Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

FROM WIGGLES TO PROPERTIES. "THE ONLY WAY TO CONNECT ROCK PROPERTIES TO SEISMIC

AMPLITUDE OR RESPONSE IS TO USE ROCK PHYSICS."

Rock Physics

Ida Herawati

Ultimately all exploration is related back to rock properties and the only way to connect rock properties to seismic amplitude or response is to use rock physics’

Ronny Hoffman

Penilaian

 • Tugas 25% • Quiz 15% • UTS 30% • UAS 30%

INTRODUCTION

What is rock physics ?

Rock Physics describes a reservoir rock

by physical properties such as porosity,

rigidity, compressibility; properties that

will affect how seismic waves physically travel through the rocks.

The Rock Physicist seeks to establish relations between these material

properties and the observed seismic

response, and to develop a predictive

theory so that these properties may be

detected seismically.

An important goal of rock physics is to help us

understand the physical properties of the

reservoir

At the location of a drilled well, we have

measurements that give us a good idea of the

elastic and physical properties of the subsurface rocks (velocity, density, lithology, porosity, conﬁ

ning stress, pore pressure, saturation, fracturing,

etc).

However, to understand these properties away

from the well, we use the seismic data.

Rock physics helps us link these properties to the seismic data and infer the variation of reservoir

properties in a lateral or vertical sense

Relationships between seismic expression

and physical rock properties requires 1) knowledge about the elastic properties of the pore fluid and rock frame 2) models for rock-fluid interactions.

Rock physics modeling provide a link

between rock properties, such as

porosity, lithology, and fluid saturation, and elastic attributes, such as velocities

or impedances.

Used in quantitative seismic

interpretation and reservoir

characterization.

Rock physics developments in the last ﬁve decades can be broadly divided into ﬁve main areas:

1. laboratory measurements (made on rock samples

under diﬀerent conditions);

2. interpretation of borehole measurements

(including well logging and borehole seismic);

3. modeling (theoretical models developed for establishing elastic properties of rocks under

appropriate conditions and also upscaling methods

to estimate the expected seismic properties from the available reservoir properties);

4. deformational analysis (studies aimed at

quantifying the sensitivity of rocks to stress);

5. seismic reservoir characterization (application of

rock physics knowledge to seismic data for

characterization of reservoirs).

Rock physics bridges the gap between geology, elastic

properties and seismic data. Image courtesy of Wes Hamlyn

(Ikon Science).

Rock Physics

Understand relations between geophysical

measurements and rock properties;

Emphasis on interpreting seismic, sonic, and ultrasonic data

Petrophysics

Interpretation of logs for formation evaluation.

Similar to rock physics, with emphasis on well logs, and often ignoring sonic logs and seismic

Rock Mechanics

Emphasis on stress, faulting, fracture processes

Rock physics can be used for forward modeling that

allows for the investigation of how fluids and pressure

changes might impact seismic responses at the well.

Rock physics templates/models can be constructed and

calibrated to log and core data & be used post inversion

Rock physics includes fluid substitution techniques which allow for a better understanding of how the

rocks might behave differently when pore spaces are

filled with different fluids.

Rock physics can provide constraints for seismic inversion i.e. can be used to guide the quantitative

interpretation of inversion attributes, and afterwards it

can be used to transform inverted impedances back to rock properties.

Joanna Hansford

Rock Physics Application

Pore pressure prediction

Wellbore stability

Reservoir geomechanics and stress effects in 4D

seismic monitoring

Seismic characterization of fractured reservoirs

Modeling the response of a fractured reservoir

Rock physics models for fractures

Shales and unconventional reservoirs

Rock physics modeling of kerogen in organic-rich

shales

Effect of anisotropy on AVO

Materi

Hukum Hooke dan Elastisitas

Dasar Fisika Batuan

Modulus Elastik

Bounds

Inklusi

Substitusi Fluida

Anisotropi

Cross-plot

Organik Shale