. Initial Wellbore Clean-Up and Production Start-Up

Mud damage and drilling debris at the wellbore need to be cleaned up and unloaded from the well prior to the production

start-up.

The best practice is to use coiled tubing with a jetting tool using a formation compatible wellbore clean-up fluid.

Fig 9 illustrates a step-by-step but simple workflow.

To start-up, the initial return of fluid shall be carefully monitored. Native fines (in-situ), invasion fines and silts (from mud) and flow (velocity) induced fines in the near wellbore formation can jam up at the wellbore due to convergent flow (production). Initial production start-up flow shall then focus on near wellbore clean-up. Plan a progressive choke size increase or a pressure draw-down increase schedule. Choke size can be increase when the rate in steady not declining and the return fluid becomes progressively less turbid.

Task 4. Initial Production and Flow Assurance Evaluation Flow assurance is vital for the success of any production operation especially in offshore and deepwater operations [2], which might be characterized by hostile environment (water depth and cold seabed temperature), difficulties of intervention and remediation operations, and challenging fluid properties. In such an environment, flow assurance is increasingly crucial in maintaining high reliability of subsea systems as it governs field architecture, installation requirements, flow activation and operating philosophy. It needs to consider, assess and monitor proven flow assurance strategies and modeling [3] to ensure uninterrupted flow of production from subsurface reservoirs to surface through the implemented production system at minimum capital and operation costs.

In addition to laboratory fluid tests and studies mentioned above, relevant information and data can also be obtained from work over histories. Fig 10 shows again a check list for an appropriate and integrated flow assurance evaluation.

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Evaluate Mud Loss Near W ellbore Invasion Volume Study Mud Dam age Mud Composition Mud

Evaluate Mud Loss

Near W ellbore Invasion Volume

Evaluate Mud Loss Near W ellbore Invasion Volume Study Mud Dam age Mud Composition Mud Cake

Study Mud Dam age

Mud Composition Mud Cake Formation

Volume Study Mud Dam age Mud Composition Mud Cake Formation Develop M ud Rem oval Fluids

Develop M ud Rem oval Fluids

M ud Dissolution by acid and solvent Mud Cake Dispersion by surfactant Debris Suspension by surfactant

Dispersion by surfactant Debris Suspension by surfactant Develop W ellbore Clean-Up Methods Coiled Tubing with

Develop W ellbore Clean-Up Methods

Coiled Tubing with Blaster Jetting Energizing fluids Ensure fluid return Optim ize clean-up fluid pum ping procedure

Fig 9. Simple wellbore clean-up workflow showing the importance of 4 basic elements: (1) Mud Cake Dissolution, (2) Mud Cake and Fine Debris Dispersion, (3) Residual Mud Cake and Debris Suspension, and (4) Hydrodynamic Flow for transporting the whole clean-up fluid out of the well.

Study Physico-chem ical PropertiesAsphaltene, w ax, naphthanates precipitation Hydrate form ation/condition/location M ineral scale form ation and location

Asphaltene, w ax, naphthanates precipitationStudy Physico-chem ical Properties Hydrate form ation/condition/location M ineral scale form ation and location Form ation

Hydrate form ation/condition/locationical Properties Asphaltene, w ax, naphthanates precipitation M ineral scale form ation and location Form ation

M ineral scale form ation and locationprecipitation Hydrate form ation/condition/location Form ation O f Dispersions Em ulsions, foam High

Form ation O f DispersionsM ineral scale form ation and location Em ulsions, foam High viscosities, separation problem s

Em ulsions, foamscale form ation and location Form ation O f Dispersions High viscosities, separation problem s Prevention

High viscosities, separation problem sand location Form ation O f Dispersions Em ulsions, foam Prevention and controlling m ethod for

Prevention and controlling m ethod for all the above (if any)Em ulsions, foam High viscosities, separation problem s Production & M aintenance Slugging, fatigue Corrosion

Production & M aintenanceand controlling m ethod for all the above (if any) Slugging, fatigue Corrosion and erosion W

Slugging, fatiguefor all the above (if any) Production & M aintenance Corrosion and erosion W ell integrity

Corrosion and erosion(if any) Production & M aintenance Slugging, fatigue W ell integrity and M echanical failure Fluid

W ell integrity and M echanical failure& M aintenance Slugging, fatigue Corrosion and erosion Fluid and Chem ical Com patibility Asphaltene com

Fluid and Chem ical Com patibilityand erosion W ell integrity and M echanical failure Asphaltene com patibility with oilfield solvent, CO

Asphaltene com patibility with oilfield solvent, CO 2, injection gas, com pletion fluids etcand M echanical failure Fluid and Chem ical Com patibility Em ulsion com patibility of various

Em ulsion com patibility of various elem ents - acids/frac fluids etcsolvent, CO 2, injection gas, com pletion fluids etc W ater com patibility in the water

W ater com patibility in the water injection casescom patibility of various elem ents - acids/frac fluids etc C om patibility of various applied

C om patibility of various applied chem icals/inhibitorsEm ulsion com patibility of various elem ents - acids/frac fluids etc W ater com patibility

Fig 10. Flow Assurance Revisited.

Task 5. Formation Damage Evaluation The nodal analysis shall again be conducted when the initial production shown lower than expected. The observed

production impairment can be evaluated as a portrait of having a flow restriction skin.

in the whole production system, the wellbore clean-up was successfully performed; the vertical lift was properly optimized

If there was no flow assurance issue

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that there was no issue of applying proper draw-down across the sand-face, the production impairment may be attributed to formation damage. Fig 11 is an example of production impact due to formation damage. Again a workflow of formation damage skin evaluation is shown in Fig 12.

600 500 400 A 1 300 200 100 2 1 0 0 500 1000 1500
600
500
400
A
1
300
200
100
2
1
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
Oil Rate, Bbl/D
Inflow
Inflow@Sandface (1)
Not Used
Inflow(1)
Outflow(A)
(1) 0.000
Inflow
Case2 (2)
Case 2(B)
(2) 10.000
Reservoir Skin
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Reg: Schlumberger - Companies
Not Used
Pressure, kg/cm²

Fig 11. A case of simply formation damage

Study Production History Discern Flow Regimes Set Up Production System Model Verify IPR Model Verify

Study Production History

Discern Flow Regimes

Study Production History Discern Flow Regimes Set Up Production System Model Verify IPR Model Verify VLP

Set Up Production System Model

Verify IPR Model Verify VLP Model Selective History Match

Verify IPR Model Verify VLP Model Selective History Match Study Production Impact Mechanical Skin Chemical Removable

Study Production Impact

Mechanical Skin Chemical Removable Skin Production Gap and Stimulation Gain

Chemical Removable Skin Production Gap and Stimulation Gain Type of Formation Damage Sands, Silts and Fines

Type of Formation Damage

Sands, Silts and Fines Organic Deposits Scales Water Induced Flow Damage

Fig 12. The workflow of the formation damage production impact evaluation using a total production system analysis method. It starts with setting up the reservoir and well models (IPR and VLP) and its verification by History Match using a stable flow regime production period. The mechanical skin (most likely by gravel pack completion), and the chemically removable skin shall be differentiated.

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Task 6 Lift Optimization and Stimulation The well-by-well production system can be further improved by reservoir stimulation and well vertical lift optimization. Fracture stimulation has been shown to be an effective mean to increase the well productivity in multi-layer reservoirs with multiple hydraulic fractures [4]. Lift optimization certainly becomes a necessity for producing from low pressure or “Brown- Field” reservoirs.

The following is an example of multiple fracture stimulation (Fig 13) for a single well that can achieve much more than 5 times increase in productivity index.

much more than 5 times increase in productivity index. Fig 13. A well simulated and having

Fig 13. A well simulated and having 8 hydraulic fractures as shown by a micro-seismic survey.

The lift optimization is becoming an indispensable skill for production technologists. Many commercial softwares are available for systematic case studies and evaluations. The following is a list of key data and analysis that need to be studied.

1. PI & Production characteristics (Rate, Water-Cut, GLR etc)

2. SBHP & FBHP

3. Fluid Properties & PVT data

4. Lifting Method selection

5. Tubing Selection

6. Lifting Design & Optimization

7. Maintenance & Operation Problems (Sand, Paraffin, Scale, Corrosion, Emulsion, Temperature, etc.)

Task 7. Production Monitoring and Data Verification Nothing more critical than having a good production data base for monitoring the performance of the FDP wells. The following is a list of studies that can be conducted:

1. Real Time Data Analysis and Monitoring

2. PDG data analysis and verification

3. Periodic Intervention Analysis

4. Pressure transient analysis

5. Extended Well Testing

6. Production Logging

7. Interference testing

8. Production allocation and verification

9. Well productivity and trend analysis

10. GOR and WOR Monitoring and Analysis

11. Well Integrity and monitoring

12. Problem diagnosis

13. Downhole gauges

14. Interference pressure, productivity, injectivity and connectivity tests

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In a “Brown Field”, the simulation model should also predict the water and gas breakthrough time and the trend of Water/Oil and Gas/Oil Ratios. These factors can shed some lights on the energy balance between the gas cap and the aquifer as a function of fluid withdrawal (production rate and volume) from the reservoir.

The following examples (Figs 14 and 15) show a gas-cap gas breakthrough and a water breakthrough by just plotting GOR and WOR derived from available production data:

100 100 100 Gas Gap Gas Breakthrough Gas Gap Gas Breakthrough 10 10 10 1
100
100
100
Gas Gap Gas Breakthrough
Gas Gap Gas Breakthrough
10
10
10
1 1 1
0.1
0.1
0.1
100
100
100
1000
1000
1000
10000
10000
10000
GOR, KSCF/Bbl
GOR, KSCF/Bbl
GOR, KSCF/Bbl

Cumulative Days

Cumulative Days

Cumulative Days

Fig 14. GOR trend showing Gas Cap early-time gas coning and late-time channeling

Gas Cap early-time gas coning and late-time channeling Fig 15. A simulation results showing different trend

Fig 15. A simulation results showing different trend of WOR for bottom water coning and channeling [5].

Task 8. Simulation Model History Match and Prediction Revisit A comparison between the actual production and simulation prediction for those FDP wells shall be conducted. Quite often, the FDP wells productions were not as predicted by reservoir simulation model.

Case studies can show that some are better than expected may be due to a delay of water and gas breakthrough. In some cases, the FDP well production was much less than expected which could be either due to wells were drilled into layers that may not

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have the same quality and property as used in the simulation model, or due to various completion and drilling damage problems.

Production data studies as mentioned above could also discern the predominant production drive mechanism for different production periods. Therefore it is very necessary to revisit the original history match and FDP predictions.

The following is a short list for updating reservoir simulation input:

1. Update Reservoir Inputs (Contacts, Facies, Layer Properties)

2. Update Well Inputs (Well Trajectory, Length, and Angles)

3. Update VLP Hydraulics

4. Update Production Data (Data Acquisition and Verification, Rate and Pressure Decline Analysis)

5. Update WOR, GOR Trends and Mechanism

The following (Fig 16) illustrates a match of reservoir pressure after implementation of FDP wells:

of reservoir pressure after implementation of FDP wells: Fig 16. An example of reservoir pressure history

Fig 16. An example of reservoir pressure history match after implementation of FDP production well and injection well plan.

The new History Match can take into account any change in reservoir description based on new logs and survey on the new FDP wells. History Match focus may also need to change from having just the hydrocarbon rate and pressure match to matching WOR and GOR in selected reservoir sectors. Drainage pattern may change as a result, OOIP and GIIP could be further refined, recovery factor could also be improved. Number of the FDP wells required, optimum well location, orientation and reservoir penetration may have to be re-defined. The original FDP plan may then be modified.

Task 9. Field Production and Recovery Improvement Plan Revision The revised FDP plan shall not only show the new well location and orientation, potential production gain, production facility requirement and investment cost, but also show the following results from the new reservoir studies:

1. Optimized Well Placement and Reservoir Penetration

2. Minimized Well Counts

3. Maximized Well Productivity

4. Feasibility of achieving Higher Hydrocarbon Recovery

5. Accelerated Production (Shorten Time to 80% Recovery)

6. Minimized Investment and Operation Cost

7. Maximized NPV

Below is an example of a modified FDP well plan after a continuous history match:

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12 SPE 145879 Fig 17. Example of a continuous history match after FDP well drilling and

Fig 17. Example of a continuous history match after FDP well drilling and completion which yield a need for adding additional wells. Note that horizontal wells are oriented differently in different sectors.

The benefit of new infill wells can also be illustrated as in the example shown below (Fig 18):

also be illustrated as in the example shown below (Fig 18): Fig 18. Oil rate and

Fig 18. Oil rate and recovery improvement as shown by incremental gain due to continuous additional infill wells drilling plan.

Conclusions

In the quest of improving the FDP well production, lists of relevant key technical tasks with their respective work-flows and

The workflows can be considered as a system of best engineering practices. They can

serve as general suggestions for production and reservoir engineers to conduct necessary and sufficient studies in order to improve or maintain the FDP well productivity.

their interplay have been delineated.

These workflows are to be rigorously reviewed by peers in the industry for further refinement and simplification.

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Case studies shall be conducted to check the applicability of these workflows. By working through these workflows, technical competency of our engineers can also be improved with focus and direction as suggested by these workflows.

Nomenclature

FFR

Full Field Review

FDP

Field Development Project

WOR

Water Oil Ratio

GOR

Gas Oil Ratio

PVT

Pressure Volume Temperature

SCAL

Special Core Analysis

VLP

Vertical Lift Potential

SBHP

Static Bottom Hole Pressure

FBHP

Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure

OOIP

Original Oil in Place

GIIP

Gas Initial in Place

NPV

Net Present Value

Acknowledgements The authors thank the management of PETRONAS for their permission to publish this paper. Thanks are also due to all other members of the project team for their continuous enthusiasm and dedication to study and evaluate mature and marginal field developments, and the development of a series of concepts on improving and ensuring the success of the field develop plans.

Reference

1. Smith R.W. et al, “Optimized Reservoir Development with High Angle Wells, El Furrial Field, Venezuela”, SPE 69738, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, February, 2001

2. Lim, L.C. et al, “Reservoir Fluid Evaluation and Flow Assurance Analysis: Offshore Field, South East Asia”, SPE 141604, paper presented at the SPE Production and Operation Symposium, Oklahoma City, 27-29 March, 2011

3. Ng, C., Tatimeti, K., and Lowry, T., “Flow Assurance Benchmarking – Bridging the Gap between Initial Design and Ongoing Operations”, OTC 20049, paper presented at the 2009 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 4-7 May,

2009

4. Forrest, G., et al, “Using Microseisms to Monitor Hydraulic Fractures Within the Bakken Formation of North Dakota”,

SPE 131778, paper presented at SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, 23-25 February 2010

5. Chan K.S., “Water Control Diagnostic Plots”, SPE 30775, paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 22-25 October 1995