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# MA-415

INDEX

## Speed Control of 3 Phase Induction Motor with V/f

2 02/03/2015
Control using MATLAB
To study Vector Control of 3 Phase Induction Motor
3 16/03/2015
using MATLAB
To study the Characteristics of DC Shunt Motor using
4 23/03/2015
MATLAB
Simulate 3-Phase Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
5 30/04/2015

## 6 Simulate Single Phase Inverter with PWM Control 06/04/2015

EXPERIMENT 1

AIM
Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor using MATLAB

LINE DIAGRAM

THEORY
There are three types of DC Motor:
i. Shunt Motor
ii. Series Motor
iii. Compound Motor
iv. Separately excited Motor

They are classified on the basic of armature and field winding connection.
Speed Control

## Armature Voltage Speed Control

The field current is kept constant and armature voltage is varied. A constant
field current is obtained by separately exciting the field winding from a fixed
DC source. The flux is constant and hence torque is directly proportional to the
armature current.

## Field Resistance Speed Control

This method is used when motor have to be run above its base speed. If the
field current is reduced by reducing field voltage, the flux density will be
reduced . This will reduce the induced back EMF and will cause armature
current to increase resulting in increase in the motor speed. Continuously back
EMF will be increased and new equilibrium will be achieved. With field control
speed as high as five times of the rated speed. The armature current is kept
constant and flux density is varied by varying field current.
EXPERIMENT 2

AIM
Speed Control of 3 Phase Induction Motor with V/f Control using MATLAB

LINE DIAGRAM

THEORY

## The Asynchronous Motor

In opposition to the brush or brushless DC motors, the asynchronous AC motor
has no permanent magnets. The rotor is made of a squirrel cage where the
rotating electric field induces a magnetic flux. Thanks to the speed difference
between electric field in the stator and the magnetic flux in the rotor, the
motor can deliver torque and turn .
The constant V/f principle
The constant Volts per Hertz principal is today the most common principle
used in adjustable speed drives of induction machines. Hence, many real life
motor control applications do need a high dynamic performance, as long as the
speed can be efficiently varied in the full range. This allows to use a sinusoidal
steady state model of the induction motor, in which magnitude of the stator
flux is proportional to the ratio between the magnitude and the frequency of
the stator voltage. If this ratio is kept constant, the stator flux will remain
constant, and so the motor torque will depend only on the slip frequency.
The scalar V/f control principle consists in feeding the motor windings with a 3-
phase sinusoidal voltage whose amplitude is proportional to the frequency,
except below the boost frequency and over the rated frequency. In practice,
the slope that defines the relation between the voltage magnitude and the
voltage frequency is deduced from the rated terminal supply voltage and the
rated motor supply frequency, and the boost frequency is chosen equal to a
percentage (say 5%) of the rated frequency. This principle can be used to build
a control loop, in which the difference between the desired speed and the
measured speed feeds a PI controller that determines the stator voltage
frequency. To decrease the complexity of the controller, the input of V/f law
and of the space vector PWM algorithm is the absolute value of the stator
voltage frequency. If the output of the PI controller is a negative number, two
of the switching variables driving the power transistors of the inverter are
interchanged. It should be noticed that the control principle described here
can only be used in applications where speed is kept constant whatever the
torque may be.
EXPERIMENT 3

AIM
To study Vector Control of 3 Phase Induction Motor using MATLAB

LINE DIAGRAM

THEORY
Induction motor speed control methods are varied in number of which vector
or field oriented control is the most widely accepted method. In vector control,
the same performance characteristics are obtainable as in the case with a DC
motor. This is achieved by decoupling the three phase winding into two
windings (90 degrees apart) so as to facilitate independent control of torque
and flux.

## Vector control offers more precise control of AC motors as compared to scalar

control. They are therefore used in high performance drives where oscillations
in air gap flux linkages are intolerable e.g. robotic actuators, servos etc.
EXPERIMENT 4

AIM
To study the Characteristics of DC Shunt Motor using MATLAB

LINE DIAGRAM

THEORY
DC motor generates torque from DC power supplied to the motor. A major
advantage of DC motor is that a wide variety of operating characteristics can
be obtained by choosing method of excitation of field winding. In general,
methods of excitation can be grouped into:

## i. Separately excited machine: The field winding is separately excited by

an external DC source
ii. Self- excited machine:
a. Shunt Machine: The field winding is connected in parallel with the
armature winding
b. Series Machine: The field winding is connected in series armature
winding
c. Compound Machine: The field winding is connected in a
combination of shunt and series
EXPERIMENT 5

AIM
Simulate 3-Phase Fully Controlled Bridge Converter with (R-L) Load

LINE DIAGRAM

THEORY
A three phase fully controlled bridge converter is obtained by replacing all the
six diodes of an uncontrolled converter by six thyristors as shown. For any
current to flow in the load at least one device from the top group (T1, T3, T5)
and one from the bottom group (T2, T4, T6) must conduct. It can be argued as
in the case of an uncontrolled converter only one device from these two
groups will conduct. Then from symmetry consideration it can be argued that
each thyristor conducts for 120° of the input cycle. Now the thyristors are fired
in the sequence T1 → T2 → T3 → T4 → T5 → T6 → T1 with 60° interval
between each firing. Therefore thyristors on the same phase leg are fired at an
interval of 180° and hence cannot conduct simultaneously. This leaves only six
possible conduction mode for the converter in the continuous conduction
mode of operation. These are T1T2, T2T3, T3T4, T4T5, T5T6, T6T1. Each
conduction mode is of 60° duration and appears in the sequence mentioned.

EXPERIMENT 6

AIM
Simulate Single Phase Inverter with PWM Control

LINE DIAGRAM

THEORY
A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that
changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). The input voltage,
output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the
design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any
power; the power is provided by the DC source. A power inverter can be
entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects (such as a
rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static inverters do not use moving
parts in the conversion process.