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I B.

TECH
(Common to All Branches)

INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING


Dundigal - 500043, Hyderabad

2014 - 2015

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Table of Contents
PC HARDWARE ............................................................................................................................................... 3
TASK 1 ............................................................................................................................................................ 3
TASK 2 .......................................................................................................................................................... 10
TASK 3 .......................................................................................................................................................... 29
TASK 4 .......................................................................................................................................................... 59
INTERNET AND WWW ........................................................................................................................ 115
TASK 7 ....................................................................................................................................................... 115
TASK 8 ........................................................................................................................................................ 121
TASK 9 ........................................................................................................................................................ 131
TASK 10: .................................................................................................................................................... 134
PRODUCTIVE TOLLS ............................................................................................................................ 146
MICROSOFT WORD ................................................................................................................................... 146
TASK 12 ...................................................................................................................................................... 146
TASK 13 ...................................................................................................................................................... 151
TASK 14 ...................................................................................................................................................... 154
TASK 15 ...................................................................................................................................................... 161
MICROSOFT EXCEL ............................................................................................................................... 164
TASK 16 ...................................................................................................................................................... 164
TASK 17 ...................................................................................................................................................... 164
TASK 18 ...................................................................................................................................................... 164
TASK 19 ...................................................................................................................................................... 164
MICROSOFT POWER POINT............................................................................................................. 165
TASK 20 ...................................................................................................................................................... 165
TASK 21 ...................................................................................................................................................... 165
TASK 22 ...................................................................................................................................................... 165
TASK 23 ...................................................................................................................................................... 166

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PC HARDWARE

Task 1: Identify the peripherals of a computer, components in a


CPU and its functions.

2
1 1. Network Adapter Card
3 2. Floppy Disk Dreive
3. CD-Rom Drive
4. Hard Disk
5. Ribbon Cables
6. RAM
4
7. CPU
8. Heat Sink/Cooler Fan
10 5 9. Mother Board
11 9 10. Sound Card
11. VGA Card

3
MOTHERBOARD

The first thing you will need to purchase is called the motherboard. Motherboards come
with variations such as the type of processor they can use. There are two types of
standard processors. the first is the "socket" processor which fits directly on to the
socket on the motherboard. The second is the slot type processor. This type of
processor is seated within a special carriage which in turn sits in a slot in the
motherboard. either one is acceptable, however the "slot type" processor requires a
few extra setup steps. Try to find a mother board that will fit the standard ATX chassis.

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

Don't allow this to intimidate you. The CPU is the most vital component in the PC. This
is the main calculator of the entire system. It tells other components what to do and
when to do them. Basically the CPU is nothing more than an extremely fast, math
calculator. The CPU is paired up with a heatsink (a piece of aluminum, milled with
many deep peaks and valleys that disperse excess heat) and a CPU fan which pulls air
across the peaks and valleys of the heat sink. The fan and heatsink are absolutely
neccessary to the operation of the computer you are going to build. Make sure you
choose a processor that will fit the motherboard you are buying.

MEMORY

Memory is vital to the operation of the computer. Memory comes in a lot of different
forms. Here is an overview of the what kinds of memory are available. Purchase at
least 256 megabytes of the type of ram that your motherboard can use.

• RAM (Random Access Memory)


This is the basic form of computer memory, which can be accessed randomly. In
other words, data can be read from or written to any byte of RAM, regardless of
its position.

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• SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module)
A small circuit board holding a bank of memory chips. Generally, Macintosh
SIMMs hold 8 chips, while PC SIMMs hold 9; the ninth chip being for parity error
checking. The 72-pin SIMMs that are common today must be added to a
Pentium-based motherboard in matched pairs, to compensate for their 32-bit
data path.

• DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module)


A small circuit board holding a bank of memory chips, with different contacts on
each side, allowing for twice the number of pins as a SIMM. This gives the
Pentium its required 64-bit data path to the memory, eliminating the need to
add DIMMs in matched pairs.

• DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)


This is the type of memory that is most widely used in PCs. DRAM must be
continually refreshed or it will lose its state (on/off), making it slower than
SRAM.

• SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)


This type of memory is faster and more reliable than DRAM because it needs to
be refreshed less often, but it is more expensive and requires more power.

• SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)


This type of memory brings about yet another speed improvement: it can be
clocked at higher speeds than BEDO DRAM. SDRAM synchronizes itself with the
processor to match bus speeds, but only up to about 100 MHz. PC-100 SDRAM
refers to SDRAM running at 100-MHz bus speed; PC-133 SDRAM runs at 133-
MHz bus speed.

• RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory)


This type of memory can deliver data at speeds of up to 600 MHz. Currently,
RDRAM is only used in certain high-performance graphics workstations, and it is
also used in the Nintendo64. Intel is licensing RDRAM technology for its future
motherboards, but this type of memory requires a special motherboard
architecture. Rambus DRAM is a type of memory that can run about three
times faster than typical SDRAM. The most current versions support bus speeds
between 600 and 800 MHz, which is why RDRAM is often identified as PC600,
PC700, or PC800.

• ECC (Error-Correcting Code)


This is a technique used in some types of memory to check the accuracy of the
data it stores. This is generally accomplished using a checksum method.

CHASSIS

Choose a chassis with room for expansion such as an ATX Mid-Tower or ATX Full-
Tower. Another important part of your chassis is the size or wattage of the power
supply. The switching power supply runs on 230 volts AC (alternating current) and
converts that voltage into 12 volts DC (direct current) and 5 volts DC. The power
5
supply makes the voltage coming through your wall outlet usable for the components
inside. A power supply under 250 watts, is not recommended, however some power
supplies can go up to 500 watts. Try to find a chassis with a power supply already
installed. Computer chassis come in different colors and designs. Most newer cases
have a sleek design on the front visible panel and easily removable side and top covers.

DATA STORAGE

The Hard drive is vital due to the fact that it will contain your operating system and
other files neccessary to run your computer. Your hard disk drive (ATA hard drive) is an
enclosed electronic device that stores randomly accesible data.

The "hard drive" gets its name from the part that actually stores information: a rigid
disk called a platter, which is rotated by a motor. To increase storage, most hard drives
feature two or more platters. Information is written to and read from the platter by a
read/write head, located in the head stack assembly. An actuator arm holds this
assembly in place. In turn, the actuator arm is positioned by upper and lower magnets,
also known as mag plates. The mag plates control the movement of the actuator arm
across the platter surface. This movement, along with the spinning of the platter, gives
the read/write head access to specific locations on the platter.

Signals that are read or written by the head are amplified by the read/write
preamplifier which, along with the actuator coil and the associated connectors, make up
the flex circuit. Near the flex circuit is the airlock. When the drive is powered down, this
device locks the read/write head into the "landing zone," a safe place on the platter
where no information is stored. This helps prevents data loss. These components are
encased in a base casting assembly and a cover, which are sealed tightly in a clean
room environment. This keeps out dust and other contaminants that can damage or
destroy the drive.

PORTABLE DATA STORAGE

Other types of data storage devices are also important. The Floppy Disk Drive is the
means of quickly storing up to 1.44 Megabytes of information on a single removable
disk.

The Basic CD-Rom drive can only read compact discs with data written on them. No
information can be transferred to this type of device. The CD-R and CD-RW are
Compact discs that data can be stored upon. The Difference between CD-R and CD-RW
is that CD-R’s can only have data written to them once per their life span. The CD-RW
can be written almost an infinite amount of times during it's life span which is about 10
years before the date written on the disc becomes corrupted due to the elements.

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EXPANSION CARDS

Before we begin, check to see if your motherboard is equipped with integrated onboard
video, audio, lan, or a modem. If your motherboard already has these features, you will
not need to buy the expansion cards.

VIDEO CARD

The computer video is the first thing that you can see when the computer boots.
Choose a high quality video card with at least 32 Mb of video memory and a high
refresh rate such as 100hz. There are essentially 2 types of video cards available. The
first is AGP (advanced graphics port) which fits into the AGP expansion slot on the
motherboard. By using an AGP video card, video performance is greatly increased due
to the fact that the motherboard bypasses some processes that would slow the video
speed down otherwise. The second is a PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect). This
type is usually sold, but not recommend. They cannot reach the pinnacle of the speed
an AGP card can.

SOUND CARD

The sound card is not a necessity but it is important if you plan on using your machine
to listen to music, watch movies, or play games. Purchase a sound card that meets or
exceeds your personal requirements. Creative Sound Blaster card offer great
sounding audio and come with many features not available on cheaper cards.

NETWORKING and MODEMS

If you have future plans on adding your new computer to a network, you will need a
Network interface card (NIC). These cards are readily available from most electronic
stores. They are generally inexpensive depending on the brand. Linksys or D-Link is a
good reliable card.

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Modems are means of connecting to the internet through a telephone line. Though the
technology is nearly obsolete they are still the most popular means of connecting to the
internet. Internal modems are also fairly inexpensive. Choose one to suit your needs.

OPERATING SYSTEMS

Before building your new computer, you need to choose an operating system. Microsoft
is the most popular, however there are others available, such as Linux Mandrake.
Microsoft has been the leader in GUI (graphical user interface) operating systems since
the 1990s. Take your pick from todays operating systems: Windows 98, Windows
Millenium edition, Windows 2000, Windows XP (the most recent OS by Microsoft).

DEVICE DRIVERS

After you install or add hardware to your system, your operating system needs to know
how to run your devices. By installing device drivers, your hardware will work properly
and functionally. I will go into more detail on installing device drivers later in the Steps
of building, but it is important to know what they are and do. After purchasing your
hardware, make sure it has the drivers disk or CD-Rom with it. If it does not, you
aren't totally out of luck. Visit the Hardware manufacturers website and search for a
drivers support or downloads section. Many reputable hardware manufacturers have
these files available online.

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Free space for observations

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Task 2: Assembling and disassembling of PC
ATX motherboards, AGP video graphics ports, USB Universal Serial Bus, RAM memory,
CD-ROMs, sound cards, optical scanners, and modems/faxes.

PREPARATION

Computer motherboards and expansion cards contain very delicate integrated circuit
(IC) chips. To protect them against damage from static electricity, you should follow
some precautions whenever you work on your computer.

1. Unplug your computer when working on the inside.

2. Use a grounded wrist strap before handling computer components. If you do not
have one, touch both of your hands to a safely grounded object or to a metal
object, such as the power supply case.

3. Hold components by the edges and try not touch the IC chips, leads or
connectors, or other components.

4. Place components on a grounded anti-static pad or on the bag that came with
the components whenever the components are separated from the system.

5. Ensure that the ATX power supply is switched off before you plug in or remove
the ATX power cod.

Assembling A Computer

After buying all the computer components they must be put together. This process is
called assembling. It usually takes about fifteen minutes (installing not included).
Although easy, it must be done carefully so as to avoid unnecessary damage to the
system.

Materials Required

Make sure that you have all the below materials before starting.

1. All the necessary components (Although the all the below components are
preferable, not all are necessary. Then necessary ones are marked with a *)
• Processors
• Motherboard
• Hard disk
• RAM
• Cabinet
• Floppy Drive
• CD Drive
• Cards
 Display Card (Not needed if On-board display is available on
Motherboard)
 Sound Card (Not needed if On-board sound is available on
Motherboard)
 Modem
 Other Cards (If Any)
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• Monitors
• Keyboard
• Mouse
• Speaker
• UPS
• Other Components (If Any)
• Also keep the cables that came with the components close by
2. Philips head Screwdriver (also known as Star Screwdriver)
3. Flat head Screwdriver
4. Forceps (for pulling out jumpers and screws)
5. Magnetized Screwdriver
6. Multi meter (Testing)

Required Environment

Make sure that the following things are true of the room in which the computer is
assembled/kept.

• Make sure that a flat surface of a good area is available when the system is
assembled. Make sure that the room has enough space to move.
• See that the place where the Computer is kept is dust free as dust can harm the
system.
• Make sure that the room has good ventilation and won't be very hot.
• Check the grounding in the plug to make sure that earthing is done properly.

Precautions

Before starting the actual assembly of the PC System, the following precautions would
help you to avoid any mishap during the assembly process:
• While the motherboard has to be fitted at a fixed place inside the PC cabinet,
the locations of add-on cards (as and when used) and the drivers (hard disk
drive, floppy disk drive, and CD-ROM drive) within the drivers bay of the cabinet
can be changed within certain limits. But it is better to place them far away from
each other. (The length of the cable provided for interconnections to the
motherboard has to be taken into account, as there must be some slack after
these are installed and connected.) This will improve the cooling and reduce the
chance of electro-magnetic interference between them.
• The motherboard contains sensitive components, which can be easily damaged
by static electricity. Therefore the motherboard should remain in its original anti
static envelope until required for installation. The person taking it out should
wear an anti static wrist strap that is properly grounded. In the absence of a
proper wrist strap, you must make one on your own, using a peeled of multi-
stranded copper cable and ground it properly. Similar handling precaution are
also required for cards.
• Be sure to handle all the components with great care. If a small thing like a
screw is dropped on the MB, it can damage the delicate circuitry, rendering the
Main Board useless.

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Procedure

Installing Motherboard

You need to determine if the case has the appropriate risers installed. Risers, or
spacers, keep the motherboard from touching the metal surfaces of the case after it is
installed, avoiding a short-circuit and a wrecked computer. Any new case will include
some form of riser, metal or plastic. See the picture on Side for typical examples. They
may or may not be pre-installed into the case.

Keep the cabinet panel on the table and fix the motherboard on it. A gentle pressure is
enough to mount the Motherboard on it. There will be a mechanism to lock the
motherboard in place. Identify its working and mount the motherboard accordingly.
Tighten the screws on the motherboard to the panel.

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Placing the main board in the case

Handle the mainboard by the edges.

Fixing the Processor

Now gently lower the CPU into the ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) Socket. No pressure is
required. If the CPU is placed properly, it will slide into the socket. Make sure that the
Number 1 pin is placed correctly. If you cannot get the CPU to sit evenly DO NOT force
it. After placing the CPU, lock the socket using the Locking lever.

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Raising the lift lever on the CPU socket

There is a notch at the side of the lever.


Pull the lever gently away from the socket
to clear the notch. Notice that the pin holes The socket lever is fully raised
at the top on each side lack a hole for the
corner pin. This configuration prevents the You can now place the CPU into the
CPU from being inserted in the wrong socket. You just need to set the CPU into
orientation. the socket and close the lever.

Now gently lower the CPU into the ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) Socket. No pressure is
required. If the CPU is placed properly, it will slide into the socket. Make sure that the
Number 1 pin is placed correctly. If you cannot get the CPU to sit

Placing the CPU into the socket

CPU sits in its socket


Hold the CPU only by the edges. Due to
the pin configuration, the CPU will only
Close the lever to secure it.
insert in the correct orientation.

Installing the Heatsink/Fan

The next step is to install the heatsink/fan combination (a typical heatsink and fan are
shown in Figure).

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Heatsink and fan
Notice the thermal material at the Feet on the CPU chip
bottom of the heatsink. This thermal
material will touch the die of the CPU. The heatsink sits on these feet, which
compress slightly. Notice the small square at
the center. That’s the CPU die. When the
heatsink pushes down on the CPU feet, it will
contact the die allowing heat to be effectively
conducted to the heatsink.

This figure shows the top of the CPU chip. The


bottom of the chip has many little pins which
will insert into the CPU socket shown.

Apply the IC paste that comes with the processor to the bottom of the heatsink. Only a
thin layer is necessary. This lets the heat that is produced in the processor to be
conducted to the heatsink, which cools it. After applying the paste, fix the heatsink on
the processor. Make sure that the locks of the heat sink are in place.

Placing the heatsink Heatsink sitting on CPU

Notice the cut-out notch on the bottom of Notice the notch in the heatsink at the
the heatsink that matches up with the high left, which fits the raised portion of the
end of the CPU socket. Be sure to install CPU socket.
the heatsink in the proper orientation.

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The heatsink clip is made of spring steel and its tension holds the heatsink firmly
against the CPU

Heatsink Clip Securing the heatsink

Looking through the fins of the heatsink, Be gentle and avoid putting unnecessary
we see that the clip isn’t symmetrical. force on the clip and the CPU socket.
The point of the clip will push down on
the CPU die when properly installed.

Use a flat-head screwdriver or “other appropriate tool” to secure the clip to the other
side of the CPU socket. Place the screwdriver into the clip opening for it and gently
push down and slightly away from the CPU socket, allowing the clip to clear the three
notches of the CPU socket. Then, push the clip back toward the socket, engaging the
three notches.

Engaging the clip of the heatsink. Plugging the heatsink fan into the
mainboard
This “appropriate tool” (flat-head
screwdriver) allows you to push the clip down Notice the post shows us the proper
and lock it into place. The other end of the orientation. IMPORTANT! DO NOT
clip is already engaged to the notches of the FORGET THIS STEP! Failure to
CPU socket on the other side of the heatsink. properly cool the Athlon CPU will
Be sure to select a tool that won’t slip and damage it. When you first start your
damage the mainboard. Do not push down system, leave the side panel of the PC
on the heatsink itself. The clip will push the case off and examine all fans to be sure
heatsink down naturally and allow it to they are spinning rapidly.
contact the die of the CPU.

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Finally, examine the mainboard manual and see where the three-pin pin CPU fan power
connection pins are. They’re usually clearly marked. Then, plug in the heatsink fan.
Don’t forget to plug in the heatsink/CPU fan! Do this immediately after the
heatsink is installed! If the heatsink fan isn’t plugged in, it won’t work and your CPU
will overheat. When your system is fully assembled, it’s a good idea to leave the side of
the
e case off and examine all of the fans to be sure they’re operating properly.

Installing RAM

Keep the RAM module in the slot in the proper way and press downwards. Be careful
not to jerk the RAM while pushing it down. See that the lock get hold of the RAM and
stay in the locked position.

The ways of inserting the RAM will vary with different kinds of RAM. There are different
kinds of RAM like SDRAM, DDRAM, RDRAM, etc. Please refer to the section on RAMS for
more details.

RAM slots (or sockets) on mainboard

RAM module notch

The RAM chip has a notch (indicated by the white arrow) to prevent inserting it in the
wrong orientation.

Fully open the locking levers of the RAM socket. Each bank will have a lever at each
side. Push the lever gently away from the RAM socket and down until it is fully open.

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Opening the lever at the sides of the memory slot

Pushing the chip down will close the lever.

Now, pick up the RAM chip and place it over the RAM socket. Be sure that it’s aligned in
the proper direction. Press the chip straight down into the socket. If it sticks, you might
find it useful to allow one side of the RAM chip to enter first, but try to keep the chip as
nearly level as possible as you push it into place.

Inserting the memory chip into its slot

Align the chip and press straight down. Be sure to touch the metal of the PC power
supply before picking up the chip to draw off any static electricity that may have built
up on your hands.

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When the RAM chip seats itself, the levers at the side should pop into position
themselves, “locking” the memory chip in place. You shouldn’t need to touch these
levers after opening them to insert the memory.

Pressing the memory into the socket

You can use your thumbs to press the memory chip into place. The locking levers will
close by themselves.

Examine the memory chip to be sure it’s fully seated. Sometimes one end of a chip
might seat fully, but the other end doesn’t. If so, just push the non-seated end in some
more.

Connections

These are the list of cables that needed to be connected to the motherboard.

NAME OF CABLE DEVICE CONNECTOR OF NO OF PINS

IDE Hardisk, CD-ROM 40

Floppy IDE Floppy Drive 34


Power Cable For 6x2 in AT and 20 in
From SMPS to Motherboard
Motherboard ATX
Speaker, HDD Indicator LED, Power LED,
Front Panel Display Different for each
Restart
Backside Connections PS/2, USB, LPT, COM 1, COM 2, etc. Different for each
CDROM Audio cable, Onboard display to
Card Connectors Different for each
backside cable, etc

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Besides the cables that are shown here there are other cables like Processor Fan power
supply, Power supply for devices like HDD, FDD, CD-ROM etc which are not connected
to Motherboard, etc. All must be connected properly.

Pin Configuration on Motherboard

There are many places to fix cables in the motherboard. The following are the pin
numbers for all the slots on the motherboard.

Device/Slot Name No of pins


LPT 26
COM 10
IDE 40
IDE Floppy 36

Now fix the motherboard to the Cabinet or the Case. Place your mother board inside
the case and fasten it in. Every Case fastens mother boards in different ways. Some
use plastic pegs, some use metal screws. See Picture for an example

Figure 64: Placing the mainboard in the case

Handle the mainboard by the edges.

Expansion Cards

Now the expansion cards must be inserted. Insert your Video Card if it is not onboard.
There are presently about 3 different forms of slots on your motherboard - PCI, ISA,
and AGP. Video Cards are presently made for all 3 of them. AGP stands for "Accelerated
Graphics Port" Video Cards made for this slot are generally higher tech/performance.
AGP slots more than likely is the only small, brown, slot on your motherboard. PCI you
probably have the most of these white and little longer than AGP. ISA, these are long
and black. Insert your Video Card and snug it in there firmly. Make sure that the other
side of the card can be come out of the motherboard's backside. Screw the card in that
place. Similar fit the other cards in its respective places.

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Holding a PCI card properly, by the metal and the edges

Floppy Drive

Ensure that one of the 3.5--inch


inch bays in your case is open. If your case came with rails
for the floppy drive, attach them to the sides of the drive and slide the drive into the
front of the computer until it clicks into place. Rails are small metal pieces that clip or
screw on to the sides of the drive and allow it to be inserted and removed from the
case with minimal effort.

Otherwise, slide the drive into the front of the computer until the faceplate of the
floppy drive is flush with the front bezel of the case and the screw holes along the side
of the drive line up with the case. When everything lines up, screw the floppy
fl drive in
securely on both sides.

Plug in the power cable (see picture to left) carefully, since it is quite possible to miss
one of the connectors, which will quite possibly cause some damage when the
computer is powered on. Floppy drive power connectors
connectors are keyed in most cases, but if
not, the red wire should be connected to the pin designated as 1 on the surrounding
PCB.

Ensure that the power connector is correctly lined up with all 4 connectors. The floppy
(data) cable is keyed to only fit one-way.
o way. Note that it is keyed the opposite way to the

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IDE hard drive and CD drive, so that the red stripe on the cable should be facing the
floppy drive power cable.

Floppy drive cables (IDE) are solid ribbon on one end, and the other has a small section
of the ribbon cut and twisted around. Ensure you only attach the floppy cable as shown
in the picture to the right.

Installing Hard disk

Ensure that the hard drive is set up to be the master drive on its IDE cable. Each IDE
cable can support up to two IDE devices, such as hard-drives, CD-drives,
drives, Zip Drives,
etc., but in order for this to work, one IDE device must be designated as a master
device, and one must be designated as a slave device. You cannot have two master
devices or two slave devices on a single
single cable. This must be later configured in the
BIOS.

Examine the top of your hard-drive.


hard drive. There should be a chart there depicting the
necessary jumper settings to make the drive a master or slave device. Otherwise, the
chart will be somewhere on the body of the drive. The set of jumpers will be on the
back end of the drive. Ensure that they are set correctly to enable the drive as a
master. You may need a set of tweezers to move the jumpers.

Insert the hard drive into the 3.5" drive-tray


drive and screw
w it in securely on both sides.

Installing Optical Drive (DVD/CDROM)

Ensure that at least one full sized 5.25" bay is open in the case. Examine the jumper
settings on the top of the drive, as you did with the hard-drive.
hard drive. Ensure that the drive is
set to 'master'. If your case came with rails, screw them to the sides of the CD C drive
and insert it into the front of the case until it clicks into place.
Otherwise, slide the drive into the front of the computer until the faceplate of the drive
is flush with the front bezel of the case and the screw holes along the side of the drive
dri
line up with the case. Then, screw it in securely on both sides. Attach the power cable
(same as the hard-drive
drive power cable) to the drive. Attach your secondary IDE cable to
the drive. Note that generally this should be a regular 40-wire
40 wire IDE cable, not the 80-
wire UDMA IDE cable that is used for the hard-drive.
hard drive. Some DVD drives will use the 80-
80
wire cable, however.

ROM drive. Here you have a choice. You can either:


Set the jumper on the CD-ROM

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• Attach the CD-ROM to IDE connector 1 and make the CD-ROM a slave. In this
case, you will set the jumper on the CD-ROM to "Slave" and attach the CD-ROM
drive to the same IDE cable as the hard drive. Or,

• Attach the CD-ROM to IDE connector 2 and make the CD-ROM a master. In this
case you will set the jumper on the CD-ROM to "Master" and attach the CD-ROM
drive with a separate cable to IDE slot 2. In order to use this method, you will
need a second IDE cable.
Connect the Sound Cable of the CDROM to the Sound Card so that the Audio CDs can
work properly.

Front of case next to bezel

Notice that when the floppy drive is installed, it must line up with the hole in
the bezel. This determines the bay in which the floppy must be installed.

Power Supply

There are two main kinds of motherboards and Cabinets available today with reference
to Power Supply - AT and ATX. The have different connectors. They are shown below.
These wires come from the SMPS of the Cabinet. The figure on the right shows the
Power cables coming out of the SMPS.

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Inside of a new PC case

Here, the power supply sits at the top left of the case. Notice
the many power connectors dangling from the power supply.

Different Types on Power Supply Connectors

Power Supply
ATX AT
Type
No Of Pins 20 2x6 (12)

Picture

Power Connections

Identify the type of power supply and insert it into the


right place. The AT cables must be connected in such
a way that the black cables of both plugs with come
together (See Figure to the left.)

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Final Connections in the Cabinet

Connect the wires coming out from behind the face of your computer case to your
motherboard. They control the on, off, reset, hard disk activity, and power switch.
Every motherboard is different (See picture to the right).

Refer the manual with your motherboard. Most specify with 2 or 3 character
paraphrases like "PWR SWT" which means Power Switch and "RST SWT" which means
Reset Switch, etc.

Thin-wire connectors connect the front of the PC case to the main board

Even though these connectors can be plugged in backward, don’t fear, because doing
so won’t harm your system. Try to get them onto the right pins on the mainboard.

Power Cables

After all these connections, connect the power cable of the Monitor to its place. Then
plug in the power cable into its jack. Give the other end to a plug nearby. If a UPS is
available, plug the power cable to the UPS and the power cable of the UPS to the Power
plug.

Powering the System

Plug in the power cord and switch the power supply switch to the on position. Press the
power button. If everything is connected as it should be, all system fans should start
spinning, you should hear a single beep, and after about 2-5 seconds the computer
start to boot.

25
Depending on the manufacturer of the Motherboard, you may get a splash screen, or
just a memory check. The system will then halt with an error because we have yet to
install an operation system. Now check the front LEDs to see if you plugged them in
correctly. Also test the reset button. Power off and fix the LEDS if there are any
problems.

I/O, I/O (In or Out of the Computer)

When placing the main board inside the case, it will be necessary to push the main
board toward what’s called the I/O shield (input/output shield) of the case.

The I/O shield usually has several metal fins sticking out toward the main board.
Various connectors that are permanently attached to the main board will protrude from
the I/O shield.

• The serial ports


• Parallel port
• PS/2 keyboard connector and
• PS/2 mouse connector
• USB ports and Firewire IEEE 1394 connectors are other connectors
• If you’re big into video editing, you might want to select a mainboard with a
Firewire port. Otherwise, you can purchase a PCI card that gives your system a
Firewire connection.

The main board sits behind the I/O shield

The keyboard and other devices will attach through this I/O shield at the back of the
case.

26
Closing the Cabinet

After all the connections are made inside the Cabinet, double-check
double check all the wiring. Make
sure all connections are firmly attached, and ensure that no wires are running close to
the top of the CPU heat sink fan. Then close the cabinet and screw it tight. Set it in an
upright position(assuming it is a tower type cabinet).

Configurations

At the first screen press the Delete key to enter the BIOS setup. Review the BIOS
settings. Here are a few that you may want to pay attention to:

• Time and date.


• IDE devices - Hardisk and Floppy Drive.
• Boot Order.

Finished

If there are no troubles, the system is ready. The


operating system can be installed now. If some
problems have appeared, read the troubleshooting
guide for instructions to solve the problem.

27
Free space for observations

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Task 3: Installation of Windows XP
Installing Windows XP
Now that the hardware of the computer is together and running, we need to install an
operating system. An operating system will allow your PC to run other software, such
as games, word processors, spreadsheets, and graphics software. Think of the operating
system as the interface between your software and the computer hardware. Actually,
there is one more level of interface called the BIOS or the basic input output system.
The operating system communicates with the BIOS. The BIOS communicates with the
hardware. However, for practical purposes, you can consider your operating system as
connecting your hardware and software together.

The most popular operating system is Microsoft Windows, and its most current version
is Windows XP. We’ll install Windows XP Home Edition, which is slightly less expensive
than Windows XP Professional. Windows XP Professional does allow dual-processor
support, if you anticipate using two processors on your mainboard.

Be sure to purchase Windows XP, in either flavor, as OEM (original equipment


manufacturer) software from the place where you purchase your mainboard and
other components (unless you plan to install only Linux). OEM software is less
expensive than retail boxed software, and it’s not an upgrade, so you won’t need a
previous version of Windows installed on your system to install OEM software.

Other software, such as MS Office, can also be purchased as OEM software.

Setting the BIOS to Check the CD Drive When Booting


The hard drive has not been partitioned or formatted and has no software on it.

When you start your system for the first time, you’ll probably receive a message that
the computer couldn’t find a bootable disk or an operating system (unless you already
put the Windows CD in the CD tray).

Your computer’s BIOS specifies the search order that your computer uses to find a
bootable operating system (Figure 132). This system seeks an operating system first
from the floppy drive, second from the hard drive, and third from a CD. You can enter
BIOS to change it so that the CD drive is checked before the hard drive, if you find that
desirable.

Here the system tries to boot from the hard drive before the CD drive. Use arrow keys
and plus/minus keys to switch the boot order if desired.

Because there wasn’t a floppy disk in the floppy drive, no operating system was found
there. Then, the computer examined the hard drive, which is brand new, and it didn’t
find an operating system. Then, the computer examined the CD drive and found no
operating system, because there was no CD in the tray. The result is that no operating
system can be found.

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Figure 132: BIOS settings showing the system boot order

Booting the Windows XP CD – Initial Setup Screen


We’ll open the CD drive, insert the Windows XP CD, close the drive, give the drive a
moment to get up to speed, and push the reset button to restart the system. (As a
general rule, try Alt+Ctrl+Delete to restart the system. If that doesn’t work, use the
reset switch. Alt+Ctrl+Delete is a Windows or DOS operating system command, and a
new system without an operating system won’t recognize it). Try not to use the on-off
button to restart your system, because this is harder on the components.

Today, most mainboards support booting from the CD. And, most OEM software also
supports booting from the CD. Installing an operating system is as easy as inserting
the Windows CD and restarting the system. If your system doesn’t support booting
from CD, you’ll need to make a bootable floppy disk on another machine and use that to
boot the new system.

With Windows XP, installing the operating system from the OEM CD is a snap. Upon
restarting with the Windows XP CD in the drive, you’re immediately taken through a
series of introductory screens. First, a “Welcome” screen lets you know your PC sees
the Windows CD (Figure 133). You’re all set to install Windows. Press “Enter” or “Next”
to continue whenever that’s the only option! However, if other options exist, take a
moment to consider them before accepting the defaults.

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Figure 133: Microsoft welcomes you to setup

Press ENTER to setup Windows on a new hard drive.

Accepting the Microsoft License Agreement


We must also accept Microsoft’s license agreement to proceed, by pressing F8 (Figure 134).

Figure 134: Microsoft License Agreement

Press F8 to accept.

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Partitioning and Formatting the Hard Drive
Next, we’re taken to a menu that allows us to partition your new hard drive (Figure 135).
Think of partitioning a hard drive as breaking it up into sections. After partitioning,
each partition or section will then be formatted so that it can be read by various
operating systems. One of the original purposes of partitioning a hard drive was to allow
the hard drive to support multiple operating systems. Each operating system could be
given its own partition, which could then be formatted for that operating system.

The onscreen message says “Press C” to partition and we do. The screen tells us that
76309 MB is available for partitioning our 80 GB drive.

NOTE: For the photos in this book, we partitioned a 4 GB virtual drive which shows
4095 MB as available (as in Figure 135). That’s about 4 GB. We’ll make the Windows
Partition 2000 MB (about 2 GB) (see Figure 136). We’ll leave 2000 MB unpartitioned to
demonstrate a dual boot operating system, where Linux is installed into the
unpartitioned and unformatted part of the disk. Your PC will show far larger numbers for
available space. Today, a 2 GB partition is small!

Figure 135: Unpartitioned space on the hard drive

Notice we only have 4095 MB (about 4 GB) of unpartitioned space. This is because we
partitioned a virtual hard drive (VMWare) so we could get screen captures for this book.
For an 80 GB drive, expect to see a number like 76309 MB, rather than 4095 MB.

Selecting the Partition Size


The screen in Figure 136 asks us how much of the drive we want to use to create the
partition. Notice that at this point your keypad numbers will not work, and you’ll need to
use the numbers above the letter keys. That’s normal. Also, you can use the backspace
key to del

32
Figure 136: Selecting a partition size

Choose the size of the partition you desire and hit ENTER. If you only plan to install
Windows XP, you can use the full amount as one partition. Save some unpartitioned
space if you plan to install a Linux dual boot. Here, we created a partition of 2000 MB
on our virtual drive. For XP, you’ll probably want at least 40000 MB (about 40 GB).

We’ll make the partition 40 GB (about 40000 MB) or about half the available space.
That’s plenty of space for what we intend to do, and we’ll be using the other half of the
drive to install Linux later to give us a dual boot operating system.

If you plan to use only one operating system, or if you have a smaller hard drive and
need all the space, you can go ahead and use all available space for the Windows
partition and then make that correspond to the C:\ drive. The default number shown
for creating the partition is the maximum size of your drive. Just hit ENTER to create
this maximum-sized partition if you plan to install Windows XP as the only operating
system.
Partitioning for Multiple Operating Systems
If you plan to install a dual boot operating system, it’s good to decide how much hard
drive space you want allocated for each system. For example, if you have an 80 GB
drive, and you primarily run Windows, but you’d like to experiment with Linux, you
might allow 60 GB (about 60000 MB) for a Windows partition. Then, use the remaining
20 GB for installing a Linux partition. If you plan to actively use both Windows and
Linux, you might decide to enter half of the maximum disk space as the Windows
partition. Then, the other half can be used for Linux.

If you plan to dual boot with Windows 98 and Windows XP (or triple boot Windows 98,
Windows XP, and Linux), you’ll want to leave enough drive space for another partition
(which will be FAT formatted), because Windows 98 only recognizes FAT formatted
partitions. Install Windows 98 first.

After we choose how large to make the Windows partition, we hit “enter” to see the
new partitioning information (Figure 137). You can see the space that has been left
unpartitioned. To do the actual partitioning, we hit “enter” again which installs the
partition to the hard drive.

33
Figure 137: Reserving space for a second operating system

We’ve created the 2000 MB partition and have 2000 MB remaining unpartitioned for
Linux (to be installed later). If you change your mind and want to use a smaller or
larger partition, hit D. Otherwise, hit ENTER to begin formatting and to set up Windows
XP.

Notice: Our 2000 MB partition is small, because we’re actually partitioning a virtual
drive. Your partition should probably be at least 40000 MB.

Choosing the File System for the New Partition


After partitioning the hard drive, a format screen appears automatically, and gives you a
choice of file system for formatting (Figure 138). The file system describes the way that
the operating system stores information on the hard drive. To format 40 GB as one
partition, we’ll use NTFS file system, which stands for New Technology File System. OTFS
or Old Technology File System is called FAT. FAT stands for File Allocation Table.

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Figure 138: We choose to format the partition with NTFS

Either NTFS or FAT is basically a way of keeping track of where information is stored on
the disk. Information is divided into what are called clusters. NTFS or FAT lets us find
clusters of information on the hard drive.

Imagine having a big house and a small notebook. Each room in the house corresponds
to a cluster. Every time you purchase something to put in the house, you place it in one
of the rooms and record which room the item is in, in your notebook. Then, if you ever
want to get the item, you look at your notebook to find the room. NTFS has a bigger
notebook than FAT. NTFS also has better security, so people don’t break into your
house.

NTFS allows us to make larger partitions, and it’s generally considered superior to FAT.
If the partition must be read by Windows 98, FAT is necessary. FAT16 volumes are
limited to 2 GB. That is why systems running Windows 95 that had large hard drives
needed to have many drive letters: C, D, E... each only containing 2 GB. You can have
one big C drive with NTFS. There are also two versions of FAT known as FAT16 and
FAT32. If you use Windows 98, you’ll probably use FAT32. However, if you don’t need
to use Windows 98 and only plan to use Windows XP, use NTFS as your file system.

Formatting the New Partition


In practice, all you really need to know about NTFS is that when you’re prompted to
format the system, you select the NTFS option. To select NTFS, press “ENTER,” and let
the computer partition the hard drive. A status bar shows us the formatting progress
(Figure 139).

35
Figure 139: Formatting
The status bar will tell you of the progress. For a large hard drive, feel free to take a break
and check back on the progress later.

The format program will also ask if you want to do a quick format or a full format.
Select full format. That is usually the best option and also the default option Windows
offers.

Copying Files to the Computer

Formatting the hard drive takes some time, so you might want to go get a Pepsi or
some coffee. After the formatting is finished, XP begins copying operating system files to
the hard drive. Then, your system will reboot to continue the installation process.

Entering Regional, Language and Personal Settings


After the system reboots, you are prompted to provide some information for Windows.
You’ll be asked for your regional and language settings (Figure 141). And, you’ll be
asked to enter your name to personalize your computer (Figure 142).

36
Figure 141: Regional and Language Options

Just hit “Next” to choose English as your language.

Figure 142: Enter your name and your organization


You can enter your full name. You’ll be able to create user accounts later, where you
can enter your username.

37
Entering the Windows XP Product Key
You’ll need to enter your Windows XP key code. Be sure to write this number down in
case you need it later. I find writing this number in the Windows manual is handy. If
your CD comes in a cheap floppy paper holder and you transfer the CD to a jewel case,
be sure to copy the number onto a paper inside the jewel case. It’s also a good idea to
keep the original CD holder. (Keep all the stuff that’s left over after the build in its own
box, in case you need it later.)

If your key code number is rejected, it probably means you misentered it. Try again.
And, again. And, possibly, again. Be alert for tricky letters like “I” which could be
mistaken for a “1.” Or a “B” for an “8.”

Naming the Computer and Setting the Date and Time


You’ll be asked to name your computer (Figure 144). Computer names are useful if your
computer is on a network. We named our PC “ASUS.” Another screen appears asking
for date and time settings (Figure 145).

Figure 144: Naming the PC

Like a proud new parent, you can name your PC. The name will identify the PC on a
network.

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Figure 145: Date and time settings

Copying Remaining Files to Hard Drive


Windows will then copy some more files to your hard drive. You can see the progress of
the install by the status bar at the left of the screen. Depending upon your point of
view, either useful information or Microsoft propaganda appears at the right of the
screen. Don’t worry about reading this. It’s not important.

Next, you’ll be asked if you wish to “activate Windows.” You can choose to activate
Windows now or you can do it later. I’d probably do it later, after you’re fully satisfied
with the install. Just select to activate later and continue. We’ll discuss activation in
more detail later.

Adjusting Monitor Settings


The computer might ask you if it can adjust the settings of your monitor. If it does,
you’ll have only an “OK” box to select (Figure 146). Then, another screen will test
whether or not the screen is readable with the new settings (Figure 147). If the screen
isn’t readable, don’t worry. The settings should revert to the previous settings. We
discuss the importance of having the correct monitor identified and how to install video
drivers later.

39
Figure 146: When “OK” is your only choice...hit OK

Figure 147: Adjusting display settings

After adjusting your display settings, you’re asked to hit OK to confirm that
you can read the display. If the display is unreadable, the settings should
revert.

40
Adding Users
Next, we add users to the computer (Figure 148). Users allow several people to use the
same PC, and each user can have his or her own files and settings. I added a user for
“Charlie.” I also added a user for “Ducker.” A username should not be the same as the
computer name.

Figure 148 Adding users to the computer

Completing Installation and


Booting Windows XP from the Hard Drive
When the computer is finished copying files, you can remove the Windows XP CD and
click the little arrow on the “Thank you” screen to restart the computer (Figure 149).

41
Figure 149: Installation complete

Hit the little arrow to finish.

The PC will now boot from the hard drive and show the standard Windows login screen
(Figure 150).

42
Figure 150: Standard Windows login screen

Click on your user icon to log into Windows. Each user can have his or her own
personalized settings. (You can change your login picture later if you wish. Just go to
“Control Panel” and select “User Accounts.”)

You’ve now successfully installed Windows XP onto your computer. You can operate your
computer and install software. Congratulations!

Configuring Windows XP
It’s crucial to note that when you purchase a PC with software already installed, the
manufacturer has probably taken several steps to be sure the PC works well. For
example, all necessary drivers will be installed. You’ll need to do some of these things
yourself when you build your own PC. But, in so doing, you’ll know more about your PC
and be a better PC troubleshooter in the future.

So now that we have completed the basic Windows XP installation, let’s finish
configuring the operating system so that it works in top form. A few things should be done.
The order isn’t particularly important.

Updating Windows XP
First, after installing a modem and getting your modem connection working, log in and
then click the “Start” button to open the Start Menu (Figure 151). Then find “Windows
Update.” You may be familiar with Windows Update already. Basically, you go online;

43
Microsoft scans your system; and then Microsoft installs any improvements it’s made to
your operating system since your last operating system update.

Figure 151: Logging in and opening the Start Menu

Hitting the start menu brings up the menu of options. Go to “Control Panel” to get to
Device Manager. Note: First, we’ll get the proper monitor recognized. But, if you want
to change the desktop later, right click on the desktop and select “Properties.”

For us, Windows update finds 29 MB of critical system and security updates. Go get
another Pepsi or coffee as it downloads and installs your updates.

It’s a good idea to run Windows update regularly and install any critical updates,
because malicious hackers find new ways to infiltrate and attack Windows. Microsoft
usually then finds a defense which is made available via a software “patch.” Not
regularly updating your Windows operating system could leave your computer
vulnerable to attack.

Similarly, you should regularly update your antivirus software so that it can recognize
new viruses and protect your computer from them. You should purchase an antivirus
program for your PC. I like Norton AntiVirus. You should also purchase a firewall, such as
Zone Alarm. XP has a built-in firewall, but I like Zone Alarm better. Finally, you should
go to download.com and get a free program such as Spybot Search and Destroy, which
removes spyware from your system.
Activating Windows
Next, go to “Activate Windows” (Start...Programs...Accessories...Program
Tools...Activate Windows). A certain number of days after the first install, you must
“Activate” Windows XP or else it stops working completely. You’ll want a modem to
Activate Windows online.

44
Basically, “Activate Windows” is a way to protect Microsoft from software piracy. When
you “Activate” Windows, your PC logs onto Microsoft’s website and Microsoft takes a
snapshot of your computer’s hardware. Then, if someone later tries to activate that
particular copy of Windows XP on another computer, it won’t allow activation, because it
won’t be able to match up the hardware on that computer with the hardware
information that Microsoft has stored in a database.

An interesting question: What if you upgrade your system by adding a new mainboard,
a new hard drive, and a new DVD drive? The “snapshot” Windows has of your old
system might think you’re trying to install the operating system onto another
computer, even though the old components are no longer in use.

One possibility is adding only one part at a time to the old system, for example, the
new hard drive. Then, hopefully, Microsoft will recognize that you’re just upgrading an
existing system. Then, activate Windows. If an activation fails, you can always call
Microsoft and explain the situation to them. No promises this will help you!

Be aware that if you retire an older computer and try to do a full installation of
Windows XP from the CD onto your new computer, the activation will fail. To me, that
seems unfair.

You will need to go through the activation process only if you need to reinstall Windows
XP from the CD to a hard drive. Another good option is to back up your full Windows
system, using MS backup, to be discussed later.

Installing Drivers For Your Devices


Now that you have an operating system installed, you’ll need to install drivers for your
devices such as Video Cards, Network Interface Cards, Sound Cards, etc. In many cases, if
Windows recognizes the device, drivers will be installed automatically. In some cases,
generic drivers are installed and they will work fine.

Drivers are small software programs that help the operating system use or “drive” the
device. Whenever a device doesn’t work properly, ask if the proper driver has been
installed.

Notice that when you purchase a PC from a major manufacturer, such as Gateway or
Dell, they’ll be sure your system has working drivers installed for all hardware. But,
when you build your own system, you might need to find and install drivers to get your
hardware working properly. This will actually help you learn more about your PC, and,
if things go wrong later, you’ll have a head start in solving PC problems.

Driver Installation Example: Monitor Driver


We’ll use the Monitor, which is actually driven by the video card, as an example. The
monitor purchased for this PC build is a ViewSonic A70f+ 17" monitor.

Installing the proper monitor information files is one of the small things that purchasing
a fully assembled PC will have done for you. Trying to drive a monitor at too high a
refresh rate is one of the very few things that you can mess up with software that has
the potential to destroy hardware. We’ll start by opening the Control Panel (Figure 152).

45
Figure 152: The control panel window

Select “System” to get to Device Manager.

Default Monitor Driver


In the Control Panel, select.System to open the System Properties dialog box (Figure 153).
Then select “Device Manager” to get a list of hardware in the PC. Finally, click
“Monitor,” and you’ll see that a generic monitor is listed (Figure 154). Windows knows
it’s a Plug and Play monitor, but it doesn’t list the exact model. This means the PC
recognizes and can use your monitor, but it doesn’t identify the exact model of the
monitor.

46
Figure 153: System Properties

Under “System Properties,” we can hit “Device Manager” to look at the devices
in the system.

Figure 154: Generic monitor identified

Only a plug-and-play monitor is recognized. We’ll change that in a minute.

47
Locating a New Driver
A disk came with the Viewsonic monitor, and we’ll put that in the CD drive. Autorun
starts a program to install a new driver, but it fails with the message that it couldn’t
find a better driver. The generic plug and play driver will still be used. This could be
because the CD only has a driver for Windows 98 and not XP yet. Or sometimes
software just sucks!

Go to the website for viewsonic.com and look under “Download Drivers.” When looking
for updated drivers for a device, your first visit can be to the hardware manufacturer’s
website. Viewsonic.com sends us to microsoft.com to see if the A70f+ monitor is
“Signed” or “Unsigned” for Windows XP. “Signed” means the monitor or other device is
designed for Windows XP. “Signed” means “Approved.” “Unsigned” means the monitor
isn’t designed for Windows XP. It might work, but there are no promises.

Installing the New Driver


We double click on the vs-winXP.exe program (anything ending in .exe is an executable
program) and it installs the proper monitor information. In addition to drivers, there
are also .inf files which provide information about a device. A monitor doesn’t actually
have drivers. Monitors are driven by the video card. So, the monitor “driver” is really
just an information file telling the actual driver what settings the monitor supports.

We now examine Device Manager again and it lists the monitor as a ViewSonic A70f+
(Figure 155). This means the correct monitor is identified. If we right click on the
monitor in Device Manager, we bring up its properties dialog box.

Figure 155: ViewSonic monitor now recognized


After downloading and running the proper driver installer from ViewSonic, the correct
monitor is identified.

48
Installing Other Drivers
Proceed similarly to install drivers for your other devices, such as a sound card if you
have one. Whenever a device doesn’t seem to be working properly, ask if you’ve
installed the proper device driver or if it’s been done automatically. Looking for the device
under Device Manager in Windows is a good way to see if the device driver is installed.
We’ll install a controller for the built-in networking. As you can see in Figure 156, a
question mark by Ethernet Controller in Device Manager shows that network drivers
aren’t yet installed.

If your mainboard has built-in sound or networking, a CD that contains drivers probably
came with the mainboard. Place the CD into the CD drive and let Windows XP search for
the appropriate driver.

If we place the CD that came with the mainboard into the drive and double click on the
CD drive letter in Windows, the CD shows us that drivers can be installed for AC’97
sound, USB 2.0, and networking (Figure 157).

Figure 157: ASUS driver installation program

Installing network drivers from the CD that came with the mainboard. We install the
LAN driver.

After installing the LAN (Local Area Networking) driver, Device Manager shows us the
network driver is installed (Figure 158).

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Figure 158 Network Driver Installed

Dealing with Driver Problems


Hardware won’t work properly if it doesn’t have proper driver software installed. It is
quite common to experience driver-related difficulties when you build a new PC, so let’s
take a look at some ideas for how to deal with them.

In general, if your device needs a device driver or an .inf file, see if a CD or disk came
with the device. If it didn’t or it doesn’t work, see if you can find the manufacturer’s
website using google.com. Most manufacturers have free drivers online for their
products.

It’s good for the computer to know the exact model and make of your monitor before
you install non-generic video drivers, because some video drivers might try to operate
the monitor at a faster refresh frequency than the monitor can handle. If this happens,
your screen will go very fuzzy or blurry. Prolonged time doing this can damage the
monitor. A hissing sound from the monitor is especially bad. If this happens, restart the
PC immediately in “Safe Mode” and temporarily disable the hyped-out video driver until
the proper monitor information is provided.

Missing Drivers
A missing driver is one of the first things to check for if added hardware won’t work.
For example, if we try to use the mainboard’s built-in networking to connect to another
PC in our home, it won’t work. It’s not that the built-in hardware for networking doesn’t
work. Examining Device Manager...Other Devices...Ethernet Controller, we see that no
driver has been installed (Figure 156). The key expressions telling us something is
missing are “Unknown” and “Not Available.” Things should be known and available to
our PC! Question marks next to devices in Device Manager aren’t good either! When in
50
doubt whether a driver is installed, right click on the device in Device Manager to see
the driver information.

Updating Drivers
If we hadn’t already run the CD that came with the mainboard to install all the drivers for
onboard devices, we could proceed as follows to install the Ethernet driver. Hit “Update
Driver” (Figure 159).

Figure 159: Ethernet Controller Properties

Right clicking on the Ethernet Controller in Device Manager is another way to change
the network driver. If some piece of hardware isn’t working, ask if the device needs a
driver and see if the proper driver is installed.

We’re taken to a “Hardware Update Wizard” screen (Figure 160), which allows us to
install the driver software. We’re told to insert the CD that came with the hardware. In
this case, the network adapter is part of the mainboard, so we insert the CD that came
with the mainboard.

51
Figure 160: Hardware Update Wizard

Selecting “Update Driver” brings up the hardware update wizard.

If we insert the mainboard CD now, the system appears to hang. So, we hit
Ctrl+Alt+Delete and receive a message that the Hardware Wizard program isn’t
responding. That confirms our hunch that the Wizard wasn’t working. We close the
non-responsive program.

Trying again, we select “Install from a list or specific location” (Figure 160). Then, we
select the CD as the removable drive to search for a new driver. You might think that
these two approaches should lead to the same result, either failure to install or success.
It doesn’t turn out that way, however! The Wizard now runs and properly finds the
driver! Examining Device Manager, we see the proper network adapter is recognized,
as in Figure 158.

If we look under “Network Connections” (Figure 161), we see that the Local Area
Network (LAN) is enabled. And, our new system can connect to other systems in our
house (We have a network hub and cables installed already).

52
Figure 161: Network Connections (under Control Panel)

If we hadn’t already run the CD that came with the mainboard to install all the drivers
for onboard devices, we could proceed as follows to install the Ethernet driver. Hit
“Update Driver” (Figure 159).

We’re taken to a “Hardware Update Wizard” screen (Figure 160), which allows us to
install the driver software. We’re told to insert the CD that came with the hardware. In
this case, the network adapter is part of the mainboard, so we insert the CD that came
with the mainboard.

If we insert the mainboard CD now, the system appears to hang. So, we hit
Ctrl+Alt+Delete and receive a message that the Hardware Wizard program isn’t
responding. That confirms our hunch that the Wizard wasn’t working. We close the
non-responsive program.

Trying again, we select “Install from a list or specific location” (Figure 160). Then, we
select the CD as the removable drive to search for a new driver. You might think that
these two approaches should lead to the same result, either failure to install or success.
It doesn’t turn out that way, however! The Wizard now runs and properly finds the
driver! Examining Device Manager, we see the proper network adapter is recognized,
as in Figure 158.

If we look under “Network Connections” (Figure 161), we see that the Local Area
Network (LAN) is enabled. And, our new system can connect to other systems in our
house (We have a network hub and cables installed already).

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Problems with Driver CDs
It’s important to realize that sometimes a CD with drivers won’t run as desired. For
example, the ViewSonic CD didn’t work for us. Sometimes, double clicking on the CD
drive letter will start the CD and it will run then. Sometimes, it still won’t run, but,
possibly, the drivers are on the CD and fully usable. Using Device Manager to find the
device and then selecting its properties and using the “Update Driver” to start the
Windows Hardware Update Wizard will find and successfully install the drivers from the
CD.

If you have difficulty installing a driver, try the various approaches: First, just try to
run the CD that came with the hardware. Insert the CD and wait. If it doesn’t autorun,
double click on the CD drive letter and see what happens. Maybe, it will run and install
the driver.

Getting a New Driver from the Manufacturer’s Website


Second, examine the manufacturer’s website for a new driver and run that program
instead. Be sure to save all your downloaded driver files or updates to a CD.
Also, I think it helps to create a text file on your backup CD that describes the file and
its purpose. For example, we downloaded the file vs-winXP.exe. We might add some
text such as:

“vs-winXP.exe. Downloaded from viewsonic.com. This file installs the monitor


information for the ViewSonic A70f+ monitor in Windows XP. Just double click on the
file vs-winXP.exe and it will install the monitor information. After doing that under
Device Manager... Monitor, we’ll see the A70f+ is recognized.”

You’ll appreciate these notes to yourself if you need to repeat the same procedure
several years later.

Third, find the device in Device Manager and use the Hardware Update Wizard by
selecting “Update Driver” to add the driver for the device. If it won’t automatically find
the driver, and you have a CD or know the location where you’ve saved the
downloaded driver files, select “Install from a list or specific location” and try running
“Update Driver” again.

Fourth, sometimes running Windows Update will find a better driver for the device.

Windows offers a neat feature that allows new drivers to be “rolled back” which
essentially uninstalls them and goes back to using the previous driver the device was
using. That could be handy, if you find a new driver doesn’t work properly with your
system.

Using Safe Mode to Deal with Driver Issues


You can start the operating system in “Safe Mode” which will disable unnecessary
drivers. Then, using Device Manager, you can remove the offending driver and make
whatever changes are necessary to your system. Safe mode uses a very safe, generic
video driver. To start in “Safe Mode,” press F8 during the boot up of Windows.

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CD Burning Software
Another important set of programs is used for the CD-RW and DVD drives. We’ll run the
CD that comes with the Verbatim CD-RW. It installs software to burn CDs as well as a
manual to help us understand the burning software.

Your CD-RW will come with its own software to burn CDs. If you purchase a CD-RW on
eBay and don’t get any disks, search for your CD-RW model online with google.com
and see what burning software typically comes with it. Then, find the manufacturer’s
site and download this burning software and the drivers. You might also want to see if
there are updated drivers online, even if your drive came with drivers.

After installing the InCD and Nero 5.5 software for the Verbatim CD-RW, we find that
InCD works nicely, but Nero 5.5 won’t burn CDs. When run, Nero

5.5 doesn’t seem to recognize the Verbatim CD-RW. (Yes, I know, Nero came with the
CD-RW. So, you might think it should work!) Reading the help that was installed with
Nero, we learn that if a CD or DVD drive isn’t recognized, it might be a newer drive. It’s
suggested we go to nero.com and update our Nero software which should recognize the
newer drives.

We go to nero.com and get the update for Nero 5.5 and install it. Now the Verbatim
CD-RW and Nero play nicely together. InCD and Nero are actually a wonderful software
package for such a low-priced drive.

Sometimes when software isn’t working properly with a new system, software updates
can be found at the manufacturer’s website that will correct the problem.

Backing Up Windows XP
If you’ve installed all Windows System Tools (under Programs....Accessories) onto your
PC and you’re familiar with Windows 98, you might be surprised to see Windows
BackUp, which is a program to back up your computer, missing.

Basically, BackUp can backup your entire C: or D: drive into a smaller compressed file.
That file can then be restored if necessary using the program BackUp.

A small 2 GB logical drive will occupy less than 2 GB if you choose the compression
option. Our new C: drive with Windows XP installed took 1.07 GB when backed up.

With DVD recordable drives holding 4.7 GB, you can back up your entire newly-
installed Windows XP system onto a DVD. Another option is to install a second, low-
cost hard drive and back up to that drive. That way if your main hard drive fails, you
can restore from the secondary hard drive. And, a 40 GB hard drive might only cost
$40. The probability of both hard drives failing at the same time is very small.

With Windows XP Home Edition, Microsoft wanted to stop providing a backup utility.
Many people complained and mumbled “Linux.” Microsoft compromised and decided to
hide the backup utility on the Windows CD. You need to open the CD and look in the
“ValueAdd” folder (seems it should be called the “ValueRemove” folder) to find a file
called “NTBACKUP.” Double click on that and it will install BackUp onto your PC.

Microsoft Professional XP comes with a more complete version of Backup. However,


considering the price differential between the Professional and the Home Edition, I
think most home users will do well with XP Home Edition. (A dual processor board is
one of the few reasons I’d recommend XP Professional).

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If you’re not familiar with BackUp or backing up your system in general, I highly
recommend that you begin backing up your important data regularly. You don’t want to
lose your crucial files.

If you’re new to BackUp, try this as a simple test: Create a small test folder and place
some stuff in it. Run BackUp and choose to only back up that selected folder. Save the
backup file somewhere (for the test, it can be on the same hard drive). Then, delete
the original file and run backup again to restore the deleted folder. You’ll see your
folder is safely restored. That will be a confidence builder if your system ever fails and
it occurs to you that you’ve never actually seen BackUp restore successfully!

You can also run BackUp over a home network, backing up the C: drives of all your
other PCs. For example, maybe you have another PC running Windows 98. This is
helpful because your original Windows 98 CD contained a very un-updated version,
whereas a complete current backup will provide all the updates to your Windows
operating system. And, if your old system only has a CD-RW, but your new system has
a DVD, you’ll be able to back up your entire operating system.

If you only backup your personal files and the hard disk fries, you’ll need to install
Windows from the CD, then redo all the Windows updates, which assumes they remain
available. You’ll also need to reinstall all drivers and updates for your other program
files.

Some programs such as Norton Ghost make duplicating the contents of a hard drive
easier. These programs tend to deal with hidden files and system settings better.

Restore Points
Microsoft added a great feature with XP, by allowing users to create “Restore Points”
giving you the option of reverting to a previous version of your operating system.
Before you install new software, you might want to create a Restore Point. That way if
the new software causes problems, you can revert to the operating system before the
changes were made.

Installing A Dual Boot Operating System (Linux And Windows XP)


This assumes that you want to install Windows XP and Red Hat Linux 9 on the same
hard drive so that you can conveniently run either operating system. Installing two
operating systems on one hard drive so that you can run either operating system is
called dual booting. You can also do three boot systems, such as Windows XP, Windows
98, and Linux.

Overview of Dual Boot Setup


Here’s an overview of how we are going to reach our goal of a functional, dual boot
Windows XP / Linux system. There are four basic steps:

1. Install Windows XP: See the preceding chapters on installing Windows XP.
When you partition your hard drive using the XP setup program, you’ll want to
leave some unpartitioned space. This unpartitioned space can be used to install
a Linux partition. Be sure to plan ahead how much disk space you want to
allocate to Windows XP and how much for Linux.

2. Backup any valuable data from your Windows system: This isn’t important
if you’ve freshly installed Windows. But, if you’ve worked with Windows for
awhile before deciding to dual boot, you should backup your important files.
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Before adding another operating system or partitioning a disk, always backup
your important data.

3. Make a bootable Linux disk: If your system won’t boot from a CD, you might
need to make a bootable Linux floppy disk to start the installation process. If
you were able to boot from the Windows XP CD, this means your system will
boot from a CD. You can change your system’s BIOS settings to allow the
system to boot from the CD instead of making a bootable floppy.

4. Perform the Linux installation from its CD: It will recognize that Windows
XP is already installed and offer you the option of keeping it and adding Linux
also.

Installing Linux
Assuming you have Windows XP already installed, let’s get started by installing Linux.

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Free space for observations

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Task 4: Installation of LINUX and configuration
as a dual boot with both Windows and
Linux

Booting from Disc


To boot your computer from disc:

1. Switch on the computer.


2. Insert the first disc into the CD or DVD drive.
3. A boot screen appears, with a boot: prompt at the bottom.

Boot Screen

If you hit Enter, the installation runs in default mode. In the default mode, the
installation runs from CD or DVD discs, and uses a graphical interface if possible. To
change the installation mode, at the boot: prompt, type linux followed by one or more
of the following options:

• To install from a hard drive or network server, add the directive askmethod.
• To use a text interface, add the directive text.
• To retry installation because the installation aborted at an early stage, add the
directive acpi=off.

When you issue a command at the boot: prompt, the first stage of the installation
program starts. After it loads, the following screen appears:

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Media Test Screen

Select OK to test the disc, or select Skip to proceed with the installation without
testing the disc.

Testing Discs

Test any discs which you have not previously tested. A disc error during
the installation process may force you to restart the entire procedure.

After you test the first disc, another screen appears and shows the result:

Media Check Result


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Select OK.. The following screen appears:

Next Disc Screen

Select Test to test the next disc in the set, or Continue to proceed with the
installation.

After you test your discs and select Continue,, or if you choose to skip testing, the
main graphical
hical installation program loads.

To boot from the disc, but install from another device or a network server, use the
linux askmethod command at the boot: prompt. Fedora Core also includes a boot- boot
only CD for this purpose, which is stored on the first Fedora
Fedora Core installation disc as an
ISO file, images/boot.iso.

To convert the ISO file into a physical CD, use the option in your CD-writing
CD program
that burns a CD image file to a CD. If you copy the file itself to a CD instead, the disc
will not boot or work k correctly. Refer to your CD writing program documentation for
instructions. If you are using Linux, use the following command to burn a CD image file
to a blank recordable CD:

cdrecord --device=
device=cdwriter-device -tao -eject image--file.iso

BIOS Boot Order


The BIOS contains settings that control the order of boot devices. If your
PC boots from a device other than the Fedora Core boot media, check the
BIOS boot configuration.

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Identifying Your Locale
If the installation system fails to identify the display hardware on your computer, it
displays text screens rather than the default graphical interface. The text screens
provide the same functions as the standard screens. Later in the installation process
you can manually specify your display hardware.

Important

Network installations with HTTP and FTP always use text screens on
systems with less than 128Mb of memory.

Language Selection
The installation program displays a list of languages supported by Fedora.

Language Selection Screen

Highlight the correct language on the list and select Next.

Installing Support For Additional Languages

To select support for additional languages, customize the installation at


the package selection stage.

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Keyboard Configuration
The installation program display a list of the keyboard layouts supported by Fedora:

Keyboard Configuration Screen

Highlight the correct layout on the list, and select Next.

Upgrading an Existing System

The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Fedora Core.
The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does
not remove any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on
your hard drives does not change. Your system configuration changes only if a package
upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but
rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.

Upgrade Examine
If your system contains a Fedora Core or Red Hat Linux installation, the following
screen appears:

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Upgrade Examine Screen

To perform an upgrade of an existing


existing system, choose the appropriate installation from
the drop-down
down list and select Next.

Manually Installed Software

Software which you have installed manually on your existing Fedora Core
or Red Hat Linux system may behave differently after an upgrade. You
may need to manually recompile this software after an upgrade to ensure
it performs correctly on the updated system.
system

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Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
Your completed Fedora Core installation must be registered in the boot loader to boot
properly. A boot loader is software on your machine that locates and starts the
operating system.

Upgrade Bootloader Screen

If the existing boot loader was installed by a Linux distribution, the installation system
can modify it to load the new Fedora Core system. To update the existing Linux boot
loader, select Update boot loader configuration. This is the default behavior when
you upgrade an existing Fedora Core or Red Hat Linux installation.

GRUB is the standard boot loader for Fedora. If your machine uses another
boot loader, such as BootMagic™, System Commander™, or the loader
installed by Microsoft Windows, then the Fedora installation system cannot
update it. In this case, select Skip boot loader updating. When the installation
process completes, refer to the documentation for your product for assistance.

Install a new boot loader as part of an upgrade process only if you are certain you want
to replace the existing boot loader. If you install a new boot loader, you may not be
able to boot other operating systems on the same machine until you have configured
the new boot loader. Select Create new boot loader configuration to remove the
existing boot loader and install GRUB.

After you make your selection, click Next to continue.

Installation Types
An installation type is a label that roughly describes how you will use your Fedora
system. Several installation types are already defined in the Fedora Core installation
program. Choose the appropriate installation type to streamline the installation process
if you are a beginner. The installation program makes some choices for you based on

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the type you select. These choices include partitioning of your hard disks, and software
packages to be installed. All installation types allow you to customize these selections.

Choosing an Installation Type

Installation Type Screen

Personal Desktop
This is the default installation type. It provides a graphical working environment with
an office suite, Internet applications and multimedia software.

Workstation
This installation type includes the software installed on a Personal Desktop, and adds
software for development and systems administration. Choose this installation type if
you plan to compile software from source code.

Server
This installation type provides network servers such as the Apache Web server and the
Samba suite of services, and administration tools. This installation type provides no
graphical environment by default.

Custom
This installation type does not provide any disk partitioning layout for you. It also does
not include any additional software beyond a Personal Desktop. If you perform a
Custom installation, the installation program will present dialogs for these selections
during the installation process.

Click Next once you have made a selection.

Special Considerations
All Fedora Core installations include the following network services:

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• email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
• network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
• printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
• remote login through SSH (Secure SHell)

Some automated processes on your Fedora system use the email service to send
reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email and printing
services do not acceptt connections from other systems. Although Fedora connects to
NFS services on other systems, the NFS sharing component is disabled by default. You
may configure your Fedora system after installation to offer email, NFS, or print
services. The SSH service is
s enabled by default.

Minimal installations

To install a minimum of software, choose the Custom installation type. On


the Package Group Selection screen, select the Minimal package group.
The only services included in a Minimal installation are email, printing,
NFS, and SSH. This type of installation may be useful for firewalls or other
specialized systems on which limited service is an advantage.

Disk Partitioning
If you are new to Linux, you may want to use the automatic partitioning method. If you
are a more experienced Linux user, use the manual partitioning method for more
control over your system configuration, or select and modify the automatically defined
partitions.

Disk Partitioning Setup Screen

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Choosing a Partitioning Method
Setting Up Partitions Automatically

Choose Automatic partitioning at the partitioning menu to use a preset partitioning layout.
Disk Druid then displays additional options:

Automatic Partitioning Setup Screen

Remove all Linux partitions on this system

Removes all ext2, ext3,


ext3 and Linux swap partitions from all hard disks

Remove all partitions on this system

Removes all partitions from all hard disks

Keep all partitions and


nd use only existing free space

Uses only the unpartitioned space on the hard disk(s) to install Fedora Core

Select the desired option.

Next, select any disks you wish to use for Linux partitions. If your system contains only
one disk, that disk is automatically
automatically selected. Any disks you select are used for Linux
partitions according to the option selected above. The option selection is global, and
you may not select a different option for each disk.

Device Names

If you are confused about the device names used in this box, consult the
Linux Partition-HOWTO
HOWTO at http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Partition/partition-
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Partition/partition
2.html.

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To review the automatic partition configuration, select the Review checkbox.

If you remove any existing partitions, the installation program asks you to confirm this
choice. After you review and approve the partition configuration, select Next to continue
to the next installation step. Proceed with, Boot Loader.

Setting Up Partitions Manually

To manually set up all disk partitions, choose Manually partition with Disk Druid. Choose
this method if you require a special partition configuration. If you are familiar with how
disk partitions and the Linux file system work, move on to “Disk Druid”. Otherwise,
read “General Information on Partitions”.

Disk Druid
Disk Druid is an interactive program for editing disk partitions. Users run it only within
the Fedora Core installation system. Disk Druid supports RAID and LVM to provide
more extensible and reliable data storage.

Disk Setup Screen

Disk Druid displays the following actions in the installation program:

New:

Select this option to add a partition or LVM physical volume to the disk. In the Add
partition dialog, choose a mount point and a partition type. If you have more than one
disk on the system, choose which disks the partition may inhabit. Indicate a size in
megabytes for the partition.

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Illegal Partitions

The /bin/, /dev/,


/dev/ /etc/, /lib/, /proc/, /root/, and /sbin/ directories may
not be used for separate partitions in Disk Druid.. These directories
reside on the / (root) partition.

The /boot partition may not reside on an LVM volume group. Create the
/boot partition before configuring any volume groups.
You may also choose from three options for sizing your partition:
Fixed size

Use a fixed size as close to your entry as possible.

Fill all space up to

Grow the partition to a maximum size of your choice.

Fill to maximum allowable size

Grow the partition until it fills the remainder of the selected disks.

Partition Sizes

The actual partition on the disk may be slightly smaller or larger than
your choice. Disk geometry issues cause this effect, not an error or
bug.

After you enter the details for your partition, select OK to continue.

Edit
Select this option to edit an existing partition, LVM volume group, or an LVM
physical volume that is not yet part of a volume group. To change the size of a
LVM physical volume partition, first remove it from any volume groups.

Removing LVM Physical Volumes


Vo

If you remove an LVM physical volume from a volume group, you will
erase any logical volumes it contains.

Edit a partition to change its size, mount point, or file system type. Use this
function to:

• correct a mistake in setting up your partitions


• migrate Linux partitions if you are upgrading or reinstalling Fedora Core
• provide a mount point for non-Linux
non Linux partitions such as those used on
some Windows operating systems

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Windows Partitions

You may not label Windows partitions that use the NTFS file system
with a mount point in the Fedora Core installer. You may label vfat
(FAT16 or FAT32) partitions with a mount point.

If you need to make drastic changes to your partition configuration, youyo may
want to delete partitions and start again. If your disk contains data that you
need to keep, back it up before you edit any partitions. If you edit the size of a
partition, you may lose all data on it.

If your system contains many separate partitions


partitions for system and user data, it is
easier to upgrade your system. The installation program allows you to erase or
retain data on specific partitions. If your user data is on a separate /home
partition, you may retain that data while erasing system partitions such as
/boot.

Delete

Select this option to erase an existing partition or LVM physical volume. To


delete an LVM physical volume, first delete any volume groups of which that
physical volume
olume is a member.

If you make a mistake, use the Reset option to abandon all the changes you
have made.

Reset

Select this option to force Disk Druid to abandon all changes made to disk
partitions.

RAID

Select this button to set up software RAID on your


your Fedora system.

Create a software RAID partition

Choose this option to add a partition for software RAID. This option is the only
choice available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions.

Create a RAID device

Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing
software RAID partitions. This option is available if two or more software RAID
partitions have been configured.

Clone a drive to create a RAID device

Choose this option to set up a RAID mirror of an existing disk. This option is
available if two or more disks are attached to the system.

LVM

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Select this button to set up LVM on your Fedora system. First create at least one
partition or software RAID device as an LVM physical volume, using the New
dialog.

To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the
volume group. Then select the physical volumes to be used in the volume
group. Finally, configure logical volumes on any volume groups using the Add,
Edit and Delete options.

You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would
leave insufficient space for that group's logical volumes. For example, if a
volume group is made up of two 5 GB LVM physical volume partitions, then it
contains an 8 GB logical volume. The installer would not allow you to remove
either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB in
the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical
volumes appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the
volume group. In the example, reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB
would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB physical volumes.

After you finish setting up and reviewing your partition configuration, select Next to
continue the installation process.

Boot Loader
A boot loader is a small program that reads and launches the operating system. Fedora
Core uses the GRUB boot loader by default. If you have multiple operating systems,
the boot loader determines which
which one to boot, usually by offering a menu.

You may have a boot loader installed on your system already. An operating system
may install its own preferred boot loader, or you may have installed a third-party
third boot
loader.If your boot loader does not recognize
recognize Linux partitions, you may not be able to
boot Fedora Core. Use GRUB as your boot loader to boot Linux and most other
operating systems. Follow the directions in this section to install GRUB.
GRUB

Installing GRUB

If you install GRUB, it may overwrite your existing boot loader.


The following screen displays boot loader configuration options.

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Boot Loader Configuration Screen

Keeping Your Existing Boot Loader Settings

By default, the installation program installs GRUB in the master boot record, or MBR, of
the device for the root file system. To change or decline installation of a new boot
loader, select the Change boot loader button. The dialog shown in “Change Boot
Loader” allows you to avoid installing or changing your existing boot loader settings.

Change Boot Loader

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Boot Loader Required

Your computer must have GRUB or another boot loader installed in order to
start, unless you create a separate startup disk to boot from.

Booting Additional Operating Systems


If you have other operating systems already installed, Fedora Core attempts to
automatically detect and configure GRUB to boot them. You may manually configure
any additional operating systems if GRUB does not detect them. To add, remove, or
change the detected
ected operating system settings, use the options provided.

Add

Press the Add button to include an additional operating system in GRUB. Fedora
Core displays the dialog shown in “Adding Operating Systems to the Boot
Menu”.

Select the disk partition which contains the bootable operating system from the
drop-down
down list and give the entry a label. GRUB displays this label in its boot
menu.

Edit

To change an entry in the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select
Edit.

Delete

To remove an entry from the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select
Delete.

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Adding Operating Systems to the Boot Menu

Setting a Boot Loader Password


GRUB reads many file systems without the help of an operating system. An operator
can interrupt
pt the booting sequence to choose a different operating system to boot,
change boot options, or recover from a system error. However, these functions may
introduce serious security risks in some environments. You can add a password to
GRUB so that the operator
ator must enter the password to interrupt the normal boot
sequence.

GRUB Passwords Not Required

You may not require a GRUB password if your system only has trusted
operators, or is physically secured with controlled console access.

However, if there is a chance someone can get physical access to the


keyboard and monitor of your computer, that person can reboot the system
and access GRUB.. This is where a password is helpful.

To set a boot password, select the Use a boot loader password checkbox. The
Change password button will become active. Select Change password to display the
dialog below. Type the desired password, and then confirm it by typing it again in the
spaces provided.

Entering A Boot Password

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Choose a Good Password

Choose a password that is easy for you to remember but hard for others to
guess.

Forgotten GRUB Passwords

GRUB stores the password in encrypted form, so it cannot be read or


recovered. If you forget the boot password, boot the system normally and
then change the password entry in the /boot/grub/grub.conf file. If you
cannot boot, you may be able to use the "rescue" mode on the first Fedora
Core installation disc to reset the GRUB password.

If you do need to change the GRUB password, use the grub-md5 md5-crypt utility. For
information on using this utility, use the command man grub-md5-crypt
crypt in a terminal
window to read the manual pages.

Network Configuration
Use this screen to customize the network settings of your Fedora system.

Manual network configuration of a Fedora system is often not required. Many networks
have a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) service that automatically supplies
connected systems
ystems with configuration data. By default, Fedora Core activates all
network interfaces on your computer and configures them to use DHCP.

Wireless interfaces using DHCP will join an open wireless network once it is in range.
Many wireless networks are restricted,
restricted, and only accept systems which have the correct
security credentials.

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Network Configuration Screen
Network Devices
Fedora displays a list of network interfaces detected on your computer. Each interface
must have a unique IP address on the network to which it is attached. The interface
may receive this address from the network DHCP service.

To manually assign an IP address, highlight the interface on the Network Device list
and select Edit.. Fedora then displays a network configuration
configuration dialog. Deselect the
Configure using DHCP checkbox, so that it is empty. Enter the IP Address and the
appropriate Netmask for the interface. Then select OK.

If your computer will be a server, do not use DHCP. Manually configure networking
instead. Manuall network configuration allows your server to join the local network even
if the DHCP provider is down.

Specify whether an interface should be automatically activated at boot time with the
Active on Boot checkbox for that device. You may manually activate a network
interface at any time after the system has booted.

Modem Configuration

The Network Configuration screen does not list modems. Configure these
devices after installation with either the Internet Configuration Wizard
or Network Cnfiguration utility. The settings for your modem are specific
to your particular Internet Service Provider (ISP).

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Computer Hostname
On some networks, the DHCP provider also provides the name of the computer, or
hostname.. To specify the hostname, select Manual and
d type the complete name in the
box. The complete hostname includes both the name of the machine and the name of
the domain of which it is a member, such as machine1.example.com.
machine1.example.com The machine
name (or "short hostname") is machine1, and the domain name is example.com
ample.com.

Valid Hostnames

You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is
unique. The hostname may include letters, numbers and hyphens.

Security Configuration
The default security configuration for Fedora Core protects your system without
restricting any of the functions of a desktop or laptop computer. If you are installing a
server, you may need to alter these settings so others can access the system.

Security
ity Configuration Screen

Select Next to proceed after you review the security configuration and make any
necessary changes.

Firewall
The firewall built into Fedora Core checks every incoming and outgoing network
connection on your machine against a set of rules. These rules specify which types of
connections are permitted and which are denied.

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By default the firewall is enabled, with a simple set of rules that allow connections to be
made from your system to others, but block incoming connections from other systems.
You may make changes on this screen to allow access to specific network services on
your Fedora system.

To enable access to services listed on this screen, click the check box next to the
service name. After installation is complete, you can
can enable access to other services as
well.

Avoid disabling the firewall. If you believe it is necessary to do so, select No firewall.

Changing the Firewall Settings

To change these settings later, from the main menu, choose Desktop-
>System
System Settings->Security
Settings Level and Firewall.

SELinux
The SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux) framework is part of Fedora Core. SELinux
limits the actions of both users and programs by enforcing security policies throughout
the operating system. Without SELinux, software bugs or configuration changes may
render a system moreore vulnerable. The restrictions imposed by SELinux policies provide
extra security against unauthorized access.

Inflexible SELinux policies might inhibit many normal activities on a Fedora system. For
this reason, Fedora Core uses targeted policies, which
which only affect specific network
services. These services cannot perform actions that are not part of their normal
functions. The targeted policies reduce or eliminate any inconvenience SELinux might
cause users. Set the SELinux mode to one of the following:

Active

Select this mode to use the targeted SELinux policy on your Fedora system. This
is the default mode for Fedora installations.

Warn

Because SELinux is a new technology, this diagnostic mode is provided. In this


mode, the system is configured with
with SELinux, but a breach of security policies
only causes an error message to appear. No activities are actually prohibited
when SELinux is installed in this mode. You may change the SELinux mode to
Active at any time after booting.

Disabled

If you choose this mode for SELinux, Fedora does not configure the access
control system at all. To make SELinux active later, from the main menu, select
Desktop->System
System Settings->Security
Settings Level and Firewall..

Changing the SELinux policy

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SELinux is unique in that it cannot be bypassed, even by the system
administrators. To change the behavior of SELinux after installation, from the
main menu, choose Desktop->System Settings->Security Level and
Firewall.

Time Zone Selection


This screen allows you to specify the correct time zone for the location of your
computer. Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to
maintain the accuracy of the system clock.
Selecting a Time Zone
Fedora displays on the screen two methods for selecting the time zone.

Time Zone Selection Screen

To select a time zone using the map, select the yellow dot that represents the city
nearest to your location. When you place the arrow on a dot, Fedora displays the name
of the city below the map. Once you select a dot, it becomes a red X to indicate your
selection.

To select a time zone using the list, select the name of the city nearest to your location.
The cities are listed in alphabetical order.

Set the Root Password


Fedora uses a special account named root for system administration. The root account
on every Linux system is only limited by SELinux. It is not subject to any other normal
account restrictions. As the system owner or administrator, you may sometimes require
unrestricted access to configure or modify the system. In those cases, use the root
account.

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Using the root Account

Avoid logging in to Fedora Core as root when possible. Any administration


tools which require root privileges will prompt you for the password.

The Fedora installation program requires the root password to be at least six characters
long. Because the root account may potentially control any part of the system, use the
following guidelines to create a good password:

• Use a combination of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, punctuation


and other characters.
• Do not use a word or name. Obscuring the the word or name with substitute
characters is not effective.
• Do not use the same password for more than one system.

The following are examples of good passwords:

• f9*@1Ls99A
• HL8$391%%rb
• Iwtb,10^th

Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Fedora
edora displays the characters
as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is
set correctly.

Set Root Password Screen

After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.

Package Selection
Fedora uses the installation type to select a set of software packages for your system.
Refer to Installation Types for more information. You can accept this default set of

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packages, or customize it to fit your preferences. If you choose the Custom installation
type, Fedora displays the screen for Package Group Selection automatically.

Changing Your Mind

The installation type and packages that you select are not permanent. After
you boot your system, use the Package Management tool to make
different software selections for your system. To run this tool, from the
main menu, select Desktop->System Settings->Add/Remove
Add/Remove
Applications.

Package Installation Defaults


A summary of the default package selection is displayed.

Package Installation Defaults Screen

To accept the default package selection, select Install the default software
packages. Select Next to continue, and proceed to About to Install.

To view or change the packages, select Customize software packages to be


installed. Select Next to continue, and proceed to “Package Group Selection”.
Selection”

Package Group Selection

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Fedora Core divides included software into package groups that make software
selection easier.

Package Group Selection Screen

The default groups for the chosen installation type are already selected. Select or
remove any group of packages as desired. None of the packages from a group will be
installed unless the checkbox next to the group is selected.

To change which packages within a selected group will be installed, select the Details
link next to the name of the group. Fedora Core automatically installs Base Packages
of a group if the group is selected. Change the selection of Optional Packages by
using the checkbox next to the name of the individual package.

Fedora Core lists with each group the number of packages currently selected for
installation, and the total number of packages within that group.

Package Group Details Dialog

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Additional Language Support
Your Fedora Core re system automatically supports the language that you selected at the
start of the installation process. To include support for additional languages, select the
packages for those languages from the Language Support package group.

Language Selection

Select every language that you need for your system. Adding support for a
language after installation is difficult, and not recommended.

Everything or Minimal Installations


Two of the groups under the heading of Miscellaneous are incompatible with the
others. If you select either of these groups, your other group selections become invalid.

If you select Everything,, Fedora Core installs all of the packages provided. Although
Fedora Core installs many additional network services in this package group, some are
not enabled after installation. This option may be useful for some testing and
development purposes.

Storage Requirements

The Everything installation fills approximately 6.9Gb of free disk space, and
temporarily requires an additional 175Mb of disk space during the installation
process. Refer to the Release Notes for more information about storage
requirements.

The Minimal package


age group provides only the essential packages to create a bootable
system. This package group provides no graphical interface.

After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. Fedora Core checks
your selection, and automatically adds any extra
extra packages required to use the software
you select.

About to Install
No changes are made to your computer until you click the Next button. If you abort
the installation process after that point, the Fedora Core system will be incomplete and
unusable. To o return to previous screens to make different choices, select Back. To
abort the installation, turn off the computer.

Aborting Installation

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In certain situations, you may be unable to return to previous screens.
Fedora Core notifies you of this restriction and allows you to abort the
installation program. You may reboot with the installation media to start
over.

About to Install Screen

Click Next to begin the installation.

If your installation requires more than one disc, Fedora Core displays a list of all discs
required to complete the process. If you do not have all of the necessary discs, select
Reboot to abort the installation. Otherwise, choose Continue to proceed with
installation.

Installing Packages
Fedora Core reports the installation progress on the screen as it writes the selected
packages to your system. Network and DVD installations require no further action. If
you are using CDs to install, Fedora Core prompts you to change discs periodically.
After you insert a disc, select OK to resume the installation.

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Installing Packages Screen

After installation completes, select Reboot to restart your computer. Fedora Core
ejects any loaded discs before the computer reboots.

First Boot
The Setup Agent launches the first time that you start a new Fedora Core system. Use
Setup Agent to configure the system for use before you log in.

Welcome Screen
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Select Next to start the Setup Agent.
Agent

GUI Required
Setup Agent requires a graphical interface. If none is available, configure
these options manually after you log in.

License Agreement
This screen displays the overall licensing terms for Fedora Core. Each software package
in Fedora Core is covered by its own license which has been approved by the Open
Source Initiative (OSI). For more information about the OSI, refer to
http://www.opensource.org/
http://www.opensource.org/.

License Agreement Screen

To proceed, select Yes, I agree to the License Agreement and then select Next.

Date and Time

If your system does not have Internet access or a network time server, manually set
the date and time for your system on this screen. Otherwise, use NTP (Network Time
Protocol) servers to maintain the accuracy of the clock. NTP provides time
synchronization
n service to computers on the same network. The Internet contains
many computers that offer public NTP services.

The initial display enables you to set the date and time of your system manually.

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Date and Time Screen

Select the Network Time Protocol tab to configure your system to use NTP servers
instead.

Setting the Clock

To change these settings later, from the main menu, choose Desktop-
>System
System Settings->Date
Settings & Time.

To configure your system to use network time servers, select the Enable Network
Time Protocol option. This option disables the settings on the Date and Time tab and
enables the other settings on this screen.

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Date and Time Screen

By default, Fedora Core is configured to use three separate groups, or pools, of time
servers. Time server pools create redundancy, so if one time server is unavailable, your
system will synchronize with another server.

To use an additional time server, either select it from the Server drop-down box, or
type the DNS name in the box, and select Add. To remove a server or server pool from
the list, select the name and click Delete. The drop-down box already has two listings
as examples, which are servers provided by Red Hat.

If the hardware clock in your computer is highly inaccurate, you may turn off your local
time source entirely. To turn off the local time source, select Show advanced options
and then deselect the Use Local Time Source option. If you turn off your local time
source, the NTP servers take priority over the internal clock.

If you enable the Enable NTP Broadcast advanced option, Fedora Core will attempt to
automatically locate time servers on the network.

Display
The Setup Agent automatically attempts to identify the graphics card and monitor for
your computer. It uses this information to calculate the correct Resolution and Color
Depth settings.

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Display Screen

If you need to change the monitor, select Configure to display a list of manufacturers.
Select the manufacturer of your monitor on the list, and hit the + key or select the
triangle next to the name to view supported models. Choose the correct model from
the list and select OK. If none of the listed models match your monitor, select the
closest match from either the Generic CRT Display list or the Generic LCD Display
list.

Monitor Dialog

To change a display setting, select Resolution or Color Depth, and select a new value
from the drop-down list. The Setup Agent only shows the settings that are valid for
your hardware.

90
Resetting the display
To reconfigure your system after the installation has completed, from the
main menu, choose Desktop->System Settings->Display..

System User
Create a user account for yourself with this screen. Always use this account to log in to
your Fedora Core system, rather than using the root account.

System User Screen

Enter a user name and your full name, and then enter your chosen password. Type
your
ur password once more in the Confirm Password box to ensure that it is correct.
Refer to Set the Root Password for guidelines on selecting a secure password.

Creating extra user accounts

To add additional user accounts to your system after the installation is


complete, from the main menu, choose Desktop->System
System Settings-
Settings
>Users
Users & Groups.
Groups

To configure Fedora Core to use network services for authentication or user


information, select Use Network
Ne Login....

After you configure login services, select Next to proceed.

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Sound Card
The Setup Agent automatically attempts to identify the sound card in your computer.

Sound Card Screen

Click Play Test Sound to check the sound card configuration. If the configuration is
correct, Fedora Core plays a sound sequence. If your sound card is identified, but you
do not hear the sound, check your speakers and try again.

You may manually configure a Fedora Core system to use unsupported sound cards
after the installation process is complete. Manual sound hardware configuration is
beyond the scope of this document.

Changing the Sound Card

Fedora Core will automatically attempt to detect a new sound card if you
add one to your system. If you need to launch the detection process
manually, from the main menu, choose Desktop->SystemSystem Settings-
Settings
>Soundcard
Soundcard Detection.
Detection

Additional CDs
This screen allows you to load prepared discs for installing third-party
third party software.
However, you cannot use it to install additional packages from the Fedora Core discs.

Adding Software

To add software packages from the Fedora Core discs, use the Package
Manager utility after you log in. From the main menu, select Desktop-
>System
System Settings->Add/Remove
Settings Applications.

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Additional CDs Screen

Click Next to proceed to the final screen.

Finish Setup Screen

Click Next to proceed to the login screen. Your Fedora Core system is now ready for
use.
Your Next Steps
Fedora Core provides you with a complete operating system with a vast range of
capabilities, supported by a large community.
Documentation on the Web
Documentation for Fedora Core is available from the Fedora Project Website:

http://fedora.redhat.com/docs/

The Linux Documentation Project (LDP) produces books and tutorials:

http://www.tldp.org/

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For many parts of Fedora Core, you may find the Red Hat Enterprise Linux
documentation useful:

http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/enterprise/

Many other organizations and individuals also provide tutorials and HOWTOs for Fedora
on their Websites. You can locate information on any topic by using Google:

http://www.google.com/linux/

Community Support
Members of the Fedora community provides support through mailing lists, web forums
and Linux User Groups (LUGs) across the world.
The Website for the official forums is:
http://forums.fedoraforum.org/

Joining The Fedora Community


The Fedora Project is driven by the individuals that contribute to it. Community
members provide support and documentation to other users, help to improve the
software included in Fedora Core by testing, and develop new software alongside the
programmers employed by Red Hat. The results of this work are available to all.
To make a difference, start here:
http://fedora.redhat.com/participate/

Kernel:
The heart of the Operating System. It is the one responsible for managing the user
tasks, other system activities and resources.

Shell:
Shell is a command interpreter. Shell is a interface between the user and the kernel of
the system. It receives commands from the user directly or indirectly. The kernel
receives information from the shell and it gives the result to the shell only. There are
many types of shells in Linux: bsh(Bourne SHell), csh (C SHell), ksh (Korn SHell),
bash(Bourne Again Shell). It is similar to “command.com” in DOS.

Basic BASH (Bourne Again SHell) Linux Commands

More information on almost any of the commands that follow can be found in the on-
line manual pages. Type "man command-name" at the command line to look at the
manual page for the command "command-name".

Files Environment

Display files in a directory :ls Keep getting "Can"t open display: :0" :setenv
Copying files : cp Display current environment variables: env
Delete file(s) : rm
What kind of file is this ? : file Networking
Where is this file ? : find , which, whereis
Compile a file : cc, cc++, g++, gcc, CC
Check your mail or mail someone : mail ,
Debug a program : gdb, dbx, xgdb
Whats in this file ? : more, less, cat elm, pine
Whats different with these two files ? diff, cmp Write message to persons screen: write
View a file in PostScript (.ps file): ghostview Graphically display new mail xbiff
Edit a file : emacs, vi, jove, ed Information on a person : finger

94
Change permission : chmod Information on people logged-on rwho
Finding man page : man -k Info on Printers : printers
Moving files : mv Printing a file : lpr
Did I spell that right?: spell, ispell
Check the print queue : lpq
Cancel print jobs :lprm
Transfer files over Network : ftp, kermit
HOW DO I QUIT !? : logout
Information on Servers : rupall
Directories Processes

Where am I now ?? : pwd What program is running now? jobs, ps


Moving around : cd , ln
Create a directory : mkdir Passwords
Delete a directory : rmdir
Change permissions to a directory : chmod CHANGE YOUR PASSWORD ! yppasswd
How much disk space do I have left ?
quota -v

c++ {filename}

A compiler for the C++ programming language. Command line parameters are
similar to the "cc" compiler"s. A typical invocation might be "c++ -g file.cpp -o
executablename -llib".
cal
Displays the current months calendar.

cat {filename}
Prints out ( to the screen ) the contents of the named file. Can also be used to
concatenate files. Say you want file1 and file2 to be all together in one file
named file3. If file1 is first, then "cat file1 file2 > file3" will produce the correct
file3.

cc
A compiler for the "C" programming language. "cc" is ANSI compatible on the
SGI, IBM, and newer Sun machines. You might try also try "gcc", GNU CC,
which is also available on the SGI, SUN, and IBM machines. A typical invocation
might be "cc -g file.c -o executablename -llib".

cd {dirname}
Change current directory. Without a "dirname", it will return you to your home
directory. Otherwise, it takes you to the directory named. "cd /" will take you to
the root directory.

chmod {options}
Changes the permission modes of a file. If you type "ls -l" in a directory, you
might get something like this:

drwx------ 3 ertle 512 Jul 16 13:38 LaTeX/


drwxr-xr-- 2 ertle 512 Jun22 12:26 X/
drwxr-xr-x 3 ertle 512 Jul 13 16:29 Xroff/
-rw-r--r-- 1 ertle 373 Oct 3 1992 o.me
-rw-r--r-- 1 ertle 747 Nov 21 1992 profile
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ertle 244 Jul 16 23:44 zap*

The first part of the line tells you the file"s permissions. For example, the "X" file
permissions start with a "d" which tells that it is a directory. The next three
characters, "rwx" show that the owner has read, write, and execute permissions
on this file. The next three characters, "r-x" shows that people in the same
95
group have read and execute permission on the file. Finally, the last three
characters "r-" show that everyone else only has read permission on that file
(To be able to enter a directory, you need read AND execute permission). Users
can use "chmod" to change these permissions. If the user didn"t want anybody
else to be able to enter the "X" directory, they would change the permissions to
look like those of the LaTeX directory, like this : "chmod og-rx X" - this means
remove the read ("r" ) and execute ("x") permissions from the group ("g") and
others ("o").

cmp {file1} {file2}

Compares the contents of two files from eachother. Reports the first different
character found, and the line nummber.

cp {filename(s)}{path}

Copies files from one directory/filename to another. "cp f1 f2" makes a file "f2"
identical to "f1". "cp *.c src/" copies all files that end in ".c" into the "src"
subdirectory.

date
Shows current date and time.
dbx {executable}
Source level debugger. In order to use this, you must use the "-g" option when
compiling your source code. Allows you to set break-points, single step through
the program, etc.
df
amount of memory in disk free.

diff {file1} {file2}

Displays all the differences between two files or directories to the screen.
du
disk usage of partitions.

env
Prints out the values for all the current environment variables. Some typical
environment variables are "DISPLAY", "EDITOR", and "PRINTER".

xemacs {filename}

An X version of emacs.

file filename(s)
Looks at "filename(s)" and tells what type of files they are. This is useful in
checking a file to be sure that it is text before you "cat" it out (using "cat" on
binary files can be a bummer). Example:

ertle@newton (55)> file *


useful.dvi: data
useful.hlp: English text
useful.tex: ascii text
xwin.dvi: data
xwin.tex: English text
ertle@newton (56)>

96
find
Searches the named directory and it"s sub-directories for files. Most frequently
called like this:

find ./ -name "t*" -print

Which searches the current directory ( and all of its sub-directories ) for any
files that begin with the letter "t" and then prints them out. If you are looking
for a specific filename, then replace "t*" with "filename", and "find" will print out
all incidences of this file.

finger {login-name}
Without a "login-name", finger shows who is currently logged on the system,
with limited information about them. With a "login-name" you get more detailed
info, along with anything that is in that person"s ".plan" file.

ftp {address}
File Transfer Program. "ftp" transfers files to and from a remote network site.
There are many ftp-sites that will let you log in as "anonymous" and get
software/data/documents from them for free. After connecting, "ls" will print out
the files in the current directory, and "get filename" will transfer the named file
into your local directory. Be sure to type "binary" before transferring non-ascii
(executable, compressed, archived, etc) files. To exit "ftp" type "bye". See also
"xarchie".

g++
GNU project"s compiler for the C++ language. Parameters are similar to those
of "cc". A typical invocation might be "g++ -g filename.cpp -o executablename -
llib". More information available under "libg++" in the emacs information
browser ( M-x info while in emacs ).

gcc
GNU project"s compiler for the C language. Command line parameters are
mostly similar to those of "cc". More information available under "gcc" in the
emacs information browser ( M-x info while in emacs ).

gdb
GNU project"s source level debugger. Must use the "-g" command line option
when compiling to use this debugger. This debugger is superior to dbx when
called from inside emacs ( M-x gdb ) because it gives you a full-screen look at
the source code instead of line by line, and allows you to move around and
make break-points in the source file. More information available under "gdb" in
the emacs information browser ( M-x info while in emacs ).

grep
Used to search word(s) in a file(s).

head
displays the first ten lines.

ispell filename
Interactively checks the spelling of the named file, giving logical alternatives to
the misspelled words. Type "?" to get help. "ispell" can be accessed from the
command line, and also through emacs with M-x ispell-buffer.

jobs
Shows backgrounded (<CTRL>-z"ed) processes with pid #"s. If you use "jobs"
to find the processes that you have suspended or are running in the
background, what you get back might look like the following:

97
[1] 21998 Suspended emacs useful.tex
[2] - 22804 Suspended (signal) elm
[3] + 22808 Suspended badb

less filename
Displays file with minimal space.

ln -s {source} {dest}
Creates a symbolic link from {source} to {dest}. {Source} can be a directory or
a file.
Allows you to move around with ease instead of using long and complicated
path names.

logout
Exits and disconnects your network connection.

lpr {-Pprintername}filename
Queues file "filename" to be printed on "printer". If no printer is specified with -
Pprintername, but the "PRINTER" environment variable is set, then the job will
be queued on that printer.

ls {directory}
Shows directory listing. If no "directory" is specified, "ls" prints the names of the
files in the current directory.

ls -l {directory}
Shows long directory listing. If you type "ls -l" in a directory, you might get
something like this:

drwx------ 3 ertle 512 Jul 16 13:38 LaTeX/


drwxr-xr-- 2 ertle 512 Jun 22 12:26 X/
drwxr-xr-x 3 ertle 512 Jul 13 16:29 Xroff/
-rw-r--r-- 1 ertle 373 Oct 3 1992 o.me
-rw-r--r-- 1 ertle 747 Nov 21 1992 profile
-rwxr-xr-x 1 ertle 244 Jul 16 23:44 zap*

The first part of the line tells you the file"s permissions. For example, the "X" file
permissions start with a "d" which tells that it is a directory. The next three
characters, "rwx" show that the owner has read, write, and execute permissions
on this file. The next three characters, "r-x" shows that people in the same
group have read and execute permission on the file. Finally, the last three
characters "r-" show that everyone else only has read permission on that file
(To be able to enter a directory, you need read AND execute permission)

mail {login-name}
Read or send mail messages. If no "login-name" is specified, "mail" checks to
see if you have any mail in your mail box. With a "login-name", "mail" will let
you type in a message to send to that person. For more advanced mail
processing, you might try "elm" or "pine" at the command line, or "M-x mail" in
emacs.

mkdir dirname
Makes a sub-directory named "dirname" in the current directory.

man -k pattern
Shows all manual entries which have "pattern" in their description.

man {section}name

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Shows the full manual page entry for "name". Without a section number, "man"
may give you any or all man pages for that "name". For example, "man write"
will give you the manual pages for the write command, and "man 2 write" will
give you the system call for "write" ( usually from the C or Pascal programming
language ).

more filename
Displays the contents of a file with pagebreaks. Usefull to use "file" first so you
don"t display garbage.

mv filename path
Moves "filename" to "path". This might consist of a simple renaming of the file,
"mv file1 file2", moving the file to a new directory, "mv file1 /tmp/", or both
"mv file1 /tmp/file2".

nl
displays the data in a file along with the line numbers.

printers
Shows available printers and current status.

ps {options}
"ps" reports that status of some or all of the processes currently running on the
system. With no command line parameters, "ps" only shows processes that
belong to you and that are attached to a controlling terminal.

pwd
Shows current working directory path.

quota -v
Shows current disk usage and limits.

rm filename(s)
Removes files. Careful with this one - it is irreversible. It is usually aliased (in a
user"s .cshrc file) to "rm -i" which insures that "rm" asks you if you are sure
that you want to remove the named file.

rmdir dirname
Removes the directory "dirname".

setenv
Sets environment variables. Most frequently used to tell X which display you are
on with "setenv DISPLAY displayname:0". Also used in .cshrc file to set
"EDITOR" and "PRINTER" environment variables. This tells programs which
editor you prefer, and which printer you want your output to be printed on.

spell {filename}
Checks the spelling of the words in the standard input by default, checks words
in "filename" if a name is supplied on the command line. If a word is misspelled
it is printed to stdout ( usually the screen ).
tail
It show the last ten lines of a text file.

vi {filename}
Runs the screen oriented text editor named "vi". If a filename is specified, you
will be editing that file. Type "[ESC]:q!" to exit without making any changes.

whereis {command}
Reports the directory in which the {command} binary redides.

99
which {command}
Reports the directory from which the {command} would be run if it was given
as a command line argument.

who
Shows who is currently logged on the system. The "w" command does the same
thing, but gives slightly different info.

write loginname
Send a message to another user. Each line will be sent to the other person as
you hit the carriage-return. Press <CTRL>-D to end the message. Write won"t
work if the other user has typed "mesg n".

ln

Make links between files, by default, it makes hard links; with the `-s' option, it makes
symbolic (or "soft") links.

Hard Link:

A "hard link" is another name for an existing file; the link and the original are
indistinguishable. Technically speaking, they share the same inode, and the inode
contains all the information about a file--indeed, it is not incorrect to say that the inode
_is_ the file.
On all existing implementations, you cannot make a hard link to a directory, and hard
links cannot cross filesystem boundaries. (These restrictions are not mandated by
POSIX, however.)

Symbolic Link:

"Symbolic links" ("symlinks" for short), on the other hand, are a special file type in
which the link file actually refers to a different file, by name. When most operations `
(opening, reading, writing, and so on) are passed the symbolic link file, the
kernel automatically "dereferences" the link and operates on the target of the link. But
some operations (e.g., removing) work on the link file itself, rather than on its target.

SYNTAX
ln [Options]... target [Linkname]

ln [Options]... target... Directory

OPTIONS
-b
--backup
Make a backup of each file that would otherwise be overwritten or
removed. *Note Backup options::.

-d
-F
--directory
Allow the super-user to make hard links to directories.

-f
--force
Remove existing destination files.

-i

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--interactive
Prompt whether to remove existing destination files.

-n
--no-dereference
When given an explicit destination that is a symlink to a
directory, treat that destination as if it were a normal file.

When the destination is an actual directory (not a symlink to one), there is


no ambiguity. The link is created in that directory. But when the specified
destination is a symlink to a directory, there are two ways to treat the user's
request. ‘ln' can treat the destination just as it would a normal directory and
create the link in it. On the other hand, the destination can be viewed as a
non-directory--as the symlink itself. In that case, `ln' must delete or
backup that symlink before creating the new link. The default is to treat a
destination that is a symlink to a directory just like a directory.

-s
--symbolic
Make symbolic links instead of hard links. This option merely
produces an error message on systems that do not support symbolic
links.

-S SUFFIX
--suffix=SUFFIX
Append SUFFIX to each backup file made with `-b'. *Note Backup
options::.

-v
--verbose
Print the name of each file before linking it.

-V METHOD
--version-control=METHOD
Change the type of backups made with `-b'. The METHOD argument
can be `numbered' (or `t'), `existing' (or `nil'), or `never' (or
`simple').

DESCRIPTION

If the last argument names an existing directory, `ln' creates a link to each TARGET file
in that directory, using the TARGETs' names. (But see the description of the `--no-
dereference' option below.)

If two filenames are given, `ln' creates a link from the second to the first.

If one TARGET is given, `ln' creates a link to that file in the current directory.

It is an error if the last argument is not a directory and more than two files are given.
Without `-f' or `-i' (see below), `ln' will not remove an existing file. Use the `--backup'
option to make `ln' rename existing files.

Examples:

ln -s /some/name # creates link ./name pointing to /some/name


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ln -s /some/name spud # creates link ./spud pointing to /some/name
ln -s a b .. # creates links ../a and ../b pointing to ./a and ./b

Wild Cards

The shell and some text processing programs will allow meta-characters, or wild cards,
and replace them with pattern matches. For filenames these meta-characters and their
uses are:
? match any single character at the indicated position
* match any string of zero or more characters
[abc...] match any of the enclosed characters
[a-e] match any characters in the range a,b,c,d,e

[!def] match any characters not one of the enclosed characters,


sh only
{abc, bcd, cde} match any set of characters separated by comma (,) (no
spaces), csh only
~ home directory of the current user, csh only
~ user home directory of the specified user, csh only

Examples:
ls *.c displays for all the c files in the current directory.
ls a*.c displays all c files starting with “a” in the current directory.
ls ?.c displays all c files with a single letter filename.
ls a[bcd].c displays all c files with names ab.c or ac.c or ad.c
ls *.* displays all the files in the current directory.

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Free space for observations

103
Task 5: Hardware Troubleshooting
PC Boot problems: (beep codes)

IBM BIOS

Indicator System status


No Beeps - No Power Loose Cord, or Short.
1 Short Beep - Normal POST Computer is ok.
2 Short Beep - POST error review screen for error code.
Continuous Beep - No Power Loose Cord, or Short.
Repeating Short Beep - No Power Loose Card, or Short.
One Long and one Short Beep Motherboard issue.
Video (Mono/CGA Display Circuitry)
One Long and Two short Beeps
issue.
One Long and Three Short Beeps Video (EGA) Display Circuitry.
Three Long Beep Keyboard / Keyboard card error.
Blank or Incorrect Display Video Display
One Beep
Circuitry.

Award and Phoenix BIOS:

Indicator System Status


1 short beep: Normal
2 short beeps CMOS error
1 long and 1 short beep RAM error
1 long and 2 short beeps Video card error
1 long and 3 short beeps Keyboard error
1 long and 9 short beeps ROM error
Long continuous beeps RAM not installed correctly
Short continuous beeps Bad power supply or over heating

Problem with power supply or CPU chips:


Make sure the power connector is connected correctly and fitted firmly in the mother
board socket, some mother boards require two connectors from the power supply, refer
to mother board manual. If the problem persists try using a different power supply.
Check CPU fan, remove chip and clear dust, and make sure it is mounted properly.

Video card problem:


Remove video card and inspect for cracks or bad connectors. Make sure the video card
mounted correctly in the slot; try using a different video card.

Keyboard error:
Either the key board is not functioning or is not attached correctly, try a different key
board, if its has a PS/2 connector then make sure its not plugged into the mouse
connector.

RAM error:
Remove ram inspect for cracks, bad connectors or dust. Insert the chip back into the
slot and make sure its firmly seated properly in the slot, if the mother board has more
then one slot then make sure the chip is in the first slot (i.e. closest to the CPU). If the
problem persists change ram.

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No beeps and no POST:
Pull everything out of the machine except for the CPU and power the PC up. The PC
should now only consist of a power supply, a motherboard and a CPU/HSF. This means
your PC should have no video card, RAM or IDE cables. You should have no PCI cards
and that includes modems and sound cards. Have a power button and speakers hooked
up to the board so you can turn it on and listen for beep codes.

If you have the PC stripped down this much and you still do not get any beep codes,
then you may have an issue with either the CPU, motherboard or power supply.

Problems after booting:

Pc Freezes:
Check CPU fan, case fan and power box fan, make sure all are working and clean off
dust. Check hard drive, CPU, power supply for over heating. Some video cards may
also heat up and create excessive heat inside the case. Make sure that the case is kept
cool, by maintaining good air flow.

• Scan hard drive for bad sectors.


• Make sure all devices are functioning properly are plugged in. Unplug any faulty
device.
• Unplug any new devices or software installed.

PC Restarts while in use:


One problem could be bad RAM, replace RAM and restart machine. Open up resource
hungry applications like Office, Photoshop, many instances of internet explorer until all
the ram is used up. If system doesn't freeze or restart then return old chip to
manufacturer.

Check capacitors on motherboard make sure that they aren't bulging, leaking, or
burned. If they are - that's the problem.

Scan for viruses.

Voltage problem or overheated components:


If the computer is actually functioning and the computer beeps continuously, then
there is a problem with a voltage on the power supply being incorrect or the CPU
overheating. Go into the BIOS and check CPU temperature, fan speed and voltages.

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Free space for observations

106
Task 6: Software Troubleshooting

1. Issues and questions related to the Windows taskbar.

Information about the Taskbar.

Above image is the Windows 98 Taskbar.

A bar commonly located at the bottom of Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows
NT, Windows 2000, Windows ME, Windows XP operating systems that displays the
programs that are currently running. This bar also displays the time, systray and in
later revisions of the Windows operating system, the Quick Launch. Below is an
example of what the taskbar may look like.

I've lost my Windows Taskbar how do I get it back?

This is caused by either the Taskbar being on Auto hide or the computer user
accidentally hiding the taskbar by dragging it down too far.

Verify Auto hide is not activated by following the below steps.

1. Press CTRL + ESC or your Windows key to make Start menu appear.
2. Click Settings and choose Taskbar & Start menu
3. Verify that Auto Hide is not checked.

If Auto Hide is not enabled move the task bar up by following the
below steps.

1. Press CTRL + ESC or your Windows key to make Start menu appear.
2. Try to notice where the Start menu appeared; generally, it should be the
bottom left corner.
3. Press ESC. You should now notice a small gray line at the location of
where the start was.

Move the mouse over that gray line, when in the appropriate position your mouse
cursor should change.

2. Issues and questions related to Rundll

Rundll and rundll32 enable users to run a DLL file as an application. The rundll.exe
and/or rundll32.exe files are included in Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows
NT 4.0, Windows ME, Windows 2000, and Windows XP.

Below are some examples of how the rundll.exe rundll32.exe files can be used in
Microsoft Windows to perform numerous windows commands from the command
prompt. Because of the different versions of rundll and rundll32, not all of the below
options will work. If rundll or rundll32 encounter an error, it is possible that the
command will fail without any error messages.

Shutdown, restart, logoff, and/or poweroff the computer

Users can shutdown Windows through the command line using rundll32
and the shell32.dll file.
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Lock the Windows 2000 and Windows XP workstation

rundll32 user32.dll,LockWorkStation

Run the install for an inf file

Run the install for an inf file.

rundll32.exe setupapi,InstallHinfSection DefaultInstall 132 <inf file>

Open the Open With folder for a file

Below is a command that can be run from the command line to open the
"Open With" window for a particular file.

rundll32.exe shell32.dll,OpenAs_RunDLL <directory and/or file>

3. Issues and questions related to Lost or forgotten Windows NT / 2000 /


XP password.

Gaining access to an account or computer that is not yours without permission by using
any of the below steps is against the law. Additional legal information and policy
information can be found on our legal page.

There are various utilities that enable a user to gain access to a computer they have
forgotten the password to, below is a listing of some of the more popular utilities
available.

Windows XP users and Prevent a forgotten password option

If you have Windows XP and have gone through the "prevent a forgotten
password option" and have created a diskette, use the diskette created
to recover the forgotten password.

Offline NT Password & Registry editor

The offline NT password & registry editor is a great utility that enables
users to overwrite their Windows NT, 2000, and XP SAM file, the file
containing their passwords, with a new password. This will not allow a
user to view their previous password, however, it will allow the user to
gain access to their unencrypted files again.

This utility is free and can be found on the below link.

http://home.eunet.no/~pnordahl/ntpasswd/

Emergency Boot CD

In addition to several other features, the EMCD, or Emergency Boot CD,


is capable of changing the passwords of any user, including the
administrator password in Windows NT, 2000, and XP without needing to
know the previous password.

This utility is free and can be found on the below link.

http://ebcd.pcministry.com/
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Creating the forgotten password diskette

1. In Microsoft Windows open Control Panel.


2. In Control Panel open the User Accounts window by double-clicking the User
Accounts icon.
3. In the User Accounts Window in the top left Related Tasks section click Prevent
a forgotten password.
4. Insert a blank floppy diskette into the computer and click Next.
5. Type the password for the user you are creating the diskette for and click
Next.
6. Wait until the diskette has completed the process of being created and then
store the diskette in a place you will remember.

Using the forgotten password diskette

If you have forgotten your Windows XP password, however have created a forgotten
password diskette earlier to use the diskette follow the below steps.

1. At the Windows XP login prompt when the password is entered incorrectly click
the reset button in the login failed window.
2. Insert the password reset diskette into the computer and click Next.
3. If the correct diskette Windows XP will open a window prompting for the new
password you wish to use.

4. Additional information and help with the boot.ini:

The "boot.ini" is a Microsoft initialization file found on the Microsoft Windows


NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, and Microsoft Windows XP operating systems. This file is
always located on the root directory of the primary hard disk drive. In other words, it is
located at "C:\" directory or the "C Drive". This file is used by Microsoft Windows as a
method of displaying a menu of operating systems currently on the computer and
allowing the user to easily select which operating system to load. In addition, this file is
also used to point to the locations of each of the operating systems.

Basic example of the boot.ini file:

[boot loader]
timeout=5
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(1)\WINDOWS
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(1)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP Home
Edition" /fastdetect

In the above example, the boot.ini contains two sections, the "[boot loader]", and
"[operating systems]". Within the boot loader section there are two lines. The "timeout"
line is used for how long the boot menu time should be displayed, in seconds; we
recommend that the timeout be set to at least five if you wish the computer to boot
faster and commonly use the default operating systems. The "default" line is the
default operating system that the boot.ini will load. If multiple operating systems are in
the boot.ini, the default operating system will be automatically selected and used if the
user does not specify a different operating system by the time the timeout value
expires.

How to modify the boot. ini:

The boot.ini file is a hidden system file located in the root directory of your primary
hard disk drive. To edit this file we recommend you follow the below steps.

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1. From Windows, open an MS-DOS prompt by clicking "Start" and then "Run" and
typing "cmd" in the text box. If you are not able to get into a MS-DOS prompt to
edit the boot.ini file, boot into the recovery console to edit the file.
2. At the MS-DOS prompt, type:

c: <press enter>
cd\ <press enter>
attrib -r -a -s -h boot.ini <press enter>
edit boot.ini <press enter>

5. Unable to get into Windows safe mode.

This issue is caused by one of two things.

1. User is not entering safe mode properly.


2. Windows is seriously corrupted and is unable to load into save mode.
3. Hardware issue

Make sure you're entering safe mode properly many times the safe mode can be easily
missed if done improperly.

If you're entering safe mode properly however when attempting to load Windows safe
mode encounters errors, restarts, or never loads it's likely your computer is
encountering either a major corruption with Windows and/or you have a hardware
issue that is preventing the computer from loading.

If you have recently added any new hardware to the computer we first suggest you
remove that new hardware to make sure it is not the cause of your issue.
If no new hardware has been added to the computer or removing the hardware does
not resolve the issue it is possible that either Windows is corrupt or pre-existing
hardware in the computer has become bad. We suggest resolving or locating the cause
of this issue that you erase the computer hard disk drive and reinstall windows.

If during the reinstallation you encounter errors with copying files, or errors formatting
your hard disk drive, it's very likely that your hard disk drive is failing or is already bad.
If Windows was able to successfully reinstall it was likely Windows was corrupted and
reinstalling everything has corrected your issue.

6. Missing Microsoft Windows .dll files.

A missing or corrupt .dll file can be caused by any of the below possibilities.

1. Another program was uninstalled that removed a .dll file that was
required by another program or the operating system.
2. A program was installed that overwrote the .dll file with either an
older version or a version that is incompatible with other programs
causing .dll errors.
3. A bad installation of a program corrupted one or more files causing
the .dll errors.
4. Another user or program maliciously or mistakenly deleted the .dll
file or an associated file.
5. A hardware issues exists with the computer such as a bad hard disk
drive causing the data on the drive to become corrupt casing the
.dll errors.

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This document is meant to be a solution for users who are encountering missing .dll
errors or other error messages related to .dll files. Before trying the recommended
resolutions to resolving these errors we suggest if you're getting a single missing .dll
error that you search for that .dll file on Computer Hope.

For example, if you're getting an error similar to "Internet Explorer encountered an


error in KERNEL32.DLL at 0137:BFF3191C", search for "kernel32.dll" to make sure a
specific document has not been created to your issue. In some situations a .dll file error
may be caused by a specific situation.

If the Computer Hope search does not return any results for your .dll file or you're
encountering issues with several different .dll files continue reading our
recommendations for resolving your issue.

Downloading a .dll file

In some situations it may be possible to download or copy a .dll file from


another computer onto your computer to resolve the issue. However,
because .dll error messages are almost always a more serious issue
and/or replacing the missing .dll file with a replacement will cause
additional errors or report additional missing files we suggest you try the
below suggestions first.

If you still wish to try to download or copy a missing .dll file


unfortunately Computer Hope does not have a library of downloadable
.dll files, however there are several other sites that do offer this service.

Safe mode

If you're encountering .dll errors that are preventing you from getting
into Windows to troubleshoot the computer boot the computer into safe
mode. Once successfully in safe mode you can continue with the below
steps.

If your computer boots normally and/or you're able to bypass the .dll
errors and still operate Windows you can continue following the below
steps.

Microsoft Windows XP and Windows 2000 users

If you're a Microsoft Windows XP or Windows 2000 user, Microsoft has


included some tools that can help resolve .dll file errors relatively easily
before trying any of the below recommendations you may want to first
try the below suggestions.

Windows XP users only

First, try restoring the computer back to an earlier date, this


troubleshooting step is quick and easily recommendation that can resolve
a lot of issues encountered with Microsoft Windows computers.

Windows XP and Windows 2000 users

Use the Windows XP SFC command to have windows scan and repair files
to run this command follow the below steps. Click Start

1. Click Run
2. Type "sfc /scannow" and press enter.
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Once the above steps have been completed Windows will verify that all
protected windows files are intact.

Issue with .dll files only with a specific program

If you're encountering the missing, corrupt, or other errors relating to .dll


files only when you attempt to open or run a program it's likely an issue
with that program. Thankfully resolving program specific errors can be
much easier than operating system related .dll errors.

If the program you're attempting to run has worked in the past on your
computer and has only recently started to get the .dll errors reinstalling
the program generating the errors will almost always resolve your
problem.

Additionally while reinstalling the program it's also a good idea to make
sure no updates or patches have been made available by the developer
of your program..

Recently uninstalled program

If you have recently uninstalled a program on the computer it is possible


that the program may have removed a .dll file that is necessary for
Windows or a Windows program to properly work.

If you've already tried the above recommendations you may wish to


reinstall the program to get whatever file has been deleted back on the
computer. If this resolves your .dll error message and you wish to
uninstall the program again during the uninstall process make sure that
you click "No" or "No to all" when asked to delete a system file or any file
that may be used by another program.

Recently installed program

If you have recently installed a program and after the installation began
encountering your .dll error messages we suggest you first verify no
updates are available for the program. In some situations a program may
need to be updated for it to properly work on your computer. Updates
are often found through the developers website.

If no updates are available for the program, try uninstalling the program
to resolve the issue. If this does correct your issue we suggest you
contact the developer of the program for additional support on getting
the program installed on the computer without it causing errors.

Virus, spyware, or other malware installed on the computer causing your .dll
error

It is possible for a virus, spyware, or other malware program to cause .dll


errors and therefore we suggest users make sure to run a full virus and
spyware scan on your computer.

Windows .dll error message or .dll errors when trying to do something within
Windows and not a program

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Microsoft Windows .dll errors or .dll error messages that occur when
starting Windows or trying to do something within Windows such as
opening the control panel can be more serious and unfortunately more
difficult to resolve.

If running through these steps you encounter the same issues to resolve
your .dll errors it is likely you'll need to reinstall or erase everything and
reinstall Windows to resolve your errors.

If issues continue after windows has been reinstalled or errors occur


during the installation of Windows it's possible that you may have a
hardware issue that is the cause of all your problems.

6. Windows restarts without warning.

This issue could be caused by any of the below possibilities.

1. Software issue or error.


2. Hardware issue or error.
3. Heat related issue.
4. Computer virus.
5. Issue with operating system.

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Free space for observations

114
Internet and WWW
TASK 7: Orientation & Connectivity Boot Camp
To make a local area connection:
• If you have a network adapter installed, and have set up a home or small office
network, you are connected to a local area network (LAN). You are also
connected to a LAN if your Windows XP Professional computer is part of a
corporate network. When you start your computer, your network adapter is
detected and the local area connection automatically starts. Unlike other types
of connections, the local area connection is created automatically, and you do
not have to click the local area connection in order to start it.
• A local area connection is automatically created for each network adapter that is
detected.
• If more than one network adapter is installed, you can eliminate possible
confusion by immediately renaming each local area connection to reflect the
network that it connects to.
• If your computer has one network adapter, but you need to connect to multiple
LANs (for example, when traveling to a regional office), the network
components for your local area connection need to be enabled or disabled each
time you connect to a different LAN.
• If more than one network adapter is installed, you need to add or enable the
network clients, services, and protocols that are required for each local area
connection. When you do so, the client, service, or protocol is added or enabled
for all other network and dial-up connections.

To make an Internet connection


1. Open Network Connections.
2. Under Network Tasks, click Create a new connection, and then click Next.
3. Click Connect to the Internet, and then click Next.
4. Choose one of the following:
o If you already have an account with an Internet service provider (ISP),
click Set up my connection manually and then click Next.
o If you have a CD from an ISP, click Use the CD I got from an ISP and
then click Next.
o If you do not have an Internet account, click Choose from a list of
Internet service providers (ISPs) and then click Next.
5. From your choice above, click one of the following:
 Set up my connection manually
o If you are connecting to your ISP using a standard 28.8 Kbps, 56
Kbps, or ISDN modem, click Connect using a dial-up modem, click
Next, and follow the instructions in the wizard.
o If your DSL or cable modem ISP connection requires a user name and
password, click Connect using a broadband connection that
requires a user name and password, click Next, and then follow
the instructions in the wizard.
o If your DSL or cable modem ISP connection is always on and does
not require you to type a user name and password, click Connect
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using a broadband connection that is always on, click Next, and
then click Finish.

 Use the CD I got from an ISP


o Click Next, and then click Finish. Insert the CD provided by your ISP
and follow the instructions.
 Choose from a list of Internet service providers (ISPs)
o To create an Internet account using MSN Explorer, click Get online
with MSN, and then click Finish. Follow the instructions in MSN
Explorer.
o To choose an ISP, click Select from a list of ISPs, click Finish, and
then double-click Refer me to more Internet service providers.
Follow the instructions in the wizard.

Procedure:
• To open Network Connections, click Start, point to Settings, click Control
Panel, and then double-click Network Connections.
• If your DSL or cable modem is always connected and your ISP does not require
a user name and password, you do not need to run the New Connection Wizard.
No additional configuration is required for your broadband connection.
• Before you create an Internet connection, check with your Internet service
provider (ISP) to verify the required connection settings. A connection to your
ISP may require one or more of the following settings:
o A specific IP address.
o DNS addresses and domain names.
o POP3 settings for incoming e-mail.
o SMTP settings for outgoing e-mail.

To configure TCP/IP settings


1. Open Network Connections.
2. Click the connection you want to configure, and then, under Network Tasks,
click Change settings of this connection.
3. Do one of the following:
o If the connection is a local area connection, on the General tab, under
This connection, uses the following items, click Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP), and then click Properties.
o If this is a dial-up, VPN, or incoming connection, click the Networking
tab. In This connection uses the following items, click Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click Properties.
1. Do one of the following:
o If you want IP settings to be assigned automatically, click Obtain an IP
address automatically, and then click OK.
o If you want to specify an IP address or a DNS server address, do the
following:
 Click Use the following IP address, and in IP address, type
the IP address.

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 Click Use the following DNS server addresses, and in
Preferred DNS server and Alternate DNS server, type the
addresses of the primary and secondary DNS servers.
2. To configure DNS, WINS, and IP Settings, click Advanced.

Procedure to open Network connections


• To open Network Connections, click Start, point to Settings, click Control
Panel, and then double-click Network Connections.
• You should use automated IP settings (DHCP) whenever possible, for the
following reasons:
o DHCP is enabled by default.
o If your location changes, you do not have to modify your IP settings.
o Automated IP settings are used for all connections, and they eliminate
the need to configure settings such as DNS, WINS, and so on.

TCP/IP ADDRESSING:
Every IP address can be broken down into 2 parts, the Network ID (netid) and the Host
ID (hostid).

Network id: identifies the network to which a device is attached.

Host id: The host portion of an IP address identifies the specific device on that
network

All hosts on the same network must have the same netid. Each of these hosts must
have a hostid that is unique in relation to the netid. IP addresses are divided into 4
octets with each having a maximum value of 255. We view IP addresses in dotted
decimal notation such as 124.35.62.181, but it is actually utilized as binary data so one
must be able to convert addresses back and forth.

When converting binary data to decimal, a "0" is equal to 0. "1" is equal to the number
that corresponds to the field it is in. For example, the number 213 would be 11010101
in binary notation.

This is calculated as follows: 128+64+0+16+0+4+0+1=213. Remember that this only


represents 1 octet of 8 bits, while a full IP address is 32 bits made up of 4 octets. This
being true, the IP address 213.128.68.130 would look like:

11010101 10000000 01000100 10000010.

IP Address Classes:

• Class A.
When written in a binary format, the first (leftmost) bit of a Class A address is
always 0. An easy way to recognize whether a device is part of a Class A
network is to look at the first octet of its IP address, which will range from 0-
126. (127 reserved for loopback and diagnostics.) 224 - 2 = 16,777,214,
possible IP addresses to devices that are attached to its network.

• Class B.
The first 2 bits of a Class B address are always 10. Class B IP addresses always
have values ranging from 128 to 191 in their first octet. 216 - 2= 65,534
possible IP addresses to devices that are attached to its network.

• Class C.
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The first 3 bits of a Class C address are always 110. Class C IP addresses always
have values ranging from 192 to 223 in their first octet. 28 -2 = 254 possible IP
addresses to devices that are attached to its network.

• Other Classes.
In addition to the three most popular classes, there are two additional classes,
class D and class E. Class D addresses have their leading four bits set to 1110
and are used to support IP Multicasting. Class E addresses have their leading
five bits set to 11110 and are reserved for future use.

The formats used for IP address are shown below:

The IP address 0.0.0.0 is used by hosts when they are being booted but is not used
afterwards.

Accessing Internet and Email

What is Email?

• A Electronic mail, abbreviated e-mail or email is a method of composing,


sending and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
• Quickly delivered in seconds or minutes (if without problem).
• What you need is
 The E-mail address of the recipient.
 user@host
 john@yahoo.com
• “yahoo.com" is the domain name of the mail server, which handles the
recipient's mail.
• “john" is the user name of the recipient.
• User name and hostname are separated by "@".
• Carbon Copy Section
 Send a message to more than one person; all the recipients will see the
list of email addresses.

• Blind Carbon Copy Section


 The recipients won’t see others’ addresses.

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 When email is sent to a large group of people who don’t know each
other.

Email Services:

• Web Mail
• POP
• IMAP

POP:
• Don’t have to know the name of your machine
• POP mail server is installed on a computer always ON
• Use Windows interface to read email
• The email at the mail server is popped to your local machine

IMAP:
• Internet Message Access Protocol
• Permits a "client" email program to access remote message stores as if they
were local
• No need to transfer messages or files back and forth between computers

SPAM:
• SPAM is flooding the Internet with many copies of the same message
 Force to send message to people
 Junk electronic mail.

• Why cause problem?


 Cost-shifting – very cheap to send thousands of emails
 Fraud – not an advertisement subject
 Waste of others’ resources – stealing bandwidth
 Displacement of Normal Email–destroy the usefulness and effectiveness
of email
 Ethics problem

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Web-based e-mail – HTTP: Can deliver mail message in web page format. Some
of the free email/web mail service providers are Yahoo! mail, Hotmail, Gmail etc.

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Task 8: Web Browsers and Surfing the Web
Bookmark: A record kept by web browsers of selected web sites. The user can return
directly to a particular site by accessing their bookmark file. The term bookmark can
also be used in reference to Anchors. Sometimes it is also called a favorite.

• A hyperlink that is saved in the bookmark list, a file in your browser. You can
use bookmarks to keep track of favorite or important sites and to return there
whenever you are on the World Wide Web.

• A way of storing a frequently visited website address. It is then easier to access


the website in the future.

Copying Netscape Bookmarks to IE

Many people tend to browse the Web using Netscape and Internet Explorer (IE)
somewhat interchangeably. The problem is that some bookmarks end up in Netscape
and others in IE. Having your favorite bookmarks organized and available in both
browsers makes Web browsing easier. There’s a simple way to do this.

Before you start, clean up your Netscape bookmarks so they are up-to-date and
arranged in the right folders, if you have set up subject folders. Then you will be ready
to import them into IE.

Find your Netscape bookmarks, which are located in a file called file Bookmark.htm.
Find this file by opening up “My Computer” and doing a search on Bookmark.htm.

Be sure to make a note of the file’s exact location (path): For example,
c:/program files/Netscape/Users/bookmark.htm.

• Open IE and click on Favorites, then on Organize Favorites.


• Choose Create Folder, and give it an identifiable name (e.g., imported
Bookmarks). Close window.

• Click on File, then Import and Export… This opens up a “Wizard” to help you
through the process. Click on Next.
• Choose Import Favorites from the options listed. Click on Next.

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• Choose Import from a File or Address. The location of your Netscape
Bookmark.htm file might be automatically selected. If not, and then click on the
Browse button to locate the Netscape file. When you’ve found Bookmark.htm,
click on it and then click on Save , which will close the window. Hit Next.
• This opens up the Import Favorites Destination Folder. Click on the Netscape
Bookmarks folder you just made. Click on Next , then Finish. A small window
will appear saying, “Successfully imported favorites”.

• Since you will probably already have bookmarks in IE, delete any duplicates and
then drag the IE ones you want to keep into the appropriate folder or subfolders
you have imported from Netscape.
• If you have links on the Netscape Personal Tool Bar, when you have imported
your Netscape bookmarks, you can also simply drag the tool bar links to the
equivalent IE bar, called Links, or move them to the IE “Links” folder. Then, if
you want the same set of bookmarks on your home computer, save your
Netscape Bookmark.htm file where you can access it from home, and follow the
steps above.

Search Toolbars:

There are a variety of ways you can search and navigate the web without first going
directly to a search engine. Search toolbars provide direct access to search engines
from within your browser, while meta search utilities make it easy to search more than
one search engine at the same time.

Search companions often help you "discover" information as you browse pages on the
web. You can also use the Deskbar or Toolbar for Internet Explorer and Windows
Explorer to narrow your search to one of several popular web search categories

Search Toolbars From Major Search Engines

AltaVista Toolbar
http://www.altavista.com/toolbar/default
Provides access to AltaVista web, news and multimedia search, page translation, term
highlighting and pop-up blocking.

Ask Jeeves Toolbar


http://sp.ask.com/docs/toolbar/
In addition to searching Ask.com, the Jeeves toolbar lets you limit your search to news,
dictionary, stock market, weather, events, maps, and the Ask Jeeves Kids web sites.

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Dogpile Search Toolbar
http://www.dogpile.com/info.dogpl/tbar/
Consolidates a variety of useful web and specialized searches into a single, easy to use
interface.

Google Deskbar
http://toolbar.google.com/deskbar/
Provides the ability to search with Google from the taskbar within Windows. In other
words, you can search without having to be in your browser.

Google Toolbar
http://toolbar.google.com
Special toolbar for Internet Explorer users that puts a Google search box right into your
browser. In addition, you can use it to see the "PageRank" popularity score of any page
you are viewing, search within the particular site you are viewing, see a previous of
"cached" copy of any dead pages, find pages similar to the one you are viewing, block pop-
ups and more. It loads within seconds and is well worth adding to your browser. Using the
toolbar with PageRank enabled sends some information back to Google. If that concerns
you, choose the "Install Without Advanced Features" option. Highly-recommended.

HotBot Quick Search Deskbar


http://www.hotbot.com/tools/
Provides instant access to HotBot and is jam-packed with other useful tools and goodies as
well.

MSN Toolbar
http://toolbar.msn.com/
Provides the ability to search the web using MSN Search, perform site specific searches,
term highlighting and pop-up blocking.

Teoma Search Bar


http://sp.ask.com/docs/teoma/toolbar/

Provides direct access to Teoma's search results, offers search term highlighting on the
pages you visit, allows access to an online dictionary and provides the ability to email any
web page you view.

Yahoo Companion

http://companion.yahoo.com/
Search Yahoo, access Yahoo Mail, check on stocks and more via a toolbar within your
browser.

How to configure Internet Explorer automatic download prompts


on your Windows XP:

Beginning with Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2), a new visual feature named the
Information Bar is added to Internet Explorer. You may notice that the Information Bar
alerts you to files that are blocked from being downloaded when you visit a Web site.
This article describes how to configure these automatic download prompts.

To control notification for ActiveX controls and for file downloads, follow these
steps:

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1. In Internet Explorer, click Tools, and then click Internet Options.
2. Click the Security tab.
3. There are four security zones listed:
• Internet
• Local intranet
• Trusted sites
• Restricted sites
Click the zone where you want to change the settings.
4. Under Security level for this zone, click Custom Level.
5. Under ActiveX controls and plug-ins, under Automatic prompting for ActiveX
controls, click Disable or click Enable.
6. Under Downloads, under Automatic prompting for file downloads, click
Disable or click Enable, and then click OK two times.

Block Pop-up Windows with Internet Explorer


Many legitimate advertisers on the Internet use windows that pop up in the middle of
your screen to display a message. They might also open when you click a link or button
on a Web site, and they might open either over or under the window you wish to view.

Some pop-ups are helpful. For example, if you click an image to see a larger version, it
might open in a pop-up window. Unfortunately, some pop-up windows can contain
inappropriate content or can be a way for you to accidentally download dangerous
software (called spyware or adware) onto your computer.

With Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2) Internet Explorer allows you to prevent most
pop-up windows from appearing over pages you want to view while you're using the
Internet.

Using Pop-up Blocker

When you install SP2, Pop-up Blocker is turned on in Internet Explorer and set to the
medium setting, which means it will block most automatic pop-ups. The default
settings for the pop-up blocker allow you to see pop-ups that are opened when you
click a link or button on a Web site.

Pop-up Blocker will also play a sound and show the Information Bar when a pop-up is
blocked. You can adjust these settings so that Pop-up Blocker works the way you want
it to.

To change Pop-up Blocker settings

• Open Internet Explorer.


• On the Tools menu, point to Pop-up Blocker, and then click Pop-up Blocker
Settings.

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Internet Explorer Tools menu

If you want to see pop-up windows from a specific Web site, type the address (or URL)
of the site in the Address of Web site to allow box, and then click Add.

Pop-up Blocker Settings w indow

Tip To temporarily allow a site to display pop-ups, click the Information Bar when it
notifies you that a pop-up has been blocked. Then click Temporarily Allow Pop-ups.

To block pop-ups even if they are launched when you click a link or
button on a Web site:

1. Open Internet Explorer.


2. On the Tools menu, point to Pop-up Blocker, and then click Pop-up Blocker
Settings.
3. Select the High setting in the box near the bottom of the dialog box.

Note If you want to see pop-ups that are blocked when you have this setting turned
on, hold down the CTRL key while the window opens.

Troubleshooting Pop-Up Blocker

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If you've installed SP2 and you still see pop-ups in Internet Explorer, try the possible
solutions below.
 Make sure Pop-up Blocker is turned on: Pop-up Blocker is turned on by
default, but someone may have turned it off.

To turn on Pop-up Blocker

1. On the Tools menu, point to Pop-up Blocker.


2. Click Turn on Pop-up Blocker.
• Rid your system of spyware: If you get similar pop-up windows no matter
what sites you visit or even if you're not on the Web at all, you could have
spyware, adware, or other software on your computer that's launching pop-
ups. To stop these pop-ups, you will have to identify the software, then
remove it or change its settings to stop it from launching pop-ups.
• Some windows are not blocked: Pop-up Blocker is smart enough to not
block pop-up windows that you open deliberately by clicking a link—for
example, if you were on a travel reservation site and you clicked a link to
open a pop-up window containing your confirmation details, this pop-up
window would not be blocked because you opened it intentionally. Also, Pop-
up Blocker will not block some pop-ups with certain types of animated
content or pop-ups from

Macromedia Flash Player for Windows


Macromedia Flash Player lets you view the best animation and entertainment on the
Web. It displays Web application front-ends, high-impact Web site user interfaces,
interactive online advertising, and short-form to long-form animation.

What is Flash Animation

Flash animation can be used to add moving elements and sound to a web site. It is also
often used for simple welcome/intro movies. The main advantage of Flash is that there is a
lot more scope for creativity - it can be good for creating an impact. The main disadvantage
is that it increases loading time of the web page.

Macromedia Flash or Flash refers to both a multimedia authoring program and the
Macromedia Flash Player, written and distributed by Macromedia, that utilizes vector
and bitmap graphics, sound and program code and bi-directional streaming video and
audio. Strictly speaking, Macromedia Flash is the authoring environment and Flash
Player is the virtual machine application used to run the Flash files, but in colloquial
language these have become mixed: "Flash" can mean either the authoring
environment, the player or the application files.

The Flash files, which usually have an SWF file extension, may appear in a web page
for viewing in a web browser, or standalone Flash players may "play" them. Flash files
occur most often in animations on web pages and rich-media web sites, and more
recently Rich Internet Applications. They are also widely used in web advertisements.

How to save Flash movies

Internet Explorer doesn't allow you to save Flash animation to your hard disk directly.
But it does save it in its cache every time you view a Flash movie on a web page. Flash
Saving Plugin will solve this problem.

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Flash Saving Plugin is a free Internet Explorer add-on, which adds a button to the
Internet Explorer toolbar. When you click the button, it shows you a list of all flash
movies loaded on the current web page. If you click an item from the list, the
corresponding Flash movie will be saved to predefined folder. You can all save all Flash
movies with a single click.

Flash Saving Plugin comes with SWF Cache Viewer - a utility for browsing Internet
Explorer and Mozilla Firefox cache. It searches for Flash movies in the browsers' cache
and displays all found movies as a list. You can view and save found Flash animation to
a predefined folder. You can also browser custom folders with Flash animation. SWF
Cache Viewer also comes in handy when a Flash movie is displayed in a popup window
without the toolbar, thus making it impossible to use the button or the context menu
command.

How to play saved Flash animation

You can play Flash movies with Internet Explorer, but if you don't want to bother
yourself with "file association configuration" use SWF Opener - swf files player! SWF

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Opener lets you control playback, set scale modes, change background color and go
fullscreen.

Download and install Flash and Pics Control. Flash and Pics Control is an Internet
Explorer add-on that allows you to easily enable or disable Flash, pictures, cookies,
java script, java applets or ActiveX right from Internet Explorer. It adds a button to the
Internet Explorer toolbar which allows you to turn Flash animation on/off with a few
clicks.

The Java Virtual Machine

The Java Virtual Machine is the cornerstone of Sun's Java programming language. It is
the component of the Java technology responsible for Java's cross-platform delivery,
the small size of its compiled code, and Java's ability to protect users from malicious
programs.

The Java Virtual Machine is an abstract computing machine. Like a real computing
machine, it has an instruction set and uses various memory areas. It is reasonably
common to implement a programming language using a virtual machine; the best-
known virtual machine may be the P-Code machine of UCSD Pascal.

The first prototype implementation of the Java Virtual Machine, done at Sun
Microsystems, Inc., emulated its instruction set in software on a handheld device that
resembled a contemporary Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). The Java Virtual machine
does not assume any particular implementation technology or host platform. It is not
inherently interpreted, and it may just as well be implemented by compiling its
instruction set to that of a real CPU, as for a conventional programming language. It
may also be implemented in microcode, or directly in silicon.

The Java Virtual Machine knows nothing of the Java programming language, only of a
particular file format, the class file format. A class file contains Java Virtual Machine
instructions (or bytecodes) and a symbol table, as well as other ancillary information.

Recognizing the need to provide a smooth transition for current users of the Microsoft®
Java Virtual Machine (MSJVM), Sun Microsystems and Microsoft have agreed to extend
Microsoft's license to use Sun's Java source code and compatibility test suites. This
extension allows Microsoft to support the MSJVM until December 31, 2007, providing
customers with the ability to transition from the MSJVM on a schedule and plan that is
most effective for them.

Configuring browser's JVM

You may need to configure your browser to use your desired Java virtual
machine (JVM). Platypus Partners recommends that Windows users use
the Sun JVM. The Sun Java Runtime Environment (JRE) includes the Sun
Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and the Java Plug-in. It can be downloaded
from http://java.sun.com/getjava/download.html. The Java Plug-in
allows browsers to run JET 3270 in the Sun JVM.

During installation of the JRE you will see


"Java(TM) Plug-in will be the default Java runtime for the following
browser(s)". Ensure that Microsoft Internet Explorer is selected.
OR

After installing the JRE, follow these steps:

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INTERNET EXPLORER NETSCAPE

1. Select Tools then choose Internet 1. Select Edit -> Preferences


Options 2. Select Advanced
2. Select the Security tab 3. Make sure the Enable Java and
3. Click the Custom Level button Enable JavaScript boxes are checked
4. Scroll down to Scripting of Java 4. Click OK
applets which contains 3 possible
options and choose either Enable,
Disable or Prompt for "Java
Permissions". Choose the option
"enable"
5. Click OK

Cookie
• A small text file of information that certain Web sites attach to a user's hard
drive while the user is browsing the Web site. A Cookie can contain information
such as user ID, user preferences, archive shopping cart information, etc.
Cookies can contain Personally Identifiable Information.
• A cookie is a small piece of data, which is sent from a web server to a web
browser and stored locally on the user's machine. The cookie is stored on the
user's machine but is not an executable program and cannot do anything to the
machine. Whenever a web browser requests a file from the same web server
that sent the cookie, the browser sends a copy of that cookie back to the server.
• A unique string of letters and numbers that the web server stores in a file on
your hard drive. This method is used by web designers to track visitors to a
website so the visitors do not have to enter the same information every time
they go to a new page or revisit a site. For example, web designers use cookies
to keep track of purchases a visitor wants to make while shopping through a
web catalog.

Configuring browser's Cookies

INTERNET EXPLORER 6.X NETSCAPE 6.X

1. Select Internet Options from the Tools 1. Select Preferences on the Edit menu.
menu 2. Click on the arrow next to Privacy &
2. Click on the Privacy Tab Security in the left hand menu and
3. Enable cookies: If using a default click Cookies.
setting, move the slider to select any of 3. Select Enable all cookies or "Enable
the following privacy settings: High, cookies for the originating website
Medium, Low. only.
4. Accept all cookies: If using a custom 4. Click OK and then click Refresh on the
setting, click Advanced: browser menu when you return to the
5. Select Override automatic cookie web page
handling
6. Select Always allow session cookies
7. Click OK to return to the Privacy Tab of
Internet Options
8. Click Apply and then OK

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Free space for observations

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Task 9: Search Engines and Netiquette
Search Engines:

Search engine is a software that lets a user specify search terms. The search engine
then finds sites that contain those terms. Over time a search engine builds a database
of searchable terms that can be matched to web sites.

There are dozens of search engines on the Internet, but just a few that are considered
major search engines, and they are;

• Google,
• Overture,
• Inktomi,
• Teoma, and
• Looksmart.
• Lycos
• AltaVista

The top five search engines provide search results for many other companies including;
Yahoo, MSN, AOL Search, AltaVista, Lycos and Ask Jeeves.

Google, is consider by many to be the top search engine because it provides search
results for Yahoo, AOL Search, and Netscape, as well as having a huge number of
searches coming directly from their own website.

Entering the same search query using different search engines will not produce the
same list of sites. Each search engine uses a different method when it comes to doing a
search.

Methods of searching
• Use more than one word.
• Use quotes
• Use boolean queries
• Use + sign or - sign
• Use * (wild card)

Searching for
• shelf ice - results in URLs of pages containing the words shelf and ice, or just
the word “shelf” or just the word “ice”. Results in many hits.
• “shelf ice” - results in URLs of pages containing the exact string “shelf ice”.

Boolean Query (AND, OR, NOT)


• A AND B - results in sites containing both A and B
• A OR B - results in sites containing A or B, or both A and B
• A NOT B - results in sites containing A and excludes sites containing both A and
B.

Searching for
• shelf AND ice – results in URLs of pages containing the word “shelf” and the
word “ice” (in any order).
• shelf OR ice – results in URLs of pages containing the words “shelf” and ”ice”, or
just the word “shelf” or just the word “ice”.
• computers NOT notebook – results in URLs of pages containing the word
“computers” but not containing the word “notebook”.
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wild card:
Some search engines use the asterisk as a wild card to include variations on a word.
For example, kayak* would search for kayaks, kayaking, kayaker.

+ sign or – sign:
• Prefix + in order to include a word. Generally, “A”, “and” or “the” - such words
are usually ignored by the search engine. To include a word, use + before it.

• Prefix - in order to exclude a word.

For example, in Elizabeth I, the “I” could be ignored. But in Elizabeth +I, the “I” would
be included.

Meta Search Engine:


• Performs a search by using more than one search engine to do the search.
 www.metasearch.com
 www.metacrawler.com
 www.dogpile.com
 www.infind.com

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Free space for observations

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Task 10: Cyber Hygiene
Threats on Internet, Operating System Update, Anti-Virus Software
Installation, Personal Firewall, Pop-up blocking, Spyware removal tools

Types of Internet Threats


• Viruses
• Network Worms
• Trojans
• Spyware / Adware
• Other Malware
• Other Threats

Viruses, worms and Trojan Horses:


A virus is a program that replicates itself, usually by attaching itself to other files and
programs. A worm is a program that does not infect other programs but makes copies
of itself. Trojan horse programs do not replicate nor make copies of themselves, but
rely on other "manual" methods of distribution. We use the term "viruses" on this page
to cover all forms of infections.

Viruses are spread in a variety of ways. Some Examples:

• email attachments (such as Klez, Badtrans, MyParty)


• instant messaging links and attachments (such as Aplore)
• compromised web servers (such as Nimda)
• Usenet news groups
• Inernet Relay Chat channels
• floppy diskettes
• file downloads (many backdoor Trojans are embedded with other files)

All viruses are different. Some activate on a certain day, but remain dormant until
then. Others begin the attack as soon as the machine has been infected. Viruses can be
very damaging and some are just annoying.

More than 1,00,000 known viruses exists in the world today Several hundred new
viruses are discovered every month

Protecting from viruses:

A good way to protect yourself is to have a virus protection program and keep it up-to-
date. Before running a download from an unknown site, or opening an email
attachment, always be sure to scan it to ensure that it is not infected. If you do not
know the source of a file do not open it. Even if you know the person who sent you a
file, if you were not expecting it you may want to contact them before opening it. This
is because many viruses automatically send themselves out to addresses it finds in files
on the infected computer.

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Anti-virus program:

An anti-virus program is designed to protect your computer from possible virus


infections. Most viruses are designed to operate in the background in a way that the
user will not notice. Virus protection programs search for, detect, and attempt to
remove these viruses. Anti-virus programs must be kept up-to-date in order for them
to provide adequate protection. New viruses are being created every day and your anti-
virus program can't always predict what they will be able to do or how they will work.

Due to the nature of the operating system, Linux, and other UNIX-like operating
systems are not as susceptable to viruses. Thus an anti-virus program is not necessary.
Network Worms:
• Self-replicating Viruses that reside in the active memory of a computer.
• Worms send themselves out to the Internet from infected systems.
• Either include tiny e-mail server or search for unprotected shared network
drives to unload.
Trojan Programs:
• Programs that installs themselves stealthly via Internet & provide access for
malicious use
• Threats enabled by (/through) Trojans
 DDos attacks
 Data stealing
 Distributed spam eMails
• Do not replicate
Spyware / Adware:

• Cookies – Track you online


• Browser Hijackers – Changes default home page
• Tracking Cookies – Gathers info of web usage
• Trickles – Reinstalls spyware when deleted
• Keyloggers – Records anything you type! …. Etc.

Other malware:

• Dos & DDos attacks


• Flooders
• FileCryptors & PolyCryptors
• Nukers … Etc.
Other Threats:

• Phishing
 Confidential information stealing by fraud emails & web sites (author
falsified)

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 Several millions of Phishing messages have been sent world wide
 Fastest growing threat today
• SPIM
 Instant Messaging SPAM
 Estimated: 4 billion SPIM's during 2004

Diagnosing Infections:
• Slow computer, system reboots
• Mouse moves by itself
• Browser goes to unexpected web sites
• Slow internet access
• Endless popup ads
• New desktop toolbars

Solutions:
• Disabled antivirus scanner or firewall
• Check startup program group regularly for software you didn’t install
• Check Add/Remove programs for software you didn’t install (make a list of
installed items on a new machine and check the list regularly)
• Check running services monthly
• Check running processes in Task Manager
• Monitor open ports
• Monitor outgoing and incoming connections

Methods Against Threats:Updating


2. AntiVirus Software
3. AntiSpyware Tools
4. Firewalls …etc

Updating:
• Few pieces of software are perfect. Many have security flaws that can allow an
intruder to take over your system.

• When the flaws are discovered, the vendor generally fixes them and places
patcheson their Web sites. For example, https://www.Microsoft.com/Security
(Windows, Internet Explorer, Outlook, etc.)

 http://www/redhat.com/solutions/security/ (Red Hat Linux)


 http://securityresponse.symantec.com/ (Norton Anti-Virus)

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Anti-Virus Software:
• Norton Anti-Virus
• McAfee Anti-Virus
• AVG Anti-Virus

AntiSpyware Tools:
• Only Software tools exist at the moment
• Programs are trying to detect distinctive signs that spyware places on system
Popular software
 Lavasoft: Ad-Aware SE
 Spybot: Search & Destroy

Firewalls:

In very simple terms, a firewall is a device or program that allows you to monitor and
control what comes into and goes out of your network. Almost every major business
will use a firewall to protect its internal network from the outside world.

Traditionally firewalls were, and in many cases still are, very expensive, dedicated
pieces of hardware that use something called a "ruleset" to either allow or disallow
connections through it. An effective firewall will do this at the "packet" level, that is it
looks at every piece of data, or packet, individually before deciding to either allow it or
drop it.

Firewall forces every piece of information entering or leaving the castle to pass over a
single drawbridge, where they could be inspected by the I/O police. The diagram below
shows a very basic small network and firewall.

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Windows Firewall

A number of significant changes have been made to Windows Firewall (formerly called
Internet Connection Firewall or ICF) in Service Pack 2 - all designed to help improve
computer security.

Prior to Service Pack 2, Windows XP shipped with the firewall disabled by default.
Activating the firewall meant having to either run a wizard or navigate through the
Network Connections folder to turn it on manually.

With installation of Service Pack 2, Windows Firewall is turned on by default, providing


improved default levels of protection on all new installations and upgrades. This also
helps protect any new network connections as they are added to the system.

How Windows Firewall Works

When someone on the Internet or on a network tries to connect to your computer, we


call that attempt an "unsolicited request." When your computer gets an unsolicited
request, Windows Firewall blocks the connection. If you run a program such as an
instant messaging program that needs to receive information from the Internet or a
network, the firewall asks if you want to block or unblock (allow) the connection. You
should see a window like the one below.

Firewall security alert

If you choose to unblock the connection, Windows Firewall creates an exception so that
the firewall won't bother you when that program needs to receive information in the
future.

Allowing Exceptions - the Risks

Each time you allow an exception for a program to communicate through Windows
Firewall, your computer is made more vulnerable. To allow an exception is like poking a
hole through the firewall. If there are too many holes, there's not much wall left in your
firewall. Hackers often use software that scans the network looking for computers with
unprotected connections. If you have lots of exceptions and open ports, your computer
can become more vulnerable.

To help decrease your security risk:

• Only allow an exception when you really need it.


• Never allow an exception for a program that you don't recognize.
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• Remove an exception when you no longer need it.

Allowing Exceptions Despite the Risks

Sometimes you might want someone to be able to connect to your computer, despite
the risk - such as when you use VNC to let support staff to connect to your computer.

To add a program to the exceptions list

1. Click Start and then click Control Panel.


2. In the control panel, click Security Center, and then click Windows Firewall.
3. On the Exceptions tab, under Programs and Services, select the check box
for the program or service that you want to allow, and then click OK.

Windows Firewall Exceptions tab

If the program (or service) that you want to allow is not listed

1. Click Add Program.


2. In the Add a Program dialog box, click the program that you want to add, and
then click OK. The program will appear, selected, on the Exceptions tab, under
Programs and Services.
3. Click OK.

If the program (or service) that you want to allow is not listed in the Add a Program
dialog box click Browse , locate the program that you want to add, and then double-click
it. (Programs are usually stored in the Program Files folder on your computer.) The
program will appear under Programs , in the Add a Program dialog box.

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Reducing the Risks of Allowing an Exception

By default when you enable an exception it will unblock access from all computers that
are on the same network as you, e.g. the whole Internet. You can restrict this access to
only those systems or networks that you trust. You do this by changing the scope of
the exception.

To change the scope of an exception

1. On the Exceptions tab, under Programs and Services, select the program or
service that you want to change the scope of, and then click Edit.
2. Click Change scope on Edit a Program.

3. Select Custom list in Change Scope. Then add the details of the hosts and/or
networks you wish to unblock.

Other Methods:
• Content-filtering
• Intrusion-detection Software
• Close your Internet connection when not using it
• Make sure connection is secure when inputting for example credit card number
 http:// Addresses can be trusted as secure.

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Windows Update:
You might need to have a computer administrator account to perform some tasks.
Windows Update is the online extension of Windows that helps you keep your computer
up to date. Microsoft offers important updates-which include security updates and
other critical issues—to help protect your computer against new viruses and other
security threats that can spread over the Internet or a network. Other updates contain
enhancements such as upgrades and tools that can help your computer run more
smoothly. Windows Update scans your computer and provides you with a tailored
selection of updates that apply only to the software and hardware on your computer.

Using Windows Update:

• To open Windows Update, click Start, click All Programs, and then click
Windows Update.
• The first time you go to the Windows Update Web site, click Yes when prompted
to install any required software or controls.
• To use Windows Update, you need to establish a connection to the Internet.
• For more information, click Related Topics.

Using Automatic Windows Update:

To turn on Automatic updates

You must be logged on as a computer administrator to complete this procedure.

1. Open SYSTEM, and then click the Automatic updates tab.


– or –
If you are running Windows 2000, click Start, point to Settings, click Control
Panel, and then double-click Automatic updates.
2. Click Automatic (recommended).
3. Under Automatically download recommended updates for my computer
and install them, select the day and time you want Windows to install
updates.

Procedure:

• To open System, click Start, click Control Panel, click Performance and
Maintenance, and then click System.
• Automatic updates provides high-priority updates, which include security and
other critical updates that can help protect your computer. It's a good idea to
visit the Windows Update Web site (http://www.microsoft.com/) on a regular
basis to get optional updates, such as recommended software and hardware
updates, that can help improve your computer's performance.

141
Free space for observations

142
TASK 11: Creating HTML page
Step -1: we need to start the HTML page with HTML tags like
<html>….<html>….<html>.
Here we can create the title of the page and headers using following tags .
< title>……….< title>
Headers: <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, <h6>, <h7>.
Step-2: To create the paragraph we use the tag <P>…</p>
Step-3: To create the table we use the tag <table>…</table>
Table tag has the properties like BROADER , ALIGN ,BGCOLOR, Etc..
<tr>..</tr> tag for creating the table row .
<td>..</td> tag for creating the table data.
Step -4: To create the ordered list in the html we use the following tags.
<ul>….</ul> tag for unordered list.
<ol>….</ol> tag for ordered list.
<li>….</li> tag for list value.

HTML code:
<html>
<body>

<image src="IARE.gif" width="100px" height="150px" >

<table border="12" >

<tr>
<th>NAME</th> <td>IARE</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th>Roll No</th> <td>13951A----</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th>BRANCH</th> <td>CSE</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th>COURSE YEAR</th> <td>First Year</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th>ADDRESS</th> <td>IARE, Dundigal(v),Quthbullapur(m),R.R.Dist
500043</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th>KNOWN LANGUAGES</th> <td>Telugu, English & Hindi</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th>Phone No </th> <td>08418-257181</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th>E-Mail</th> <td>info@iare.ac.in</td>

143
</tr>

</table>
</body>
</html>

144
Free space for observations

145
PRODUCTIVE TOLLS
MICROSOFT WORD

Task 12: USING MS WORD/LaTex


Formatting fonts, drop cap, applying text effects, using character spacing,
borders, and colors, inserting header and footer, using date and time options
using MS Word.

Sun rolls out network products


BY Brian Robinson
June 2nd 05

O
fficials at S
SU
S UN
U NM
N MIIIC
M CR
C RO
R OS
OSSY
YS
Y ST
STTE
EM
E MS
M S IIIN
S NC
N C... introduced a slew of products to boost delivery
C
of network services, including a new file system for the Solaris operating system, a
second release of an identity management solution and a subscription-based model
that assigns a single price to more than 100 services.

Sun's new Dynamic File System provides "16 billion times more capacity" than current
file systems, said Sun's chief executive officer Scott McNealy, making it infinitely scalable.

The file system, which is included as a part of S o l a r i s 1 0 , also automates many of


the tasks that systems administrators now have to do by hand. Creating and growing file
systems has been cut from 28 to just five separate tasks, for example, while adding
mirrored file systems and storage space for users will now take as little as 10 seconds.

The second release of the identity-management solution has three new products
based on the software acquired by Sun with its recent purchase of Waveset
Technologies Inc. The Sun Java System Identity Manager combines user
provisioning with metadirectory capabilities, which Sun claims is an industry first,
enabling administrators to manage identity permissions and profiles and
simultaneously synchronize services for those directories across the enterprise.

The other products include an access manager to help manage access to internal and
external Web-based resources, and an enterprise version of the Sun Java System Directory
Server that includes , load balancing, security and integration with Microsoft
Corp.'s Active Directory.

Sun's Preventive Services is aimed at the data center and is an attempt at what
McNealy called a more simplified way of pricing services than through complex
outsourcing contracts. It includes a portfolio of more than 100 services that
managers can use to find issues that might affect network performance and for
which they pay one price.

I
n general, many of the new announcements also included references to other kinds of
subscription-based pricing, which Sun officials see as a trend among users who increasingly
don't want to own the technology themselves.

Other items introduced June 1 included an array of low-cost storage products, software to
collect and manage data produced by radio-frequency identity systems and a pricing system
aimed specifically at Third World and developing markets through which Sun's Java
Enterprise System would be sold on a per-citizen basis using the United Nation's ranking for
a country's development status.

Robinson is a freelance journalist based in Portland, Ore. He can be reached at


hullite@mindspring.com.
146
Top
3/11/2015 11:50:28 AM

Sun rolls out network


1 products
BY Brian Robinson
3
June 2nd 2005

O
fficials at S
SU
S UN
U NM
N MIIIC
M CR
C RO
R OS
OSSY
YS
Y ST
STTE
EM
E MS
M S IIIN
S NC
N C... introduced a slew of products to boost delivery
C
of network services, including a new file system for the Solaris operating system, a
second release of an identity management solution and a subscription-based model
that assigns a single price to more than 100 services.
2
4
Sun's new Dynamic File System provides "16 billion times more capacity" than current
file systems, said Sun's chief executive officer Scott McNealy, making it infinitely scalable.
5
The file system, which is included as a part of S o l a r i s 1 0 , also automates many of
the tasks that systems administrators now have to do by hand. Creating and growing file
systems has been cut from 28 to just five separate tasks, for example, while adding
mirrored file systems and storage space for users will now take as little as 10 seconds.
7
6 The second release of the identity-management solution has three new products
based on the software acquired by Sun with its recent purchase of Waveset
Technologies Inc. The Sun Java System Identity Manager combines user
provisioning with metadirectory capabilities, which Sun claims is an industry first,
enabling administrators to manage identity permissions and profiles and
simultaneously synchronize services for those directories across the enterprise.

The other products include an access manager to help manage access to internal and
external Web-based resources, and an enterprise version of the Sun Java System Directory
Server that includes , load balancing, security and integration with Microsoft
Corp.'s Active Directory. 8

Sun's Preventive Services is aimed at the data center and is an attempt at what
McNealy called a more simplified way of pricing services than through complex
9
outsourcing contracts. It includes a portfolio of more than 100 services that
managers can use to find issues that might affect network performance and for
which they pay one price.

I
n general, many of the new announcements also included references to other kinds of
subscription-based pricing, which Sun officials see as a trend among users who increasingly
don't want to own the technology themselves.

Other items introduced June 1 included an array of low-cost storage products, software to
collect and manage data produced by radio-frequency identity systems and a pricing system
10
aimed specifically at Third World and developing markets through which Sun's Java
Enterprise System would be sold on a per-citizen basis using the United Nation's ranking for
a country's development status.

Robinson is a freelance journalist based in Portland, Ore. He can be reached at


hullite@mindspring.com.

Top 11
12

147
3/11/2015 11:50:28 AM

Procedure:

1. Set font to:


a. Heading 1 + 16 pt, Bold, Black
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu open, click Styles and Formatting and
select Heading1.
iii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and
modify the Font Size, Style and Color.
b. Normal + Verdana, 9.5 pt, Bold, Italic, Dark Blue
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu open, click Styles and Formatting and
select Normal.
iii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and
modify the Font, Size, Style and Color.
c. "nd" as superscript
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and
select the Effect.
2. Drop cap
a. Click the paragraph that you want to begin with a "drop cap," a large
dropped initial capital letter.
b. On the Format menu, click Drop Cap.
c. Click Dropped.
3. Set font to:
a. Emboss and Text Color white
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and
select the Effect and Font Color.
b. Grey text shading
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click
the Shading tab.
iii. Select Color and click OK.
iv. Alternatively, use the shading button in the toolbar. Select the
text and click on the toolbar.
4. Set font to:
a. Normal + Verdana, Bold, Italic, Black
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu open, click Styles and Formatting and
select Normal.
iii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and
modify the Font, Size, Style and Color.
iv.
b. Light green text shading.
i. Select the text you want to change.
i. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click
the Shading tab.
ii. Select Color and click OK.
iii. Alternatively, use the shading button in the toolbar. Select the
text and click on the toolbar.
5. Set font to:
a. Raised and Expanded character spacing
i. Select the text you want to change.
148
ii. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Character
Spacing tab and Click Expanded in the Spacing box, and then
specify how much space you want in the By box.
b. Border the given text
i. Select the text you want to change.
ii. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click
the Borders tab.
iii. Click Text under Apply to.
6. Strikethrough Font effect
a. Select the text you want to change.
b. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and select
the Effect.
7. Underline styling
a. Select the text you want to change.
b. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and select
the Underline Styles.
8. Outline Font
a. Select the text you want to change.
b. On the Format menu, click Font, and then click the Font tab and select
the Effect.
9. Paragraph indentation
a. Justify With 1 Inch Right Margin
i. Select the paragraphs in which you want to change spacing.
ii. On the Format menu, click Paragraph, and then click the
Indents and Spacing tab.
iii. Modify Alignment, Indentation and spacing.
iv. View in the Preview section before applying.
v. Alternatively, the toolbar can be used for paragraph alignment.
b. Left Align
c. Justify With 1 Inch Right Margin
d. Center Align
e. Right Align
10. Drop Cap Column
a. Click the paragraph that you want to begin with a "drop cap," a large
dropped initial capital letter.
b. On the Format menu, click Drop Cap.
c. Right Click and select Hyperlink.
d. Under Link to, click Place in This Document. In the list, select the
heading or bookmark you want to link to.
11. Insert Date And Time In Footer
a. On the View menu, click Header and Footer to open the header or
footer area on a page.
b. On the Insert menu, click Date and Time. Select the Date format and
Check/Uncheck Update Automatically option and click OK.
c. When you finish, click Close on the Header and Footer toolbar
i. Create a different first page header or footer
ii. Create different headers or footers for odd and even pages
iii. Create a different header or footer for part of a document

149
Free space for observations

150
Task 13: CREATING PROJECT USING MS WORD
/LaTex
Formatting styles, Inserting tables, Bullets and numbering, Changing Text
Directions, Cell alignment, Footnote, Hyperlink, Symbols, Spell Check, Track
Changes using MS Word.

3/11/2015 11:50:28 AM

JNT University
Job Performance Review Guide
Employee
Employee Name Review Period

Department Manager

Performance goals and objectives


Zero to 2 months 2 to 4 months 4-6 months

− Become familiar with your − Make certain defined goals and − Review performance goals to see if
department’s business goals. criteria are realistic. Renegotiate if you are on target. Reprioritize work
necessary. accordingly.
− Work with your manager to define
and document your goals. Include − Are you focusing your time on the
what you are expected to produce goals you committed to? If not,
by your first review, activities either work with your manager to
needed to accomplish results, and change your goals or reevaluate
success criteria. how you spend your time.
NOTES/ACTIONS

Skills and knowledge development


Zero to 2 months 2 to 4 months 4-6 months

a. Understand the specific skills and d. Attend one of the sessions in the f. Attend at least one more session
knowledge you need. Use the job Administrator certification in the Administrator certification
profile as your guide. program. See the training program.
resource site for courses.
b. Build a skill development plan g. Create a timeline with associated
based on the goals agreed to e. Review your development plan tasks that you will follow in order
by you and your manager. and suggested curriculum for
additional skills and training. to attain the skills outlined in your
c. Complete the new administrator personal development plan.
orientation.

NOTES/ACTIONS

Processes and Methods


Zero to 2 months 2 to 4 months 4-6 months

151
Employee
Employee Name Review Period

Department Manager

 Familiarize yourself with work − Identify and eliminate unnecessary

processes in
functionality
− Get to know

simplify any

order to cut
processes and methods used in

in common
variation in the way you perform

cycle time.
processes.
the people
who work
your job. Be clear on who owns work processes.

− Seek to
those processes and how you can

cross-
− Ensure that your work

work

work
support process goals.
responsibilities are clear, defined,
 Set clear timelines for task due and realistic.
dates. Keep timelines up to date.

Feedback1
Zero to 2 months 2 to 4 months 4-6 months

Are you getting the feedback you


 Are you giving feedback to others
who need it?
Understand the different types of need? Is feedback timely, specific, and
feedback and the ways in which you frequent? Compare actual performance  Compare actual and expected
will receive feedback. and expected performance. performance.

All Rights Reserved by SVEC, IT2. Any part of the content can be used or reproduced only with the
permissions from the authors.
1
JNT University
Job Performance Review Guide

Employee
Employee Name Review Period

Department Manager

Performance goals and objectives


Zero to 2 months 2 to 4 months 4-6 months
2
− Become familiar with your − Make certain defined goals and − Review performance goals to see if
department’s business goals. criteria are realistic. Renegotiate if you are on target. Reprioritize work
necessary. accordingly.
− Work with your manager to define
and document your goals. Include − Are you focusing your time on the
what you are expected to produce goals you committed to? If not,
by your first review, activities either work with your manager to
needed to accomplish results, and change your goals or reevaluate
success criteria. how you spend your time.

3 Skills and knowledge development


Zero to 2 months 2 to 4 months 4-6 months

h. Understand the specific skills and k. Attend one of the sessions in the m. Attend at least one more session
knowledge you need. Use the job Administrator certification in the Administrator certification 4
profile as your guide. program. See the training program.
resource site for courses.
i. Build a skill development plan n. Create a timeline with associated
based on the goals agreed to l. Review your development plan tasks that you will follow in order
by you and your manager. and suggested curriculum for
additional skills and training. to attain the skills outlined in your
j. Complete the new administrator personal development plan.
orientation.
NOTES/ACTIONS
5

1
Kindly provide your feedback.
2
© Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Information Technology 2005 - 2006
152
Employee
Employee Name Review Period

Department Manager

Processes and Methods


Zero to 2 months 2 to 4 months 4-6 months
6
 Familiarize yourself with work − Identify and eliminate unnecessary

processes in
functionality
− Get to know

simplify any

order to cut
processes and methods used in

in common
variation in the way you perform

cycle time.
processes.
the people
who work
your job. Be clear on who owns work processes.

− Seek to
those processes and how you can

cross-
− Ensure that your work

work

work
support process goals.
responsibilities are clear, defined,
 Set clear timelines for task due and realistic.
dates. Keep timelines up to date.

Feedback1
Zero to 2 months 2 to 4 months 4-6 months

Understand the different types of Are you getting the feedback you  Are you giving feedback to others
feedback and the ways in which you need? Is feedback timely, specific, and who need it?
will receive feedback. frequent? Compare actual performance
and expected performance.  Compare actual and expected
performance.

All Rights Reserved by MSIT32. Any part of the content can be used or reproduced only
with the permissions from the authors.
7
8

Procedure:

1. Table:
b. Border Style
i. Select table
ii. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click
the Borders tab
iii. Click Paragraph under Apply to, click Options, and then select
the options you want.
c. Cells Split
i. On the Table menu, click Split Cells
ii. Select the number of columns or rows you want to split the
selected cells into.
d. Cells Merge
i. Select cell to merge
ii. On the Table menu, click Merge Cells
e. Cell Shading
i. Select cell to Shade
ii. Right click, select borders and shading, shading tab, select color.
2. Paragraph Border
a. Select Paragraph
b. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the
Borders tab
c. Click Paragraph under Apply to, click Options, and then select the
options you want.
3. Bullets and numbering
a. Select the text that you want to change
b. On the Formatting toolbar, click Bullets and Numbering

1
Kindly provide your feedback.
2
© Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Information Technology 2005 – 2006
153
c. In numbers tab choose style and click on continue previous list.
4. Paragraph Bordering
a. Select Paragraph
b. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the
Borders tab
c. Click Paragraph under Apply to, click Options, and then select the
options you want.
5. Bullets
a. Select the text that you want to change
b. On the Formatting toolbar, click Bullets and Numbering
c. In bulleted tab choose style.
6. Text Direction
a. Click the table cell that contains the text you want to change
b. On the Format menu, click Text Direction and Click the orientation you
want
7. Cell Alignment
a. Click the cell that contains text you want to align
b. On the Tables and Borders toolbar, select the option for the horizontal
and vertical alignment you want— for example, Align Bottom Center or
Align Top Right
8. Footnote
a. On the Insert menu, point to Reference, and then click Footnote
b. In the Number format box, click the format you want and click Insert.
c. Word inserts the note number and places the insertion point next to the
note number. Type the note text.

Task 14: CREATING A NEWSLETTER USING


WORD/ LaTex
Table of content, News columns, Images from files and clipart, Drawing toolbar and
Word Art, Formatting Images, Textboxes and Paragraphs using MS Word.

154
Why is Lucerne
publishing a great
place to work?
A great place to work • Dynamic people
• Team-oriented environment
• Exciting location
• Excellent benefits
• Competitive salaries
• Opportunity for advancement

Enjoy your work

Contact us at:
Why do our
employees Lucerne Publishing
enjoy working 1234 Maple Street
at? Suite 567
Seattle, WA 33445
Phone: (123) 555-0123
Fax: (123) 555-0145
Lucerne Publishing is an Equal
http://www.lucernepublishing.com
Opportunity Employer.

155
Company Profile If you’re looking for a career at an
Lucerne Publishing, family owned since extraordinary company in an exciting city, Benefits Overview
1965, is a leader in the publishing Lucerne Publishing is the place for you! Lucerne Publishing offers a
industry. Meet our Employees comprehensive benefits plan designed to
meet the needs of all our employees:
When we opened our doors more than 35 Why do our employees enjoy working at
years ago, we had a staff of 3. In 2002, Lucerne Publishing? We asked, and this
we had more than 1,000 employees in 10 is what they had to say: • Medical insurance
cities worldwide. • Dental insurance
“Working at Lucerne Publishing for the last
Lucerne Publishing is a dynamic company five years has been a dream come true. The • Vision insurance
known for its casual, team-oriented work company is built on the belief that the • 401(k) retirement plan with matching
environment. We provide opportunities for employees are the key to success.” contributions
career growth and advancement to
employees at all levels. In addition, -Michael, Marketing Specialist • Short-term and long-term disability
Lucerne offers excellent benefits and coverage
competitve salaries. “The opportunites for growth at Lucerne • Life insurance
Publishing are tremendous. I have a career
Our corporate headquarters is located in with this company, not just a job.” • Flexible spending accounts
Seattle, Washington, where our • Two weeks paid vacation
employees enjoy the best of city life and -Susan, Administrative Assistant
the great outdoors. Seattle is known for its • Eight paid holidays
music, fine dining, and night life. Of “Lucerne Publishing cares about the • Profit sharing
course, if you prefer the outdoors, the employees. The support that I’ve received
beautiful Pacific Northwest offers a while working here has been incredible.” • Tuition reimbursement
wonderful playground with mountains,
rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Whatever
your pleasure, from skiing to sailing, you
can find it here. -Vicki, Quality Assurance Specialist

For information on open


positions or to submit your
resume, please visit our Web For information on open positions
-Vicki, Quality Assurance Specialist
site at: or to submit your resume, please
www.lucernepublishing.com visit our Web site:
http://www.lucernepublishing.com

156
Why is Lucerne
publishing a great
place to work?
1 3
A great place to work • Dynamic people
• Team-oriented environment
• Exciting location
• Excellent benefits 5

• Competitive salaries
• Opportunity for advancement

Enjoy your work


2

Contact us at:
Why do our
employees Lucerne Publishing
enjoy working 1234 Maple Street
at? 6 Suite 567
Seattle, WA 33445
Phone: (123) 555-0123
Fax: (123) 555-0145
Lucerne Publishing is an Equal
http://www.lucernepublishing.com
Opportunity Employer.

157
7
Company Profile If you’re looking for a career at an Benefits Overview
Lucerne Publishing, family owned since extraordinary company in an exciting city, Lucerne Publishing offers a
1965, is a leader in the publishing Lucerne Publishing is the place for you! comprehensive benefits plan designed to
industry. Meet our Employees meet the needs of all our employees:

When we opened our doors more than 35 Why do our employees enjoy working at
years ago, we had a staff of 3. In 2002, Lucerne Publishing? We asked, and this • Medical insurance
we had more than 1,000 employees in 10 is what they had to say: • Dental insurance
cities worldwide.
“Working at Lucerne Publishing for the last • Vision insurance
Lucerne Publishing is a dynamic company five years has been a dream come true. The • 401(k) retirement plan with matching
known for its casual, team-oriented work company is built on the belief that the contributions
environment. We provide opportunities for employees are the key to success.”
career growth and advancement to • Short-term and long-term disability
employees at all levels. In addition, -Michael, Marketing Specialist coverage
Lucerne offers excellent benefits and • Life insurance
competitve salaries. “The opportunites for growth at Lucerne
Publishing are tremendous. I have a career • Flexible spending accounts
Our corporate headquarters is located in with this company, not just a job.” • Two weeks paid vacation
Seattle, Washington, where our
employees enjoy the best of city life and -Susan, Administrative Assistant • Eight paid holidays
the great outdoors. Seattle is known for its • Profit sharing
music, fine dining, and night life. Of “Lucerne Publishing cares about the
course, if you prefer the outdoors, the employees. The support that I’ve received • Tuition reimbursement
beautiful Pacific Northwest offers a while working here has been incredible.”
wonderful playground with mountains,
rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Whatever
your pleasure, from skiing to sailing, you
-Vicki, Quality Assurance Specialist
can find it here.

For information on open


positions or to submit your For information on open positions
resume, please visit our Web or to submit your resume, please
site at: visit our Web site:
www.lucernepublishing.com http://www.lucernepublishing.com

8 9

158
Procedure:

1. Word Art
a. On the Drawing toolbar, click Insert WordArt.
b. Click the WordArt effect you want, and then click OK.
c.
2. Clipart
a. On the Insert menu, point to Picture, and then click Clip Art
b. Search for box, type a word or phrase that describes the clip you want.
c. Or insert from a file by Selecting From File instead of Clip Art in “point a”.
3. Textbox, Text Formatting And Paragraph Border
a. On the Drawing toolbar, click Text Box.
b. Click or drag in your document where you want to insert the text box.
4. Textbox Over Image, Auto Shape
a. Insert the image and the text box.
b. Select the image.
c. On the Drawing toolbar, click Draw, point to Order, and then click Send
to Back.
d. Alternatively, Right Click on the object and point to Order, and then click
Send to Back.
5. Drawing
a. Use the AutoShapes by clicking on it, or use the shapes present in the
Drawing toolbar.
b. Resize and Rotate using the handle. Drag the rotate handle on the object
in the direction you want to rotate it. Use various resize handles to get your
custom shape.
c. Right click and select Format AutoShape to modify the color and pattern.
6. Textbox
7. Columns
a. Select the text.
b. On the Format menu click Columns.
c. Drag to select the number of columns you want.
d. Check the Line between option.
8. Text Box
9. Hyperlink

159
Free space for observations

160
Task 15: CREATING A FEEDBACK FPRM USING
WORD/LaTex
Forms, Text Fields, Inserting objects, Mail Merge using MS Word.

Feedback Form
Date: 3/11/2015

Faculty Name: Vengal Rao Subject: DSP Year/Semester: III/IV 1st Sem

Optional

Student Name: Roll Number: Branch: CSE

Review Guidelines

Complete this peer review, using the following scale: NA = Not Applicable
1 = Unsatisfactory
2 = Marginal
3 = Meets Requirements
4 = Exceeds Requirements
5 = Exceptional

Evaluation
(5) = (4) = Exceeds (3) = Meets (2) = (1) =
Exceptional Requirements Requirements Marginal Unsatisfactory

Required Skills And


Knowledge in the Class

Response To Questions

Ability To Learn And


Teach New Skills

English Speaking Skills

Making Students To
Involve In The Class
The Way Syllabus is
Covered

161
1
Feedback Form
Date: 3/11/2015
5

Faculty Name: Vengal Rao Subject: DSP Year/Semester: III/IV 1st Sem

Optional
3
Student Name: Roll Number: Branch: CSE

2
Review Guidelines

Complete this peer review, using the following scale: NA = Not Applicable
1 = Unsatisfactory
2 = Marginal
3 = Meets Requirements
4 = Exceeds Requirements
5 = Exceptional

Evaluation
(5) = (4) = Exceeds (3) = Meets (2) = (1) =
Exceptional Requirements Requirements Marginal Unsatisfactory

Required Skills And


Knowledge in the Class
4
Response To Questions

Ability To Learn And


Teach New Skills

English Speaking Skills

Making Students To
Involve In The Class
The Way Syllabus is
Covered

162
Procedure:

1. Insert Date from “Date and Time” Option.


2. Form Field – Text Form Field
a. To display the Forms toolbar, point to Toolbars on the View menu, and
then click Forms.
b. In the document, click where you want to insert the form field.
c. Click Text Form Field.
3. Form Field – Drop-Down Form Field
a. In the document, click where you want to insert the form field.
b. Click Drop-Down Form Field.
c. If needed, a user can scroll through the list to view additional choices.
d. To edit these fields, you must use the Form Field Options button on the
Forms toolbar.
4. Form Field – Check Box Form Field
a. In the document, click where you want to insert the form field.
b. Click Check Box Form Field.
c. To edit these fields, you must use the Form Field Options button on the
Forms toolbar.
5. Mail Merge
a. On the Tools menu, point to Letters and Mailings, and then click Mail
Merge.
b. Word displays the Mail Merge task pane.
c. Select type as “Letters” and click “Next: Starting Document”.
d. Click Use the current document, and Click “Next: Select recipients”.
e. Under Select recipients, click Use an existing list.
f. Click Browse.
g. In the Select Data Source dialog box, locate and click the data source
you want.
h. Browse for the given “List.txt” file., and Click Open.
i. All of the entries in the data source appear in the Mail Merge
Recipients dialog box, where you can refine the list of recipients to
include in the merge.
j. Click Next: Write your letter.
k. Click on the location where you want to put a merge field. Click on more
items.
l. Select and Insert the merge field at that location.
m. Click Next: Preview your letters.
n. To preview the items in order, click the arrow buttons.
o. To exclude a particular recipient from the merge, click Exclude this
recipient.
p. Click Next: Complete the merge.
q. You can either print all the letters or Edit individual letters
i. Click Edit individual letters.
ii. To merge all the documents, click All.
iii. Save it to a separate document for future use.

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MICROSOFT EXCEL
Microsoft Excel is one of the most widely used Spreadsheet applications for performing
financial, statistical and computational analysis for the purpose of business and
administration.

The tool is so flexible enough to get integrated with other applications for providing the
best output. For instance, it can be integrated to web servers and the students marks,
percentile etc. calculated can be generated onto the web. Similarly it can be integrated
with the other Office Applications for providing Charts, Statistics etc. It can also be
used as a backend database for any applications involving high-end calculation of the
data that is stored.

Task 16: Please see the page number 148.

Task 17: Please see the page number 153.

Task 18: Please see the page number 159.

Task 19: Please see the page number 163.

164
MICROSOFT POWER POINT
PowerPoint is a high-powered software tool used for presenting information in a
dynamic slide show format. Text, charts, graphs, sound effects and video are just some
of the elements PowerPoint can incorporate into your presentations with ease. Whether
it's a classroom lesson, a parents' group meeting, a teachers' seminar - PowerPoint
shows you how to make a powerful impression on your audience

Task 20: Create the presentation using the following tools:

1. Formatting: Color, font type, font size, font style etc.


2. Header and Footer
3. Bullets and Numbering
4. Drawing Toolbar: Auto shapes, Textboxes, etc
5. Design Template
6. Introduction to custom animation.

Task 21: Create a presentation to conduct a creativity session using


the following tools:

1. Slide transition
2. Master slide view
3. Insert picture – clipart, image
4. Action button
5. Drawing tool bar – lines, arrows
6. Hyperlink
7. Custom animation
8. Hide slide
9. Wash out
Task 22: Business Presentation
Create a presentation to build relationships, think creatively and market your product
using the following tools:

1. Slide Layout
2. fill color
3. Inserting object, picture (effects), graph, word art
4. comments
5. Security – password
6. Tables and Borders
7. Rehearse timings
8. Recording Narrations
9. Audio and video files
10. Inserting files, merging files, creating custom shows

165
Task 23:

Create a website for your college. The website should have the following
pages

1. Homepage which describes the college website


2. About Us page which tells about the college vision, when it was established...etc
3. Departments page which describes the departments in the college
4. Separate pages for the departments of your college
5. Contact page which contains address and contact information about the college

Guidelines for the website are given below:

Homepage

Replace this image


with your college
logo or logo.jpg

Replace this image


with your college
picture or
building.jpg

Task 23: Repeat the tasks 12-15 using LaTex.

166