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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

(PCS)
COURSE CODE:-
CODE:-A80150
REGULATION:-
REGULATION:-R15 (JNTUH)
B.TECH IV-
IV-YEAR II-
II-SEM
PREPARED BY:-
BY:-RIYAZ MOHAMMED
CIVIL ENGINEERING
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

SYLLABUS
UNIT-I INTRODUCTION, METHODS & SYSTEMS OF PRESTRESSING

Introduction-Historic Development-General Principles of Pre stressing- Advantages &


limitations of Pre stressed Concrete-Classification & Types of Pre stressing-Materials-High
Strength Concrete & High Tensile Steel their Characteristics-Methods & Systems of Pre
stressing: Pre tensioning & Post tensioning Methods & Systems of Pre stressing like Hoyer
System, Magnel Blaton System, Freyssinet System, Gifford- Udall System & Lee McCall
System.

UNIT-II LOSSES OF PRE-STRESS

Losses of Pre stress: Loss of Pre stress in Pre tensioned & Post-tensioned Members due to
Various Causes like Elastic Shortage of Concrete, Shrinkage of Concrete, Creep of Concrete,
Relaxation of Stress in Steel, Slip in Anchorage, Frictional Losses.

UNIT-III FLEXURE & SHEAR

Flexure: Analysis of Sections for Flexure-Beams Pre stressed with Straight, Concentric,
Eccentric, Bent & Parabolic Tendons-Stress Diagrams-Elastic Design of PSC Beams of
Rectangular & I Sections-Kern Line-Cable Profile & Cable Layout.

Shear: General Considerations- Principal Tension & Compression- Improving Shear


Resistance of Concrete by Horizontal & Vertical Pre stressing & by Using Inclined or
Parabolic Cables-Analysis of Rectangular & I Beams for Shear-Design of Shear
Reinforcements-Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Code Provisions.

UNIT-IV TRANSFER OF PRE-STRESS IN PRE-TENSIONED MEMBERS

Transfer of Pre stress in Pre tensioned Members : Transmission of Pre stressing Force by
Bond-Transmission Length-Flexural Bond Stresses-IS Code Provisions-Anchorage Zone
Stresses in Post tensioned Members-Stress Distribution in End Block-Analysis by Guyon,
Magnel, Zielinski & Rowe’s Methods-Anchorage Zone Reinforcement-BIS Provisions.

UNIT-V COMPOSITE BEAMS & DEFLECTIONS

Composite Beams: Different Types-Propped & Un propped-Stress Distribution- Differential


Shrinkage-Analysis of Composite Beams-General Design Considerations.

Deflections: Importance of Control of Deflections-Factors Influencing Deflections-Short term


Deflections of Un cracked Beams-Prediction of Long Time Deflections-BIS Code
Requirements.

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CONTENTS (THEORY)
UNIT-I INTRODUCTION, METHODS & SYSTEMS OF PRESTRESSING

1.1 Terminology...................................................................................................................1
1.2 Pre-stressed Concrete-Historical Development, Advantages & Limitations.......1
1.3 Pre-stressing-Principles, Methods, Classification & Types ……………........4
1.4 Materials..................................................................................................7
1.5 Systems of Pre-stressing like Hoyer system, Magnel Blaton system, Freyssinet
system, Gifford-Udall system & Lee McCall system........................8
1.6 Characteristics of High Strength Concrete & High Tensile Steel....................12
UNIT-II LOSSES OF PRE-STRESS

2.1 Loss of Pre-stress in Pre-tensioned & Post-tensioned Members ......................... 14


UNIT-III FLEXURE & SHEAR

3.1 Terminology......17
3.2 Analysis of Sections for Flexure.........................17
3.3 Elastic Design of PSC Beams of Rectangular & I Sections.......18
3.4 Design of Shear Reinforcements...........18
3.5 Load Balancing Concept.......................19
UNIT-IV TRANSFER OF PRE-STRESS IN PRE-TENSIONED MEMBERS

4.1 Transmission of Pre stressing Force by Bond..........................21


4.2 Transmission Length.............................23
4.3 Flexural Bond Stresses..............................23
4.4 Stress Distribution in End Block...................24
4.5 Analysis by Guyon, Magnel, Zielinski & Rowe’s methods...........................25
4.6 Anchorage Zone Reinforcement................30
UNIT-V COMPOSITE BEAMS & DEFLECTIONS

5.1 Composite Beams: Different Types- Propped & Un propped.......................33


5.2 Stress Distribution in Composite Beams...................................34
5.3 General Design Considerations of Composite Beams..................35
5.4 Differential Shrinkage...................38
5.5 Deflections-Factors & Importance..........................38
5.6 Short Term Deflections of Un cracked Beams....................41
5.7 Prediction of Long Time Deflections..........................47

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5.8 BIS Code Requirements of Deflections..............48

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CONTENTS (PROBLEMS)
UNIT-II Losses of Pre-Stress.................................1 to 28

UNIT-III Flexure & Shear........................................29 to 53

UNIT-IV Transfer of Pre-Stress in Pre-Tensioned Members....54 to 82

UNIT-V Composite Beams & Deflections...................83 to 108

Note:-Contains Problems Procedure & Code Book Important Page Numbers.

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THEORY
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-I
INTRODUCTION, METHODS & SYSTEMS OF PRESTRESSING
1.1-Terminology:-
1. Define the following:
a. Pre stressed concrete. [June-17(R13)]
b. Pre tensioning. [April-18(R13)]
c. Post-tensioning. [April-18(R13)]
d. Transfer.
e. Tendon.
f. Stress at transfer.
Ans:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no’s:-9&10, Topic no’s:-2.14, 2.15, 2.13, 2.21,
2.20 & 2.19 or IS 1343:2012, Page no’s:-1&2, Topic no’s:-3.15, 3.16, 3.14,
3.24, 3.23 & 3.22
1.2-Pre stressed Concrete-Historical Development, Advantages &
Limitations:-
2. Explain the basic concept, history or historic development or historical
perspective of pre stressed concrete. What are the advantages or merits or
benefits, limitations or disadvantages or demerits or drawbacks & applications
or uses or purpose of pre stressed concrete?
Or
Explain the advantages & limitations of pre stressed concrete. [May-17(R13)]
Or
Mention the advantages & disadvantages of pre stressed concrete in comparison
with reinforced concrete. [June/July-17(R13)]
Or
Discuss the advantages & limitations of pre stressed concrete. [April-18(R13)]
Ans:-
Basic Concept of Pre stressed Concrete:-
 Concrete in which permanent internal stresses are deliberately introduced,
usually by tensioned steel, to counteract to the desired degree the stresses
caused in the member in service.
 A pre-stressed concrete structure is different from a conventional
reinforced concrete structure.

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 The concept of pre-stressed concrete appeared in 1886 when P.H.Jackson


was granted the first patent in the USA for pre-stressed concrete design.
 Pre-stressed concrete is a combination of steel & concrete.
 Pre-stressed concrete can be used to produce beams, floors, bridges with
a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete.
 Eugene freyssinet is often referred as “father of pre-stressed concrete”.
 The examples of pre-stressing before development of pre-stressed
concrete are:
i. Force fitting of metal bands on wooden barrels. It induces a state of
initial hoop compression, to counteract the hoop tension caused by
filling of liquids in barrels.
ii. Pre-tensioning the spokes in a bicycle wheel, the pre-tension is
such that an extent of residual tension is always present in spoke.
Historical Development or History or Historical Perspective of Pre stressed
Concrete:-The historical development of pre-stressed concrete is listed below:
 1824 Aspdin, J (England):-Obtained a patent for the manufacture of
Portland cement.
 1857 Monier, J (France):-Introduced steel wires in concrete to make
flower pots, pipes, arches & slabs.
 1886 Jackson, P. H (USA):-Introduced the concept of tightening steel tie
rods in artificial stone & concrete arches.
 1888 Doehring, C. E. W (Germany):-Manufactured concrete slabs &
small beams with embedded tensioned steel.
 1908 Stainer, C. R (USA):-Recognized losses due to shrinkage & creep,
& suggested retightening the rods to recover lost pre-stress.
 1923 Emperger, F (Austria):-Developed a method of winding & pre-
tensioning high tensile steel wires around concrete pipes.
 1924 Hewett, W. H (USA):-Introduced hoop-stressed horizontal
reinforcement around walls of concrete tanks through the use of
turnbuckles.
 1925 Dill, R. H (USA):-Used high strength unbounded steel rods. The
rods were tensioned and anchored after hardening of the concrete.
 1926 Eugene Freyssinet (France):-Used high tensile steel wires, with
ultimate strength as high as 1725 MPa and yield stress over 1240 MPa. In
1939, he developed conical wedges for end anchorages for post-
tensioning and developed double-acting jacks. He is often referred to as
the Father of Pre stressed concrete.
 1938 Hoyer, E (Germany):-Developed ‘long line’ pre-tensioning method.
 1940 Magnel, G (Belgium):-Developed an anchoring system for post-
tensioning, using flat wedges.

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Advantages or Merits or Benefits of Pre stressed Concrete:-The following


are the various advantages of pre-stressed concrete:
i. It has high fatigue resistance.
ii. It has high live load carrying capacity.
iii. Members are free from the tensile stresses.
iv. Pre-stressed members are tested before use.
v. Lower construction cost for long-span structures.
vi. It is more durable than reinforced concrete.
vii. It is free from cracks.
viii. Less weight.
ix. Easy to transport.
x. It has excellent fire resistance & corrosion resistance.
xi. Pleasure appearance & durability when compared to R.C.C.
Disadvantages or De-merits or Limitations of Pre stressed Concrete:-The
following are the various limitations of pre-stressed concrete:
i. Required skilled labours.
ii. Pre-stressing needs skilled technology.
iii. Required experienced engineers.
iv. The availability of experienced engineers & builders is scanty/less.
v. Required complicated formwork.
vi. Required high quality materials.
vii. Required high strength steel & concrete.
viii. Initial equipment cost is very high.
ix. There is need for quality control & inspection.
x. Pre-stressed sections are brittle.
xi. Pre-stressed concrete sections are less fire resistant.
xii. The use of high strength materials is costly.
xiii. Hence, it is not as common as reinforced concrete.
Applications or Uses of Pre stressed Concrete:-The following are the various
applications of pre-stressed concrete:
i. Towers.
ii. Circular tanks.
iii. Water tanks.
iv. Chimneys.
v. Railway sleepers.
vi. Communication poles.
vii. Bridges.
viii. Nuclear power plant.
ix. Repair & rehabilitation of structures.

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1.3-Pre stressing-Principles, Methods, Classification & Types:-


3. Explain the various principles, methods, classification & types of pre-
stressing.
Or
Explain the principles of pre-stressing. Differentiate between pre-tensioning &
post-tensioning. [May-17(R13)]
Or
Define chemical, uni-axial & bi-axial pre-stressing. [June/July-17(R13)]
Or
What is axial pre-stressing, pre-tensioning & post-tensioning? [April-18(R13)]
Ans:-
Principles of Pre stressing:-
 Pre-stressing is a method in which compression force is applied to the
reinforced concrete section.
 The compressive force is generated in between the structural elements &
its abutments.
 The compression in concrete & tension in steel is developed by the use of
expanding cements.
 Pre-stressing tendons are used to provide a clamping load which produces
a compression stress that balances the tensile stress that the concrete
compression member would otherwise experience due to a bending load.
 The effect of pre-stressing is to reduce the tensile stress in the section to
the point till the tensile stress is below the cracking stress. Thus the
concrete does not crack.
 It is then possible to treat concrete as a elastic material.
 The concrete can be visualized to have two compression force:
i. Internal pre-stressing force.
ii. External pre-stressing force (DL, LL etc).
 These two forces must contact each other.
Methods of Pre stressing:-There are two basic methods of pre stressing or pre
stressed concrete:
i. Pre-tensioning method.
ii. Post-tensioning method.

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S NO Pre-tensioning method Post-tensioning method


1. A method of pre-stressing A method of pre-stressing concrete
concrete in which the tendons in which the tendons are tensioned
are tensioned before concreting. after concreting.
2. The operation commonly a 5- The operation commonly a 6-step
step process. process.
3. Difficult to perform at site. Easy to perform at site.
4. Corrosion of steel is more. Corrosion of steel is less.
5. Tendons can only be straight or Tendons are having almost any
circular. shape.
6. They are less prone to anchorage They are more prone to anchorage
failure. failure.
7. There is less flexibility in design. There is more flexibility in design.
8. There is greater loss of pre-stress There is relatively less loss of pre-
due to shrinkage of concrete. stress due to shrinkage of concrete.
9. The pre-stress is imparted to The pre-stress is imparted to
concrete by bond between steel concrete by bearing.
& concrete.
10. Hoyer system comes under this Freyssinet, Gifford-udall, Lee-
method. MCcall & Magnel balton systems
comes under this method.
Classification & Types of Pre stressing:-Pre stressing of concrete can be
classified in several ways, they are depending upon:
1. Source of pre-stressing force.
2. External or internal pre-stressing.
3. Sequence of casting the concrete.
4. Shape of member pre-stressed.
5. Amount of pre-stressing force.
6. Direction of pre-stressing a member.
1. Source of pre-stressing force:-This classification is based on the method by
which the pre-stressing force is generated. There are four sources of pre-
stressing force:
i. Mechanical pre-stressing.
ii. Hydraulic pre-stressing.
iii. Electrical pre-stressing.
iv. Chemical pre-stressing.
i. Mechanical pre-stressing:-In this type of pre-stressing, the devices includes
weights with or without lever transmission, geared transmission in conjunction
with pulley blocks, screw jacks with or without gear drives and wire-winding
machines.

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ii. Hydraulic pre-stressing:-This is the simplest type of pre-stressing, producing


large pre-stressing forces. The hydraulic jack used for the tensioning of tendons,
comprises of calibrated pressure gauges which directly indicate the magnitude
of force developed during the tensioning.
iii. Electrical pre-stressing:-In this type of pre-stressing, the steel wires are
electrically heated & anchored before placing concrete in the moulds. This type
of pre-stressing is also known as thermo-electric pre-stressing.
iv. Chemical pre-stressing:-In the chemical method, expanding cements are
used. The degree of expansion is controlled by varying the curing conditions.
Since the expansive action of cement while setting is restrained, it induces
tensile forces in tendons and compressive stresses in concrete.
2. External or internal pre-stressing:-This classification is based on the location
of the pre-stressing tendon with respect to the concrete section.
i. External pre-stressing:-When pre-stressing is achieved by elements located
outside the concrete member.
ii. Internal pre-stressing:-When pre-stressing is achieved by elements located
inside the concrete member.
3. Sequence of casting the concrete:-Depending upon the sequence of casting
concrete, there are two types:
i. Pre-tensioning.
ii. Post-tensioning.
i. Pre-tensioning:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-10, Topic no:-2.15 or
1343:2012, Page no:-01, Topic no:-3.16
ii. Post-tensioning:- Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-10, Topic no:-2.13 or IS
1343:2012, Page no:-01, Topic no:-3.14
4. Shape of member pre-stressed:-This classification is based on the shape of
the member pre-stressed. There are two types:
i. Linear pre-stressing.
ii. Circular pre-stressing.
i. Linear pre-stressing:-When the pre-stressed members are straight or flat, in
the direction of pre-stressing, the pre-stressing is called linear pre-stressing. For
example, pre-stressing of beams, piles, poles and slabs.
ii. Circular pre-stressing:-When the pre-stressed members are curved, in the
direction of pre-stressing, the pre-stressing is called circular pre-stressing.For
example, circumferential pre-stressing of tanks, silos, pipes & similar structures.

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5. Amount of pre-stressing force:-Depending upon the amount of pre-stressing


force, there are three types:
i. Full pre-stressing.
ii. Limited pre-stressing.
iii. Partial pre-stressing.
i. Full pre-stressing:-When the level of pre-stressing is such that no tensile stress
is allowed in concrete under service loads, it is called Full Pre-stressing (Type
1, as per IS:1343-1980).
ii. Limited pre-stressing:-When the level of pre-stressing is such that the tensile
stress under service loads is within the cracking stress of concrete, it is called
Limited Pre-stressing (Type 2, as per IS:1343-1980).
iii. Partial pre-stressing:-When the level of pre-stressing is such that under
tensile stresses due to service loads, the crack width is within the allowable
limit, it is called Partial Pre-stressing (Type 3, as per IS:1343-1980).
6. Direction of pre-stressing a member:-Depending upon the direction of pre-
stressing a member, there are three types:
i. Uni-axial pre-stressing.
ii. Bi-axial pre-stressing.
iii. Tri-axial pre-stressing.
i. Uni-axial pre-stressing:-When the pre-stressing tendons are parallel to one
axis, it is called Uni-axial Pre-stressing. For example, longitudinal pre stressing
of beams.
2. Bi-axial pre-stressing:-When there are pre-stressing tendons parallel to two
axes, it is called Bi-axial Pre-stressing. For example, pre stressing of slabs.
3. Tri-axial pre-stressing:-When the pre-stressing tendons are parallel to more
than two axes, it is called Multi-axial Pre-stressing. For example, pre stressing
of domes.
1.4-Materials:-
4. List & explain the materials for pre-stress concrete members.
Or
What are the materials used for pre-stress concrete & why? [April-18(R13)]
Ans:-
Materials for Pre stress Concrete Members:-The following are the various
materials used in pre-stressing:
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i. Cement.
ii. Concrete.
iii. Steel.
i. Cement:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-12, Topic no:-4.1 or IS 1343:2012,
Page no:-03, Topic no:-5.1
ii. Concrete:-
 Pre-stress concrete requires concrete, which has a high compressive
strength.
 The concrete for the members shall be air-entrained concrete composed
of Portland cement, fine and coarse aggregates, admixtures & water.
 Minimum cement content of 300 to 360 kg/m3.
 The water content should be as low as possible.
iii. Steel:-
 Such as high tensile steel, tendons, strands or cables.
 The steel used in pre-stress shall be any one of the following:
(a) Plain hard-drawn steel wire conforming to IS1785 (Part-I & Part-III)
(b) Cold drawn indented wire conforming to IS6003
(c) High tensile steel wire bar conforming to IS2090
(d) Uncoated stress relived strand conforming to IS6006
1.5-Systems of Pre Stressing like Hoyer System, Magnel Blaton System,
Freyssinet System, Gifford-Udall System & Lee Mccall System:-
5. With neat sketches, list & explain the various systems of pre stressing.
Or
Explain the following pre stressing methods along with neat sketches:
i. Freyssinet system.
ii. Gifford-udall system.
iii. Hoyer system.
iv. Lee MC call system.
v. Magnel balton system.
Or
Explain in detail about Freyssinet system of pre stressing with neat sketches.
[May-13(R09)]
Or

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Explain the Gifford-Udall system & Lee MC Call system of pre stressing.
[May-17(R13)]
Or
Discuss in detail Magnel Balton system & Freyssinet system. [June/July-
17(R13)]
Or
With neat sketches explain Hoyer system &Magnel system of pre stressing.
[April-18(R13)]
Ans:-
Systems of Pre stressing:-The following are the various systems of pre
stressing:
i. Freyssinet system.
ii. Gifford-udall system.
iii. Hoyer system.
iv. Lee MC Call system.
v. Magnel balton system.
 Among them Hoyer system is a pre tensioning system.
 Similarly, Freyssinet, Gifford-Udall, Lee MC Call & Magnel Balton
systems are post-tensioning systems.
i. Freyssinet System:-
 It is introduced by ”Freyssinet” a French engineer.
 It was developed in the year 1939.
 This system is widely used in Europe & japan.
 It consists of a cylinder with a conical interior through which the high-
tensile wires pass & against the walls of which the wires are wedged by a
conical plug lined longitudinally with the grooves to house the wires.
 The main advantage of the Freyssinet system is that a large number of
wires or strands can be simultaneously tensioned using the double-acting
hydraulic jack.
 It is a post-tensioning system.
 It is the first system in post-tensioning system.
 Wires & strands are the two types of tendons are used in this system.

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Fig 1.1-Freyssinet system


ii. Gifford-udall System:-
 The Gifford-Udall (C.C.L) system developed in U.K
 It consists of steel split-cone & cylindrical female-cone anchorages to
house the high-tensile wires bearing against steel plates.
 Each wire is tensioned separately and anchored by forcing a sleeve wedge
into a cylindrical grip resting against a bearing plate.
 The ducts are generally formed by metal sheaths cast into the concrete
member.
 It is widely used in india.
 It is a post-tensioning system.
 In this system “wires” are used as “tendon”.
 The arrangement of tendons in duct is evently spaced.
iii. Hoyer System:-
 It is also called as long line method.
 It is a pre-tensioning system.
 It is a large scale production.
 It contains two bulk heads or abutments.
 An extension of the pre-stressing system is the hoyer system.
 This system is generally used for mass production.
 Shuttering is provided at the sides & between the members.

Fig 1.2-Hoyer system

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STRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

iv. Lee MCcall System:-


 In the Le McCall system, the tendons comprise high-tensile
high tensile bars of
diameter varying from 12 to 40 mm which are threaded at the ends.
 After tensioning, each bar is anchored by screwing a nut and washer
tightly against the end plates.
 In this system the forces are transmitted by the bearing at the end blocks.
 While the system eliminates the loss of stress due to anchorage slip, it has
a disadvantage in that curved tendons cannot be used.
 It is a post-tensioning
tensioning system.
v. Magnel balton System::-
 The Magnel-Blaton
Blaton post-tensioning
post tensioning system adopts metallic sandwich
plates, flat wedges, & a distribution plate for anchoring the wires.
 Each sandwich plate can house up to four pairs of wires.
 The distribution plate may be cast into the member at the desired
location.
 The number of wires in the Magnel cable varies from 2 to 64.
 It is a post-tensioning
tensioning system.
 In this system, cables of rectangular
rectangular section is provided, which contains
layers of wires 5 to 8 mm diameter.
 This method was introduced by a famous engineer, prof.Magnel of
Belgium.

Fig 1.3-Magnel
1.3 Balton system

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Pre tensioning & Post-tensioning Systems:-


Name of Introduced Country Type of Method of Type Range Cable Duct
the by of System Tensioning of of
System Origin Tendon Forces
Freyssinet Freyssinet France Post- Hydraulic Wires Medium Circular
system tensioning jack & & Large
Strands
Gifford- Gifford- Great Post- Hydraulic Wires Small & Circular
Udall Udall Britain tensioning jack Medium
system
Hoyer Hoyer US Pre- Hydraulic Wires Small & Rectangular
system tensioning jack & Large
Strands
Lee-MC Lee-MC Great Post- Hydraulic Bars Small, Circular
call call Britain tensioning jack Medium
system & Large
Magnel- Magnel Belgium Post- Hydraulic Wires Small, Rectangular
Blaton tensioning jack Medium
system & Large
Note:-
 Range of forces:
• Small:-up to 130KN.
• Medium:-130-500KN.
• Large:-over 500KN.
1.6-Characteristics of High Strength Concrete & High Tensile Steel:-
6. Compare the characteristics of High strength concrete & high tensile steel.
Ans:-
Characteristics of High Strength Concrete & High Tensile Steel:-
SNO. High Strength Concrete High Tensile Steel
1. High compressive strength. High compressive strength.
2. Low tensile strength. High tensile strength.
3. Relatively high fire resistance. Relatively low fire resistance.
4. Plastic & mouldable when fresh. Difficult to mould & shape
except at high temperature.
5. Relatively inexpensive. Relatively expensive.

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7. Compare pre stressed concrete over reinforced concrete.


Ans:-
Pre stressed Concrete VS Reinforced Concrete:-
SNO. Pre-stressed Concrete Reinforced Concrete
1. The stresses in steel are almost The stresses in steel are almost
constant. variable.
2. It has more shear resistance. It has less shear resistance.
3. Deflections are less. Deflections are more.
4. Fatigue resistance is more. Fatigue resistance is less.
5. More durable. less durable.
6. Dimensions of sections are less. Dimensions of sections are
more.
7. Requires less concrete & steel. Requires more concrete & steel.
8. Steel plays active role. Steel plays passive role.

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UNIT-II
LOSSES OF PRE STRESS
2.1-Loss of Pre stress in Pre tensioned & Post-tensioned Members:-
1. Define loss of pre-stress. List & explain the various types or nature of losses
of pre-stress or pre stressing as per IS 1343.
Or
Explain the different types of losses of pre-stress or pre stressing in pre
tensioned & post-tensioned members.
Or
By using IS 1343, how do you compute the loss of pre-stress due to various
causes like elastic shortage of concrete, shrinkage of concrete, creep of
concrete, relaxation of stress in steel, slip in anchorage & frictional losses.
Or
Explain the total amount of looses allowed in the design of pre-tensioning &
post-tensioning members.
Or
Explain different types of losses in pre stressing. [May-13(R09)]
Or
May-17(R13):-
• Explain the different types of losses of pre-stress in pre-tensioned
members.
• Explain the various losses of pre-stress in post-tensioned members.
• Explain the total amount of looses allowed in the design of pre-tensioning
members.
June/July-17(R13):-
• Explain any 2 losses that occur in post-tensioned system.
• Discuss the loss due to friction in post-tensioned members.
• What is loss due to creep of steel?
April-18(R13):-
• Explain various losses of pre-stress in pre-tensioned & post-tensioned
members & how they are taken care in design?
• Explain the terms loss of pre-stress.
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• Briefly explain about slip in anchorage.


Ans:-
Loss of Pre stress:-The initial pre-stress in concrete undergoes a gradual
reduction with time from the stage of transfer due to various causes. This is
generally referred to as "loss of pre stress”.
Types or Classification or Causes or Nature of Losses of Pre stress or Pre
stressing:-The losses are broadly classified into two groups:
i. Immediate or Short-Term or Initial Losses.
ii. Time Dependent or Long-Term Losses.
i. Immediate or Short-Term or Initial Losses:-The immediate or short-term or
initial losses occur during pre-stressing of the tendons & the transfer of pre-
stress to the concrete member.
 The losses due to elastic shortening of the concrete, friction at the tendon-
concrete interface & slip of the anchorage are the immediate or short-
term losses.
ii. Time Dependent or Long-Term Losses:- The time-dependent or long-term
losses occur during the service life of the pre-stressed member.
 The losses due to the shrinkage & creep of the concrete & relaxation of
the steel are the time-dependent or long-term losses.
Flowchart:-
The causes of the various losses in pre-stress or pre-stressing are shown in the
following chart:

Fig 2.1-Causes of Various Losses in Pre-stress/Pre-stressing


Table:-The different types of losses encountered in the pre-tensioning & post-
tensioning systems are as follows:

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SNO. Pre-tensioning Post-tensioning


1. Elastic deformation of No loss due to elastic deformation if
concrete. all the wires are simultaneously
tensioned. If the wires are
successively tensioned, there will be
loss of pre-stress due to elastic
deformation of concrete.
2. Relaxation of stress in steel. Relaxation of stress in steel.
3. Shrinkage of concrete. Shrinkage of concrete.
4. Creep of concrete. Creep of concrete.
5. - Friction.
6. - Anchorage slip.
In addition to the above, there may be losses of pre-stress due to sudden
changes in temperature, especially in steam curing of pre-tensioned units. The
rise in temperature causes a partial transfer of pre-stress which may cause a
large amount of creep if the concrete is not properly cured. If there is a
possibility of a change of temperature between the times of tensioning &
transfer, the corresponding loss should be allowed for in the design.
Note:-For Explanation Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no’s:-32 to 34, Topic no’s:-
18.5.2.1 to 18.5.2.6 or IS 1343:2012, Page no’s:-24 to 26, Topic no’s:-19.5.2.1
to 19.5.2.6

******

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UNIT-III
FLEXURE & SHEAR
3.1-Terminology:-
1. Define the following:
a. Kern distance:- Kern is the core area of the section in which if the load
applied tension will not be induced in the section
Kt = Zb/A & Kb = Zt/A
b. Pressure line or Thrust line or C-line:-The pressure line in a beam is the
locus point of the resultant compression (C) along the length. It is also
called the thrust line or C-line.
c. Cable layout:-It means deciding about the location of cable at various
sections.
d. Anchorage or Anchorage device:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-9, Topic
no:-2.1 or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-1, Topic no:-3.1
e. Cable:-Refer IS 1343:2012, Page no:-1, Topic no:-3.3
f. Strain Compatibility Method:-The method by which the flexural strength
of pre-stressed concrete is estimated based on the compatibility of strain
is known as “Strain Compatibility Method”.
3.2- Analysis of Sections for Flexure:-
2. Write short notes on analysis of sections for flexure. What are the
assumptions made in order to determine the flexural strength of concrete? List
the various types of flexure failure.
Or
State the assumptions made in the analysis of pre-stressed concrete flexural
members. [May-17(R13)]
Ans:-
Analysis of Sections for Flexure:-Similar to members under axial load, the
analysis of members under flexure refers to the evaluation of the following:
i. Permissible pre stress based on allowable stresses at transfer.
ii. Stresses under service loads. These are compared with allowable stresses
under service conditions.
iii. Ultimate strength. This is compared with the demand under factored
loads.
iv. The entire load versus deformation behaviour. The analyses at transfer &
under service loads are presented in this section.

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v. The evaluation of the load versus deformation behaviour is required in


special type of analysis.
Assumptions Made in the Analysis of Flexure:-Refer IS: 1343-1980, Page
no:-43, Topic no:-22.1.1 or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-31, Topic no:-23.1.1
Types of Flexure Failures:-The various types of flexural failures encountered
in pre stressed concrete members:

i. Fracture of steel in tension.


ii. Failure of under-reinforced sections.
iii. Failure of over-reinforced sections.
iv. Other modes of failure.
a. Failure due to shear.
b. Failure due to web crushing.
c. Failure due to improper design of end block.
d. Failure of the bond in between steel & concrete.

3.3-Elastic Design of PSC Beams of Rectangular & I section:-


3. Explain the design of PSC beams of rectangular & T-sections.
Or
Explain the procedure for calculating moment of resistance for rectangular & T-
sections
Ans:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-59, Appendix-B, Table-11 & B-1 or IS
1343:2012, Page no:-51, Annex-D, Table-11 & D-1.
3.4-Design of Shear Reinforcement:-
4. Define shear reinforcement. Write the procedure to be followed for the design
of shear reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete.
Or
Why is shear reinforcement provided? Explain the design of shear
reinforcement.
Ans:-
Shear Reinforcement:-The reinforcement which is designed to resist shear or
diagonal tension stresses.
 Shear reinforcement is usually provided in the form of stirrups to hold the
longitudinal reinforcement.

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Design of Shear Reinforcement:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-48, Topic no:-


24.4.3 or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-33, Topic no:-23.4.3
3.5-Load Balancing Concept:-
5. Explain the concept of load balancing. [May-17(R13)] [April-18(R13)]
Ans:-
Concept of Load Balancing:-
 The concept of load balancing is useful in selecting the tendon profile
which can supply the most desirable system of forces in concrete.
 In general, this requirement will be satisfied if the cable profile in a pre-
stressed member corresponds to the shape of the bending moment
diagram resulting from the external loads.
 It is possible to select suitable cable profiles in a pre-stressed concrete
member.
 The various types of reactions of a cable upon a concrete member depend
upon the shape of the cable profile.
 Straight portions of the cable do not induce any reactions.
 Sharp angles in a cable induce concentrated loads.
 The concept of loading-balancing is useful in selecting the tendon profile,
which can supply the most desirable system of forces in concrete.
 This can be readily illustrated by considering the free-body of concrete,
with the tendon replaced by forces acting on the concrete beam as shown
in the figure and table below:

Fig 3.1-Reactions of Cable on Beam

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Advantages of Load Balancing:-


i. Simplest approach to pre stressed design and analysis for statically
indeterminate structures.
ii. It has advantages both in calculating & in visualizing.
iii. Convenience in the computation of deflections.

******

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UNIT-IV
TRANSFER OF PRE STRESS IN PRE-TENSIONED MEMBERS
4.1-Transmission of Pre Stressing Force by Bond:-
1. Briefly explain the mechanism by which pre-stressing force is transferred to
concrete in pre-tensioned members.
Or
Explain about the transmission of pre-stressing force by bond.
Ans:-
Transmission of Pre stressing Force by Bond:-
 In a pre tensioned system, when a wire is released from its temporary
anchorage on the pre stressing bed, the end of the wire swells as a result
of the recovery of the lateral contraction & develops a wedge effect.
 This is to enable the pre stressing force to become zero at the end of the
wire. This is generally referred to as the “Hoyer Effect”.
 The swelling of the wire is only a few thousandths of a millimetre, but it
nevertheless produces considerable radial pressures on the concrete,
giving rise to large frictional forces.
 The transmission of pre stressing force from steel to concrete is generally
through a bond comprising:
i. Adhesion.
ii. Friction.
iii. Shearing resistance (dilatancy).
 At intermediate points along the length of a beam, the bond stress is
resisted by adhesion, while in the transfer zone the tendons invariably slip
& sink into concrete, destroying most of the adhesion.
 Consequently, the bond stresses are due to the friction & shearing
resistance.
 The maximum bond stress is reached in the zone of transverse
compression.
 When the bond stress is zero, the stress in steel & concrete reach their
maximum values, & uniform stress distribution is prevalent from this
section. The length needed for achieving this is termed as “transmission
length”.
 The distribution of bond stress, steel & concrete in the transmission zone
are shown in fig:

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= (1+vc) ( - )( )

Where
= Transmission Length
Φ = Wire Diameter
= Coefficient of Friction between Steel & Concrete
vc = Poisson’s Ratio for Concrete
α = Modular Ratio (ES/EC)
v = Poisson’s ratio for Steel
f = Initial Stress in Steel
E = Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete
f = Effective Stress in Steel

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4.2-Transmission Length:-
2. What is transmission length or transfer length? List the various factors
influencing transmission length or transfer length.
Or
Explain the IS code provisions for transmission length. [May-13(R09)]
Or
Define transmission length. [June/July-17(R13)]
Ans:-
Transmission Length or Transfer Length:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-10,
Topic no:-2.22 or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-2, Topic no:-3.25
Factors Influencing Transmission Length or Transfer Length:-Refer
IS:1343-1980, Page no’s:-34 & 35, Topic no:-18.6.1.1 or IS 1343:2012, Page
no:-26, Topic no:-19.6.1.1
4.3-Flexural Bond Stresses:-
3. With neat sketches, explain about Flexural-bond stresses.
Ans:-
Flexural Bond Stresses:-Pre tensioned or post-tensioned beams with bonded
tendons develop bond stresses between steel & concrete when the sections are
subjected to transverse shear forces due to the rate of change of moment along
the beam length.

Where
τb = Bond stress between steel & concrete.
V = Shear force.
Mx & My = Moments at sections xx & yy.

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∑u = Total perimeter of the tendons.


y = Distance of the tendon from the centroidal axis.
I = Second moment of area of the section.
αe = Modular ratio = (Es / Ec).
As = Area of steel.
fx & fy = Bending stress in concrete at the level of steel at section xx & yy.
In the case of un cracked members, bond stresses are computed by considering
the complete section, Considering the un cracked sections of a beam of length
dx as shown in Figure (a),
τb = (VyαeΦ/4I)
In the case of cracked flexural members, bond stresses change suddenly at the
cracks due to the abrupt transfer of tension from concrete to steel in the vicinity
of the cracks. Considering the cracked sections of a beam of length dx as shown
in Figure (b),
⸫ τb = (V/z∑u)
4.4-Stress Distribution in End Block:-
4. Define end block. With neat sketches, Explain about the stress distribution in
end block. Give its functions.
Or
What is an end block? Explain the stress distribution in end blocks with neat
sketches. [May-13(R09)]
Or
What is anchorage zone? [April-18(R13)]
Ans:-
End Block or Anchorage Zone:-The zone between the end of the beam & the
section where only longitudinal stress exists is generally referred to as the
“anchorage zone or end block”. In the anchorage zone or end block of a post-
tensioned pre stressed concrete element, the state of stress distribution is
complex & three-dimensional in nature.
Stress Distribution in End Block or Anchorage Zone:-The idealized stress
distribution in an end block with the compressive & tensile stress paths. The
effect of transverse tensile stress is to develop a zone of bursting tension in a
direction perpendicular to the anchorage force, resulting in horizontal cracking.
Since, concrete is weak in tension, suitable reinforcement are generally
provided in the transverse direction to resist the bursting tension.

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Functions of End Block or Anchorage Zone:-


i. Provide Lateral stability from wind & other horizontal loads.
ii. Provide additional vertical load capacity for the ends of the joists from
point loads above.
4.5-Analysis by Guyon, Magnel, Zielinski & Rowe’s Methods:-
5. List & explain the methods used for the calculation of anchorage zone
stresses.
Or
Explain investigations on anchorage zone stresses.
Or
Explain the analysis of end block stress distribution by various methods.
Or
What are the various methods generally used for the investigation of anchorage
zone stresses? Explain.

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Or
How do you compute the bursting tension in an end block subjected to evenly
distributed forces using guyon’s method?
Ans:-
Investigations on Anchorage Zone Stresses:-
 A number of investigators have studied the stress distribution in the
anchorage zone using empirical equations or theoretical solutions based
on two or three-dimensional elasticity or experimental techniques.
 The important investigations were those done by:
i. Magnel’s method.
ii. Guyon’s method.
iii. Zielinski & Rowe’s method.
i. Magnel’s method:-
 In this method, the end block is considered as a deep beam subjected to
concentrated loads due to anchorages on one side & to normal &
tangential distribution loads from the linear direct stress & shear stress
distribution from the other side.
 The forces acting on the end block & the stresses acting on any point on
the horizontal axis parallel to the beam are as shown in figure:

Where
M = Bending moment.
H = Direct force (vertical).
V = Shear force (horizontal).
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fv = Vertical stress.
fh = Direct stress.
τ = Shear stress.
 The stress distribution across the section can be approximated by the
following equations:
Vertical stress:-fv = K1 (M/bh2) + K2 (H/bh)
Shear stress:-τ = K3(V/bh)
Direct stress:-fh = P/bh (1+12 e/2/h/2)
Where K1, K2 & K3 are constants.
 The principle stresses acting at the point are computed by the general
equations:
fmax = (fv+fh/2) + ½ √(fh-fv)2 + 4τ2
fmin = (fv+fh/2) - ½ √(fh-fv)2 + 4τ2
 The bursting tension is computed from the distribution of principal tensile
stress on the required axis & suitable reinforcements are designed to take
up this tension.
ii. Guyon’s method:-
 In Guyon’s method, design tables are used for the computation of
bursting tension in the end blocks.
 The tables are based on his mathematical study of stress distribution in
end blocks due to concentrated loads acting on it.
 The concept of symmetrical or equivalent prism for eccentric cables, &
the method of partitioning for the analysis of stresses developed due to
multiple cables have been introduced by Guyon.
 There are two distinguished cases of force distribution, they are:
a. Forces evenly distributed.
b. Forces not evenly distributed.
a. Forces evenly distributed:-When the forces are arranged such that the
resultant of the stress distribution at a distance equal to the depth of the end
block coincides with the line of action of the force as shown in figure, then the
forces are considered to be evenly distributed.
Where
2 ypo = Depth of the anchorage plate.
2 yo = Depth of the equivalent prism.
According to Guyon, the bursting tension is given as:-Fbst = 0.3P[1-(ypo/yo)0.58]
Where P = Anchorage force
ypo/yo = Distribution ratio.

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b. Depth of the equivalent prism:-When it is not possible to arrange the end


forces evenly, Guyon recommends that transverse tensile stresses be
investigated along successive resultants, such as:
• Resultant of all forces.
• Resultant of smaller groups of forces.
• Lines of action of individual forces.

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iii. Zielinski & Rowe’s method:-


 Experimental investigations on concrete prismatic specimens were
conducted by Zielinski & Rowe using the technique of surface-strain
measurements.
 The concrete prisms simulated the end blocks & the parameters
investigated include the ratio of loaded to cross-sectional area, the cable
duct or hole, type of anchorages & the cracking & ultimate load.
 The studies revealed that the distribution of transverse stress & ultimate
load of the end block is not significantly affected by:
• The anchorage being either embedded or external.
• The material of the anchorage.
• The method of anchoring the wires.
 An end block is subjected to a concentrated load at the end face, the
distribution of transverse stress is found to be maximum at a distance
equal to 0.5yo
 Empirical relations have been developed by Zielinski & Rowe to compute
the maximum transverse tensile stress & the bursting tension as shown in
figure:

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Where
2yo = Side of the surrounding prism.
2ypo = Side of loaded or punching area.
ypo/yo = Ratio of sides of loaded to bearing area of the prism.
fv = Transverse tensile stress.
fc = Average compressive stress in the prism.
Pk = Applied compressive force on the end block.
Fbst = Bursting tension.
fvmax = Maximum transverse tensile stress.
 The recommended equations are:
Tensile stress, fvmax = fc [0.98-0.825(ypo/yo)]
ypo/yo = 0.3 to 0.7
bursting tension, Fbst = Pk [0.48-0.4(ypo/yo)]
 If allowance is made for tension taken by concrete, the corrected value of
the bursting tension is given by:
Fbst(corrected) = Fbst [1-(ft/fvmax)2 ]
Where ft = permissible tensile strength of concrete.
 The reinforcement required to resist the bursting tension is to be arranged
between 0.2yo & 2yo where the intensity of stress is maximum.
4.6-Anchorage Zone Reinforcement:-
6. Explain in detail about the anchorage zone reinforcement with neat sketches.
[April-18(R13)]
Or
Sketch the pattern of reinforcement in anchorage zone. [June/July-17(R13)]
Ans:-
Anchorage Zone Reinforcement:-
 The main reinforcement in the anchorage zone should be designed to
withstand the bursting tension, which is determined by the transverse
stress distribution on the critical axis, usually coinciding with the line of
action of the largest individual force.
 For plate & embedded (Freyssinet) type of anchorages, the typical
arrangement of reinforcement in end blocks is shown in figure:

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 Mats, helics, loops or links are generally provided in perpendicular


directions.
 Tests by Zielinski & Rowe have shown that helical reinforcement is more
efficient than mat reinforcement.
 In view of the short available bond lengths, loops or right-angle bends are
necessary, even with deformed bars.
 Suitable pockets are generally provided behind the anchorages so that the
secondary reinforcements can be bent as shown in Fig:

 There must always be enough space for the fixing and handling of the
hydraulic jack, especially at the soffits of beams when using cap cables,
and this should be considered while designing the form work figure:

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 In the case of end blocks, where bearing plates are positioned close to the
edges of blocks as shown in Fig

 According to Morice, it is always advisable to provide a little extra


reinforcement in doubtful situations, since the cost of the end anchorage
steel is a very small proportion of that of the entire structural member.

******

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UNIT-V
COMPOSITE BEAMS & DEFLECTIONS
5.1-Composite Beams-Different types-Propped & Unpropped:-
1. Define composite beams, give its examples. List & explain the types of
composite beams. What are the advantages & disadvantages of composite
beams or composite sections or composite members?
Or
What are the major disadvantages of using composite beams? [April-18(R13)]
Ans:-
Composite Beams:-A structural member composed of two (or) more dissimilar
materials joined together to act as a unit.
Examples of Composite Sections:-

Fig 5.1- Examples of composite sections


Types of Composite Beams:-The following are the two types of composite
beams or composite construction:
i. Propped construction.
ii. Un-propped construction.
i. Propped Construction:-The dead load stress developed in the precast pre
stressed units can be minimized by propping them while casting the concrete in
situ. This method of construction is termed as “propped construction”.
 If the pre tensioned beam supports the weight of the slab while casting.

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 The advantage of propped construction is that the proportion of precast


pre stressed elements can be reduced resulting into economy.
ii. Un-propped Construction:-If the precast units are not propped while placing
the in situ concrete, stresses are developed in the unit due to the self- weight of
the member & the dead weight of the in situ concrete. This method of
construction is termed as “un-propped construction”.
 If the slab is externally supported while casting.
 The main advantage of this type of construction is that the formwork is
eliminated completely.
Advantages of Composite Beams:-The advantages of composite beams are:
i. Fast-track construction.
ii. Easy to connect the members.
iii. Economical.
iv. Less time consuming.
v. Reduction in the false work & shoring cost.
vi. No need of formwork & scaffoldings.
vii. Provides stability to girders.
Disadvantages of Composite Beams:-The disadvantages of composite beams
are:
i. No gain is obtained by using composite construction for short-span
members in which shear stresses are more significant than flexural
stresses.
ii. A properly designed & executed shear connector is needed to prevent the
failure of a composite beam on account of the separation of precast &
cast-in-situ concrete.
iii. Precast units are liable to be damaged during transporting & exaction
operations.
iv. Differential shrinkage stresses in composite construction can result in
tensile stresses being developed in the cast-in-situ concrete & a reduction
in the pre compression of the tensile flange of the precast element.
5.2-Stress Distribution in Composite Beams:-
2. Explain the stress distribution in composite beams.
Ans:-
Stress Distribution in Composite Beams:-The stress distribution in propped &
un-propped composite sections is shown below:

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Fig 5.2-Stress Distribution in Propped & Un-Propped Composite Sections


5.3-General Design Considerations of Composite Beams:-
3. Explain the design procedure of pre stressed composite sections. [June/July-
17(R13)]
Ans
Design of Composite Sections:-The following steps explain the design of a
composite section with precast web & cast-in-place flange. The precast web is
pre stressed before the casting of the flange. The member is considered to be
Type 1 member.
Step-1 Compute eccentricity (e):-With a trial section of the web, the CGS can
be located at the maximum eccentricity (emax). The maximum eccentricity is
calculated based on zero stress at the top of the precast web. This gives an
economical solution. emax is determined by:
$%&
! = "# +
'(

Here
kb = Distance of the bottom kern of the precast web from CGC
Msw = Moment due to self weight of the precast web.
P0 = A trial pre stressing force at transfer.
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Step-2 Compute equivalent moment for the precast web:-A moment acting on
the composite section is transformed to an equivalent moment for the precast
web. This is done to compute the stresses in the precast web in terms of the
properties of the precast web itself and not of the composite section. For a
moment Mc which acts after the section behave like a composite section, the
stresses in the extreme fibres of the precast web are determined by:
$*+,’
) =
.’
$*+/’
)# =
.’

Here,
ct’ = Distance of the top of the precast web from the CGC’
cb’ = Distance of the bottom of the precast web (or composite section) from the
CGC’
I’ = moment of inertia for the composite section.
The following quantities are defined as the ratios of the properties of the precast
web and composite section.

Then the stresses in the extreme fibres of the precast web can be expressed in
terms of mt and mb as follows.

Here, A = Area of the precast web


kb = Distance of the bottom kern of the precast web from CGC

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kt= Distance of the top kern of the precast web from CGC
The quantities mt Mc and mb Mc are the equivalent moments. Thus, the stresses
in the precast web due to Mc are expressed in terms of the properties of the
precast web itself.
Step-3 Compute Pe:-Let MP be the moment acting on the precast web prior to
the section behaving like a composite section. After Mc is applied on the
composite section, the total moment for the precast web is MP + mbMc. The
stress at the bottom for Type 1 member due to service loads is zero. Therefore,

Note that the pre stressing force is acting only on the precast web and hence, e
is the eccentricity of the CGS from the CGC of the precast web.
Step-4 Estimate P0:-
a) 90% of the initial applied pre stress (Pi) for pre-tensioned members.
b) Equal to Pi for post-tensioned members.
The value of Pi is estimated as follows

Revise e, the location of CGS, as given in Step 1 based on the new value of P0.

Step-5 Check for the compressive stresses in the precast web:-At transfer, the
stress at the bottom is given as follows:

The stress fb should be limited to fcc,all, where fcc,all is the allowable


compressive stress in concrete at transfer (available from Figure 8 of IS:1343 -
1980). At service,

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The stress ft should be limited to fcc,all , where fcc, all is the allowable
compressive stress in concrete under service loads (available from Figure 7 of
IS:1343-1980). If the stress conditions are not satisfied, increase A.
Step-6 Check for the compressive stress in the CIP flange:-
)′t = 012"t/3′
The stress )′t should be limited to fcc,all
5.4-Differential Shrinkage:-
4. What are the assumptions used in calculation of differential shrinkage?
Explain the effect of differential shrinkage on a composite member.
Ans:-
Assumptions used in Calculation of Differential Shrinkage:-The following
are the assumptions used in calculation of differential shrinkage:
i. The shrinkage is uniform in situ part of the section.
ii. Effect of creep & increase is modulus of elasticity with age & the
component of shrinkage which is common to both the units is negligible.
Effect of Differential Shrinkage on a Composite Member:-The in-situ
concrete in a composite beam is of relatively low grade & has correspondingly
higher water cement ratio. On the other hand, the precast pre stressed concrete
is of higher grade and most of its shrinkage has already occurred before the
placement of in-situ concrete. Consequently, the in-situ concrete shrinks more
than the precast concrete.
5.5-Deflections-Factors & Importance:-
5. List & explain the various types of deflections. Write the importance of
control of deflections & list the factors influencing or affecting deflection of
PSC beams. Give the various methods to calculate deflections.
Or
Explain briefly about short term & long term deflections in a pre stressed
concrete beam. What are the factors influencing deflections in a pre stressed
concrete members? [May-13(R09)]
Or

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Explain the importance of control of deflections of flexural members. [May-


17(R13)]
Or
Mention the reasons to control the deflections in PCS members. [June/July-
17(R13)]
Or
Explain the importance of controlling deflections in PSC beams. List the
various factors influencing the deflections of pre-stressed concrete members.
[April-18(R13)]
Or
Distinguish clearly between short term & long term deflections of pre-stressed
concrete beams. [April-18(R13)]
Ans:-
Types of Deflections:-Two types of deflection:
i. Short -term or instantaneous deflection.
ii. Long-term deflection.
SNO. Short -term or instantaneous Long-term deflection
deflection
1. The short term deflection occurs The long term deflection under
immediately upon the application service loads is due to the effective
of a load. pre stressing force and the gravity
loads.
2. It is caused by elastic deformation It does not caused by elastic
of the concrete in response to deformation of the concrete in
loading. response to loading.
3. The instantaneous deflection due The total long-term deflection due
to design loads may be calculated to pre stressing force, dead load &
using elastic analysis based on the any sustained imposed load may be
un cracked section & the modulus calculated using elastic analysis,
of elasticity of concrete. (Refer taken into account the effects of
IS:1343-1980, Page no:-52, Topic cracking, effects of creep &
no:-22.6.1.1 or IS 1343:2012, shrinkage. (Refer IS:1343-1980,
Page no:-35, Topic no:-22.6.1.1) Page no:-52, Topic no:-22.6.1.2 or
IS 1343:2012, Page no:-35, Topic
no:-22.6.1.2)

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

4. It is due to the pre stressing force It takes into account the long term
& self weight without considering shrinkage & creep movements.
the effect of creep and shrinkage
of concrete.
5. The following factors influence The following are the major factors
the short-term deflection of influencing the long-term deflection
structures: of the structures:
i. Magnitude & distribution i. Humidity & temperature
of live loads. ranges during curing.
ii. Span & type of end ii. Age of concrete at the time of
supports. loading.
iii. Cross-sectional area of the iii. Type & size of aggregates,
members. W/C ratio, amount of
iv. Amount of steel compression reinforcement,
reinforcement & the stress size of members etc., which
developed in the influence the creep &
reinforcement. shrinkage of concrete.
v. Characteristic strengths of
concrete & steel.
vi. Amount & extent of
cracking.
Factors Influencing or Affecting Deflections:-The deflections of pre stressed
concrete members are influenced by the following salient factors:
i. Imposed load & self weight.
ii. Magnitude of the pre stressing force.
iii. Cable profile.
iv. Second moments of area of cross section.
v. Modulus of elasticity of concrete.
vi. Shrinkage, creep & relaxation of steel stress.
vii. Span of the member.
viii. Rigidity/Fixity condition.
ix. Tensile strength.
x. Cracking.
xi. Age of the concrete at the time of loading.
xii. Type & size of aggregate.
xiii. Humidity.
Importance of Control of Deflections:-Suitable control of deflection is very
essential for the following reasons:
i. Excessive, sagging of principal structural members is not only unsightly,
but at times, also renders for floor unsuitable for the intended use.

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

ii. Large deflections under dynamic effects & under the influence of variable
loads may cause discomfort to the users.
iii. Excessive deflections are likely to cause damage to finishes, partitions &
associated structures.
Various Methods to Calculate Deflections:-The following are the various
methods to calculate deflections:
i. Double integration method (McCauley).
ii. Moment area method.
iii. Conjugate beam method.
iv. Principle of virtual load.
5.6-Short Term Deflections of Un-Cracked Beams:-
6. How do you compute short-term deflections of un cracked beams or
members?
Or
Explain the following:
a. Mohr’s theorems.
b. Effect of tendon profile on deflections.
c. Deflections due to self-weight & imposed loads.
Ans:-
Short Term Deflections of Un-Cracked Members:-
a. Mohr’s theorems:-
 Short term or instantaneous deflections of pre stressed members are
governed by the bending moment distribution along the span and the
flexural rigidity of the members.
 Mohr’s moment area theorems are readily applicable for the estimation of
deflections due to the pre stressing force, self-weight & imposed loads.

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Fig 5.3- Slope & Deflection of Beam

 If Ɵ = slope of the elastic curve at A.


AD = intercept between the tangent at c & the vertical at A.
a = deflection at the centre for symmetrically loaded simply supported
beam.
A = area of the bending moment diagram between A & C.
x = distance of the centroid of the BMD between A & C from the left
support.
EI = Flexural rigidity of the beam.
 Then, according to mohr’s first theorem:
45 4 6 789
Slope =
:; <=54; 5 > ? @A
B
Slope =
.
 Similarly according to mohr’s second theorem:
C6C D@ 6 @E 45 4 6 789
Intercept =
:; <=54; 5 > ? @A
B<
Slope =
.
 The deflection of symmetrically loaded & simply supported beams at the
mid span point are directly obtained from the second moment are theorem
since the tangent is horizontal at this point. More complicated problems
involving unsymmetrical loaded may be solved by combining both the
moment area theorems.
b. Effect of tendon profile on deflections:-
 In most of the cases of pre stressed beams, tendons are located with
eccentricities towards the soffit of beams to counteract the sagging
bending moments due to transverse loads.
 The method of computing deflections of beams with different cable
profiles is outlined below:

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

i. Straight tendons:-The figure shows a beam with a straight tendon at a uniform


eccentricity below the centroidal axis.
J
GH I)G ) H I
K
a =− =-
. L .

Fig 5.4- Camber of Beam with straight tendons


ii. Trapezoidal tendons:-A draped tendon with trapezoidal profile is shown in
the figure below:
H Q H
a =− [3 N3O + R S + G3O /2 + 2/33O )] =− [23O + 63O 3 +33 ]
. W .

Fig 5.5- trapezoidal or draped tendons

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

iii. Parabolic tendons (central anchors):-The deflection of a beam with parabolic


tendons having an eccentricity e at the centre and zero at the supports is given
by:
H
a=- [2/3, L/2, 5/8, L/2] = - (5PeL2/48EI)
.

Fig 5.6-Parabolic Tendons (Central Anchors)


iv. Parabolic tendons (eccentric anchors):-The figure below shows a beam, with
a parabolic tendon having an eccentricity e1 at the centre of the span and e2 at
the support sections.
a = [-5/48 PL2/EI (e1+e2)] + [Pe2L2/8EI] = PL2/48EI (-5e1+e2)

Fig 5.7-Parabolic Tendons (Eccentric Anchors)

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

v. Sloping tendons (eccentric tendons):-From the figure below, the deflection is


calculated as:
a = [PL2/12EI (e1+e2)] + [Pe2L2/8EI] = PL2/24EI (-2e1+e2)

Fig 5.8-Sloping Tendons (Eccentric Tendons)


vi. Parabolic & Straight tendons:-The deflection at the centre of the beam is
obtained as:
a = - Pe/EI [(2/3)l1 (5/8)l1 + l2(l1+l2/2)] = -Pe/EI [(5l21+1211l2+6l22)]

Fig 5.9-Parabolic & Straight Tendons

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

vii. Parabolic & Straight tendons (eccentric anchors):-The maximum central


deflection is obtained by superposition:

a = - P(e1+e2)/12EI[53O + 123O 3 +63 ] + [Pe2L2/8EI]

Fig 5.10-Parabolic & Straight Tendons (Eccentric Anchors)


c. Deflections Due to Self-Weight & Imposed Loads:-
 At the time of transfer of pre stress, the beam hogs up due to the effect of
pre stressing.
 At this stage, the self-weight of the beam induces downward deflections,
which further increase due to the effect of imposed loads on the beam.
 If g = self-weight of the beam/m
q = imposed load/m (uniformly distributed)
the downward deflection is computed as:
\G>]^)IK
a=
_L` .
 Deflections due to concentrated live loads can be directly computed by
using mohr’s theorems.

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

5.7-Prediction of Long time Deflections:-


7. Explain the Prediction of long time deflections.
Ans:-
Prediction of long time deflections:-
 The deformations of pre stressed members change with time as a result of
creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of stress in steel.
 The pre stressed concrete member develops deformations under the
influence of two usually opposing effects, which are the pre stress &
transverse loads.
 The net ϕt curvature at a section at any given stage is obtained as:
ϕt=ϕmt + ϕpt
where
ϕmt = change of curvature caused by transverse loads.
ϕpt = change of curvature caused by pre stress.
 The creep strain due to transverse loads is directly computed as a function
of the creep coefficient so that the change of curvature can be estimated
by the expression:
ϕmt = (1 + ϕ) ϕi
where
ϕ = creep coefficient.
ϕi = initial curvature immediately after the application of
transverse loads.
 According to Neville & ACI committee report, the creep curvature due to
pre stress is obtained on the simplified assumption that creep is induced
by the average pre stress acting over the given time. Using this approach,
if Pi = initial pre stress & Pt = pre stress after a time (t).
 Loss of pre stressing force due to relaxation, shrinkage & creep:
Lp = (Pi-Pt)
 The curvature due to pre stress after time t can be expressed as:
Φpt = - pie/EI [1-LP/Pi + (1- LP/P2i) ϕ]
Where
e = eccentricity of the pre stressing force at the section

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

EI = flexural rigidity
If
ai1 = initial deflection due to transverse loads.
aip = initial deflection due to pre stress.
 Then, the total long time deflection after time t is obtained from the
expression:
af = ai1 (1 + ϕ) – aip [(1 – Lp/Pi) + (1 – Lp/2Pi) ϕ]
 In this expression, the –ve sign refers to deflections in the upward
direction(camber).
 According to this method, the final long time deflection is expressed as:
af = [ai1– aip * Pt/Pi] (1 + ϕ)
5.8-BIS Code Requirements of Deflections:-
8. Explain the BIS code requirements of deflections.
Or
Explain limit state of serviceability of deflection by using IS:1343.
Ans:-Refer IS:1343-1980, Page no:-39 (limit state of serviceability of
deflection) Or IS 1343:2012, Page no:-29 (limit state of serviceability of
deflection).

******

THE END

PREPARED BY:

RIYAZ MOHAMMED

RIYAZ MOHAMMED Page 48


PROBLEMS
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

PROBLEMS PROCEDURE
UNIT-II LOSSES OF PRE-STRESS
1. Loss of Stress due to Elastic Deformation:-

• Step-1: Pre stressing Force (P) = Stress * Area


• Step-2: Area of Concrete Section (A) = Wide (b) * Deep (d)
• Step-3: Second Moment of Area (I) =
• Step-4: Modular Ratio (αe) =
• Step-5: Eccentricity (e) = d-dl
• Step-6: Stress in Concrete at the level of Steel (fc) = + or +

∗ ∗
= + or +

• Step-7: Loss of Stress due to Elastic Deformation = αe * fc


! "∗ ##
• Step-8 : Percentage loss of Stress = $%&

2. Loss due to Shrinkage of Concrete:-


'() ( )
• Step-1: Initial Stress = & )( )
• Step-2: Total Residual Shrinkage Strain (es ):
i. If beam is Pre tensioned, then es = 300*10-6 [1980-16 Page]
##∗ # /0
ii. If beam is Post-tensioned, then es = ,(- [1980-16 Page]
# (%. )
• Step-3: Loss of Stress = es *Es
• Step-4: Percentage loss of Stress = 123%3), $%&
∗ 100

3. Loss due to Creep of Concrete:-

• Step-1: Pre stressing Force (P) = Stress * Area


• Step-2: Area of Concrete Section (A) = Wide (b) * Deep (d)
• Step-3: Second Moment of Area (I) =
• Step-4: Modular Ratio (αe) =
• Step-5: Stress in Concrete at the level of Steel (fc) = + or +

∗ ∗
= + or +

• Step-6: Loss of Stress due to Creep of Concrete=£cc*fc*Es


Or by Methods
i. Ultimate Creep Strain Method:- Loss of Stress=£cc* fc*Es
ii. Creep Coefficient Method:-Loss of Stress=ϕ* fc *αe

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

4. Loss of Stress due to Friction:-

• Step-1: Initial Pre stressing Force (Po) = Stress * Area


• Step-2: Loss of Pre stress:
Let Px = Po e-(µα + kx) [1980-33 Page]
For Small Values of (µα + kx), then
Px = Po [1-µα-kx] [1980-34 Page]
Px = Po [1-(µα + kx)]
⸫ Loss of Pre stress Px = Po (µα + kx)
6 (67)
• Step-3: Percentage loss of Stress = ∗ 100
123%3), $%&

8
5. Loss due to Anchorage Slip:-Loss of Stress due to Anchorage Slip=
'

Where L=Length*Initial Stress


6. Total Losses Allowed for in Design/Percentage Loss of Stress in Wires or Cables or
Tendons or Steel:-

• Step-1: Pre stressing Force (P) = Stress * Area


• Step-2: Area of Concrete Section (A) = Wide (b) * Deep (d)
• Step-3: Second Moment of Area (I) =
• Step-4: Modular Ratio (αe) =
• Step-5: Stress in Concrete at the level of Steel (fc) = + or +

∗ ∗
= + or +

• Step-6: Losses of Stress:


i. For Pre tensioned Members:
a. Elastic Deformation of Concrete = αe * fc
b. Relaxation of Stress in steel = Percentage of loss * Initial Pre stress
c. Creep of Concrete = ϕ* fc *αe
d. Shrinkage of Concrete = Shrinkage of Concrete for Pre tensioning * Es
e. Slip at Anchorages: No Losses are observed.
f. Friction: No Losses are observed.
⸫ Total Loss of Stress = Elastic Deformation of Concrete + Relaxation of Stress in steel+
Creep of Concrete + Shrinkage of Concrete
9(%), '( (: $%&
⸫ Percentage Loss of Stress = *100
###

ii. For Post-tensioned Members:


a. Elastic Deformation of Concrete: No Losses are observed.
b. Relaxation of Stress in steel = Percentage of loss * Initial Pre stress
c. Creep of Concrete = ϕ* fc *αe
d. Shrinkage of Concrete = Shrinkage of Concrete for Pre tensioning * Es
2 ℎ(&)- $,3;∗
e. Slip at Anchorages = ,
f. Friction = Po * Frictional Coefficient for Wave Effect * L

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

⸫ Total Loss of Stress = Relaxation of Stress in steel + Creep of Concrete + Shrinkage of


Concrete + Slip at Anchorages + Friction
9(%), '( (: $%&
⸫ Percentage Loss of Stress = *100
###

Finally Draw the Tabular Format

S.NO Type of Loss Pre-tensioned Post-tensioned


Members (N/mm2) Members (N/mm2)
1. Elastic Deformation of Concrete
2. Relaxation of Stress in steel
3. Creep of Concrete
4. Shrinkage of Concrete
5. Slip at Anchorages
6. Friction
7. Total Loss of Stress
8. Percentage Loss of Stress

******

RIYAZ MOHAMMED Page iii


PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-III FLEXURE & SHEAR


1. Ultimate Flexural Strength or Moment of Resistance or Ultimate Moment Capacity:-
; .:;= :;. ;
• Step-1: Effective Reinforcement Ratio = ( .: >
) or (: >.
) [1980-59 P][2012-51 P]
• Step-2: To find fpb & xu:
:;
= Value WRT Effective Reinforcement Ratio [1980-59 Page] [2012-51 Page]
#.?@∗: =

⸫ ABC = Value WRT Effective Reinforcement Ratio∗ 0.87 ∗ AFG


H=
= Value WRT Effective Reinforcement Ratio [1980-59 Page] [2012-51 Page]

⸫ IG = Value WRT Effective Reinforcement Ratio∗ J

• Step-3: Ultimate Flexural Strength (Moment of Resistance) is


Mu = fpb * Aps (d – 0.42 * xu) [1980-59 Page] [2012-51 Page]
2. Design of Shear Reinforcement or Design of Suitable Spacing for Stirrups:-

• Step-1: To find Vc

Vc = Vco= 0.67 * bD K(A% + 0.8A ; A% ) [1980-46 Page] [2012-32 Page]

Where ft = 0.24 √fck [1980-46 Page] [2012-32 Page]

• Step-2: Design of Shear Reinforcement


Balance shear = V-Vc
M N O/O
Now, N
= #.?@∗ P∗ [1980-48 Page] [2012-33 Page]
M N∗#.?@∗ P∗
⸫ Sv = [ O/O
]

Then, Maximum Permissible Spacing=0.75*d [1980-48 Page][2012-34 Page]


3. Shear & Principal Stresses or Magnitude of the Principal Tensions Developed in the Beam
with & without the Axial Pre stress:-

• Step-1: Area (A) = b*d


• Step-2: Moment of Inertia (I) =
R,
• Step-3: Shear Force (V) =
S T
• Step-4: Maximum Shear Stress (z or Ꞇv ) = * ∗
• Step-5: Axial Pre stress (Fx) =
UH
• Step-6: Maximum Principle Stress = + √Fx2 + 4z2
UH
• Step-7: Minimum Principle Stress = - √Fx2 + 4z2
• Step-8: If there is without Pre stress
⸫ Principle Stress = √Fx2 + 4z2

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

4. Maximum Principle Tensile Stress & Minimum Vertical Pre stress:-


S T
• Step-1: Maximum Shear Stress (z) = * ∗
UH
• Step-2: Maximum Principal Tensile Stress = - √Fx2 + 4z2
• Step-3: Minimum Vertical Pre stress
UH.U
Fy min = - √ (Fx - Fy)2 + 4z2 =0

5. Effective Force & Principle Stresses:-

• Step-1: Self Weight of the Beam (g) = b*d*Unit Weight of Concrete (Ɣ)
• Step-2: Total Load on the Beam = w+ Self Weight of the Beam (g)
• Step-3: Effective Pre stressing Force (P)
R,V
Using Load Balancing Concept P*e =
?
W
• Step-4: Slope of Cable at Support (Ɵ) =
'
• Step-5: Vertical Component of Pre stressing Force = P*Ɵ
R,
• Step-6: Reaction at Support due to Dead & Live Loads =
⸫ Horizontal Pre stress at Support = P/b*d
6. Maximum Principal Stress & Pre stressing Force:-

• Step-1: Area Calculation (A) = b*d


• Step-2: Moment of Inertia (I) =
V
• Step-3: Finding z =
0
• Step-4: Self Weight of the Beam (g) = b*d*Unit Weight of Concrete (Ɣ)
• Step-5: Total Load on the Beam = w+ Self Weight of the Beam (g)
R,
• Step-6: Shear Force (V) =
W
• Step-7: Slope (Ɵ) = '
• Step-8: Vertical Component of Pre stressing Force = SF at support*Ɵ
UH
• Step-9: Maximum Principle Stress = + √Fx2 + 4z2
S T
Where (z or Ꞇv) = * ∗
; (Fx) =
UH
• Step-10: Minimum Principle Stress = - √Fx2 + 4z2
S T
Where (z or Ꞇv) = * ∗ ; (Fx) =
• Step-11: Pre stressing Force(P)=P sinƟ =118
⸫ P = 118/Ɵ

******

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-IV TRANSFER OF PRE-STRESS IN PRE-TENSIONED MEMBERS


1. Maximum Transverse Tensile Stress & Bursting Tension for the End Block:-

• Step-1: Maximum Tensile Stress (fv (max)) = fc [0.98-0.825(ypo/yo)]


But fc = Pk/A
• Step-2: Bursting Tension Force (fbst) = Pk[0.98-0.4(ypo/yo)]
• Step-3: Permissible Bursting Stress or Bursting Tension Correction
fbst (corrected) = fbst [1-( ft / fv (max))2]
2. Position & Magnitude of Maximum Tensile Stress & Bursting Tension for the End Block
by using Guyon’s Method:-

• Step-1: Position of Maximum Tensile Stress = 0.33*2yo


• Step-2: Magnitude of Maximum Tensile Stress = 0.345*P/A
• Step-3: Bursting Tension:
According to Guyon, the Bursting Tension is Expressed as: fbst = 0.3P[1-(ypo/yo)0.58]
3. Position & Magnitude of Maximum Tensile Stress & Bursting Tension for the End Block
by using Rowe’s Method:-

• Step-1: Maximum Tensile Stress (fv (max)) = fc [0.98-0.825(ypo/yo)]


But fc = Pk/A
• Step-2: Bursting Tension Force (fbst) = Pk[0.98-0.4(ypo/yo)]
• Step-3: Permissible Bursting Stress or Bursting Tension Correction
fbst (corrected) = fbst [1-( ft / fv (max))2]
4. Anchorage Zone Reinforcement or Design of Suitable Reinforcement or Design Suitable
Anchorage for End Block:-

• Step-1: Bursting Tension Force => fbst/Pk = 0.32-0.3(ypo/yo) [1980-36 P][2012-27P]


(fbst) = Pk[0.32-0.3(ypo/yo)]
%
• Step-2: Number of Bars = X
∗Z V
Y
But Ast = Fbst/0.87*fy
• Step-3: Detailing of Reinforcement
5. Thickness of the Anchorage Plate:-

• Step-1: Actual Bearing Stress (fc) = Pk/Abr


But Pk = Stress * Area
• Step-2: Permissible Bearing Stress
Bearing Stress Shall not Exceed
0.48 fci √Abr/Apunching or 0.8 fci [1980-35 Page][2012-26 Page]
Take Smaller Value among two values
• Step-3: Thickness Calculation:
Circumference of Female Cone ([ ∗ D) ∗ Thickness(t) ∗ Shear stress = Force(Pk)
******

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

UNIT-V COMPOSITE BEAMS & DEFLECTIONS


1. Resultant Stresses Developed in the Precast & In-situ Cast Concrete for the Pre-tensioned
Beam is Un propped & Propped:-

• Step-1: Sectional Properties of the Pre-tensioned Beam:


i. Area (A) = b*d
V
ii. Section modulus (z) =
0
iii. Stresses due to Pre stressing Force =
iv. Effective Pre stress after Losses = η * loss of pre stress
v. Self-weight of the Precast Beam = b * d * unit weight
R,V
vi. Self-weight Moment =
?
m
vii. Stresses at Top & Bottom Fibre f = n
viii. Self-weight of in situ Cast Slab = bf * t * unit weight
ix. Stresses due to Slab-weight in the Precast Section =
• Step-2: Sectional Properties of the Composite Section:
R,V
i. Maximum Live Load Moment = ?
ii. Live Load Stresses in the Composite Section:
a. At top = m/zt
b. At bottom = m/zb
iii. Stresses due to Moment in the Composite Section:
a. At top = M/zt
b. At bottom = M/zb
• Step-3: Stress Distribution.
2. Differential Shrinkage:-

• Step-1: Section Modulus:


1
i. Top fibre (zt) =
1
ii. Bottom fibre (zb) =
1
iii. Junction (zj) =
• Step-2: Stress Calculation:
i. Direct stress =
ii. Bending stress (top) = M/zt
iii. Bending stress (bottom) = M/zb
iv. Bending stress (junction) = M/zj
• Step-3: Differential Shrinkage Stresses:
i. Precast beam:
a. Top of beam = + M/zt
b. Bottom of beam = - M/zt
ii. Slab:
a. Top of slab = + M/zz – uniform tensile stress induced in the
cast in situ slab

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

b. Bottom of beam = - M/zt – uniform tensile stress induced in


the cast in situ slab
• Step-4: Stress Distribution.

******

THE END

PREPARED BY:

RIYAZ MOHAMMED

RIYAZ MOHAMMED Page viii


PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

RIYAZ MOHAMMED Page ix


IMPORTANT PAGENO’S OF IS:1343 CODE BOOKS
SNO TOPIC NAME IS:1343-1980 IS 1343:2012
(PAGE NO’S) (PAGE NO’S)
1. Terminology 09 & 10 01 & 02
2. Symbols 10 to 12 02
3. Materials 12 to 14 03 & 04
4. Elastic Deformation & Shrinkage 16 05
5. Creep of Concrete 17 06
6. Losses in Pre stress 32 to 34 24 to 26
7. Transmission Length-Factors 34 26
8. Bearing Stress 35 26
9. Bursting Tensile Forces 36 27
10. Limit State of Serviceability: Deflection 39 29
11. Flexure-Assumptions 43 31
12. Section Un cracked in Flexure 46 32
13. Section Cracked in Flexure 46 33
14. Shear Reinforcement 48 33
15. Short-term & Long-term Deflections 52 35
16. Moment of Resistance For Rectangular & T- 59 & 60 51
Sections
17. Bureau of Indian Standard - 55

******

RIYAZ MOHAMMED