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# Maxwell's Equations in 4-Dimensions.

Willem F. Esterhuyse

Abstract

We resolve the negative sign in Maxwells equations by putting it in another context (the
negative sign changes to positive). We also write two of Maxwells equations as one equation.
The text uses my computation method for a nxm determinant. We develop a formalism using
the 4-dimensional curl of the Electromagnetic potential. We use the scalar electric potential
appended with the vector magnetic potential into the same vector. The model predicts that time
would pass differently in a spatially varying Electromagnetic field.

1. nxm Determinants.

## 1.1 Method: nxm Determinant

The general way to compute a nxm matrix A's determinant is stated first. Say n > m. Then
compute the determinant as usual until reaching the rx2 stage, (r < n). Then develop the
remaining determinants as follows. Explicitly delete any row(s) (such that 2 remains) and replace
the entries by []. Then move the rows upwards so that 2x2 determinants remain. Take the sum of
all combinations of deleted rows. If an odd number of moves was required, multiply the term by
-1, otherwise let the term plus together with the other terms. Alternatively one can start at the
nxm determinant and write this as a sum of mxm determinants containing all combinations of
retained rows (with the row we are going to develop with never deleted), with the same explicit
deletion of rows and shifting up the rows (and multiply a term by -1 if an odd amount of shifts
ocurred). For n < m do similarly, just with "column" replacing "row" and "2xr" replacing "rx2" in
this paragraph.

Four dimensional curl of a four dimensional vector function (the d's are partial derivative d's):

Del4xF(x)=

|h i j k |
|d/dx0 d/dx1 d/dx2 d/dx3 |

## |F0(x) F1(x) F2(x) F3(x) |

compute with my formula for nxm determinant. In the h direction this equals:

## | F1(x) F2(x) | | F1(x) F3(x) | | F2(x) F3(x) |

Similarly for i, j, k.

## 1.2 nxm Determinant and the Electromagnetic Potential

We compute first the vector product of del and the scalar electric potential  appended with
the vector magnetic potential (A) using my defnition of the non-square determinant:

del4x(*3A) = | h i j k |

| d0 d1 d2 d3 |

|  A1 A2 A3 |

|A1 A2 A3 |

## = h [(d1A2 - d1A3) - (d2A1 - d2A3) + (d3A1 - d3A2)] + ...

= h [ | d1 d1 | - |d2 d2 | + | d3 d3 |

| A3 A2 | | A3 A1 | | A2 A1 |] + ...

Were the symbol for "deleted entry" is: "[]" and dn = partial d/dxn.

Equation (1) shows that: in a spatially varying magnetic potential such that the terms in (1)
does not all cancell and some of it is non-zero and non-constant, time would flow faster or
slower than a clock outside the potential. The time component is the h direction. It would pass
faster if the overall sign is positive and slower if it is negative.

in i direction we have: - i | d0 d2 d3 |
|  A2 A3 |

| d1 d2 d3 |

| A1 A2 A3 |

= i | do d1 |

| -A1|

## we see grad ... contains the terms left out in (5).

for j we have: j | d0 d1 d3 |

|  A1 A3 |

| d1 d2 d3 |

| A1 A2 A3 |

## (-grad  - d0A )2 j = j (-d2 - d0A2)

= j | do d2 |

| -A2|

for k we have: - k | d0 d1 d2 |

|  A1 A2 |

## - (del3 x A) = | i j k|=-k( d1A2 - d2A1) + ...

| d1 d2 d3 |

| A1 A2 A3 |
(-grad  - d0A )3 k = k (-d3 - d0A3)

= k| d0 d3 |

| -A3|

## 1) calculate del4 x -(*3A).

2) in the space directions: for terms with d0: replace the two terms (per unit vector) with the term
containing d0 that was left out in item 1).

3) in the space directions: for terms with : replace the two terms (per unit vector) with the term
containing  that was left out in item 1).

## We see that the amount of differentail operations decreased from 3 to 1.

2. Maxwell's Equations.

Define "E Newline Append H" = "E NA H". Work out: (1) Del3 x H NA E.

## | d/dx1 d/dx2 d/dx3|

|H H2 H3 |

|E1 E2 E3 |

= |i j k |-|i j k |+|i j k |

## | d/dx1 d/dx2 d/dx3 | | d/dx1 d/dx2 d/dx3| |H H2 H3 |

| H1 H2 H3 | |E E2 E3 | |E1 E2 E3 |

## in the i direction this equals:

i | d/dx2 d/dx3 | = i | d/dx2 d/dx3 | - i | d/dx2 d/dx3 | + i | H2 H3 |

| H2 H3 | | H2 H3 | | E2 E3 | | E2 E3 |

| E2 E3 |

= [] + i { H2E3 - H3E2 }

therefore:

D3x(H *34 E) = D3xH - D3xE + i {H2E3 - H3E2} - j {H1E3 - H3E1} + k {H1E2 - H2E1}

Or:

## D3x(H *34 E) - HxE = J + de0E/dt + dm0H/dt (1)

and we see that the sign of dm0H/dt is nicely resolved (it was negative previously). We can now
state that the nxm determinant computation method is encoded in the laws of physics.
Furthermore:

|H1 H2 H3 |

|E1 E2 E3 |

## Or (substituting S = ExH in this):

D3x(H *34 E) + S = J + de0E/dt + dm0H/dt (3)

So we see the ExH term is also nicely resolved. So we combined two equations of Maxwell with
no oddities.

We see (by the swapping of rows rule for determinants) that RS (3) is antisymmetric under the
replacements: H -> E and E -> H and e0 -> m0 and vice versa. The RS needs to be multiplied by -
1 when doing this substitution, then the equation remains the same.

References: