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(PCS)

COURSE CODE:-

CODE:-A80150

REGULATION:-

REGULATION:-R15 (JNTUH)

B.TECH IV-

IV-YEAR II-

II-SEM

PREPARED BY:-

BY:-RIYAZ MOHAMMED

CIVIL ENGINEERING

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

SYLLABUS

UNIT-I INTRODUCTION, METHODS & SYSTEMS OF PRESTRESSING

limitations of Pre stressed Concrete-Classification & Types of Pre stressing-Materials-High

Strength Concrete & High Tensile Steel their Characteristics-Methods & Systems of Pre

stressing: Pre tensioning & Post tensioning Methods & Systems of Pre stressing like Hoyer

System, Magnel Blaton System, Freyssinet System, Gifford- Udall System & Lee McCall

System.

Losses of Pre stress: Loss of Pre stress in Pre tensioned & Post-tensioned Members due to

Various Causes like Elastic Shortage of Concrete, Shrinkage of Concrete, Creep of Concrete,

Relaxation of Stress in Steel, Slip in Anchorage, Frictional Losses.

Flexure: Analysis of Sections for Flexure-Beams Pre stressed with Straight, Concentric,

Eccentric, Bent & Parabolic Tendons-Stress Diagrams-Elastic Design of PSC Beams of

Rectangular & I Sections-Kern Line-Cable Profile & Cable Layout.

Resistance of Concrete by Horizontal & Vertical Pre stressing & by Using Inclined or

Parabolic Cables-Analysis of Rectangular & I Beams for Shear-Design of Shear

Reinforcements-Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Code Provisions.

Transfer of Pre stress in Pre tensioned Members : Transmission of Pre stressing Force by

Bond-Transmission Length-Flexural Bond Stresses-IS Code Provisions-Anchorage Zone

Stresses in Post tensioned Members-Stress Distribution in End Block-Analysis by Guyon,

Magnel, Zielinski & Rowe’s Methods-Anchorage Zone Reinforcement-BIS Provisions.

Shrinkage-Analysis of Composite Beams-General Design Considerations.

Deflections of Un cracked Beams-Prediction of Long Time Deflections-BIS Code

Requirements.

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

CONTENTS (THEORY)

UNIT-I INTRODUCTION, METHODS & SYSTEMS OF PRESTRESSING

1.1 Terminology...................................................................................................................1

1.2 Pre-stressed Concrete-Historical Development, Advantages & Limitations.......1

1.3 Pre-stressing-Principles, Methods, Classification & Types ……………........4

1.4 Materials..................................................................................................7

1.5 Systems of Pre-stressing like Hoyer system, Magnel Blaton system, Freyssinet

system, Gifford-Udall system & Lee McCall system........................8

1.6 Characteristics of High Strength Concrete & High Tensile Steel....................12

UNIT-II LOSSES OF PRE-STRESS

UNIT-III FLEXURE & SHEAR

3.1 Terminology......17

3.2 Analysis of Sections for Flexure.........................17

3.3 Elastic Design of PSC Beams of Rectangular & I Sections.......18

3.4 Design of Shear Reinforcements...........18

3.5 Load Balancing Concept.......................19

UNIT-IV TRANSFER OF PRE-STRESS IN PRE-TENSIONED MEMBERS

4.2 Transmission Length.............................23

4.3 Flexural Bond Stresses..............................23

4.4 Stress Distribution in End Block...................24

4.5 Analysis by Guyon, Magnel, Zielinski & Rowe’s methods...........................25

4.6 Anchorage Zone Reinforcement................30

UNIT-V COMPOSITE BEAMS & DEFLECTIONS

5.2 Stress Distribution in Composite Beams...................................34

5.3 General Design Considerations of Composite Beams..................35

5.4 Differential Shrinkage...................38

5.5 Deflections-Factors & Importance..........................38

5.6 Short Term Deflections of Un cracked Beams....................41

5.7 Prediction of Long Time Deflections..........................47

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

CONTENTS (PROBLEMS)

UNIT-II Losses of Pre-Stress.................................1 to 28

******

THEORY

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-I

INTRODUCTION, METHODS & SYSTEMS OF PRESTRESSING

1.1-Terminology:-

1. Define the following:

a. Pre stressed concrete. [June-17(R13)]

b. Pre tensioning. [April-18(R13)]

c. Post-tensioning. [April-18(R13)]

d. Transfer.

e. Tendon.

f. Stress at transfer.

Ans:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no’s:-9&10, Topic no’s:-2.14, 2.15, 2.13, 2.21,

2.20 & 2.19 or IS 1343:2012, Page no’s:-1&2, Topic no’s:-3.15, 3.16, 3.14,

3.24, 3.23 & 3.22

1.2-Pre stressed Concrete-Historical Development, Advantages &

Limitations:-

2. Explain the basic concept, history or historic development or historical

perspective of pre stressed concrete. What are the advantages or merits or

benefits, limitations or disadvantages or demerits or drawbacks & applications

or uses or purpose of pre stressed concrete?

Or

Explain the advantages & limitations of pre stressed concrete. [May-17(R13)]

Or

Mention the advantages & disadvantages of pre stressed concrete in comparison

with reinforced concrete. [June/July-17(R13)]

Or

Discuss the advantages & limitations of pre stressed concrete. [April-18(R13)]

Ans:-

Basic Concept of Pre stressed Concrete:-

Concrete in which permanent internal stresses are deliberately introduced,

usually by tensioned steel, to counteract to the desired degree the stresses

caused in the member in service.

A pre-stressed concrete structure is different from a conventional

reinforced concrete structure.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

was granted the first patent in the USA for pre-stressed concrete design.

Pre-stressed concrete is a combination of steel & concrete.

Pre-stressed concrete can be used to produce beams, floors, bridges with

a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete.

Eugene freyssinet is often referred as “father of pre-stressed concrete”.

The examples of pre-stressing before development of pre-stressed

concrete are:

i. Force fitting of metal bands on wooden barrels. It induces a state of

initial hoop compression, to counteract the hoop tension caused by

filling of liquids in barrels.

ii. Pre-tensioning the spokes in a bicycle wheel, the pre-tension is

such that an extent of residual tension is always present in spoke.

Historical Development or History or Historical Perspective of Pre stressed

Concrete:-The historical development of pre-stressed concrete is listed below:

1824 Aspdin, J (England):-Obtained a patent for the manufacture of

Portland cement.

1857 Monier, J (France):-Introduced steel wires in concrete to make

flower pots, pipes, arches & slabs.

1886 Jackson, P. H (USA):-Introduced the concept of tightening steel tie

rods in artificial stone & concrete arches.

1888 Doehring, C. E. W (Germany):-Manufactured concrete slabs &

small beams with embedded tensioned steel.

1908 Stainer, C. R (USA):-Recognized losses due to shrinkage & creep,

& suggested retightening the rods to recover lost pre-stress.

1923 Emperger, F (Austria):-Developed a method of winding & pre-

tensioning high tensile steel wires around concrete pipes.

1924 Hewett, W. H (USA):-Introduced hoop-stressed horizontal

reinforcement around walls of concrete tanks through the use of

turnbuckles.

1925 Dill, R. H (USA):-Used high strength unbounded steel rods. The

rods were tensioned and anchored after hardening of the concrete.

1926 Eugene Freyssinet (France):-Used high tensile steel wires, with

ultimate strength as high as 1725 MPa and yield stress over 1240 MPa. In

1939, he developed conical wedges for end anchorages for post-

tensioning and developed double-acting jacks. He is often referred to as

the Father of Pre stressed concrete.

1938 Hoyer, E (Germany):-Developed ‘long line’ pre-tensioning method.

1940 Magnel, G (Belgium):-Developed an anchoring system for post-

tensioning, using flat wedges.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

are the various advantages of pre-stressed concrete:

i. It has high fatigue resistance.

ii. It has high live load carrying capacity.

iii. Members are free from the tensile stresses.

iv. Pre-stressed members are tested before use.

v. Lower construction cost for long-span structures.

vi. It is more durable than reinforced concrete.

vii. It is free from cracks.

viii. Less weight.

ix. Easy to transport.

x. It has excellent fire resistance & corrosion resistance.

xi. Pleasure appearance & durability when compared to R.C.C.

Disadvantages or De-merits or Limitations of Pre stressed Concrete:-The

following are the various limitations of pre-stressed concrete:

i. Required skilled labours.

ii. Pre-stressing needs skilled technology.

iii. Required experienced engineers.

iv. The availability of experienced engineers & builders is scanty/less.

v. Required complicated formwork.

vi. Required high quality materials.

vii. Required high strength steel & concrete.

viii. Initial equipment cost is very high.

ix. There is need for quality control & inspection.

x. Pre-stressed sections are brittle.

xi. Pre-stressed concrete sections are less fire resistant.

xii. The use of high strength materials is costly.

xiii. Hence, it is not as common as reinforced concrete.

Applications or Uses of Pre stressed Concrete:-The following are the various

applications of pre-stressed concrete:

i. Towers.

ii. Circular tanks.

iii. Water tanks.

iv. Chimneys.

v. Railway sleepers.

vi. Communication poles.

vii. Bridges.

viii. Nuclear power plant.

ix. Repair & rehabilitation of structures.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

3. Explain the various principles, methods, classification & types of pre-

stressing.

Or

Explain the principles of pre-stressing. Differentiate between pre-tensioning &

post-tensioning. [May-17(R13)]

Or

Define chemical, uni-axial & bi-axial pre-stressing. [June/July-17(R13)]

Or

What is axial pre-stressing, pre-tensioning & post-tensioning? [April-18(R13)]

Ans:-

Principles of Pre stressing:-

Pre-stressing is a method in which compression force is applied to the

reinforced concrete section.

The compressive force is generated in between the structural elements &

its abutments.

The compression in concrete & tension in steel is developed by the use of

expanding cements.

Pre-stressing tendons are used to provide a clamping load which produces

a compression stress that balances the tensile stress that the concrete

compression member would otherwise experience due to a bending load.

The effect of pre-stressing is to reduce the tensile stress in the section to

the point till the tensile stress is below the cracking stress. Thus the

concrete does not crack.

It is then possible to treat concrete as a elastic material.

The concrete can be visualized to have two compression force:

i. Internal pre-stressing force.

ii. External pre-stressing force (DL, LL etc).

These two forces must contact each other.

Methods of Pre stressing:-There are two basic methods of pre stressing or pre

stressed concrete:

i. Pre-tensioning method.

ii. Post-tensioning method.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

1. A method of pre-stressing A method of pre-stressing concrete

concrete in which the tendons in which the tendons are tensioned

are tensioned before concreting. after concreting.

2. The operation commonly a 5- The operation commonly a 6-step

step process. process.

3. Difficult to perform at site. Easy to perform at site.

4. Corrosion of steel is more. Corrosion of steel is less.

5. Tendons can only be straight or Tendons are having almost any

circular. shape.

6. They are less prone to anchorage They are more prone to anchorage

failure. failure.

7. There is less flexibility in design. There is more flexibility in design.

8. There is greater loss of pre-stress There is relatively less loss of pre-

due to shrinkage of concrete. stress due to shrinkage of concrete.

9. The pre-stress is imparted to The pre-stress is imparted to

concrete by bond between steel concrete by bearing.

& concrete.

10. Hoyer system comes under this Freyssinet, Gifford-udall, Lee-

method. MCcall & Magnel balton systems

comes under this method.

Classification & Types of Pre stressing:-Pre stressing of concrete can be

classified in several ways, they are depending upon:

1. Source of pre-stressing force.

2. External or internal pre-stressing.

3. Sequence of casting the concrete.

4. Shape of member pre-stressed.

5. Amount of pre-stressing force.

6. Direction of pre-stressing a member.

1. Source of pre-stressing force:-This classification is based on the method by

which the pre-stressing force is generated. There are four sources of pre-

stressing force:

i. Mechanical pre-stressing.

ii. Hydraulic pre-stressing.

iii. Electrical pre-stressing.

iv. Chemical pre-stressing.

i. Mechanical pre-stressing:-In this type of pre-stressing, the devices includes

weights with or without lever transmission, geared transmission in conjunction

with pulley blocks, screw jacks with or without gear drives and wire-winding

machines.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

large pre-stressing forces. The hydraulic jack used for the tensioning of tendons,

comprises of calibrated pressure gauges which directly indicate the magnitude

of force developed during the tensioning.

iii. Electrical pre-stressing:-In this type of pre-stressing, the steel wires are

electrically heated & anchored before placing concrete in the moulds. This type

of pre-stressing is also known as thermo-electric pre-stressing.

iv. Chemical pre-stressing:-In the chemical method, expanding cements are

used. The degree of expansion is controlled by varying the curing conditions.

Since the expansive action of cement while setting is restrained, it induces

tensile forces in tendons and compressive stresses in concrete.

2. External or internal pre-stressing:-This classification is based on the location

of the pre-stressing tendon with respect to the concrete section.

i. External pre-stressing:-When pre-stressing is achieved by elements located

outside the concrete member.

ii. Internal pre-stressing:-When pre-stressing is achieved by elements located

inside the concrete member.

3. Sequence of casting the concrete:-Depending upon the sequence of casting

concrete, there are two types:

i. Pre-tensioning.

ii. Post-tensioning.

i. Pre-tensioning:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-10, Topic no:-2.15 or

1343:2012, Page no:-01, Topic no:-3.16

ii. Post-tensioning:- Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-10, Topic no:-2.13 or IS

1343:2012, Page no:-01, Topic no:-3.14

4. Shape of member pre-stressed:-This classification is based on the shape of

the member pre-stressed. There are two types:

i. Linear pre-stressing.

ii. Circular pre-stressing.

i. Linear pre-stressing:-When the pre-stressed members are straight or flat, in

the direction of pre-stressing, the pre-stressing is called linear pre-stressing. For

example, pre-stressing of beams, piles, poles and slabs.

ii. Circular pre-stressing:-When the pre-stressed members are curved, in the

direction of pre-stressing, the pre-stressing is called circular pre-stressing.For

example, circumferential pre-stressing of tanks, silos, pipes & similar structures.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

force, there are three types:

i. Full pre-stressing.

ii. Limited pre-stressing.

iii. Partial pre-stressing.

i. Full pre-stressing:-When the level of pre-stressing is such that no tensile stress

is allowed in concrete under service loads, it is called Full Pre-stressing (Type

1, as per IS:1343-1980).

ii. Limited pre-stressing:-When the level of pre-stressing is such that the tensile

stress under service loads is within the cracking stress of concrete, it is called

Limited Pre-stressing (Type 2, as per IS:1343-1980).

iii. Partial pre-stressing:-When the level of pre-stressing is such that under

tensile stresses due to service loads, the crack width is within the allowable

limit, it is called Partial Pre-stressing (Type 3, as per IS:1343-1980).

6. Direction of pre-stressing a member:-Depending upon the direction of pre-

stressing a member, there are three types:

i. Uni-axial pre-stressing.

ii. Bi-axial pre-stressing.

iii. Tri-axial pre-stressing.

i. Uni-axial pre-stressing:-When the pre-stressing tendons are parallel to one

axis, it is called Uni-axial Pre-stressing. For example, longitudinal pre stressing

of beams.

2. Bi-axial pre-stressing:-When there are pre-stressing tendons parallel to two

axes, it is called Bi-axial Pre-stressing. For example, pre stressing of slabs.

3. Tri-axial pre-stressing:-When the pre-stressing tendons are parallel to more

than two axes, it is called Multi-axial Pre-stressing. For example, pre stressing

of domes.

1.4-Materials:-

4. List & explain the materials for pre-stress concrete members.

Or

What are the materials used for pre-stress concrete & why? [April-18(R13)]

Ans:-

Materials for Pre stress Concrete Members:-The following are the various

materials used in pre-stressing:

RIYAZ MOHAMMED Page 7

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

i. Cement.

ii. Concrete.

iii. Steel.

i. Cement:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-12, Topic no:-4.1 or IS 1343:2012,

Page no:-03, Topic no:-5.1

ii. Concrete:-

Pre-stress concrete requires concrete, which has a high compressive

strength.

The concrete for the members shall be air-entrained concrete composed

of Portland cement, fine and coarse aggregates, admixtures & water.

Minimum cement content of 300 to 360 kg/m3.

The water content should be as low as possible.

iii. Steel:-

Such as high tensile steel, tendons, strands or cables.

The steel used in pre-stress shall be any one of the following:

(a) Plain hard-drawn steel wire conforming to IS1785 (Part-I & Part-III)

(b) Cold drawn indented wire conforming to IS6003

(c) High tensile steel wire bar conforming to IS2090

(d) Uncoated stress relived strand conforming to IS6006

1.5-Systems of Pre Stressing like Hoyer System, Magnel Blaton System,

Freyssinet System, Gifford-Udall System & Lee Mccall System:-

5. With neat sketches, list & explain the various systems of pre stressing.

Or

Explain the following pre stressing methods along with neat sketches:

i. Freyssinet system.

ii. Gifford-udall system.

iii. Hoyer system.

iv. Lee MC call system.

v. Magnel balton system.

Or

Explain in detail about Freyssinet system of pre stressing with neat sketches.

[May-13(R09)]

Or

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Explain the Gifford-Udall system & Lee MC Call system of pre stressing.

[May-17(R13)]

Or

Discuss in detail Magnel Balton system & Freyssinet system. [June/July-

17(R13)]

Or

With neat sketches explain Hoyer system &Magnel system of pre stressing.

[April-18(R13)]

Ans:-

Systems of Pre stressing:-The following are the various systems of pre

stressing:

i. Freyssinet system.

ii. Gifford-udall system.

iii. Hoyer system.

iv. Lee MC Call system.

v. Magnel balton system.

Among them Hoyer system is a pre tensioning system.

Similarly, Freyssinet, Gifford-Udall, Lee MC Call & Magnel Balton

systems are post-tensioning systems.

i. Freyssinet System:-

It is introduced by ”Freyssinet” a French engineer.

It was developed in the year 1939.

This system is widely used in Europe & japan.

It consists of a cylinder with a conical interior through which the high-

tensile wires pass & against the walls of which the wires are wedged by a

conical plug lined longitudinally with the grooves to house the wires.

The main advantage of the Freyssinet system is that a large number of

wires or strands can be simultaneously tensioned using the double-acting

hydraulic jack.

It is a post-tensioning system.

It is the first system in post-tensioning system.

Wires & strands are the two types of tendons are used in this system.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

ii. Gifford-udall System:-

The Gifford-Udall (C.C.L) system developed in U.K

It consists of steel split-cone & cylindrical female-cone anchorages to

house the high-tensile wires bearing against steel plates.

Each wire is tensioned separately and anchored by forcing a sleeve wedge

into a cylindrical grip resting against a bearing plate.

The ducts are generally formed by metal sheaths cast into the concrete

member.

It is widely used in india.

It is a post-tensioning system.

In this system “wires” are used as “tendon”.

The arrangement of tendons in duct is evently spaced.

iii. Hoyer System:-

It is also called as long line method.

It is a pre-tensioning system.

It is a large scale production.

It contains two bulk heads or abutments.

An extension of the pre-stressing system is the hoyer system.

This system is generally used for mass production.

Shuttering is provided at the sides & between the members.

PRESTRESSED

STRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

In the Le McCall system, the tendons comprise high-tensile

high tensile bars of

diameter varying from 12 to 40 mm which are threaded at the ends.

After tensioning, each bar is anchored by screwing a nut and washer

tightly against the end plates.

In this system the forces are transmitted by the bearing at the end blocks.

While the system eliminates the loss of stress due to anchorage slip, it has

a disadvantage in that curved tendons cannot be used.

It is a post-tensioning

tensioning system.

v. Magnel balton System::-

The Magnel-Blaton

Blaton post-tensioning

post tensioning system adopts metallic sandwich

plates, flat wedges, & a distribution plate for anchoring the wires.

Each sandwich plate can house up to four pairs of wires.

The distribution plate may be cast into the member at the desired

location.

The number of wires in the Magnel cable varies from 2 to 64.

It is a post-tensioning

tensioning system.

In this system, cables of rectangular

rectangular section is provided, which contains

layers of wires 5 to 8 mm diameter.

This method was introduced by a famous engineer, prof.Magnel of

Belgium.

Fig 1.3-Magnel

1.3 Balton system

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Name of Introduced Country Type of Method of Type Range Cable Duct

the by of System Tensioning of of

System Origin Tendon Forces

Freyssinet Freyssinet France Post- Hydraulic Wires Medium Circular

system tensioning jack & & Large

Strands

Gifford- Gifford- Great Post- Hydraulic Wires Small & Circular

Udall Udall Britain tensioning jack Medium

system

Hoyer Hoyer US Pre- Hydraulic Wires Small & Rectangular

system tensioning jack & Large

Strands

Lee-MC Lee-MC Great Post- Hydraulic Bars Small, Circular

call call Britain tensioning jack Medium

system & Large

Magnel- Magnel Belgium Post- Hydraulic Wires Small, Rectangular

Blaton tensioning jack Medium

system & Large

Note:-

Range of forces:

• Small:-up to 130KN.

• Medium:-130-500KN.

• Large:-over 500KN.

1.6-Characteristics of High Strength Concrete & High Tensile Steel:-

6. Compare the characteristics of High strength concrete & high tensile steel.

Ans:-

Characteristics of High Strength Concrete & High Tensile Steel:-

SNO. High Strength Concrete High Tensile Steel

1. High compressive strength. High compressive strength.

2. Low tensile strength. High tensile strength.

3. Relatively high fire resistance. Relatively low fire resistance.

4. Plastic & mouldable when fresh. Difficult to mould & shape

except at high temperature.

5. Relatively inexpensive. Relatively expensive.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Ans:-

Pre stressed Concrete VS Reinforced Concrete:-

SNO. Pre-stressed Concrete Reinforced Concrete

1. The stresses in steel are almost The stresses in steel are almost

constant. variable.

2. It has more shear resistance. It has less shear resistance.

3. Deflections are less. Deflections are more.

4. Fatigue resistance is more. Fatigue resistance is less.

5. More durable. less durable.

6. Dimensions of sections are less. Dimensions of sections are

more.

7. Requires less concrete & steel. Requires more concrete & steel.

8. Steel plays active role. Steel plays passive role.

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-II

LOSSES OF PRE STRESS

2.1-Loss of Pre stress in Pre tensioned & Post-tensioned Members:-

1. Define loss of pre-stress. List & explain the various types or nature of losses

of pre-stress or pre stressing as per IS 1343.

Or

Explain the different types of losses of pre-stress or pre stressing in pre

tensioned & post-tensioned members.

Or

By using IS 1343, how do you compute the loss of pre-stress due to various

causes like elastic shortage of concrete, shrinkage of concrete, creep of

concrete, relaxation of stress in steel, slip in anchorage & frictional losses.

Or

Explain the total amount of looses allowed in the design of pre-tensioning &

post-tensioning members.

Or

Explain different types of losses in pre stressing. [May-13(R09)]

Or

May-17(R13):-

• Explain the different types of losses of pre-stress in pre-tensioned

members.

• Explain the various losses of pre-stress in post-tensioned members.

• Explain the total amount of looses allowed in the design of pre-tensioning

members.

June/July-17(R13):-

• Explain any 2 losses that occur in post-tensioned system.

• Discuss the loss due to friction in post-tensioned members.

• What is loss due to creep of steel?

April-18(R13):-

• Explain various losses of pre-stress in pre-tensioned & post-tensioned

members & how they are taken care in design?

• Explain the terms loss of pre-stress.

RIYAZ MOHAMMED Page 14

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Ans:-

Loss of Pre stress:-The initial pre-stress in concrete undergoes a gradual

reduction with time from the stage of transfer due to various causes. This is

generally referred to as "loss of pre stress”.

Types or Classification or Causes or Nature of Losses of Pre stress or Pre

stressing:-The losses are broadly classified into two groups:

i. Immediate or Short-Term or Initial Losses.

ii. Time Dependent or Long-Term Losses.

i. Immediate or Short-Term or Initial Losses:-The immediate or short-term or

initial losses occur during pre-stressing of the tendons & the transfer of pre-

stress to the concrete member.

The losses due to elastic shortening of the concrete, friction at the tendon-

concrete interface & slip of the anchorage are the immediate or short-

term losses.

ii. Time Dependent or Long-Term Losses:- The time-dependent or long-term

losses occur during the service life of the pre-stressed member.

The losses due to the shrinkage & creep of the concrete & relaxation of

the steel are the time-dependent or long-term losses.

Flowchart:-

The causes of the various losses in pre-stress or pre-stressing are shown in the

following chart:

Table:-The different types of losses encountered in the pre-tensioning & post-

tensioning systems are as follows:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

1. Elastic deformation of No loss due to elastic deformation if

concrete. all the wires are simultaneously

tensioned. If the wires are

successively tensioned, there will be

loss of pre-stress due to elastic

deformation of concrete.

2. Relaxation of stress in steel. Relaxation of stress in steel.

3. Shrinkage of concrete. Shrinkage of concrete.

4. Creep of concrete. Creep of concrete.

5. - Friction.

6. - Anchorage slip.

In addition to the above, there may be losses of pre-stress due to sudden

changes in temperature, especially in steam curing of pre-tensioned units. The

rise in temperature causes a partial transfer of pre-stress which may cause a

large amount of creep if the concrete is not properly cured. If there is a

possibility of a change of temperature between the times of tensioning &

transfer, the corresponding loss should be allowed for in the design.

Note:-For Explanation Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no’s:-32 to 34, Topic no’s:-

18.5.2.1 to 18.5.2.6 or IS 1343:2012, Page no’s:-24 to 26, Topic no’s:-19.5.2.1

to 19.5.2.6

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-III

FLEXURE & SHEAR

3.1-Terminology:-

1. Define the following:

a. Kern distance:- Kern is the core area of the section in which if the load

applied tension will not be induced in the section

Kt = Zb/A & Kb = Zt/A

b. Pressure line or Thrust line or C-line:-The pressure line in a beam is the

locus point of the resultant compression (C) along the length. It is also

called the thrust line or C-line.

c. Cable layout:-It means deciding about the location of cable at various

sections.

d. Anchorage or Anchorage device:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-9, Topic

no:-2.1 or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-1, Topic no:-3.1

e. Cable:-Refer IS 1343:2012, Page no:-1, Topic no:-3.3

f. Strain Compatibility Method:-The method by which the flexural strength

of pre-stressed concrete is estimated based on the compatibility of strain

is known as “Strain Compatibility Method”.

3.2- Analysis of Sections for Flexure:-

2. Write short notes on analysis of sections for flexure. What are the

assumptions made in order to determine the flexural strength of concrete? List

the various types of flexure failure.

Or

State the assumptions made in the analysis of pre-stressed concrete flexural

members. [May-17(R13)]

Ans:-

Analysis of Sections for Flexure:-Similar to members under axial load, the

analysis of members under flexure refers to the evaluation of the following:

i. Permissible pre stress based on allowable stresses at transfer.

ii. Stresses under service loads. These are compared with allowable stresses

under service conditions.

iii. Ultimate strength. This is compared with the demand under factored

loads.

iv. The entire load versus deformation behaviour. The analyses at transfer &

under service loads are presented in this section.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

special type of analysis.

Assumptions Made in the Analysis of Flexure:-Refer IS: 1343-1980, Page

no:-43, Topic no:-22.1.1 or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-31, Topic no:-23.1.1

Types of Flexure Failures:-The various types of flexural failures encountered

in pre stressed concrete members:

ii. Failure of under-reinforced sections.

iii. Failure of over-reinforced sections.

iv. Other modes of failure.

a. Failure due to shear.

b. Failure due to web crushing.

c. Failure due to improper design of end block.

d. Failure of the bond in between steel & concrete.

3. Explain the design of PSC beams of rectangular & T-sections.

Or

Explain the procedure for calculating moment of resistance for rectangular & T-

sections

Ans:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-59, Appendix-B, Table-11 & B-1 or IS

1343:2012, Page no:-51, Annex-D, Table-11 & D-1.

3.4-Design of Shear Reinforcement:-

4. Define shear reinforcement. Write the procedure to be followed for the design

of shear reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete.

Or

Why is shear reinforcement provided? Explain the design of shear

reinforcement.

Ans:-

Shear Reinforcement:-The reinforcement which is designed to resist shear or

diagonal tension stresses.

Shear reinforcement is usually provided in the form of stirrups to hold the

longitudinal reinforcement.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

24.4.3 or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-33, Topic no:-23.4.3

3.5-Load Balancing Concept:-

5. Explain the concept of load balancing. [May-17(R13)] [April-18(R13)]

Ans:-

Concept of Load Balancing:-

The concept of load balancing is useful in selecting the tendon profile

which can supply the most desirable system of forces in concrete.

In general, this requirement will be satisfied if the cable profile in a pre-

stressed member corresponds to the shape of the bending moment

diagram resulting from the external loads.

It is possible to select suitable cable profiles in a pre-stressed concrete

member.

The various types of reactions of a cable upon a concrete member depend

upon the shape of the cable profile.

Straight portions of the cable do not induce any reactions.

Sharp angles in a cable induce concentrated loads.

The concept of loading-balancing is useful in selecting the tendon profile,

which can supply the most desirable system of forces in concrete.

This can be readily illustrated by considering the free-body of concrete,

with the tendon replaced by forces acting on the concrete beam as shown

in the figure and table below:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

i. Simplest approach to pre stressed design and analysis for statically

indeterminate structures.

ii. It has advantages both in calculating & in visualizing.

iii. Convenience in the computation of deflections.

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-IV

TRANSFER OF PRE STRESS IN PRE-TENSIONED MEMBERS

4.1-Transmission of Pre Stressing Force by Bond:-

1. Briefly explain the mechanism by which pre-stressing force is transferred to

concrete in pre-tensioned members.

Or

Explain about the transmission of pre-stressing force by bond.

Ans:-

Transmission of Pre stressing Force by Bond:-

In a pre tensioned system, when a wire is released from its temporary

anchorage on the pre stressing bed, the end of the wire swells as a result

of the recovery of the lateral contraction & develops a wedge effect.

This is to enable the pre stressing force to become zero at the end of the

wire. This is generally referred to as the “Hoyer Effect”.

The swelling of the wire is only a few thousandths of a millimetre, but it

nevertheless produces considerable radial pressures on the concrete,

giving rise to large frictional forces.

The transmission of pre stressing force from steel to concrete is generally

through a bond comprising:

i. Adhesion.

ii. Friction.

iii. Shearing resistance (dilatancy).

At intermediate points along the length of a beam, the bond stress is

resisted by adhesion, while in the transfer zone the tendons invariably slip

& sink into concrete, destroying most of the adhesion.

Consequently, the bond stresses are due to the friction & shearing

resistance.

The maximum bond stress is reached in the zone of transverse

compression.

When the bond stress is zero, the stress in steel & concrete reach their

maximum values, & uniform stress distribution is prevalent from this

section. The length needed for achieving this is termed as “transmission

length”.

The distribution of bond stress, steel & concrete in the transmission zone

are shown in fig:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

= (1+vc) ( - )( )

Where

= Transmission Length

Φ = Wire Diameter

= Coefficient of Friction between Steel & Concrete

vc = Poisson’s Ratio for Concrete

α = Modular Ratio (ES/EC)

v = Poisson’s ratio for Steel

f = Initial Stress in Steel

E = Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

f = Effective Stress in Steel

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

4.2-Transmission Length:-

2. What is transmission length or transfer length? List the various factors

influencing transmission length or transfer length.

Or

Explain the IS code provisions for transmission length. [May-13(R09)]

Or

Define transmission length. [June/July-17(R13)]

Ans:-

Transmission Length or Transfer Length:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-10,

Topic no:-2.22 or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-2, Topic no:-3.25

Factors Influencing Transmission Length or Transfer Length:-Refer

IS:1343-1980, Page no’s:-34 & 35, Topic no:-18.6.1.1 or IS 1343:2012, Page

no:-26, Topic no:-19.6.1.1

4.3-Flexural Bond Stresses:-

3. With neat sketches, explain about Flexural-bond stresses.

Ans:-

Flexural Bond Stresses:-Pre tensioned or post-tensioned beams with bonded

tendons develop bond stresses between steel & concrete when the sections are

subjected to transverse shear forces due to the rate of change of moment along

the beam length.

Where

τb = Bond stress between steel & concrete.

V = Shear force.

Mx & My = Moments at sections xx & yy.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

y = Distance of the tendon from the centroidal axis.

I = Second moment of area of the section.

αe = Modular ratio = (Es / Ec).

As = Area of steel.

fx & fy = Bending stress in concrete at the level of steel at section xx & yy.

In the case of un cracked members, bond stresses are computed by considering

the complete section, Considering the un cracked sections of a beam of length

dx as shown in Figure (a),

τb = (VyαeΦ/4I)

In the case of cracked flexural members, bond stresses change suddenly at the

cracks due to the abrupt transfer of tension from concrete to steel in the vicinity

of the cracks. Considering the cracked sections of a beam of length dx as shown

in Figure (b),

⸫ τb = (V/z∑u)

4.4-Stress Distribution in End Block:-

4. Define end block. With neat sketches, Explain about the stress distribution in

end block. Give its functions.

Or

What is an end block? Explain the stress distribution in end blocks with neat

sketches. [May-13(R09)]

Or

What is anchorage zone? [April-18(R13)]

Ans:-

End Block or Anchorage Zone:-The zone between the end of the beam & the

section where only longitudinal stress exists is generally referred to as the

“anchorage zone or end block”. In the anchorage zone or end block of a post-

tensioned pre stressed concrete element, the state of stress distribution is

complex & three-dimensional in nature.

Stress Distribution in End Block or Anchorage Zone:-The idealized stress

distribution in an end block with the compressive & tensile stress paths. The

effect of transverse tensile stress is to develop a zone of bursting tension in a

direction perpendicular to the anchorage force, resulting in horizontal cracking.

Since, concrete is weak in tension, suitable reinforcement are generally

provided in the transverse direction to resist the bursting tension.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

i. Provide Lateral stability from wind & other horizontal loads.

ii. Provide additional vertical load capacity for the ends of the joists from

point loads above.

4.5-Analysis by Guyon, Magnel, Zielinski & Rowe’s Methods:-

5. List & explain the methods used for the calculation of anchorage zone

stresses.

Or

Explain investigations on anchorage zone stresses.

Or

Explain the analysis of end block stress distribution by various methods.

Or

What are the various methods generally used for the investigation of anchorage

zone stresses? Explain.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Or

How do you compute the bursting tension in an end block subjected to evenly

distributed forces using guyon’s method?

Ans:-

Investigations on Anchorage Zone Stresses:-

A number of investigators have studied the stress distribution in the

anchorage zone using empirical equations or theoretical solutions based

on two or three-dimensional elasticity or experimental techniques.

The important investigations were those done by:

i. Magnel’s method.

ii. Guyon’s method.

iii. Zielinski & Rowe’s method.

i. Magnel’s method:-

In this method, the end block is considered as a deep beam subjected to

concentrated loads due to anchorages on one side & to normal &

tangential distribution loads from the linear direct stress & shear stress

distribution from the other side.

The forces acting on the end block & the stresses acting on any point on

the horizontal axis parallel to the beam are as shown in figure:

Where

M = Bending moment.

H = Direct force (vertical).

V = Shear force (horizontal).

RIYAZ MOHAMMED Page 26

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

fv = Vertical stress.

fh = Direct stress.

τ = Shear stress.

The stress distribution across the section can be approximated by the

following equations:

Vertical stress:-fv = K1 (M/bh2) + K2 (H/bh)

Shear stress:-τ = K3(V/bh)

Direct stress:-fh = P/bh (1+12 e/2/h/2)

Where K1, K2 & K3 are constants.

The principle stresses acting at the point are computed by the general

equations:

fmax = (fv+fh/2) + ½ √(fh-fv)2 + 4τ2

fmin = (fv+fh/2) - ½ √(fh-fv)2 + 4τ2

The bursting tension is computed from the distribution of principal tensile

stress on the required axis & suitable reinforcements are designed to take

up this tension.

ii. Guyon’s method:-

In Guyon’s method, design tables are used for the computation of

bursting tension in the end blocks.

The tables are based on his mathematical study of stress distribution in

end blocks due to concentrated loads acting on it.

The concept of symmetrical or equivalent prism for eccentric cables, &

the method of partitioning for the analysis of stresses developed due to

multiple cables have been introduced by Guyon.

There are two distinguished cases of force distribution, they are:

a. Forces evenly distributed.

b. Forces not evenly distributed.

a. Forces evenly distributed:-When the forces are arranged such that the

resultant of the stress distribution at a distance equal to the depth of the end

block coincides with the line of action of the force as shown in figure, then the

forces are considered to be evenly distributed.

Where

2 ypo = Depth of the anchorage plate.

2 yo = Depth of the equivalent prism.

According to Guyon, the bursting tension is given as:-Fbst = 0.3P[1-(ypo/yo)0.58]

Where P = Anchorage force

ypo/yo = Distribution ratio.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

forces evenly, Guyon recommends that transverse tensile stresses be

investigated along successive resultants, such as:

• Resultant of all forces.

• Resultant of smaller groups of forces.

• Lines of action of individual forces.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Experimental investigations on concrete prismatic specimens were

conducted by Zielinski & Rowe using the technique of surface-strain

measurements.

The concrete prisms simulated the end blocks & the parameters

investigated include the ratio of loaded to cross-sectional area, the cable

duct or hole, type of anchorages & the cracking & ultimate load.

The studies revealed that the distribution of transverse stress & ultimate

load of the end block is not significantly affected by:

• The anchorage being either embedded or external.

• The material of the anchorage.

• The method of anchoring the wires.

An end block is subjected to a concentrated load at the end face, the

distribution of transverse stress is found to be maximum at a distance

equal to 0.5yo

Empirical relations have been developed by Zielinski & Rowe to compute

the maximum transverse tensile stress & the bursting tension as shown in

figure:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Where

2yo = Side of the surrounding prism.

2ypo = Side of loaded or punching area.

ypo/yo = Ratio of sides of loaded to bearing area of the prism.

fv = Transverse tensile stress.

fc = Average compressive stress in the prism.

Pk = Applied compressive force on the end block.

Fbst = Bursting tension.

fvmax = Maximum transverse tensile stress.

The recommended equations are:

Tensile stress, fvmax = fc [0.98-0.825(ypo/yo)]

ypo/yo = 0.3 to 0.7

bursting tension, Fbst = Pk [0.48-0.4(ypo/yo)]

If allowance is made for tension taken by concrete, the corrected value of

the bursting tension is given by:

Fbst(corrected) = Fbst [1-(ft/fvmax)2 ]

Where ft = permissible tensile strength of concrete.

The reinforcement required to resist the bursting tension is to be arranged

between 0.2yo & 2yo where the intensity of stress is maximum.

4.6-Anchorage Zone Reinforcement:-

6. Explain in detail about the anchorage zone reinforcement with neat sketches.

[April-18(R13)]

Or

Sketch the pattern of reinforcement in anchorage zone. [June/July-17(R13)]

Ans:-

Anchorage Zone Reinforcement:-

The main reinforcement in the anchorage zone should be designed to

withstand the bursting tension, which is determined by the transverse

stress distribution on the critical axis, usually coinciding with the line of

action of the largest individual force.

For plate & embedded (Freyssinet) type of anchorages, the typical

arrangement of reinforcement in end blocks is shown in figure:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

directions.

Tests by Zielinski & Rowe have shown that helical reinforcement is more

efficient than mat reinforcement.

In view of the short available bond lengths, loops or right-angle bends are

necessary, even with deformed bars.

Suitable pockets are generally provided behind the anchorages so that the

secondary reinforcements can be bent as shown in Fig:

There must always be enough space for the fixing and handling of the

hydraulic jack, especially at the soffits of beams when using cap cables,

and this should be considered while designing the form work figure:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

In the case of end blocks, where bearing plates are positioned close to the

edges of blocks as shown in Fig

reinforcement in doubtful situations, since the cost of the end anchorage

steel is a very small proportion of that of the entire structural member.

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-V

COMPOSITE BEAMS & DEFLECTIONS

5.1-Composite Beams-Different types-Propped & Unpropped:-

1. Define composite beams, give its examples. List & explain the types of

composite beams. What are the advantages & disadvantages of composite

beams or composite sections or composite members?

Or

What are the major disadvantages of using composite beams? [April-18(R13)]

Ans:-

Composite Beams:-A structural member composed of two (or) more dissimilar

materials joined together to act as a unit.

Examples of Composite Sections:-

Types of Composite Beams:-The following are the two types of composite

beams or composite construction:

i. Propped construction.

ii. Un-propped construction.

i. Propped Construction:-The dead load stress developed in the precast pre

stressed units can be minimized by propping them while casting the concrete in

situ. This method of construction is termed as “propped construction”.

If the pre tensioned beam supports the weight of the slab while casting.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

pre stressed elements can be reduced resulting into economy.

ii. Un-propped Construction:-If the precast units are not propped while placing

the in situ concrete, stresses are developed in the unit due to the self- weight of

the member & the dead weight of the in situ concrete. This method of

construction is termed as “un-propped construction”.

If the slab is externally supported while casting.

The main advantage of this type of construction is that the formwork is

eliminated completely.

Advantages of Composite Beams:-The advantages of composite beams are:

i. Fast-track construction.

ii. Easy to connect the members.

iii. Economical.

iv. Less time consuming.

v. Reduction in the false work & shoring cost.

vi. No need of formwork & scaffoldings.

vii. Provides stability to girders.

Disadvantages of Composite Beams:-The disadvantages of composite beams

are:

i. No gain is obtained by using composite construction for short-span

members in which shear stresses are more significant than flexural

stresses.

ii. A properly designed & executed shear connector is needed to prevent the

failure of a composite beam on account of the separation of precast &

cast-in-situ concrete.

iii. Precast units are liable to be damaged during transporting & exaction

operations.

iv. Differential shrinkage stresses in composite construction can result in

tensile stresses being developed in the cast-in-situ concrete & a reduction

in the pre compression of the tensile flange of the precast element.

5.2-Stress Distribution in Composite Beams:-

2. Explain the stress distribution in composite beams.

Ans:-

Stress Distribution in Composite Beams:-The stress distribution in propped &

un-propped composite sections is shown below:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

5.3-General Design Considerations of Composite Beams:-

3. Explain the design procedure of pre stressed composite sections. [June/July-

17(R13)]

Ans

Design of Composite Sections:-The following steps explain the design of a

composite section with precast web & cast-in-place flange. The precast web is

pre stressed before the casting of the flange. The member is considered to be

Type 1 member.

Step-1 Compute eccentricity (e):-With a trial section of the web, the CGS can

be located at the maximum eccentricity (emax). The maximum eccentricity is

calculated based on zero stress at the top of the precast web. This gives an

economical solution. emax is determined by:

$%&

! = "# +

'(

Here

kb = Distance of the bottom kern of the precast web from CGC

Msw = Moment due to self weight of the precast web.

P0 = A trial pre stressing force at transfer.

RIYAZ MOHAMMED Page 35

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Step-2 Compute equivalent moment for the precast web:-A moment acting on

the composite section is transformed to an equivalent moment for the precast

web. This is done to compute the stresses in the precast web in terms of the

properties of the precast web itself and not of the composite section. For a

moment Mc which acts after the section behave like a composite section, the

stresses in the extreme fibres of the precast web are determined by:

$*+,’

) =

.’

$*+/’

)# =

.’

Here,

ct’ = Distance of the top of the precast web from the CGC’

cb’ = Distance of the bottom of the precast web (or composite section) from the

CGC’

I’ = moment of inertia for the composite section.

The following quantities are defined as the ratios of the properties of the precast

web and composite section.

Then the stresses in the extreme fibres of the precast web can be expressed in

terms of mt and mb as follows.

kb = Distance of the bottom kern of the precast web from CGC

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

kt= Distance of the top kern of the precast web from CGC

The quantities mt Mc and mb Mc are the equivalent moments. Thus, the stresses

in the precast web due to Mc are expressed in terms of the properties of the

precast web itself.

Step-3 Compute Pe:-Let MP be the moment acting on the precast web prior to

the section behaving like a composite section. After Mc is applied on the

composite section, the total moment for the precast web is MP + mbMc. The

stress at the bottom for Type 1 member due to service loads is zero. Therefore,

Note that the pre stressing force is acting only on the precast web and hence, e

is the eccentricity of the CGS from the CGC of the precast web.

Step-4 Estimate P0:-

a) 90% of the initial applied pre stress (Pi) for pre-tensioned members.

b) Equal to Pi for post-tensioned members.

The value of Pi is estimated as follows

Revise e, the location of CGS, as given in Step 1 based on the new value of P0.

Step-5 Check for the compressive stresses in the precast web:-At transfer, the

stress at the bottom is given as follows:

compressive stress in concrete at transfer (available from Figure 8 of IS:1343 -

1980). At service,

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

The stress ft should be limited to fcc,all , where fcc, all is the allowable

compressive stress in concrete under service loads (available from Figure 7 of

IS:1343-1980). If the stress conditions are not satisfied, increase A.

Step-6 Check for the compressive stress in the CIP flange:-

)′t = 012"t/3′

The stress )′t should be limited to fcc,all

5.4-Differential Shrinkage:-

4. What are the assumptions used in calculation of differential shrinkage?

Explain the effect of differential shrinkage on a composite member.

Ans:-

Assumptions used in Calculation of Differential Shrinkage:-The following

are the assumptions used in calculation of differential shrinkage:

i. The shrinkage is uniform in situ part of the section.

ii. Effect of creep & increase is modulus of elasticity with age & the

component of shrinkage which is common to both the units is negligible.

Effect of Differential Shrinkage on a Composite Member:-The in-situ

concrete in a composite beam is of relatively low grade & has correspondingly

higher water cement ratio. On the other hand, the precast pre stressed concrete

is of higher grade and most of its shrinkage has already occurred before the

placement of in-situ concrete. Consequently, the in-situ concrete shrinks more

than the precast concrete.

5.5-Deflections-Factors & Importance:-

5. List & explain the various types of deflections. Write the importance of

control of deflections & list the factors influencing or affecting deflection of

PSC beams. Give the various methods to calculate deflections.

Or

Explain briefly about short term & long term deflections in a pre stressed

concrete beam. What are the factors influencing deflections in a pre stressed

concrete members? [May-13(R09)]

Or

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

17(R13)]

Or

Mention the reasons to control the deflections in PCS members. [June/July-

17(R13)]

Or

Explain the importance of controlling deflections in PSC beams. List the

various factors influencing the deflections of pre-stressed concrete members.

[April-18(R13)]

Or

Distinguish clearly between short term & long term deflections of pre-stressed

concrete beams. [April-18(R13)]

Ans:-

Types of Deflections:-Two types of deflection:

i. Short -term or instantaneous deflection.

ii. Long-term deflection.

SNO. Short -term or instantaneous Long-term deflection

deflection

1. The short term deflection occurs The long term deflection under

immediately upon the application service loads is due to the effective

of a load. pre stressing force and the gravity

loads.

2. It is caused by elastic deformation It does not caused by elastic

of the concrete in response to deformation of the concrete in

loading. response to loading.

3. The instantaneous deflection due The total long-term deflection due

to design loads may be calculated to pre stressing force, dead load &

using elastic analysis based on the any sustained imposed load may be

un cracked section & the modulus calculated using elastic analysis,

of elasticity of concrete. (Refer taken into account the effects of

IS:1343-1980, Page no:-52, Topic cracking, effects of creep &

no:-22.6.1.1 or IS 1343:2012, shrinkage. (Refer IS:1343-1980,

Page no:-35, Topic no:-22.6.1.1) Page no:-52, Topic no:-22.6.1.2 or

IS 1343:2012, Page no:-35, Topic

no:-22.6.1.2)

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

4. It is due to the pre stressing force It takes into account the long term

& self weight without considering shrinkage & creep movements.

the effect of creep and shrinkage

of concrete.

5. The following factors influence The following are the major factors

the short-term deflection of influencing the long-term deflection

structures: of the structures:

i. Magnitude & distribution i. Humidity & temperature

of live loads. ranges during curing.

ii. Span & type of end ii. Age of concrete at the time of

supports. loading.

iii. Cross-sectional area of the iii. Type & size of aggregates,

members. W/C ratio, amount of

iv. Amount of steel compression reinforcement,

reinforcement & the stress size of members etc., which

developed in the influence the creep &

reinforcement. shrinkage of concrete.

v. Characteristic strengths of

concrete & steel.

vi. Amount & extent of

cracking.

Factors Influencing or Affecting Deflections:-The deflections of pre stressed

concrete members are influenced by the following salient factors:

i. Imposed load & self weight.

ii. Magnitude of the pre stressing force.

iii. Cable profile.

iv. Second moments of area of cross section.

v. Modulus of elasticity of concrete.

vi. Shrinkage, creep & relaxation of steel stress.

vii. Span of the member.

viii. Rigidity/Fixity condition.

ix. Tensile strength.

x. Cracking.

xi. Age of the concrete at the time of loading.

xii. Type & size of aggregate.

xiii. Humidity.

Importance of Control of Deflections:-Suitable control of deflection is very

essential for the following reasons:

i. Excessive, sagging of principal structural members is not only unsightly,

but at times, also renders for floor unsuitable for the intended use.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

ii. Large deflections under dynamic effects & under the influence of variable

loads may cause discomfort to the users.

iii. Excessive deflections are likely to cause damage to finishes, partitions &

associated structures.

Various Methods to Calculate Deflections:-The following are the various

methods to calculate deflections:

i. Double integration method (McCauley).

ii. Moment area method.

iii. Conjugate beam method.

iv. Principle of virtual load.

5.6-Short Term Deflections of Un-Cracked Beams:-

6. How do you compute short-term deflections of un cracked beams or

members?

Or

Explain the following:

a. Mohr’s theorems.

b. Effect of tendon profile on deflections.

c. Deflections due to self-weight & imposed loads.

Ans:-

Short Term Deflections of Un-Cracked Members:-

a. Mohr’s theorems:-

Short term or instantaneous deflections of pre stressed members are

governed by the bending moment distribution along the span and the

flexural rigidity of the members.

Mohr’s moment area theorems are readily applicable for the estimation of

deflections due to the pre stressing force, self-weight & imposed loads.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

AD = intercept between the tangent at c & the vertical at A.

a = deflection at the centre for symmetrically loaded simply supported

beam.

A = area of the bending moment diagram between A & C.

x = distance of the centroid of the BMD between A & C from the left

support.

EI = Flexural rigidity of the beam.

Then, according to mohr’s first theorem:

45 4 6 789

Slope =

:; <=54; 5 > ? @A

B

Slope =

.

Similarly according to mohr’s second theorem:

C6C D@ 6 @E 45 4 6 789

Intercept =

:; <=54; 5 > ? @A

B<

Slope =

.

The deflection of symmetrically loaded & simply supported beams at the

mid span point are directly obtained from the second moment are theorem

since the tangent is horizontal at this point. More complicated problems

involving unsymmetrical loaded may be solved by combining both the

moment area theorems.

b. Effect of tendon profile on deflections:-

In most of the cases of pre stressed beams, tendons are located with

eccentricities towards the soffit of beams to counteract the sagging

bending moments due to transverse loads.

The method of computing deflections of beams with different cable

profiles is outlined below:

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

eccentricity below the centroidal axis.

J

GH I)G ) H I

K

a =− =-

. L .

ii. Trapezoidal tendons:-A draped tendon with trapezoidal profile is shown in

the figure below:

H Q H

a =− [3 N3O + R S + G3O /2 + 2/33O )] =− [23O + 63O 3 +33 ]

. W .

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

tendons having an eccentricity e at the centre and zero at the supports is given

by:

H

a=- [2/3, L/2, 5/8, L/2] = - (5PeL2/48EI)

.

iv. Parabolic tendons (eccentric anchors):-The figure below shows a beam, with

a parabolic tendon having an eccentricity e1 at the centre of the span and e2 at

the support sections.

a = [-5/48 PL2/EI (e1+e2)] + [Pe2L2/8EI] = PL2/48EI (-5e1+e2)

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

calculated as:

a = [PL2/12EI (e1+e2)] + [Pe2L2/8EI] = PL2/24EI (-2e1+e2)

vi. Parabolic & Straight tendons:-The deflection at the centre of the beam is

obtained as:

a = - Pe/EI [(2/3)l1 (5/8)l1 + l2(l1+l2/2)] = -Pe/EI [(5l21+1211l2+6l22)]

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

deflection is obtained by superposition:

c. Deflections Due to Self-Weight & Imposed Loads:-

At the time of transfer of pre stress, the beam hogs up due to the effect of

pre stressing.

At this stage, the self-weight of the beam induces downward deflections,

which further increase due to the effect of imposed loads on the beam.

If g = self-weight of the beam/m

q = imposed load/m (uniformly distributed)

the downward deflection is computed as:

\G>]^)IK

a=

_L` .

Deflections due to concentrated live loads can be directly computed by

using mohr’s theorems.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

7. Explain the Prediction of long time deflections.

Ans:-

Prediction of long time deflections:-

The deformations of pre stressed members change with time as a result of

creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of stress in steel.

The pre stressed concrete member develops deformations under the

influence of two usually opposing effects, which are the pre stress &

transverse loads.

The net ϕt curvature at a section at any given stage is obtained as:

ϕt=ϕmt + ϕpt

where

ϕmt = change of curvature caused by transverse loads.

ϕpt = change of curvature caused by pre stress.

The creep strain due to transverse loads is directly computed as a function

of the creep coefficient so that the change of curvature can be estimated

by the expression:

ϕmt = (1 + ϕ) ϕi

where

ϕ = creep coefficient.

ϕi = initial curvature immediately after the application of

transverse loads.

According to Neville & ACI committee report, the creep curvature due to

pre stress is obtained on the simplified assumption that creep is induced

by the average pre stress acting over the given time. Using this approach,

if Pi = initial pre stress & Pt = pre stress after a time (t).

Loss of pre stressing force due to relaxation, shrinkage & creep:

Lp = (Pi-Pt)

The curvature due to pre stress after time t can be expressed as:

Φpt = - pie/EI [1-LP/Pi + (1- LP/P2i) ϕ]

Where

e = eccentricity of the pre stressing force at the section

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

EI = flexural rigidity

If

ai1 = initial deflection due to transverse loads.

aip = initial deflection due to pre stress.

Then, the total long time deflection after time t is obtained from the

expression:

af = ai1 (1 + ϕ) – aip [(1 – Lp/Pi) + (1 – Lp/2Pi) ϕ]

In this expression, the –ve sign refers to deflections in the upward

direction(camber).

According to this method, the final long time deflection is expressed as:

af = [ai1– aip * Pt/Pi] (1 + ϕ)

5.8-BIS Code Requirements of Deflections:-

8. Explain the BIS code requirements of deflections.

Or

Explain limit state of serviceability of deflection by using IS:1343.

Ans:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-39 (limit state of serviceability of

deflection) Or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-29 (limit state of serviceability of

deflection).

******

THE END

PREPARED BY:

RIYAZ MOHAMMED

PROBLEMS

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

PROBLEMS PROCEDURE

UNIT-II LOSSES OF PRE-STRESS

1. Loss of Stress due to Elastic Deformation:-

• Step-2: Area of Concrete Section (A) = Wide (b) * Deep (d)

• Step-3: Second Moment of Area (I) =

• Step-4: Modular Ratio (αe) =

• Step-5: Eccentricity (e) = d-dl

• Step-6: Stress in Concrete at the level of Steel (fc) = + or +

∗ ∗

= + or +

! "∗ ##

• Step-8 : Percentage loss of Stress = $%&

'() ( )

• Step-1: Initial Stress = & )( )

• Step-2: Total Residual Shrinkage Strain (es ):

i. If beam is Pre tensioned, then es = 300*10-6 [1980-16 Page]

##∗ # /0

ii. If beam is Post-tensioned, then es = ,(- [1980-16 Page]

# (%. )

• Step-3: Loss of Stress = es *Es

• Step-4: Percentage loss of Stress = 123%3), $%&

∗ 100

• Step-2: Area of Concrete Section (A) = Wide (b) * Deep (d)

• Step-3: Second Moment of Area (I) =

• Step-4: Modular Ratio (αe) =

• Step-5: Stress in Concrete at the level of Steel (fc) = + or +

∗ ∗

= + or +

Or by Methods

i. Ultimate Creep Strain Method:- Loss of Stress=£cc* fc*Es

ii. Creep Coefficient Method:-Loss of Stress=ϕ* fc *αe

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

• Step-2: Loss of Pre stress:

Let Px = Po e-(µα + kx) [1980-33 Page]

For Small Values of (µα + kx), then

Px = Po [1-µα-kx] [1980-34 Page]

Px = Po [1-(µα + kx)]

⸫ Loss of Pre stress Px = Po (µα + kx)

6 (67)

• Step-3: Percentage loss of Stress = ∗ 100

123%3), $%&

8

5. Loss due to Anchorage Slip:-Loss of Stress due to Anchorage Slip=

'

6. Total Losses Allowed for in Design/Percentage Loss of Stress in Wires or Cables or

Tendons or Steel:-

• Step-2: Area of Concrete Section (A) = Wide (b) * Deep (d)

• Step-3: Second Moment of Area (I) =

• Step-4: Modular Ratio (αe) =

• Step-5: Stress in Concrete at the level of Steel (fc) = + or +

∗ ∗

= + or +

i. For Pre tensioned Members:

a. Elastic Deformation of Concrete = αe * fc

b. Relaxation of Stress in steel = Percentage of loss * Initial Pre stress

c. Creep of Concrete = ϕ* fc *αe

d. Shrinkage of Concrete = Shrinkage of Concrete for Pre tensioning * Es

e. Slip at Anchorages: No Losses are observed.

f. Friction: No Losses are observed.

⸫ Total Loss of Stress = Elastic Deformation of Concrete + Relaxation of Stress in steel+

Creep of Concrete + Shrinkage of Concrete

9(%), '( (: $%&

⸫ Percentage Loss of Stress = *100

###

a. Elastic Deformation of Concrete: No Losses are observed.

b. Relaxation of Stress in steel = Percentage of loss * Initial Pre stress

c. Creep of Concrete = ϕ* fc *αe

d. Shrinkage of Concrete = Shrinkage of Concrete for Pre tensioning * Es

2 ℎ(&)- $,3;∗

e. Slip at Anchorages = ,

f. Friction = Po * Frictional Coefficient for Wave Effect * L

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Concrete + Slip at Anchorages + Friction

9(%), '( (: $%&

⸫ Percentage Loss of Stress = *100

###

Members (N/mm2) Members (N/mm2)

1. Elastic Deformation of Concrete

2. Relaxation of Stress in steel

3. Creep of Concrete

4. Shrinkage of Concrete

5. Slip at Anchorages

6. Friction

7. Total Loss of Stress

8. Percentage Loss of Stress

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

1. Ultimate Flexural Strength or Moment of Resistance or Ultimate Moment Capacity:-

; .:;= :;. ;

• Step-1: Effective Reinforcement Ratio = ( .: >

) or (: >.

) [1980-59 P][2012-51 P]

• Step-2: To find fpb & xu:

:;

= Value WRT Effective Reinforcement Ratio [1980-59 Page] [2012-51 Page]

#.?@∗: =

H=

= Value WRT Effective Reinforcement Ratio [1980-59 Page] [2012-51 Page]

Mu = fpb * Aps (d – 0.42 * xu) [1980-59 Page] [2012-51 Page]

2. Design of Shear Reinforcement or Design of Suitable Spacing for Stirrups:-

• Step-1: To find Vc

Balance shear = V-Vc

M N O/O

Now, N

= #.?@∗ P∗ [1980-48 Page] [2012-33 Page]

M N∗#.?@∗ P∗

⸫ Sv = [ O/O

]

3. Shear & Principal Stresses or Magnitude of the Principal Tensions Developed in the Beam

with & without the Axial Pre stress:-

• Step-2: Moment of Inertia (I) =

R,

• Step-3: Shear Force (V) =

S T

• Step-4: Maximum Shear Stress (z or Ꞇv ) = * ∗

• Step-5: Axial Pre stress (Fx) =

UH

• Step-6: Maximum Principle Stress = + √Fx2 + 4z2

UH

• Step-7: Minimum Principle Stress = - √Fx2 + 4z2

• Step-8: If there is without Pre stress

⸫ Principle Stress = √Fx2 + 4z2

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

S T

• Step-1: Maximum Shear Stress (z) = * ∗

UH

• Step-2: Maximum Principal Tensile Stress = - √Fx2 + 4z2

• Step-3: Minimum Vertical Pre stress

UH.U

Fy min = - √ (Fx - Fy)2 + 4z2 =0

• Step-1: Self Weight of the Beam (g) = b*d*Unit Weight of Concrete (Ɣ)

• Step-2: Total Load on the Beam = w+ Self Weight of the Beam (g)

• Step-3: Effective Pre stressing Force (P)

R,V

Using Load Balancing Concept P*e =

?

W

• Step-4: Slope of Cable at Support (Ɵ) =

'

• Step-5: Vertical Component of Pre stressing Force = P*Ɵ

R,

• Step-6: Reaction at Support due to Dead & Live Loads =

⸫ Horizontal Pre stress at Support = P/b*d

6. Maximum Principal Stress & Pre stressing Force:-

• Step-2: Moment of Inertia (I) =

V

• Step-3: Finding z =

0

• Step-4: Self Weight of the Beam (g) = b*d*Unit Weight of Concrete (Ɣ)

• Step-5: Total Load on the Beam = w+ Self Weight of the Beam (g)

R,

• Step-6: Shear Force (V) =

W

• Step-7: Slope (Ɵ) = '

• Step-8: Vertical Component of Pre stressing Force = SF at support*Ɵ

UH

• Step-9: Maximum Principle Stress = + √Fx2 + 4z2

S T

Where (z or Ꞇv) = * ∗

; (Fx) =

UH

• Step-10: Minimum Principle Stress = - √Fx2 + 4z2

S T

Where (z or Ꞇv) = * ∗ ; (Fx) =

• Step-11: Pre stressing Force(P)=P sinƟ =118

⸫ P = 118/Ɵ

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

1. Maximum Transverse Tensile Stress & Bursting Tension for the End Block:-

But fc = Pk/A

• Step-2: Bursting Tension Force (fbst) = Pk[0.98-0.4(ypo/yo)]

• Step-3: Permissible Bursting Stress or Bursting Tension Correction

fbst (corrected) = fbst [1-( ft / fv (max))2]

2. Position & Magnitude of Maximum Tensile Stress & Bursting Tension for the End Block

by using Guyon’s Method:-

• Step-2: Magnitude of Maximum Tensile Stress = 0.345*P/A

• Step-3: Bursting Tension:

According to Guyon, the Bursting Tension is Expressed as: fbst = 0.3P[1-(ypo/yo)0.58]

3. Position & Magnitude of Maximum Tensile Stress & Bursting Tension for the End Block

by using Rowe’s Method:-

But fc = Pk/A

• Step-2: Bursting Tension Force (fbst) = Pk[0.98-0.4(ypo/yo)]

• Step-3: Permissible Bursting Stress or Bursting Tension Correction

fbst (corrected) = fbst [1-( ft / fv (max))2]

4. Anchorage Zone Reinforcement or Design of Suitable Reinforcement or Design Suitable

Anchorage for End Block:-

(fbst) = Pk[0.32-0.3(ypo/yo)]

%

• Step-2: Number of Bars = X

∗Z V

Y

But Ast = Fbst/0.87*fy

• Step-3: Detailing of Reinforcement

5. Thickness of the Anchorage Plate:-

But Pk = Stress * Area

• Step-2: Permissible Bearing Stress

Bearing Stress Shall not Exceed

0.48 fci √Abr/Apunching or 0.8 fci [1980-35 Page][2012-26 Page]

Take Smaller Value among two values

• Step-3: Thickness Calculation:

Circumference of Female Cone ([ ∗ D) ∗ Thickness(t) ∗ Shear stress = Force(Pk)

******

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

1. Resultant Stresses Developed in the Precast & In-situ Cast Concrete for the Pre-tensioned

Beam is Un propped & Propped:-

i. Area (A) = b*d

V

ii. Section modulus (z) =

0

iii. Stresses due to Pre stressing Force =

iv. Effective Pre stress after Losses = η * loss of pre stress

v. Self-weight of the Precast Beam = b * d * unit weight

R,V

vi. Self-weight Moment =

?

m

vii. Stresses at Top & Bottom Fibre f = n

viii. Self-weight of in situ Cast Slab = bf * t * unit weight

ix. Stresses due to Slab-weight in the Precast Section =

• Step-2: Sectional Properties of the Composite Section:

R,V

i. Maximum Live Load Moment = ?

ii. Live Load Stresses in the Composite Section:

a. At top = m/zt

b. At bottom = m/zb

iii. Stresses due to Moment in the Composite Section:

a. At top = M/zt

b. At bottom = M/zb

• Step-3: Stress Distribution.

2. Differential Shrinkage:-

1

i. Top fibre (zt) =

1

ii. Bottom fibre (zb) =

1

iii. Junction (zj) =

• Step-2: Stress Calculation:

i. Direct stress =

ii. Bending stress (top) = M/zt

iii. Bending stress (bottom) = M/zb

iv. Bending stress (junction) = M/zj

• Step-3: Differential Shrinkage Stresses:

i. Precast beam:

a. Top of beam = + M/zt

b. Bottom of beam = - M/zt

ii. Slab:

a. Top of slab = + M/zz – uniform tensile stress induced in the

cast in situ slab

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

the cast in situ slab

• Step-4: Stress Distribution.

******

THE END

PREPARED BY:

RIYAZ MOHAMMED

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

IMPORTANT PAGENO’S OF IS:1343 CODE BOOKS

SNO TOPIC NAME IS:1343-1980 IS 1343:2012

(PAGE NO’S) (PAGE NO’S)

1. Terminology 09 & 10 01 & 02

2. Symbols 10 to 12 02

3. Materials 12 to 14 03 & 04

4. Elastic Deformation & Shrinkage 16 05

5. Creep of Concrete 17 06

6. Losses in Pre stress 32 to 34 24 to 26

7. Transmission Length-Factors 34 26

8. Bearing Stress 35 26

9. Bursting Tensile Forces 36 27

10. Limit State of Serviceability: Deflection 39 29

11. Flexure-Assumptions 43 31

12. Section Un cracked in Flexure 46 32

13. Section Cracked in Flexure 46 33

14. Shear Reinforcement 48 33

15. Short-term & Long-term Deflections 52 35

16. Moment of Resistance For Rectangular & T- 59 & 60 51

Sections

17. Bureau of Indian Standard - 55

******

RIYAZ MOHAMMED

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