Sie sind auf Seite 1von 1391

TK Syllabus Comparison Document

General Information
This document has been created to support the Agency in transitioning the ECQB to align with the syllabus, learning objecti
for the theoretical knowledge (TK) examinations associated with the ATPL(A), CPL(A), ATPL(H)/IR, ATPL(H)/VFR, CPL(A)H (re
licences” in this document), IR(A and H), CBIR(A) and EIR(A), as published in the ED Decisions listed below. The relevant AM
FCL.515(b); FCL.615(b), AMC2 FCL.615(b) to AMC8 FCL.615(b), AMC1 ARA.FCL.300(b) and AMC2 ARA.FCL.300(b)).

The amendments to these AMCs as published in 2018 and 2019 are described as the “new syllabus” in this document:
- Amendment 4 to AMC/GM to Part-FCL, EDD 2018/001/R,
- Amendment 6 to AMC/GM to Part-FCL, EDD 2018/011/R,
- Amendment 8 to AMC/GM to Part-FCL, EDD 2019/017/R,
- Amendment 6 to AMC/GM to Part-ARA, EDD 2018/011/R,
- Amendment 8 to AMC/GM to Part-ARA, EDD 2019/017/R.

Comparison is made with the TK syllabi and LOs as published in the ED Decisions listed below. These are described as the “
- Amendment 1 to AMC/GM to Part-FCL, EDD 2014/022/R for the CBIR(A) and EIR(A),
- Amendment 2 to AMC/GM to Part-FCL, EDD 2016/008/R for a professional licence (A or H), and the IR(A and H).

Change information from version 1 to version 2:


- Content of EDD 2019/017/R is added, affecting the following subjects:
- 010, 021, 022, 031, 032, 033, 040, 062, 070, 081,
- Subject 090 Communications is added.

Feedback: the Agency welcomes feedback on this TK syllabus comparison from stakeholders via email to ECQB@easa.euro

Proposals for amendments / improvements to the TK syllabus and LOs should be communicated to the Agency following th
as described on the Agency website: https://www.easa.europa.eu/document-library/rulemaking-programmes/rulemaking-

Disclaimer
The TK Syllabus Comparison Document is made available for information purposes only. While every care has been taken in
Syllabus Comparison Document to avoid errors, the Agency makes no warranty as to the accuracy, completeness or curren
not be liable for any kind of damages or other claims or demands incurred as a result of incorrect, insufficient or invalid dat
connection with the use, copying or display of the content, to the extent permitted by European and national laws. The info
Document should not be construed as legal advice.
Contents
The following subjects are covered in individual worksheets:
- 010 Air Law
- 021 Aircraft General Knowledge – Airframe, Systems and Powerplant
- 022 Aircraft General Knowledge - Instrumentation
- 031 Mass & Balance
- 032 Performance – Aeroplanes
- 033 Flight Planning and Monitoring
- 034 Performance – Helicopters
- 040 Human Performance and Limitations
- 050 Meteorology
- 061 General Navigation
- 062 Radio Navigation
- 070 Operational Procedures
- 081 Principles of Flight – Aeroplanes
- 082 Principles of Flight - Helicopters
- 090 Communications

A standard format has been applied to each sheet. In addition there are filters to allow the information to be sorted in the
the old or new syllabus structure, and to apply filters relating to the nature of the modification, and the licence/rating type
structure, starting from column A:

Index: each row has a unique number. The sequence is primarily based on that of The new syllabus.
Old syllabus text: based on amendment 2 to Part-FCL and taking into account the LOs for the CBIR and EIR as published in a
the new syllabus and LOs are indicated (see further below).
Old syllabus reference: the numbering published in amendments 1 and 2 to Part-FCL is modified to include dots between s
LO (Note: some old LOs are listed more than once, where there has been a lot of movement of LOs within a subject. They w
in the same part of the subject along with a cross-reference to the relevant new LO, and are listed again in the part of the w
syllabus containing the new LO).

New syllabus reference: the numbering as published in amendments 4 and 6 to Part-FCL is modified to include dots betwe
Moved to/from another subject: a brief comment is made where this is the case.
New syllabus text: based on amendments 4 and 6 to Part-FCL.
Renumbered: an “x” indicates that there is a difference between the old and new syllabus references.
New: an “x” indicates that the LO is new to the syllabus.
Deleted: an “x” indicates that the old LO is not retained in the new syllabus.
Text unmodified: an “x” indicates that the wording of the text is the same in the old and new syllabi (style elements such a
layout are not indicated).
Reworded, intent the same: an “x” indicates that the revised working does not alter the specific issue or depth of knowled
to know/understand (e.g. grammatical improvements, abbreviations written out or terms abbreviated).
Reworded, intent modified: an “x” indicates that a significant change is introduced (e.g. accounting for technological advan
new / modified terms, or a different depth of knowledge is indicated by the key verb, considering GM1 FCL.310; FCL.515(b)

Columns M to S on the licences and instrument ratings: an “x” indicates that the LO applies to this licence/rating, as per th
Basic knowledge: the “x” is as per the new syllabus, and indicates that the LO must be taught but is not addressed directly
ECQB. These LOs will no longer be the subject of dedicated examination questions which focus only on the specific subject
example, recalling the appropriate unit of measurement to be used. However, student pilots will still be required to assimil
required by the BK LOs in order to have the ability to answer examination questions based on LOs which target higher level
subject. These other LOs, themselves, build upon this basic knowledge. The ATOs must ensure that all LOs (including BK LO
course of training being delivered are covered.
Modified EDD 2019/017/R: the "x" indicates that the LO is modified by this ED Decision. Column F shows the most up-to-d

Differences between the old and new syllabi and LOs are indicated.
The colour code is as follows:
Red indicates modifications – where the text is also struck-through, it indicates that it is deleted. Under columns M to S, an
applicable to the relevant licence/rating type.
Green indicates a completely new text, reference and exam association
Blue identifies the source as mentioned in the LO.
Purple indicates that the LO has been moved to a different topic/subtopic/paragraph within the subject or to a completely
Version: 2
Date: 9/12/2019
Old syllabus text Old syllabus New syllabus Moved to/from
reference reference another subject

Index

1 AIR LAW 010.00.00.00 010.00.00.00


2 INTERNATIONAL LAW: CONVENTIONS, AGREEMENTS AND 010.01.00.00 010.01.00.00
ORGANISATIONS
3 The Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago) – ICAO 010.01.01.00 010.01.01.00
DOC 7300

4 010.01.01.01

5 Explain the historical background that led to the establishment 010.01.01.00.01 010.01.01.01.01
of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Chicago, 7
December 1944.

6 Part I - Air navigation 010.01.01.01 010.01.01.02


7 Be familiar with the general contents of relevant parts of the 010.01.01.01.01 010.01.01.02.01
following Chapters:
— general principles and application of the Convention;
— flight over territory of contracting States;
— nationality of aircraft;
— measures to facilitate air navigation;
— conditions to be fulfilled with respect to aircraft;
— international standards and recommended practices (SARPs)
especially notification of differences and validity of endorsed
certificates and licences.

8 General principles. Describe the application of the following 010.01.01.01.02 010.01.01.02.02


terms in Civil Aviation:
— sovereignty;
— territory, high seas, according to the UN Convention of the
High Seas.

9 Define the following terms and explain how they apply to 010.01.01.01.03 010.01.01.02.03
international air traffic:
- right of non-scheduled flight (including the two technical
freedoms of the air)
- scheduled air services
- cabotage
- landing at customs airports
- applicability of air regulations
- rules of the air
- search of aircraft.

10 Describe the duties of Contracting States in relation to: 010.01.01.01.04 010.01.01.02.04


- documents carried in aircraft
- certificate of registration,
- certificates of airworthiness,
- licenses of personnel,
- recognition of certificates and licenses,
- cargo restrictions,
- photographic apparatus.

11 Part II - The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 010.01.01.02 010.01.01.03

12 Describe the objectives of ICAO. 010.01.01.02.01 010.01.01.03.01

13 Explain the organisation and duties of the ICAO Assembly, 010.01.01.02.02 010.01.01.03.02
Council and Air Navigation Commission (ANC).

14 Explain the organisation and duties of ICAO Headquarters and 010.01.01.02.03


Regional Offices.
15 Describe the worldwide ICAO regions. 010.01.01.02.04
16 Be familiar with the hierarchy of ICAO publications (SARPs, 010.01.01.02.05 010.01.01.03.03
Docs)
- annexes to the Convention - documents.

17 Other conventions and agreements 010.01.02.00 010.01.02.00


18 The International Air Services Transit Agreement (ICAO 010.01.02.01 010.01.02.01
Doc 7500)
19 Explain the two technical freedoms of the air. 010.01.02.01.01 010.01.02.01.01

20 The International Air Transport Agreement 010.01.02.02 010.01.02.02


21 Explain the three commercial freedoms of the air. 010.01.02.02.01 010.01.02.02.01

22 Describe legal situation within the EU with regards to the 010.01.02.02.02


Freedoms of the Air.
23 Suppression of unlawful acts against the safety of civil 010.01.02.03 010.01.02.03
aviation; the Conventions of Tokyo, Den Haag, Montreal
24 Explain the facts that led to the Conventions and Supplements 010.01.02.03.01
concerning unlawful acts against the safety of civil aviation.

25 Explain the content of the Convention on Unlawful Acts 010.01.02.03.02


Committed on Board Aircraft.
(Doc 8364 - Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts
Committed on Board Aircraft, Tokyo 14 September 1963).

26 Explain the content of the Convention on Suppression of 010.01.02.03.03


Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft. (Doc 8920 - Convention for the
Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, Den Haag 16
December 1970 and Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful
Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, Montreal 23 September
1971).

27 Explain the content of the Convention on Suppression of 010.01.02.03.04


Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil
Aviation in accordance with: (Doc 8966 - Convention for the
Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation,
done at Montreal 23.9.1971, signed at Montreal 24 February
1988).

28 Describe measures and actions to be taken by the PIC of an 010.01.02.03.05 010.01.02.03.01


aircraft in order to suppress Unlawful Acts against the Safety of
the aircraft. (Doc 9518 – Protocol supplementary to the
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the
Safety of Civil Aviation, done at Montreal 23 September 1971,
signed at Montreal 24 February 1988).

29 Bilateral Agreements 010.01.02.04 010.01.02.04


30 International private law 010.01.02.05 010.01.02.05
31 Explain the Conventions and Protocols designed to cover 010.01.02.05.01
liability towards persons and goods in accordance with the
Warsaw System based on the Convention for the Unification of
Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, Warsaw,
2 October 1929.

32 Explain the legal significance of the issue of a passenger ticket 010.01.02.05.02 010.01.02.05.01
and/or of baggage/cargo documents.

33 Describe the consequences for an airline and/or the PIC when a 010.01.02.05.03 010.01.02.05.02
passenger ticket is not issued.

34 Explain that the liability towards persons and goods may be 010.01.02.05.04
unlimited, on the basis of the Montreal Convention of 28 May
1999.

35 Explain the consequences of the EU Regulation about passenger 010.01.02.05.05 010.01.02.05.03


rights in case of delay, cancellation or denied of boarding.

36 Explain the liability limit in relation to the destruction, loss, 010.01.02.05.06 010.01.02.05.04
damage or delay of baggage.

37 World organisations 010.01.03.00 010.01.03.00


38 The International Air Transport Association (IATA) 010.01.03.01 010.01.03.01
39 Describe the general organisation and objectives of IATA. 010.01.03.01.01 010.01.03.01.01

40 European organisations 010.01.04.00 010.01.04.00


41 European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) 010.01.04.01 010.01.04.01
42 Describe the general organisation and objectives of EASA. 010.01.04.01.01 010.01.04.01.01

43 Describe the role of EASA in European civil aviation. 010.01.04.01.02 010.01.04.01.02


44 Describe the role of the National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) in 010.01.04.01.03
relation to EASA.
45 Give an overview of the EASA Regulations' structure. 010.01.04.01.04 010.01.04.01.03

46 Describe the relationship between EASA, ICAO and other organisa010.01.04.01.05


47 010.01.04.01.04

48 EUROCONTROL 010.01.04.02 010.01.04.02


49 Describe the objectives of the Convention relating to the 010.01.04.02.01 010.01.04.02.01
Cooperation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol) and
the Single European Sky (SES) Regulations.

50 European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) 010.01.04.03


51 Give a brief summary of the European Civil Aviation Conference ( 010.01.04.03.01
52 AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT 010.02.00.00 010.02.00.00

53 ICAO Annex 8 and the Certification Specifications 010.02.01.00 010.02.01.00


54 Explain the definitions in ICAO Annex 8. 010.02.01.00.01
55 Explain how the airworthiness Standards of ICAO Annex 8 and 010.02.01.00.02
the Certification Specifications (CSs) are related to each other.

56 State which aircraft the Standards of ICAO Annex 8 and the CSs 010.02.01.00.03
shall apply to.
57 Certificate of Airworthiness ( C-of-A) 010.02.02.00 010.02.02.00
58 010.02.02.01
59 State the Issuing Authority of a CofA. 010.02.02.00.01 010.02.02.01.01

60 State the necessity to have a CofA. 010.02.02.00.02 010.02.02.01.02

61 Explain the various elements that are required for a CofA. 010.02.02.00.03 010.02.02.01.03

62 State who shall determine the continuity of an aircraft’s 010.02.02.00.04 010.02.02.01.04


airworthiness.

63 Describe how a Certificate of Airworthiness can be renewed or 010.02.02.00.05 010.02.02.01.05


may remain valid.

64 AIRCRAFT NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION MARKS 010.03.00.00 010.02.03.00


65 Definitions in ICAO Annex 7 010.03.01.00 010.02.03.01
66 Recall the definitions of the following terms: 010.03.01.00.01 010.02.03.01.01
- aircraft
- heavier-than-air aircraft
- State of Registry.

67 Aircraf Nationality, common and registration marks to be used 010.03.02.00 010.02.04.00

68 010.02.04.01

69 State the location of nationality and common and registration 010.03.02.00.01 010.02.04.01.01
marks.

70 Explain the combination of nationality and registration marks 010.03.02.00.02


(sequence, use of hyphen).
71 State who is responsible for assigning registration marks. 010.03.02.00.03 010.02.04.01.02

72 World Organisation 010.03.00.00 010.03.00.00


73 PERSONNEL LICENSING 010.04.00.00 010.04.00.00
74 ICAO Annex 1 010.04.01.00 010.04.01.00
75 Differences between ICAO Annex 1 and the Regulation on 010.04.01.01 010.04.01.01
Aircrew
76 Describe the relationship and differences between ICAO Annex 010.04.01.01.01 010.04.01.01.01
1 and the Aircrew Regulation.
77 Part-FCL 010.04.02.00 010.04.02.00

78 Definitions 010.04.02.01 010.04.02.01


79 Define the following: category of aircraft, cross-country, dual 010.04.02.01.01 010.04.02.01.01
instruction time, flight time, SPIC, instrument time, instrument
flight time, instrument ground time, MCC, multi-pilot aircraft,
night, private pilot, proficiency check, renewal, revalidation,
skill test, solo flight time, type of aircraft.

80 Define the following: multi-pilot aeroplanes, PPL, CPL, rating. 010.04.02.01.02 010.04.02.01.02

81 Content and structure 010.04.02.02 010.04.02.02


82 Explain the structure of Part FCL. 010.04.02.02.01 010.04.02.02.01

83 Understand the difference between Part-FCL and AMC/GM to 010.04.02.02.02


Part-FCL.
84 Explain the requirements to act as a flight crew member of a 010.04.02.02.03 010.04.02.02.02
civil aircraft registered in a Member State.

85 State to what extent Member States will accept certificates 010.04.02.02.04


issued by other Member States.
86 List the two factors that are relevant for the exercise of the 010.04.02.02.05 010.04.02.02.03
privileges of a licence.

87 State the circumstances in which a language-proficiency 010.04.02.02.06 010.04.02.02.04


endorsement is required.

88 List the restrictions for licence holders with an age of 60 years 010.04.02.02.07 010.04.02.02.05
or more.

89 Explain the term 'competent authority'. 010.04.02.02.08 010.04.02.02.06

90 Describe the obligation to carry and present documents (e.g. a 010.04.02.02.09 010.04.02.02.07
flight crew licence) under Part-FCL.

91 Commercial Pilot Licence – CPL 010.04.02.03 010.04.02.03


92 State the requirements for the issue of a CPL. 010.04.02.03.01 010.04.02.03.01

93 State the privileges of a CPL. 010.04.02.03.02 010.04.02.03.02

94 Airline Transport Pilot Licence – ATPL and Multi-crew Pilot 010.04.02.04 010.04.02.04
Licence (MPL)
95 State the requirements for the issue of an ATPL and MPL. 010.04.02.04.01 010.04.02.04.01

96 State the privileges of an ATPL and MPL. 010.04.02.04.02 010.04.02.04.02

97 State the requirements for the issue of an ATPL and MPL. 010.04.02.04.01 010.04.02.04.03

98 State the privileges of an ATPL and MPL. 010.04.02.04.02 010.04.02.04.04

99 Ratings 010.04.02.05 010.04.02.05


100 Explain the requirements for class ratings, their validity and 010.04.02.05.01 010.04.02.05.01
privileges.

101 Explain the requirements for type ratings, their validity and 010.04.02.05.02 010.04.02.05.02
privileges.

102 Explain the requirements for instrument ratings, their validity 010.04.02.05.03 010.04.02.05.03
and privileges.

103 010.04.02.05.04

104 Part-MED 010.04.03.00 010.04.03.00


105 010.04.03.01
106 Describe the relevant content of Part-MED - Medical 010.04.03.00.01 010.04.03.01.01
Requirements (administrative parts and requirements related to
licensing only).

107 State the requirements for a medical certificate. 010.04.03.00.02 010.04.03.01.02

108 Name the kind of medical certificate required when exercising 010.04.03.00.03 010.04.03.01.03
the privileges of a CPL or ATPL.

109 State the actions to be taken in case of a decrease in medical 010.04.03.00.04 010.04.03.01.04
fitness.

110 RULES OF THE AIR 010.05.00.00 010.05.00.00


111 Definitions in ICAO Annex 2 010.05.01.00 010.05.01.00

112 010.05.01.01
113 Explain the definitions of ICAO Annex 2. 010.05.01.00.01 010.05.01.01.01
114 010.05.01.01.02

115 Applicability of the Rules of the Air 010.05.02.00 010.05.02.00


116 010.05.02.01
117 Explain the Territorial Application of the ICAO Rules of the Air. 010.05.02.00.01 010.05.02.01.01

118 Explain the compliance with the Rules of the Air. 010.05.02.00.02 010.05.02.01.02

119 State who on board an aircraft is primarily responsible for the 010.05.02.00.03 010.05.02.01.03
operation of the aircraft in accordance with the Rules of the Air.

120 Indicate under what circumstances departure from the Rules of 010.05.02.00.04 010.05.02.01.04
the Air may be allowed.

121 Explain the duties of the PIC concerning pre-flight actions in 010.05.02.00.05 010.05.02.01.05
case of an IFR flight.

122 State who has the final authority as to the disposition of the 010.05.02.00.06 010.05.02.01.06
aircraft.

123 Explain the problematic in the use of psychoactive substances 010.05.02.00.07 010.05.02.01.07
by flight crew members.

124 General rules 010.05.03.00 010.05.03.00


125 010.05.03.01
126 Describe the rules for the avoidance of collisions. 010.05.03.00.01 010.05.03.01.01

127 Describe the lights to be displayed by aircraft. 010.05.03.00.02 010.05.03.01.02

128 Understand marshalling signals. 010.05.03.00.03 010.05.03.01.03

129 State the basic requirements for minimum height for the flight 010.05.03.00.04 010.05.03.01.04
over congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an
open-air assembly of persons.

130 Define when the cruising levels shall be expressed in terms of 010.05.03.00.05 010.05.03.01.05
flight levels (FL).

131 Define under what circumstances cruising levels shall be 010.05.03.00.06 010.05.03.01.06
expressed in terms of altitudes.

132 Explain the limitation for proximity to other aircraft and the 010.05.03.00.07 010.05.03.01.07
right-of-way rules, including holding at runway-holding positions
and lighted stop bars.

133 Describe the meaning of light signals displayed to and by the 010.05.03.00.08 010.05.03.01.08
aircraft.

134 Describe the requirements when carrying out simulated 010.05.03.00.09 010.05.03.01.09
instrument flights.

135 Indicate the basic rules for an aircraft operating on and in the 010.05.03.00.10 010.05.03.01.10
vicinity of an aerodrome (AD).

136 Explain the requirements for the submission of an ATS flight 010.05.03.00.11 010.05.03.01.11
plan.

137 Explain why a time check has to be obtained before the flight. 010.05.03.00.12
138 Explain the actions to be taken in case of flight plan change or 010.05.03.00.13 010.05.03.01.12
delay.

139 State the actions to be taken in case of inadvertent changes to 010.05.03.00.14 010.05.03.01.13
track, true airspeed (TAS) and time estimate affecting the
current flight plan.

140 Explain the procedures for closing a flight plan. 010.05.03.00.15 010.05.03.01.14

141 State for which flights an air traffic control clearance shall be 010.05.03.00.16 010.05.03.01.15
obtained.

142 State how a pilot may request an air traffic control clearance. 010.05.03.00.17 010.05.03.01.16

143 State the action to be taken if an air traffic control clearance is 010.05.03.00.18 010.05.03.01.17
not satisfactory to a pilot-in-command.

144 Describe the required actions to be carried out if the 010.05.03.00.19 010.05.03.01.18
continuation of a controlled VFR flight in VMC is not practicable
anymore.

145 Describe the provisions for transmitting a position report to the 010.05.03.00.20 010.05.03.01.19
appropriate ATS unit including time of transmission and normal
content of the message.

146 Describe the necessary action when an aircraft experiences a 010.05.03.00.21 010.05.03.01.20
COM failure.

147 State what information an aircraft being subjected to unlawful 010.05.03.00.22 010.05.03.01.21
interference shall give to the appropriate ATS unit.

148 Visual flight rules (VFR) 010.05.04.00 010.05.04.00


149 010.05.04.01
150 Describe the Visual Flight Rules as contained in Chapter 4 of 010.05.04.00.01 010.05.04.01.01
ICAO Annex 2.

151 Instrument flight rules (IFR) 010.05.05.00 010.05.05.00


152 010.05.05.01
153 Describe the Instrument Flight Rules as contained in Chapter 5 010.05.05.00.01 010.05.05.01.01
of ICAO Annex 2.

154 Interception of civil aircraf 010.05.06.00 010.05.06.00


155 010.05.06.01
156 List the possible reasons for the intercepting a civil aircraft. 010.05.06.00.01 010.05.06.01.01

157 State what primary action should be carried out by an 010.05.06.00.02 010.05.06.01.02
intercepted aircraft.

158 State which frequency should primarily be tried in order to 010.05.06.00.03 010.05.06.01.03
contact an intercepting aircraft.

159 State on which mode and code a transponder on board the 010.05.06.00.04 010.05.06.01.04
intercepted aircraft should be operated.

160 Recall the interception signals and phrases. 010.05.06.00.05 010.05.06.01.05

161 PROCEDURES FOR AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES – AIRCRAFT 010.06.00.00 010.06.00.00


OPERATIONS (PANS OPS)
162 Foreword and introduction 010.06.01.00 010.06.01.00
163 Translate the term “PANS-OPS“ into plain language. 010.06.01.00.01
164 State the general aim of PANS-OPS Flight Procedures (ICAO Doc 010.06.01.00.02
8168, Volume I).
165 Definitions and abbreviations 010.06.02.00 010.06.02.00

166 010.06.02.01
167 Recall all definitions included in ICAO Doc. 8168 Volume I, Part I, 010.06.02.00.01 010.06.02.01.01
Chapter 1.

168 Interpret all abbreviations as shown in ICAO Doc 8168, Volume 010.06.02.00.02 010.06.02.01.02
I, Part I, Chapter 2.

169 Departure procedures 010.06.03.00 010.06.03.00


170 General criteria (assuming all engines operating) 010.06.03.01 010.06.03.01
171 Name the factors dictating the design of instrument departure 010.06.03.01.01 010.06.03.01.01
procedures.

172 Explain in which situations the criteria for omni-directional 010.06.03.01.02 010.06.03.01.02
departures are applied.

173 Standard instrument departures (SIDs) 010.06.03.02 010.06.03.02


174 Define the terms “straight departure” and “turning departure”. 010.06.03.02.01 010.06.03.02.01

175 State the responsibility of the operator when unable to utilize 010.06.03.02.02
the published departure procedures.
176 Omni-directional departures 010.06.03.03 010.06.03.03
177 Explain when the “omni-directional method” is used for 010.06.03.03.01 010.06.03.03.01
departure.

178 Describe the solutions when an omni-directional procedure is 010.06.03.03.02


not possible.
179 Published information 010.06.03.04 010.06.03.04
180 State the conditions for the publication of a SID and/or RNAV 010.06.03.04.01
route.
181 Describe how omni-directional departures are expressed in the 010.06.03.04.02
appropriate publication.
182 Area Navigation (RNAV) Departure Procedures and RNP-based 010.06.03.05 010.06.03.05
Departures
183 Explain the relationship between RNAV/RNP-based departure 010.06.03.05.01
procedures and those for approaches.
184 Approach procedures 010.06.04.00 010.06.04.00
185 General criteria 010.06.04.01 010.06.04.01
186 General criteria (except table “Speeds for procedure 010.06.04.01.01 010.06.04.01.01
calculations") of Approach Procedure Design.
Instrument Approach Areas,
Accuracy of fixes,
Fixes formed by Intersections,
Intersection fix tolerance factors,
other fix tolerance factors,
Approach Area Splays,
Descent Gradient.

187 Name the five possible segments of an instrument approach 010.06.04.01.02 010.06.04.01.02
procedure.

188 Give reasons for establishing aircraft categories for the 010.06.04.01.03 010.06.04.01.03
approach.

189 State the maximum angle between the final approach track and 010.06.04.01.04 010.06.04.01.04
the extended RWY centre-line to still consider a non-precision-
approach as being a “Straight-In Approach“.

190 State the minimum obstacle clearance provided by the 010.06.04.01.05 010.06.04.01.05
minimum sector altitudes (MSA) established for an aerodrome.

191 Describe the point of origin, shape, size and sub-divisions of the 010.06.04.01.06
area used for MSAs.
192 State that a pilot shall apply wind corrections wind when 010.06.04.01.07 010.06.04.01.06
carrying out an instrument approach procedures.
193 Name the most significant performance factor influencing the 010.06.04.01.08 010.06.04.01.07
conduct of Instrument Approach Procedures.

194 Explain why a pilot should not descend below OCA/Hs which 010.06.04.01.09 010.06.04.01.08
are established for:
- precision approach procedures;
- a non-precision approach procedures;
- visual (circling) procedures.

195 Describe in general terms, the relevant factors for the 010.06.04.01.10 010.06.04.01.09
calculation of operational minima.

196 Translate the following abbreviations into plain language: 010.06.04.01.11 010.06.04.01.10
DA, DH, OCA, OCH, MDA, MDH, MOC, DA/H, OCA/H, MDA/H.

197 Explain the relationship between the terms: 010.06.04.01.12 010.06.04.01.11


DA, DH, OCA, OCH, MDA, MDH, MOC, DA/H, OCA/H, MDA/H.

198 Approach procedure design 010.06.04.02 010.06.04.02


199 Describe how the vertical cross-section for each of the five 010.06.04.02.01 010.06.04.02.01
approach segments is broken down into the various areas.

200 State within which area of the cross-section the Minimum 010.06.04.02.02 010.06.04.02.02
Obstacle Clearance (MOC) is provided for the whole width of
the area.

201 Define the terms IAF, IF, FAF, MAPt and TP. 010.06.04.02.03 010.06.04.02.03

202 Name the area within which the plotted point of an intersection 010.06.04.02.04
fix may lie.
203 Explain by which factors the dimensions of an intersection fix 010.06.04.02.05
are determined.
204 State the accuracy of facilities providing track (VOR, ILS, NDB). 010.06.04.02.06 010.06.04.02.04

205 Describe the “other fix tolerance factors“: 010.06.04.02.07


Surveillance Radar (Terminal Area Radar / TAR, En-route
surveillance radar / RSR), DME, 75 MHz Marker Beacon, Fixes
overhead a station (VOR, NDB).

206 Describe the basic information relating to approach area splays. 010.06.04.02.08

207 State the optimum descent gradient (preferred for a precision 010.06.04.02.09 010.06.04.02.05
approach) in degrees and percent.

208 Arrival and approach segments 010.06.04.03 010.06.04.03


209 Name the five standard segments of an instrument APP 010.06.04.03.01 010.06.04.03.01
procedure and state the beginning and end for each of them.

210 Describe where an ARR route normally ends. 010.06.04.03.02 010.06.04.03.02

211 State whether or not omni-directional or sector arrivals can be p 010.06.04.03.03


212 Explain the main task for the initial APP segment. 010.06.04.03.04 010.06.04.03.03
213 Describe the maximum angle of interception between the initial 010.06.04.03.05 010.06.04.03.04
APP segment and the intermediate APP segment (provided at
the intermediate fix) for a precision APP and a non-precision
APP.

214 Describe the main task of the intermediate APP segment. 010.06.04.03.06 010.06.04.03.05

215 State the main task of the final APP segment. 010.06.04.03.07 010.06.04.03.06

216 Name the two possible aims of a final APP. 010.06.04.03.08 010.06.04.03.07

217 Explain the term “final approach point“ in case of an ILS 010.06.04.03.09 010.06.04.03.08
approach.

218 State what happens if an ILS GP becomes inoperative during the 010.06.04.03.10 010.06.04.03.09
APP.

219 Missed approach 010.06.04.04 010.06.04.04


220 Name the three phases of a missed approach procedure and 010.06.04.04.01 010.06.04.04.01
describe their geometric limits.

221 Describe the main task of a missed approach procedure. 010.06.04.04.02 010.06.04.04.02

222 State at which height / altitude the missed approach is assured 010.06.04.04.03
to be initiated.
223 Define the term “missed approach point (MAPt)“. 010.06.04.04.04 010.06.04.04.03

224 Describe how an MAPt may be established in an approach 010.06.04.04.05 010.06.04.04.04


procedure.

225 State the pilot‘s reaction if, upon reaching the MAPt, the 010.06.04.04.06 010.06.04.04.05
required visual reference is not established.

226 Describe what a pilot is expected to do in the event a missed 010.06.04.04.07 010.06.04.04.06
approach is initiated prior to arriving at the MAPt.

227 State whether the pilot is obliged to cross the MAPt at the 010.06.04.04.08 010.06.04.04.07
height / altitude required by the procedure or whether he is
allowed to cross the MAPt at an altitude / height greater than
that required by the procedure.

228 Visual manoeuvring (circling) in the vicinity of the aerodrome 010.06.04.05 010.06.04.05

229 Describe what is meant by “visual manoeuvring (circling)”. 010.06.04.05.01 010.06.04.05.01

230 Describe how a prominent obstacle in the visual manoeuvring 010.06.04.05.02 010.06.04.05.02
(circling) area outside the final approach and missed approach
area has to be considered for the visual circling.

231 State for which category of aircraft the obstacle clearance 010.06.04.05.03 010.06.04.05.03
altitude/height within an established visual manoeuvring
(circling) area is determined.
232 Describe how an MDA/H is specified for visual manoeuvring 010.06.04.05.04 010.06.04.05.04
(circling) if the OCA/H is known.

233 State the conditions to be fulfilled before descending below 010.06.04.05.05 010.06.04.05.05
MDA/H in a visual manoeuvring (circling) approach.

234 Describe why there can be no single procedure designed that 010.06.04.05.06 010.06.04.05.06
will cater for conducting a circling approach in every situation.

235 State how the pilot is expected to behave after initial visual 010.06.04.05.07 010.06.04.05.07
contact during a visual manoeuvring (circling).

236 Describe what the pilot is expected to do if visual reference is 010.06.04.05.08 010.06.04.05.08
lost while circling to land from an instrument approach.

237 Area navigation (RNAV) approach procedures based on 010.06.04.06 010.06.04.06


VOR/DME

238 Describe the provisions that must be fulfilled before carrying 010.06.04.06.01
out VOR / DME RNAV approaches.
239 Explain the disadvantages of the VOR / DME RNAV system. 010.06.04.06.02

240 List the factors on which the navigational accuracy of the VOR / 010.06.04.06.03
DME RNAV system depends.
241 State whether the VOR / DME / RNAV approach is a precision or 010.06.04.06.04
a non-precision procedure.
242 Use of FMS / RNAV equipment to follow conventional non- 010.06.04.07
precision approach procedures
243 State the provisions for flying the conventional non-precision 010.06.04.07.01
approach procedures using FMS / RNAV equipment.

244 Holding procedures 010.06.05.00 010.06.05.00


245 Entry and holding 010.06.05.01 010.06.05.01
246 Explain why deviations from the in-flight procedures of a 010.06.05.01.01 010.06.05.01.01
holding established in accordance with Doc. 8168 are
dangerous.

247 State that if for any reasons a pilot is unable to conform to the 010.06.05.01.02 010.06.05.01.02
procedures for normal conditions laid down for any particular
holding pattern, he should advise ATC as early as possible.

248 Describe how the right turns holdings can be transferred to left 010.06.05.01.03
turn holding patterns.
249 Describe the shape and terminology associated with the 010.06.05.01.04 010.06.05.01.03
holding pattern.

250 State the bank angle and rate of turn to be used whilst flying in 010.06.05.01.05 010.06.05.01.04
a holding pattern.

251 Explain why pilots in a holding pattern should attempt to 010.06.05.01.06 010.06.05.01.05
maintain tracks and how this can be achieved.

252 Describe where outbound timing begins in a holding pattern. 010.06.05.01.07 010.06.05.01.06

253 State where the outbound leg in a holding terminates if the 010.06.05.01.08 010.06.05.01.07
outbound leg is based on DME.

254 Describe the three heading entry sectors for entries into a 010.06.05.01.09 010.06.05.01.08
holding pattern.

255 Define the terms “parallel entry“, “offset entry“ and “direct 010.06.05.01.10 010.06.05.01.09
entry“.
256 Determine the correct entry procedure for a given holding 010.06.05.01.11 010.06.05.01.10
pattern.

257 State the still air time for flying the outbound entry heading 010.06.05.01.12 010.06.05.01.11
with or without DME.

258 Describe what the pilot is expected to do when clearance is 010.06.05.01.13 010.06.05.01.12
received specifying the time of departure from the holding
point.

259 Obstacle clearance (except table) 010.06.05.02 010.06.05.02


260 Describe the layout of the basic holding area, entry area and 010.06.05.02.01 010.06.05.02.01
buffer area of a holding pattern.

261 State which obstacle clearance is provided by a minimum 010.06.05.02.02 010.06.05.02.02


permissible holding level referring to the holding area, the
buffer area (general only) and over high terrain or in
mountainous areas.

262 Altimeter setting procedures 010.06.06.00 010.06.06.00


263 Basic requirements and procedures 010.06.06.01 010.06.06.01
264 Describe the two main objectives for altimeter settings. 010.06.06.01.01 010.06.06.01.01

265 Define the terms “QNH” and “QFE”. 010.06.06.01.02 010.06.06.01.02

266 Describe the different terms of altitude or flight levels 010.06.06.01.03 010.06.06.01.03
respectively which are the references during climb or descent to
change the altimeter setting from QNH to 1013.2 hPa and vice
versa.

267 Define the term “flight level” (FL). 010.06.06.01.04 010.06.06.01.04

268 State where flight level zero shall be located. 010.06.06.01.05 010.06.06.01.05

269 State the interval by which consecutive flight levels shall be 010.06.06.01.06 010.06.06.01.06
separated.

270 Describe how flight levels are numbered. 010.06.06.01.07 010.06.06.01.07

271 Define the term “Transition Altitude”. 010.06.06.01.08 010.06.06.01.08

272 State how Transition Altitudes shall normally be specified. 010.06.06.01.09 010.06.06.01.09

273 Explain how the height of the Transition Altitude is calculated 010.06.06.01.10 010.06.06.01.10
and expressed in practice.

274 State where Transition Altitudes shall be published. 010.06.06.01.11 010.06.06.01.11

275 Define the term “Transition Level”. 010.06.06.01.12 010.06.06.01.12

276 State when the Transition Level is normally passed to aircraft. 010.06.06.01.13 010.06.06.01.13

277 State how the vertical position of aircraft shall be expressed at 010.06.06.01.14 010.06.06.01.14
or below the Transition Altitude and Transition Level.

278 Define the term “Transition Layer”. 010.06.06.01.15 010.06.06.01.15

279 Describe when the vertical position of an aircraft passing 010.06.06.01.16 010.06.06.01.16
through the transition layer shall be expressed in terms of flight
levels and when in terms of altitude.

280 State when the QNH altimeter setting shall be made available to 010.06.06.01.17 010.06.06.01.17
departing aircraft.
281 Explain when the vertical separation of aircraft during en-route 010.06.06.01.18 010.06.06.01.18
flight shall be assessed in terms of altitude and when in terms
of flight levels.

282 Explain when, in air-ground communications during an en-route 010.06.06.01.19 010.06.06.01.19


flight, the vertical position of an aircraft shall be expressed in
terms of altitude and when in terms of flight levels.

283 Describe why QNH altimeter setting reports should be provided 010.06.06.01.20 010.06.06.01.20
from sufficient locations.

284 State how a QNH altimeter setting shall be made available to 010.06.06.01.21 010.06.06.01.21
aircraft approaching a controlled aerodrome for landing.

285 State under which circumstances the vertical position of an 010.06.06.01.22 010.06.06.01.22
aircraft above the transition level may be referenced to
altitudes.

286 Procedures for operators and pilots 010.06.06.02 010.06.06.02


287 State the three requirements that selected altitudes or flight 010.06.06.02.01
levels selected should have.
288 Describe a pre-flight operational test in case of QNH setting and 010.06.06.02.02
in case of QFE setting including indication (error) tolerances
referred to the different test ranges.

289 State on which setting at least one altimeter shall be set prior to 010.06.06.02.03 010.06.06.02.01
take off.

290 State where during the climb the altimeter setting shall be 010.06.06.02.04 010.06.06.02.02
changed from QNH to 1013.2 hPa.

291 Describe when a pilot of an aircraft intending to land at an AD 010.06.06.02.05 010.06.06.02.03


shall obtain the transition level.

292 Describe when a pilot of an aircraft intending to land at an AD 010.06.06.02.06 010.06.06.02.04


shall obtain the actual QNH altimeter setting.

293 State where the altimeter settings shall be changed from 1013.2 010.06.06.02.07 010.06.06.02.05
hPa to QNH during descent for landing.

294 Simultaneous Operation on parallel or near-parallel instrument 010.06.07.00 010.06.07.00


Runways
295 010.06.07.01

296 Describe the difference between independent and dependent 010.06.07.00.01 010.06.07.01.01
parallel approaches.

297 Describe the following different operations: 010.06.07.00.02 010.06.07.01.02


- Simultaneous instrument departures
- Segregated parallel approaches / departures
- Semi-mixed and mixed operations.

298 Know about “NOZ” and “NTZ”. 010.06.07.00.03 010.06.07.01.03

299 Name the aircraft equipment requirements for conducting 010.06.07.00.04 010.06.07.01.04
parallel instrument approaches.

300 State under which circumstances parallel instrument 010.06.07.00.05 010.06.07.01.05


approaches may be conducted.

301 State the radar requirements for simultaneous independent 010.06.07.00.06 010.06.07.01.06
parallel instrument approaches and how weather conditions
effect this.

302 State the maximum angle of interception for an ILS localizer CRS 010.06.07.00.07 010.06.07.01.07
or MLS final APP Track in case of simultaneous independent
parallel instrument approaches.
303 Describe the special conditions for tracks on missed approach 010.06.07.00.08 010.06.07.01.08
procedures and departures in case of simultaneous parallel
operations.

304 Secondary surveillance radar (transponder) operating 010.06.08.00 010.06.08.00


procedures
305 Operation of transponders 010.06.08.01 010.06.08.01
306 State when and where the pilot shall operate the transponder. 010.06.08.01.01 010.06.08.01.01

307 State the modes and codes that the pilot shall operate in the 010.06.08.01.02 010.06.08.01.02
absence of any ATC directions or regional air navigation
agreements.

308 Indicate when the pilot shall operate Mode C. 010.06.08.01.03 010.06.08.01.03

309 State when the pilot shall “SQUAWK IDENT“. 010.06.08.01.04 010.06.08.01.04

310 State the transponder mode and code to indicate: 010.06.08.01.05 010.06.08.01.05
- a state of emergency
- a Communication failure
- unlawful interference.

311 Name and interpret the codes 7700, 7600 and 7500. 062.03.04.03.03 010.06.08.01.05 Moved from
(Moved and merged into 010.06.08.01.05) subject 062
312 Describe the consequences of a transponder failure in flight. 010.06.08.01.06 010.06.08.01.06

313 State the primary action of the pilot in the case of an 010.06.08.01.07 010.06.08.01.07
unserviceable transponder before departure when no repair or
replacement at this aerodrome is possible.

314 Indicate when the pilot shall operate Mode S. 010.06.08.01.08 010.06.08.01.08

315 Operation of ACAS equipment 010.06.08.02 010.06.08.02

316 Describe the main reason for using ACAS. 010.06.08.02.01 010.06.08.02.01

317 Indicate whether the “use of ACAS indications” described in Doc 010.06.08.02.02 010.06.08.02.02
8168 is absolutely mandatory.

318 Explain the pilots reaction required to allow ACAS to fulfil its 010.06.08.02.03 010.06.08.02.03
role of assisting pilots in the avoidance of potential collisions.

319 Explain why pilots shall not manoeuvre their aircraft in response 010.06.08.02.04 010.06.08.02.04
to Traffic Advisories only.

320 Explain the significance of Traffic Advisories in view of possible 010.06.08.02.05 010.06.08.02.05
Resolution Advisories.

321 State why a pilot should follow Resolution Advisories 010.06.08.02.06 010.06.08.02.06
immediately.

322 List the reasons which may force a pilot to disregard an 010.06.08.02.07 010.06.08.02.07
Resolution Advisory.

323 Decide how a pilot shall react if there is a conflict between 010.06.08.02.08
Resolution Advisories in case of an ACAS / ACAS co-ordinated
encounter Resolution Advisories.

324 Explain the importance of instructing ATC immediately that a 010.06.08.02.09 010.06.08.02.08
Resolution Advisories has been followed.

325 Explain the duties of a pilot as far as ATC is concerned when a 010.06.08.02.10 010.06.08.02.09
Resolution Advisories situation is resolved.

326 010.06.09.00
327 010.06.09.01
328 010.06.09.01.01

329 010.06.09.01.02

330 010.06.09.02
331 010.06.09.02.01

332 010.06.09.03

333 010.06.09.03.01
334 010.06.09.03.02

335 AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES AND AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 010.07.00.00 010.07.00.00

336 ICAO Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services 010.07.01.00 010.07.01.00


337 Definitions 010.07.01.01 010.07.01.01
338 Recall the Definitions given in ICAO Annex 11. 010.07.01.01.01 010.07.01.01.01

339 General 010.07.01.02 010.07.01.02


340 Name the objectives of Air Traffic Services (ATS). 010.07.01.02.01 010.07.01.02.01

341 Describe the three basic types of Air Traffic Services. 010.07.01.02.02 010.07.01.02.02

342 Describe the three basic types of Air Traffic Control services 010.07.01.02.03 010.07.01.02.03
(ATC).

343 Indicate when aerodrome control towers shall provide an 010.07.01.02.04


accurate time check to pilots.
344 State on which frequencies a pilot can expect ATS to contact 010.07.01.02.05 010.07.01.02.04
him in case of an emergency.

345 Understand the procedure for the transfer of an aircraft from 010.07.01.02.06 010.07.01.02.05
one ATC unit to another.

346 Airspace 010.07.01.03 010.07.01.03


347 Describe the purpose for establishing FIRs including UIRs. 010.07.01.03.01 010.07.01.03.01

348 Understand the various rules and services that apply in the 010.07.01.03.02 010.07.01.03.02
various classes of airspace.

349 Explain which airspace shall be included in an FIR or UIR. 010.07.01.03.03 010.07.01.03.03
350 State the designation for those portions of the airspace where 010.07.01.03.04 010.07.01.03.04
flight information service (FIS) and alerting service will be
provided.

351 State the designations for those portions of the airspace where 010.07.01.03.05 010.07.01.03.05
ATC service will be provided.

352 Indicate whether or not CTAs and CTRs designated within a FIR 010.07.01.03.06 010.07.01.03.06
shall form part of that FIR.

353 Name the lower limit of a CTA as far as ICAO standards are 010.07.01.03.07 010.07.01.03.07
concerned.
354 State whether or not the lower limit of a CTA has to be 010.07.01.03.08 010.07.01.03.08
established uniformly.

355 Explain why an UIR or Upper CTA should be delineated to 010.07.01.03.09 010.07.01.03.09
include the Upper Airspace within the lateral limits of a number
of lower FIR or CTAs.

356 Describe in general the lateral limits of CTRs. 010.07.01.03.10 010.07.01.03.10

357 State the minimum extension (in NM) of the lateral limits of a 010.07.01.03.11 010.07.01.03.11
CTR.

358 State the upper limits of a CTR located within the lateral limits 010.07.01.03.12 010.07.01.03.12
of a CTA.

359 Air Traffic Control Services 010.07.01.04 010.07.01.04


360 Name all classes of airspace in which ATC shall be provided. 010.07.01.04.01 010.07.01.04.01

361 Name the ATS units providing ATC service (area control service, 010.07.01.04.02 010.07.01.04.02
approach control service, aerodrome control service).

362 Describe which unit(s) may be assigned with the task to provide 010.07.01.04.03 010.07.01.04.03
specified services on the apron.

363 Name the purpose of clearances issued by an ATC unit. 010.07.01.04.04 010.07.01.04.04

364 Describe the aim of clearances issued by ATC with regard to IFR, 010.07.01.04.05
VFR or special VFR flights and refer to the different airspaces.

365 List the various (five possible) parts of an ATC clearance. 010.07.01.04.06 010.07.01.04.05

366 Describe the various aspects of clearance co-ordination. 010.07.01.04.07


367 State how ATC shall react when it becomes apparent that traffic, 010.07.01.04.08
additional to that one already accepted, cannot be
accommodated within a given period of time at a particular
location or in a particular area, or can only be accommodated at
a given rate.

368 Explain why the movement of persons, vehicles and towed 010.07.01.04.09 010.07.01.04.06
aircraft on the manoeuvring area of an AD shall be controlled by
the AD TWR (as necessary).

369 Flight information service (FIS) 010.07.01.05 010.07.01.05


370 State for which aircraft FIS shall be provided. 010.07.01.05.01 010.07.01.05.01

371 State whether or not FIS shall include the provision of pertinent 010.07.01.05.02 010.07.01.05.02
SIGMET and AIRMET information.

372 State which information FIS shall include in addition to SIGMET 010.07.01.05.03 010.07.01.05.03
and AIRMET information.

373 Indicate which other information the FIS shall include in 010.07.01.05.04 010.07.01.05.04
addition to the special information given in ANNEX 11.

374 Name the three major types of operational FIS broadcasts. 010.07.01.05.05

375 Give the meaning of the acronym ATIS in plain language. 010.07.01.05.06 010.07.01.05.05

376 Show that you are acquainted with the basic conditions for 010.07.01.05.07
transmitting an ATIS as indicated in ANNEX 11.
377 Mention the four possible ATIS messages. 010.07.01.05.08
378 List the basic information concerning ATIS broadcasts (e.g. 010.07.01.05.09 010.07.01.05.06
frequencies used, number of ADs included, updating,
identification, acknowledgment of receipt, language and
channels, ALT setting).

379 Understand the content of an ATIS message and the factors 010.07.01.05.10 010.07.01.05.07
involved.

380 State the reasons and circumstances when an ATIS message 010.07.01.05.11 010.07.01.05.08
shall be updated.

381 Alerting service 010.07.01.06 010.07.01.06


382 Indicate who is providing the Alerting Service. 010.07.01.06.01 010.07.01.06.01

383 State who is responsible for initiating the appropriate 010.07.01.06.02 010.07.01.06.02
emergency phase.

384 Indicate the aircraft to which alerting service shall be provided. 010.07.01.06.03 010.07.01.06.03

385 Name the unit which shall be notified by the responsible ATS 010.07.01.06.04 010.07.01.06.04
unit immediately an aircraft is considered to be in a state of
emergency.

386 Name the three stages of emergency and describe the basic 010.07.01.06.05 010.07.01.06.05
conditions for each kind of emergency.

387 Show knowledge of the meaning of the expressions INCERFA, 010.07.01.06.06 010.07.01.06.06
ALERFA and DETRESFA.

388 Describe the limiting conditions for the information of aircraft in 010.07.01.06.07 010.07.01.06.07
the vicinity of an aircraft being in a state of emergency.

389 Principles governing RNP and ATS route designators 010.07.01.07 010.07.01.07

390 State the meaning of the expressions RNP 4, RNP 1 etc. 010.07.01.07.01 010.07.01.07.01

391 State the factors that RNP are based on. 010.07.01.07.02 010.07.01.07.02

392 Describe the reason for establishing a system of route 010.07.01.07.03 010.07.01.07.03
designators and required navigation performance (RNP).

393 State whether or not a prescribed RNP type is considered an 010.07.01.07.04 010.07.01.07.04
integral part of the ATS route designator.

394 Demonstrate general knowledge of the composition of an ATS 010.07.01.07.05 010.07.01.07.05


route designator.

395 ICAO Document 4444 - Air Traffic Management 010.07.02.00 010.07.02.00


396 Foreword (Scope and purpose) 010.07.02.01 010.07.02.01
397 Explain in plain language the meaning of the abbreviation 010.07.02.01.01
“PANS-ATM”.
398 State whether or not the procedures prescribed in ICAO Doc 010.07.02.01.02
4444 are directed exclusively to ATS services personnel.

399 Describe the relationship between ICAO Doc 4444 and other 010.07.02.01.03
documents.
400 State whether or not a clearance issued by ATC units does 010.07.02.01.04 010.07.02.01.01
include prevention of collision with terrain and if there is an
exception to this, name the exception.

401 Definitions 010.07.02.02 010.07.02.02


402 Recall all definitions given in Doc 4444 except the following: 010.07.02.02.01 010.07.02.02.01
accepting unit / controller, AD taxi circuit, aeronautical fixed
service (AFS), aeronautical fixed station, air-taxiing, allocation,
approach funnel, assignment, data convention, data processing,
discrete code, D-value, flight status, ground effect, receiving unit
/ controller, sending unit / controller, transfer of control point,
transferring unit / controller, unmanned free balloon.

403 ATS System Capacity and Air Traffic Flow Management 010.07.02.03 010.07.02.03

404 Explain when and where an air traffic flow management (ATFM) 010.07.02.03.01 010.07.02.03.01
service shall be implemented.

405 General Provisions for Air Traffic services 010.07.02.04 010.07.02.04


406 Describe who is responsible for the provision of flight 010.07.02.04.01 010.07.02.04.01
information and alerting service within a flight information
region (FIR) within controlled airspace and at controlled
aerodromes.

407 ATC clearances 010.07.02.05 010.07.02.05


408 Explain “the sole scope and purpose” of an ATC clearance. 010.07.02.05.01

409 State on which information the issue of an ATC clearance is 010.07.02.05.02 010.07.02.05.01
based.

410 Describe what a PIC should do if an ATC clearance is not 010.07.02.05.03 010.07.02.05.02
suitable.

411 Indicate who bears the responsibility for maintaining applicable 010.07.02.05.04 010.07.02.05.03
rules and regulations whilst flying under the control of an ATC
unit.

412 Name the two primary purposes of clearances issued by ATC 010.07.02.05.05 010.07.02.05.04
units.

413 State why clearances must be issued “early enough” to en-route 010.07.02.05.06 010.07.02.05.05
aircraft.

414 Explain what is meant by the expression “clearance limit”. 010.07.02.05.07 010.07.02.05.06

415 Explain the meaning of the phrases “cleared via flight planned 010.07.02.05.08 010.07.02.05.07
route”, “cleared via (designation) departure” and “cleared via
(designation) arrival “ in an ATC clearance.

416 List which items of an ATC clearance shall always be read back 010.07.02.05.09 010.07.02.05.08
by the flight crew.

417 Horizontal Speed Control Instructions 010.07.02.06 010.07.02.06


418 Explain the reason for speed control by ATC. 010.07.02.06.01 010.07.02.06.01

419 Define the maximum speed changes that ATC may impose. 010.07.02.06.02 010.07.02.06.02

420 State within which distance from the threshold the PIC must not 010.07.02.06.03 010.07.02.06.03
expect any kind of speed control.

421 Change from IFR to VFR flight 010.07.02.07 010.07.02.07


422 Explain how the change from IFR to VFR can be initiated by the 010.07.02.07.01 010.07.02.07.01
PIC.
423 Indicate the expected reaction of the appropriate ATC unit upon 010.07.02.07.02 010.07.02.07.02
a request to change from IFR to VFR.

424 Wake turbulence 010.07.02.08 010.07.02.08


425 State the wake-turbulence categories of aircraft. 010.07.02.08.01 010.07.02.08.01

426 State the wake-turbulence separation minima. 010.07.02.08.02 010.07.02.08.02

427 Describe how a “Heavy” aircraft shall indicate this on the initial 010.07.02.08.03 010.07.02.08.03
radiotelephony contact with ATS.

428 Altimeter setting procedures 010.07.02.09 010.07.02.09


429 Define the following terms: 010.07.02.09.01 010.07.02.09.01
- transition level
- transition layer
- and transition altitude.

430 Indicate how the vertical position of an aircraft in the vicinity of 010.07.02.09.02 010.07.02.09.02
an aerodrome shall be expressed at or below the transition
altitude, at or above the transition level and while climbing or
descending through the transition layer.

431 Describe when the height of an aircraft using QFE during an 010.07.02.09.03 010.07.02.09.03
NDB approach is referred to the landing threshold instead of
the aerodrome elevation.

432 Indicate how far altimeter settings provided to aircraft shall be 010.07.02.09.04 010.07.02.09.04
rounded up or down.

433 Define the expression “lowest usable flight level”. 010.07.02.09.05 010.07.02.09.05

434 Determine how the vertical position of an aircraft on a flight en- 010.07.02.09.06 010.07.02.09.06
route is expressed at or above the lowest usable flight level and
below the lowest usable flight level.

435 State who establishes the transition level to be used in the 010.07.02.09.07 010.07.02.09.07
vicinity of an aerodrome.

436 Decide how and when a flight crew shall be informed about the 010.07.02.09.08 010.07.02.09.08
transition level.

437 State whether or not the pilot can request the transition level to 010.07.02.09.09 010.07.02.09.09
be included in the approach clearance.

438 State in what kind of clearance the QNH altimeter setting shall 010.07.02.09.10
be included.
439 Position reporting 010.07.02.10 010.07.02.10
440 Describe when position reports shall be made by an aircraft 010.07.02.10.01 010.07.02.10.01
flying on routes defined by designated significant points.

441 List the six items that are normally included in a voice position 010.07.02.10.02 010.07.02.10.02
report.

442 Name the requirements for using a simplified position report 010.07.02.10.03 010.07.02.10.03
with Flight level, next position (and time over) and ensuing
significant points omitted.
443 Name the item of a position report which must be forwarded to 010.07.02.10.04 010.07.02.10.04
ATC with the initial call after changing to a new frequency.

444 Indicate the item of a position report which may be omitted if 010.07.02.10.05 010.07.02.10.05
SSR Mode C is used.

445 Explain in which circumstances the indicated air speed should 010.07.02.10.06 010.07.02.10.06
be included in a position report.

446 Explain the meaning of the abbreviation “ADS”. 010.07.02.10.07 010.07.02.10.07


447 State to which unit an ADS report shall be made. 010.07.02.10.08
448 Describe how ADS reports shall be made. 010.07.02.10.09
449 Describe which expression shall precede the level figures in a 010.07.02.10.10 010.07.02.10.08
position report if the level is reported in relation to 1013.2 hPa
(standard pressure).

450 Reporting of operational and meteorological information 010.07.02.11 010.07.02.11

451 List the occasions when special air reports shall be made. 010.07.02.11.01 010.07.02.11.01

452 Separation methods and minima 010.07.02.12 010.07.02.12


453 Explain the general provisions for the separation of controlled 010.07.02.12.01 010.07.02.12.01
traffic.

454 Name the different kind of separation used in aviation. 010.07.02.12.02 010.07.02.12.02

455 Understand the difference between the type of separation 010.07.02.12.03 010.07.02.12.03
provided within the various classes of airspace and between the
various types of flight.

456 State who is responsible for the avoidance of collision with 010.07.02.12.04 010.07.02.12.04
other aircraft when operating in VMC.

457 State the ICAO documents in which details of current separation 010.07.02.12.05
minima are prescribed.
458 Describe how vertical separation is obtained. 010.07.02.12.06 010.07.02.12.05

459 State the required vertical separation minimum. 010.07.02.12.07 010.07.02.12.06

460 Describe how the cruising levels of aircraft flying to the same 010.07.02.12.08 010.07.02.12.07
destination and the expected approach sequence are correlated
between each other.

461 Name the conditions that must be adhered to, when two 010.07.02.12.09 010.07.02.12.08
aircraft are cleared to maintain a specified vertical separation
between them during climb or descent.

462 List the two main methods for horizontal separation. 010.07.02.12.10 010.07.02.12.09

463 Describe how lateral separation of aircraft at the same level may 010.07.02.12.11 010.07.02.12.10
be obtained.

464 Explain the term “Geographical Separation“. 010.07.02.12.12 010.07.02.12.11

465 Describe track separation between aircraft using the same 010.07.02.12.13 010.07.02.12.12
navigation aid or method.
466 Describe the three basic means for the establishment of 010.07.02.12.14 010.07.02.12.13
longitudinal separation.

467 Describe the circumstances under which a reduction in 010.07.02.12.15


separation minima may be allowed.
468 Indicate the standard horizontal radar separation in NM. 010.07.02.12.16 010.07.02.12.14

469 Describe the method of Mach Number Technique. 010.07.02.12.17 010.07.02.12.15

470 State the wake turbulence radar separation for aircraft in the 010.07.02.12.18
APP and DEP phases of a flight when an aircraft is operating
directly behind another aircraft at the same ALT or less than 300
m (1000 ft) below.

471 Separation in the vicinity of aerodromes 010.07.02.13 010.07.02.13


472 Define the expression “Essential Local Traffic”. 010.07.02.13.01 010.07.02.13.01

473 State which possible decision the PIC may choose if departing 010.07.02.13.02 010.07.02.13.02
aircraft are expedited by suggesting a take-off direction which is
not “into the wind”.

474 State the condition to enable ATC to initiate a visual approach 010.07.02.13.03 010.07.02.13.03
for an IFR flight.

475 Indicate whether or not separation will be provided by ATC 010.07.02.13.04 010.07.02.13.04
between an aircraft executing a visual approach and other
arriving or departing aircraft.

476 State in which case when the flight crew are not familiar with 010.07.02.13.05 010.07.02.13.05
the instrument approach procedure being carried out, that only
the final approach track has to be forwarded to them by ATC.

477 Describe which flight level should be assigned to an aircraft first 010.07.02.13.06 010.07.02.13.06
arriving over a holding fix for landing.

478 Talk about the priority that will be given to aircraft for a landing. 010.07.02.13.07 010.07.02.13.07

479 Understand the situation when a pilot of an aircraft in an 010.07.02.13.08 010.07.02.13.08


approach sequence indicates their intention to hold for weather
improvements.

480 Explain the term “Expected Approach Time” and the procedures 010.07.02.13.09 010.07.02.13.09
for its use.

481 State the reasons which could probably lead to the decision to 010.07.02.13.10 010.07.02.13.10
use another take-off or landing direction than the one into the
wind.

482 Name the possible consequences for a PIC if the “RWY-in-use” 010.07.02.13.11 010.07.02.13.11
is not considered suitable for the operation involved.

483 Miscellaneous separation procedures 010.07.02.14 010.07.02.14


484 Be familiar with the separation of aircraft holding in flight. 010.07.02.14.01

485 Be familiar with the minimum separation between departing 010.07.02.14.02 010.07.02.14.01
aircraft.

486 Be familiar with the minimum separation between departing 010.07.02.14.03 010.07.02.14.02
and arriving aircraft.
(Merged into 010.07.02.14.02)

487 Be familiar with the non-radar wake turbulence longitudinal 010.07.02.14.04 010.07.02.14.02
separation minima.
488 Know about a clearance to “maintain own separation” while in 010.07.02.14.05 010.07.02.14.03
VMC.

489 Give a brief description of “Essential Traffic” and “Essential 010.07.02.14.06 010.07.02.14.04
Traffic Information”.

490 Describe the circumstances under which a reduction in 010.07.02.14.07 010.07.02.14.05


separation minima may be allowed.

491 Arriving and departing aircraf 010.07.02.15 010.07.02.15


492 List the elements of information which shall be transmitted to 010.07.02.15.01 010.07.02.15.01
an aircraft as early as practicable if an approach for landing is
intended.

493 List the information to be transmitted to an aircraft at the 010.07.02.15.02 010.07.02.15.02


commencement of final approach.

494 List the information to be transmitted to an aircraft during final 010.07.02.15.03 010.07.02.15.03
approach.

495 Acquaint yourself with all information regarding arriving and/or 010.07.02.15.04 010.07.02.15.04
departing aircraft on parallel or near-parallel runways, including
knowledge about NTZ and NOZ and the various combinations of
parallel arrivals and/or departures.

496 State the sequence of priority between aircraft landing (or in 010.07.02.15.05 010.07.02.15.05
the final stage of an approach to land) and aircraft intending to
depart.

497 Explain the factors that influence the approach sequence. 010.07.02.15.06

498 State the significant changes in the meteorological conditions in 010.07.02.15.07 010.07.02.15.06
the take-off or climb-out area that shall be transmitted without
delay to a departing aircraft.

499 Describe what information shall be forwarded to a departing 010.07.02.15.08


aircraft as far as visual or non-visual aids are concerned.

500 State the significant changes that shall be transmitted as early 010.07.02.15.09 010.07.02.15.07
as practicable to an arriving aircraft, particularly changes in the
meteorological conditions.

501 Procedures for Aerodrome Control Service 010.07.02.16 010.07.02.16


502 Describe the general tasks of the Aerodrome Control Tower 010.07.02.16.01
(TWR) when issuing information and clearances to aircraft
under its control.

503 List for which aircraft and their given positions or flight 010.07.02.16.02
situations the TWR shall prevent collisions.
504 Name the operational failure or irregularity of AD equipment 010.07.02.16.03 010.07.02.16.01
which shall be reported to the TWR immediately.

505 State that, after a given period of time, the TWR shall report to 010.07.02.16.04 010.07.02.16.02
the ACC or FIC if an aircraft does not land as expected.

506 Describe the procedures to be observed by the TWR whenever 010.07.02.16.05 010.07.02.16.03
VFR operations are suspended.
507 Explain the term “RWY-in-use” and its selection. 010.07.02.16.06 010.07.02.16.04

508 List the information the TWR should give to an aircraft 010.07.02.16.07 010.07.02.16.05
- Prior to taxi for take-off
- Prior to take-off
- Prior to entering the traffic circuit.

509 Explain that a report of surface wind direction given to a pilot 010.07.02.16.08 010.07.02.16.06
by the TWR is magnetic.

510 Explain the exact meaning of the expression “Runway vacated”. 010.07.02.16.09 010.07.02.16.07

511 Radar services 010.07.02.17 010.07.02.17


512 State to what extent the use of radar in air traffic services may 010.07.02.17.01
be limited.
513 State what radar derived information shall be available for 010.07.02.17.02
display to the controller as a minimum.
514 Name the two basic identification procedures used with radar. 010.07.02.17.03 010.07.02.17.01

515 Define the term “PSR“. 010.07.02.17.04 010.07.02.17.02

516 Describe the circumstances under which an aircraft provided 010.07.02.17.05 010.07.02.17.03
with radar service should be informed of its position.

517 List the possible forms of position information passed to the 010.07.02.17.06 010.07.02.17.04
aircraft by radar services.

518 Define the term “radar vectoring“. 010.07.02.17.07 010.07.02.17.05

519 State the aims of radar vectoring as shown in ICAO Doc 4444. 010.07.02.17.08 010.07.02.17.06

520 State how radar vectoring shall be achieved. 010.07.02.17.09 010.07.02.17.07

521 Describe the information which shall be given to an aircraft 010.07.02.17.10 010.07.02.17.08
when radar vectoring is terminated and the pilot is instructed to
resume own navigation.

522 Explain the procedures for the conduct of Surveillance Radar 010.07.02.17.11 010.07.02.17.09
Approaches (SRA).

523 Describe what kind of action (concerning the transponder) the 010.07.02.17.12 010.07.02.17.10
pilot is expected to perform in case of emergency if he has
previously been directed by ATC to operate the transponder on
a specific code.

524 Air traffic advisory service 010.07.02.18 010.07.02.18


525 Describe the objective and basic principles of the Air Traffic 010.07.02.18.01 010.07.02.18.01
Advisory Service.

526 State to which aircraft Air Traffic Advisory Service will be 010.07.02.18.02 010.07.02.18.02
provided.

527 Explain why Air Traffic Advisory Service does not deliver 010.07.02.18.03 010.07.02.18.03
“Clearances” but only “Advisory Information“.

528 Procedures related to emergencies, communication failure and 010.07.02.19 010.07.02.19


contingencies
529 State the Mode and Code of SSR equipment a pilot might 010.07.02.19.01 010.07.02.19.01
operate in a (general) state of emergency or (specifically) in case
the aircraft is subject to unlawful interference.

530 State the special rights an aircraft in a state of emergency can 010.07.02.19.02 010.07.02.19.02
expect from ATC.
531 Describe the expected action of aircraft after receiving a 010.07.02.19.03 010.07.02.19.03
broadcast from ATS concerning the emergency descent of an
aircraft.

532 State how it can be ascertained, in case of a failure of two-way 010.07.02.19.04 010.07.02.19.04
communication, whether the aircraft is able to receive
transmissions from the ATS unit.

533 Explain the assumption based on which separation shall be 010.07.02.19.05


maintained if an aircraft is known to experience a COM failure in
VMC or in IMC.

534 State on which frequencies appropriate information, for an 010.07.02.19.06 010.07.02.19.05


aircraft encountering two way COM failure, will be sent by ATS.

535 Describe the expected activities of an ATS-unit after having 010.07.02.19.07


learned that an aircraft is being intercepted in or outside its
area of responsibility.

536 State what is meant by the expression “Strayed aircraft” and 010.07.02.19.08 010.07.02.19.06
“Unidentified aircraft”.

537 Explain the minimum level for fuel-dumping and the reasons for 010.07.02.19.09 010.07.02.19.07
this.

538 Explain the possible request of ATC to an aircraft to change its 010.07.02.19.10 010.07.02.19.08
RTF call sign.
539 Miscellaneous procedures 010.07.02.20 010.07.02.20
540 Explain the meaning of “AIRPROX”. 010.07.02.20.01 010.07.02.20.01

541 Determine the task of an Air Traffic Incident report. 010.07.02.20.02 010.07.02.20.02

542 AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICE 010.08.00.00 010.08.00.00


543 Introduction 010.08.01.00 010.08.01.00
544 010.08.01.01

545 State, in general terms, the objective of the Aeronautical 010.08.01.00.01 010.08.01.01.01
Information Service.
546 Definitions in ICAO Annex 15 010.08.02.00 010.08.02.00
547 010.08.02.01
548 Recall the following definitions: 010.08.02.00.01 010.08.02.01.01
Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC), Aeronautical
Information Publication (AIP), AIP amendment, AIP supplement,
AIRAC, danger area, Integrated Aeronautical Information
Package, international airport, international NOTAM office
(NOF), manoeuvring area, movement area, NOTAM, pre-flight
information bulletin (PIB), prohibited area, restricted area,
SNOWTAM, ASHTAM.

549 General 010.08.03.00 010.08.03.00


550 010.08.03.01
551 State during which period of time an aeronautical information 010.08.03.00.01 010.08.03.01.01
service shall be available with reference to an aircraft flying in
the area of responsibility of an AIS, provided a 24-hours service
is not available.

552 Name (in general) the kind of aeronautical information / data 010.08.03.00.02 010.08.03.01.02
which an AIS service shall make available in a suitable form for
flight crews.

553 Summarize the duties of an aeronautical information service 010.08.03.00.03 010.08.03.01.03


concerning aeronautical information data for the territory of the
State.

554 Understand the principles of WGS 84. 010.08.03.00.04


555 Integrated Aeronautical Information Package 010.08.04.00 010.08.04.00
556 Name the different elements that make up an Integrated 010.08.04.00.01
Aeronautical Information Package.
557 Aeronautical information publication (AIP) 010.08.04.01 010.08.04.01
558 State the primary purpose of the AIP. 010.08.04.01.01 010.08.04.01.01

559 Name the different parts of the AIP. 010.08.04.01.02 010.08.04.01.02

560 State in which main part of the AIP the following information 010.08.04.01.03 010.08.04.01.03
can be found:
- Differences from ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and
Procedures,
- Location indicators, aeronautical information services,
minimum flight altitude, VOLMET service, SIGMET service,
- General rules and procedures (especially general rules, VFR,
IFR, ALT setting procedure, interception of civil aircraft, unlawful
interference, air traffic incidents),
- ATS airspace (especially FIR, UIR, TMA),
- ATS routes (especially lower ATS routes, upper ATS routes, area
navigation routes),
- Aerodrome data including Aprons, TWYs and check
locations/positions data,
- Navigation warnings (especially prohibited, restricted and
danger areas),
- aircraft instruments, equipment and flight documents,
- AD surface movement guidance and control system and
markings,
- RWY physical characteristics, declared distances, APP and RWY
lighting,
- AD radio navigation and landing aids,
- charts related to an AD,
- entry, transit and departure of aircraft, passengers, crew and
cargo.

561 State how permanent changes to the AIP shall be published. 010.08.04.01.04 010.08.04.01.04

562 Explain what kind of information shall be published in form of 010.08.04.01.05 010.08.04.01.05
AIP Supplements.

563 Describe how conspicuousness of AIP Supplement pages is 010.08.04.01.06


achieved.
564 NOTAMs 010.08.04.02 010.08.04.02
565 Describe how information shall be published which in principal 010.08.04.02.01 010.08.04.02.01
would belong to NOTAMs but includes extensive text and/or
graphics.

566 Summarize essential information which leads to the issuance of 010.08.04.02.02 010.08.04.02.02
a NOTAM.

567 State to whom NOTAMs shall be distributed. 010.08.04.02.03 010.08.04.02.03

568 Explain how information regarding snow, ice and standing water 010.08.04.02.04 010.08.04.02.04
on AD pavements shall be reported.

569 Describe the means by which NOTAMs shall be distributed. 010.08.04.02.05 010.08.04.02.05

570 State which information an ASHTAM may contain. 010.08.04.02.06 010.08.04.02.06

571 Aeronautical information regulation and control (AIRAC) 010.08.04.03 010.08.04.03

572 List the circumstances of which the information concerned shall 010.08.04.03.01 010.08.04.03.01
or should be distributed as AIRAC.
573 State the sequence in which AIRACs shall be issued and state 010.08.04.03.02
how many days in advance of the effective date the information
shall be distributed by AIS.

574 Aeronautical information circulars (AICs) 010.08.04.04 010.08.04.04


575 Describe the reasons for the publication of AICs. 010.08.04.04.01 010.08.04.04.01

576 Explain the organisation and standard colour codes for AICs. 010.08.04.04.02 010.08.04.04.02

577 Explain the normal publication cycle for AICs. 010.08.04.04.03


578 Pre-flight and post-flight information/data 010.08.04.05 010.08.04.05
579 List (in general) which details shall be included in aeronautical 010.08.04.05.01
information provided for pre-flight planning purposes at the
appropriate ADs.

580 Summarise the additional current information relating to the AD 010.08.04.05.02 010.08.04.05.01
of departure that shall be provided as pre-flight information.

581 Describe how a recapitulation of current NOTAM and other 010.08.04.05.03 010.08.04.05.02
information of urgent character shall be made available to flight
crews.

582 State which post-flight information from aircrews shall be 010.08.04.05.04 010.08.04.05.03
submitted to AIS for distribution as required by the
circumstances.

583 010.08.05.00
584 010.08.05.01
585 010.08.05.01 .01

586 AERODROMES (ICAO Annex 14, Volume I, Aerodrome Design 010.09.00.00 010.09.00.00
and Operations)
587 General 010.09.01.00 010.09.01.00
588 010.09.01.01
589 Recognise all definitions in ICAO Annex 14 except the following: 010.09.01.00.01
Accuracy, cyclic redundancy check, data quality, effective
intensity, ellipsoid height (geodetic height), geodetic datum,
geoid, geoid ondulation, integrity (aeronautical data), light
failure, lighting system reliability, orthometric height, station
declination, usability factor, Reference Code.

590 Describe, in general terms, the intent of the AD reference code 010.09.01.00.02 010.09.01.01.01
as well as its composition of two elements.

591 Aerodrome data 010.09.02.00 010.09.02.00


592 Aerodrome reference point 010.09.02.01 010.09.02.01
593 Describe where the aerodrome reference point shall be located 010.09.02.01.01 010.09.02.01.01
and where it shall normally remain.

594 Pavement strengths 010.09.02.02 010.09.02.02


595 Explain the terms PCN and ACN and describe their mutual 010.09.02.02.01 010.09.02.02.01
dependence.
596 Describe how the bearing strength for an aircraft with an apron 010.09.02.02.02 010.09.02.02.02
mass equal to or less than 5700 kg shall be reported.

597 Declared distances 010.09.02.03 010.09.02.03


598 List the four most important declared RWY distances and 010.09.02.03.01 010.09.02.03.01
indicate where you can find guidance on their calculation in
ICAO Annex 14.

599 Recall the definitions for the four main Declared Distances. 010.09.02.03.02 010.09.02.03.02

600 Condition of the movement area and related facilities 010.09.02.04 010.09.02.04
601 Understand the purpose of informing AIS and ATS units about 010.09.02.04.01 010.09.02.04.01
the condition of the movement area and relating facilities.

602 List the matters of operational significance or affecting aircraft 010.09.02.04.02 010.09.02.04.02
performance which should be reported to AIS and ATS units for
the transmission to aircraft involved.

603 Describe the four different types of water deposit on runways. 010.09.02.04.03 010.09.02.04.03

604 Name the three defined states of frozen water on the RWY. 010.09.02.04.04 010.09.02.04.04

605 Understand the five levels of Braking Action including the 010.09.02.04.05 010.09.02.04.05
associated coefficients and codes.

606 Physical characteristics 010.09.03.00 010.09.03.00


607 Runways 010.09.03.01 010.09.03.01
608 Describe where a threshold should normally be located. 010.09.03.01.01 010.09.03.01.01

609 Acquaint yourself with the general considerations concerning 010.09.03.01.02 010.09.03.01.02
runways associated with a Stopway or Clearway.

610 State where in Annex 14 you can find detailed information 010.09.03.01.03
about the required runway width dependent upon Code
number and Code letter.

611 Runway Strips 010.09.03.02 010.09.03.02


612 Explain the term “Runway strip“. 010.09.03.02.01 010.09.03.02.01

613 Runway-end safety area 010.09.03.03 010.09.03.03


614 Explain the term “RWY end safety area“. 010.09.03.03.01 010.09.03.03.01

615 Clearway 010.09.03.04 010.09.03.04


616 Explain the term “Clearway“. 010.09.03.04.01 010.09.03.04.01

617 Stopway 010.09.03.05 010.09.03.05


618 Explain the term “Stopway“. 010.09.03.05.01 010.09.03.05.01

619 Radio-altimeter operating area 010.09.03.06 010.09.03.06


620 Describe where a radio-altimeter operating area should be 010.09.03.06.01
established and how far it should extend laterally and
longitudinally.

621 Taxiways 010.09.03.07 010.09.03.07


622 Describe the condition which must be fulfilled to maintain the 010.09.03.07.01
required clearance between the outer main wheels of an
aircraft and the edge of the taxiway.

623 Describe the reasons and the requirements for rapid exit 010.09.03.07.02 010.09.03.07.01
taxiways.
624 State the reason for a taxiway widening in curves. 010.09.03.07.03 010.09.03.07.02

625 Explain when and where holding bays should be provided. 010.09.03.07.04 010.09.03.07.03

626 Describe where runway-holding positions shall be established. 010.09.03.07.05 010.09.03.07.04

627 Define the term “road-holding position“. 010.09.03.07.06 010.09.03.07.05

628 Describe where Intermediate taxi-way holding positions should 010.09.03.07.07 010.09.03.07.06
be established.

629 Visual aids for navigation 010.09.04.00 010.09.04.00


630 Indicators and signalling devices 010.09.04.01 010.09.04.01
631 Describe the wind direction indicators with which ADs shall be 010.09.04.01.01 010.09.04.01.01
equipped.

632 Describe a landing-direction indicator. 010.09.04.01.02 010.09.04.01.02

633 Explain the capabilities of a signalling lamp. 010.09.04.01.03 010.09.04.01.03


634 State which characteristics a signal area should have. 010.09.04.01.04 010.09.04.01.04

635 Interpret all indications and signals that may be used in a signals 010.09.04.01.05 010.09.04.01.05
area.

636 Markings 010.09.04.02 010.09.04.02


637 Name the colours used for the various markings (RWY, TWY, 010.09.04.02.01 010.09.04.02.01
aircraft stands, apron safety lines).

638 State where a RWY designation marking shall be provided and 010.09.04.02.02 010.09.04.02.02
how it is designed.

639 Describe the application and characteristics of: 010.09.04.02.03 010.09.04.02.03


- RWY centre line markings
- THR marking
- Touchdown Zone marking
- RWY side stripe marking
- TWY centre line marking
- Runway-holding position marking
- Intermediate holding position marking
- Aircraft stand markings
- Apron safety lines
- Road holding position marking
- Mandatory instruction marking
- Information marking.

640 Lights 010.09.04.03 010.09.04.03


641 Describe mechanical safety considerations regarding elevated 010.09.04.03.01 010.09.04.03.01
approach lights and elevated RWY, stopway and taxiway-lights.

642 Describe the relationship of the intensity of RWY lighting, the 010.09.04.03.02
approach lighting system and the use of a separate intensity
control for different lighting systems.

643 List the conditions for the installation of an AD beacon and 010.09.04.03.03 010.09.04.03.02
describe its general characteristics.

644 Name the different kinds of operations for which a simple APP 010.09.04.03.04 010.09.04.03.03
lighting system shall be used.

645 Describe the basic installations of a simple APP lighting system 010.09.04.03.05 010.09.04.03.04
including the dimensions and distances normally used.
646 Describe the principle of a precision APP category l lighting 010.09.04.03.06 010.09.04.03.05
system including such information as location and
characteristics.
Remark – This includes the ‘Calvert’ system with additional
crossbars.

647 Describe the principle of a precision APP category II and III 010.09.04.03.07 010.09.04.03.06
lighting system including such information as location and
characteristics, especially mentioning the inner 300 m of the
system.

648 Describe the wing bars of PAPI and APAPI. 010.09.04.03.08 010.09.04.03.07

649 Interpret what the pilot will see during approach, using PAPI, 010.09.04.03.09
APAPI, T-VASIS and AT-VASIS.
650 Interpret what the pilot will see during approach, using HAPI. 010.09.04.03.10 010.09.04.03.08

651 Explain the application and characteristics of: 010.09.04.03.11 010.09.04.03.09


- RWY edge lights
- RWY threshold and wing bar lights
- RWY end lights
- RWY centre line lights - RWY lead in lights
- RWY touchdown zone lights
- Stopway lights
- Taxiway centre line lights
- Taxiway edge lights
- Stop bars
- Intermediate holding position lights
- RWY guard lights
- Road holding position lights.

652 Understand the timescale within which aeronautical ground 010.09.04.03.12 010.09.04.03.10
lights shall be made available for arriving aircraft.

653 Signs 010.09.04.04 010.09.04.04


654 State the general purpose for installing signs. 010.09.04.04.01
655 Explain what signs are the only ones on the movement area 010.09.04.04.02 010.09.04.04.01
utilizing red.

656 List the provisions for illuminating signs. 010.09.04.04.03 010.09.04.04.02

657 State the purpose for installing mandatory instruction signs. 010.09.04.04.04

658 Name the kind of signs which mandatory instruction signs shall 010.09.04.04.05 010.09.04.04.03
include.

659 Name the colours used with mandatory instruction signs. 010.09.04.04.06 010.09.04.04.04

660 Describe by which sign a pattern “A“ runway-holding position 010.09.04.04.07 010.09.04.04.05
(i.e. at an intersection of a taxiway and a non-instrument, non-
precision approach or take-off RWY) marking shall be
supplemented.

661 Describe by which sign a pattern “B” runway-holding position is 010.09.04.04.08 010.09.04.04.06
at an intersection of a taxiway and a Precision approach RWY,
marking shall be supplemented.

662 Describe the location of: 010.09.04.04.09 010.09.04.04.07


- a RWY designation sign at a taxiway / RWY intersection
- a NO ENTRY sign
- a RWY holding position sign.

663 Name the sign with which it shall be indicated that a taxiing 010.09.04.04.10 010.09.04.04.08
aircraft is about to infringe an obstacle limitation surface or to
interfere with the operation of radio navigation aids (e.g. ILS /
MLS critical / sensitive area).
664 Describe the various possible inscriptions on RWY designation 010.09.04.04.11 010.09.04.04.09
signs and on holding position signs.

665 Describe the inscription on an Intermediate-holding position 010.09.04.04.12


sign on a taxiway.
666 State when information signs shall be provided. 010.09.04.04.13
667 Describe the colours used in connection with information signs. 010.09.04.04.14 010.09.04.04.10

668 Describe the possible inscriptions on information signs. 010.09.04.04.15 010.09.04.04.11

669 Explain the application, location and characteristics of aircraft 010.09.04.04.16 010.09.04.04.12
stand identification signs.

670 Explain the application, location and characteristics of road 010.09.04.04.17 010.09.04.04.13
holding position signs.

671 Markers 010.09.04.05 010.09.04.05


672 Explain why Markers located near a runway or Taxiway shall be 010.09.04.05.01 010.09.04.05.01
limited in their height.

673 Explain the application and characteristics of: 010.09.04.05.02 010.09.04.05.02


- Unpaved RWY edge markers
- TWY edge markers
- TWY centre line markers
- unpaved TWY edge markers
- boundary markers
- stopway edge markers.

674 Visual aids for denoting obstacles 010.09.05.00 010.09.05.00


675 Marking of objects 010.09.05.01 010.09.05.01
676 State how fixed or mobile objects shall be marked if colouring is 010.09.05.01.01 010.09.05.01.01
not practicable.

677 Describe marking by colours (fixed or mobile objects). 010.09.05.01.02 010.09.05.01.02

678 Explain the use of markers for the marking of objects, overhead 010.09.05.01.03 010.09.05.01.03
wires, cables etc.

679 Explain the use of flags for the marking of objects. 010.09.05.01.04 010.09.05.01.04

680 Lighting of objects 010.09.05.02 010.09.05.02


681 Name the different types of lights to indicate the presence of 010.09.05.02.01 010.09.05.02.01
objects which must be lighted.

682 State the time period(s) of the 24 hours of a day during which 010.09.05.02.02
high-intensity lights are intended for use.
683 Describe (in general terms) the location of obstacle lights. 010.09.05.02.03 010.09.05.02.02

684 Describe (in general and for normal circumstances) colour and 010.09.05.02.04 010.09.05.02.03
sequence of low-intensity obstacle lights, medium-intensity
obstacle lights and high-intensity obstacle lights.

685 State where you can find information about lights to be 010.09.05.02.05 010.09.05.02.04
displayed by aircraft.
686 Visual aids for denoting restricted use of areas 010.09.06.00 010.09.06.00
687 010.09.06.01

688 Describe the colours and meaning of “closed markings” on 010.09.06.00.01 010.09.06.01.01
RWYs and taxiways.
689 State how the pilot of an aircraft moving on the surface of a 010.09.06.00.02 010.09.06.01.02
taxiway, holding bay or apron shall be warned that the
shoulders of these surfaces are “non-load-bearing”.

690 Describe the pre-threshold marking (including colours) when 010.09.06.00.03 010.09.06.01.03
the surface before the threshold is not suitable for normal use
by aircraft.

691 Aerodromes Operational Services, Equipment and Installations 010.09.07.00 010.09.07.00

692 Rescue and firefighting (RFF) 010.09.07.01 010.09.07.01


693 Name the principal objective of a rescue and fire fighting 010.09.07.01.01 010.09.07.01.01
service.

694 List the most important factors bearing on effective rescue in a 010.09.07.01.02
survivable aircraft accident.
695 Explain the basic information the AD category (for rescue and 010.09.07.01.03 010.09.07.01.02
fire fighting) depends upon.

696 Describe what is meant by the term “response time“ and state 010.09.07.01.04 010.09.07.01.03
its normal and maximum limits.

697 State the reasons for emergency access roads and for satellite 010.09.07.01.05
fire fighting stations.
698 Apron management service 010.09.07.02 010.09.07.02
699 Describe the reason for providing a special apron management 010.09.07.02.01
service and state what has to be observed if the AD control
tower is not participating in the apron management service.

700 State who has a right-of-way against vehicles operating on an 010.09.07.02.02 010.09.07.02.01
apron.

701 Ground servicing of aircraf 010.09.07.03 010.09.07.03


702 Describe the necessary actions during the ground servicing of 010.09.07.03.01 010.09.07.03.01
an aircraft with regard to the possible event of a fuel fire.

703 Attachment A to ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1 – Supplementary 010.09.08.00 010.09.08.00


Guidance Material
704 Declared distances 010.09.08.01 010.09.08.01
705 List the four types of “declared distances” on a runway and also 010.09.08.01.01 010.09.08.01.01
the appropriate abbreviations.

706 Explain the circumstances which lead to the situation that the 010.09.08.01.02 010.09.08.01.02
four declared distances on a runway are equal to the length of
the runway.

707 Describe the influence of a clearway, stopway and/or displaced 010.09.08.01.03 010.09.08.01.03
threshold upon the four “declared distances“.

708 Radio altimeter operating areas 010.09.08.02 010.09.08.02


709 Describe the purpose of a radio altimeter operating area. 010.09.08.02.01
710 Describe the physical characteristics of a radio altimeter 010.09.08.02.02
operating area.
711 Describe dimensions of a radio altimeter operating area. 010.09.08.02.03
712 Describe the position of a radio altimeter operating area. 010.09.08.02.04
713 Approach lighting systems 010.09.08.03 010.09.08.03
714 Name the two main groups of approach lighting systems. 010.09.08.03.01 010.09.08.03.01

715 Describe the two different versions of a simple approach 010.09.08.03.02 010.09.08.03.02
lighting system.
716 Describe the two different basic versions of precision approach 010.09.08.03.03 010.09.08.03.03
lighting systems for CAT I.
717 Describe the diagram of the inner 300 m of the precision 010.09.08.03.04 010.09.08.03.04
approach lighting system in the case of CAT II and III.
718 Describe how the arrangement of an approach lighting system 010.09.08.03.05 010.09.08.03.05
and the location of the appropriate threshold are interrelated
between each other.

719 FACILITATION (ICAO Annex 9) 010.10.00.00 010.10.00.00


720 General 010.10.01.00 010.10.01.00
721 Foreword 010.10.01.01
722 Explain the aim of ANNEX 9 as indicated in the Foreword. 010.10.01.01.01
723 Definitions (ICAO Annex 9) 010.10.01.02
724 Understand the definitions. 010.10.01.02.01
725 Entry and departure of aircraf 010.10.02.00 010.10.02
726 General declaration 010.10.02.01 010.10.02.01
727 Describe the purpose and use of aircraft documents - as far as 010.10.02.01.01 010.10.02.01.01
the “General declaration” is concerned.

728 State whether or not a “General Declaration” will be required by 010.10.02.01.02


a Contracting State under normal circumstances.

729 State the kind of information concerning crew members 010.10.02.01.03


whenever a “General Declaration” is required by a Contracting
State.

730 Entry and departure of crew 010.10.02.02 010.10.02.02


731 Explain entry requirements for crew. 010.10.02.02.01 010.10.02.02.01

732 Explain the reasons for the use of Crew Member Certificates 010.10.02.02.02 010.10.02.02.02
(CMC) for flight crews and cabin attendants engaged in
International Air Transport.

733 Explain in which cases Contracting States shall accept the CMC 010.10.02.02.03 010.10.02.02.03
as an identity document instead of a passport or visa.

734 State whether the entry privileges for crews of scheduled 010.10.02.02.04
international air services can be extended to other flight crews
of aircraft operated for remuneration or hire but not engaged in
scheduled International Air Services.

735 Entry and departure of passengers and baggage 010.10.02.03 010.10.02.03


736 Explain the entry requirements for passengers and their 010.10.02.03.01 010.10.02.03.01
baggage.

737 Explain the requirements and documentation for 010.10.02.03.02 010.10.02.03.02


unaccompanied baggage.

738 Be familiar with the documentation required for the departure 010.10.02.03.03 010.10.02.03.03
and entry of passengers and their baggage.

739 Be familiar with the arrangements in the event of a passenger 010.10.02.03.04 010.10.02.03.04
being declared an inadmissible person.

740 Describe the pilots authority towards unruly passengers. 010.10.02.03.05 010.10.02.03.05

741 Entry and departure of cargo 010.10.02.04 010.10.02.04


742 Explain entry requirements for cargo. 010.10.02.04.01 010.10.02.04.01
743 Be familiar with the documentation required for the entry and 010.10.02.04.02
departure of cargo.
744 SEARCH AND RESCUE 010.11.00.00 010.11.00.00
745 Essential Search and Rescue (SAR) definitions in ICAO Annex 12 010.11.01.00 010.11.01.00

746 010.11.01.01
747 Define the following: 010.11.01.00.01 010.11.01.01.01
alert phase, distress phase, emergency phase, operator, pilot-in-
command, rescue co-ordination centre, State of registry,
uncertainty phase.

748 Organisation 010.11.02.00 010.11.02.00


749 010.11.02.01
750 Describe how Contracting States shall arrange for the 010.11.02.00.01 010.11.02.01.01
establishment and prompt provisions of SAR services.

751 Explain the establishment of SAR Regions by Contracting States. 010.11.02.00.02 010.11.02.01.02

752 Describe the areas within which SAR services shall be 010.11.02.00.03 010.11.02.01.03
established by Contracting States.

753 State the period of time per day within which SAR services shall 010.11.02.00.04 010.11.02.01.04
be available.

754 Describe for which areas rescue coordination centres shall be 010.11.02.00.05 010.11.02.01.05
established.

755 Operating procedures for non-SAR crews 010.11.03.00 010.11.03.00


756 010.11.03.01
757 Explain the SAR operating procedures for the pilot-in-command 010.11.03.00.01 010.11.03.01.01
who arrives first at the scene of an accident.

758 Explain the SAR operating procedures for the pilot-in-command 010.11.03.00.02 010.11.03.01.02
intercepting a distress transmission.

759 Search and rescue signals 010.11.04.00 010.11.04.00


760 010.11.04.01
761 Explain the “Ground-air visual signal code” for use by survivors. 010.11.04.00.01 010.11.04.01.01

762 Explain the signals to be used for “Air-ground signals”. 010.11.04.00.02 010.11.04.01.02

763 SECURITY 010.12.00.00 010.12.00.00

764 Essential definitions in ICAO Annex 17 010.12.01.00 010.12.01.00


765 010.12.01.01
766 Define the following terms: 010.12.01.00.01 010.12.01.01.01
Airside, aircraft security check, screening, security, security
control, security restricted area, unidentified baggage.

767 General principles 010.12.02.00 010.12.02


768 010.12.02.01
769 State the objectives of security. 010.12.02.00.01 010.12.02.01.01

770 Explain where further information in addition to ICAO Annex 17 010.12.02.00.02


concerning aviation security is available.
771 Organisation 010.12.03.00 010.12.03.00
772 Understand the required activities expected at each airport 010.12.03.00.01
serving international civil aviation.
773 Preventive security measures 010.12.04.00 010.12.04.00
774 010.12.04.01
775 Describe the objects not allowed (for reasons of aviation 010.12.04.00.01 010.12.04.01.01
security) on board an aircraft engaged in international civil
aviation.

776 Explain what each Contracting State is supposed to do 010.12.04.00.02


concerning originating passengers and their cabin baggage prior
to boarding an aircraft engaged in international civil aviation
operations.

777 State what each Contracting State is supposed to do if 010.12.04.00.03 010.12.04.01.02


passengers subjected to security control have mixed after a
security screening point.
778 Explain what has to be done at airports serving international 010.12.04.00.04
civil aviation to protect cargo, baggage, mail stores and
operators supplies against an act of unlawful interference.

779 Explain what has to be done when passengers are supposed to 010.12.04.00.05 010.12.04.01.03
board an aircraft who are obliged to travel because of judicial or
administrative proceedings.

780 Understand what has to be considered if law enforcement 010.12.04.00.06 010.12.04.01.04


officers are carrying weapons on board.

781 Describe what is meant by “Access Control” at an aerodrome. 010.12.04.00.07

782 Management of response to acts of unlawful interference 010.12.05.00 010.12.05.00

783 010.12.05.01
784 Describe the assistance each Contracting State shall provide to 010.12.05.00.01 010.12.05.01.01
an aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful seizure.

785 State the circumstances which could prevent a State to detain 010.12.05.00.02 010.12.05.01.02
an aircraft on the ground after being subjected to an act of
unlawful seizure.

786 Operators security programme 010.12.06.00 010.12.06.00


787 010.12.06.01
788 Understand the principles of the written operator security 010.12.06.00.01 010.12.06.01.01
programme each Contracting State requires from Operators.

789 Security Procedures in other documents i.e. ICAO Annex 2, 010.12.07.00 010.12.07.00
ICAO Annex 6, ICAO Annex 14, ICAO Doc 4444

790 ICAO ANNEX 2 Rules of the Air, Attachment B, Unlawful 010.12.07.01 010.12.07.01
Interference
791 Describe what the PIC should do unless considerations on board 010.12.07.01.01 010.12.07.01.01
the aircraft dictate otherwise.

792 Describe what the PIC should do if: 010.12.07.01.02 010.12.07.01.02


- the aircraft must depart from its assigned track
- the aircraft must depart from its assigned cruising level
- the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of the unlawful
interference.

793 Describe what the PIC should attempt in regard to broadcast 010.12.07.01.03 010.12.07.01.03
warnings at which level he is proceeding if no applicable
regional procedures for in-flight contingencies have been
established.

794 ICAO ANNEX 6, Chapter 13, Security 010.12.07.02 010.12.07.02


795 Describe the special considerations referring to flight crew 010.12.07.02.01 010.12.07.02.01
compartment doors with regard to aviation security.

796 Explain what an operator shall do to minimize the 010.12.07.02.02


consequences of acts of unlawful interference.
797 Explain what an operator shall do to have appropriate 010.12.07.02.03
employees available who can contribute to the prevention of
acts of sabotage or other forms of unlawful interference.

798 ICAO ANNEX 14, Chapter 3, Physical Characteristics 010.12.07.03 010.12.07.03

799 Describe what minimum distance an isolated aircraft parking 010.12.07.03.01 010.12.07.03.01
position (after the aircraft is subject of unlawful interference)
should have from other parking positions, buildings or public
areas.

800 ICAO Document 4444 010.12.07.04 010.12.07.04


801 Describe the considerations that must take place with regards 010.12.07.04.01 010.12.07.04.01
to a taxi clearance in case an aircraft is known or believed to be
subject of unlawful interference.

802 AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT INVESTIGATION 010.13.00.00 010.13.00.00


803 Essential definitions in ICAO Annex 13 010.13.01.00 010.13.01.00
804 010.13.01.01
805 Define the following: 010.13.01.00.01 010.13.01.01.01
Accident, aircraft, flight recorder, incident, investigation,
maximum mass, operator, serious incident, serious injury, State
of Design, State of Manufacture, State of Occurrence, State of
the Operator, State of Registry.

806 Define the difference between “Serious Incident“ and 010.13.01.00.02 010.13.01.01.02
“Accident“.

807 Determine whether a certain occurrence has to be defined as a 010.13.01.00.03 010.13.01.01.03


serious incident or as an accident.

808 Recognise the description of an accident or incident. 010.13.01.00.04 010.13.01.01.04

809 Applicability of ICAO Annex 13 010.13.02.00


810 Describe the geographical limits, if any, within which the 010.13.02.00.01
specifications given in ANNEX 13 apply.
811 ICAO Accident and Incident investigation 010.13.03.00 010.13.02.00
812 010.13.02.01
813 State the objective(s) of the investigation of an accident or 010.13.03.00.01 010.13.02.01.01
incident according to Annex 13.

814 Understand the general procedures for the investigation of an 010.13.03.00.02 010.13.02.01.02
accident or incident according to Annex 13.

815 Accident and Incident Investigation in accordance with EU 010.13.04.00 010.13.03.00


documents
816 010.13.03.01
817 Be familiar with Council Directive 94/56/EC of 21 November 010.13.04.00.01 010.13.03.01.01
1994 establishing the fundamental principles governing the
investigation of civil aviation accidents and incidents

818 Be familiar with Council Directive 2003/42/EC of the European 010.13.04.00.02 010.13.03.01.02
Parliament and of the Council of 13 June 2003 on occurrence
reporting in civil aviation

819 Be familiar with the differences between the procedures for 010.13.04.00.03 010.13.03.01.03
Accident and Incident. Investigation in EU regulations compared
with ICAO Annex 13.

820 010.13.03.01.04

821 010.13.03.01.05

822 010.13.03.01.06
New syllabus text

Reworded, intent the

Reworded, intent

Basic Knowledge
Text unmodified

Modified EDD
Renumbered

ATPL(H)/VFR

2019/017/R
ATPL(H)/IR

CBIR, EIR
modified

IR(A&H)
Deleted

ATPL(A)

CPL(H)
CPL(A)
same
New
AIR LAW x
INTERNATIONAL LAW: CONVENTIONS, AGREEMENTS AND x
ORGANISATIONS
The Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago) - ICAO Doc x
7300/9. Convention on the High Seas (Geneva, 29 April 1958)

The establishment of the Convention on International Civil x


Aviation, Chicago, 7 December 1944
Explain the circumstances that led to the establishment of the x x x x x x x x
Convention on International Civil Aviation, Chicago, 7 December
1944.
Source: ICAO Doc 7300/9 Preamble

Part I - Air navigation x


Recall the general contents of relevant parts of the following x x x x x x x x
chapters:
- general principles and application of the Convention;
-flight over territory of Contracting States;
- nationality of aircraft;
- international standards and recommended practices (SARPs),
especially notification of differences and validity of endorsed
certificates and licences.
Source: ICAO Doc 7300/9 Part 1, Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 37, 38, 39, 40

General principles. Describe the application of the following terms x x x x x x x x


in civil aviation:
- sovereignty;
- territory and high seas according to the UN Convention on the
High Seas.
Source: Convention on the High Seas (Geneva, 29 April 1958)
Articles 1, 2; ICAO Doc 7300/9 Part 1, Articles 1, 2

Explain the following terms and how they apply to international air x x x x x x x
traffic:
- right of non-scheduled flight (including the two technical freedoms
of the air);
- scheduled air services;
- cabotage;
- landing at customs airports;
- Rules of the Air;
- search of aircraft.
Source: ICAO Doc 7300/9, Articles 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 16

Explain the duties of Contracting States in relation to: x x x x x x x x


- documents carried on board the aircraft:
- certificate of registration;
- certificates of airworthiness;
- licences of personnel;
- recognition of certificates and licences;
- cargo restrictions;
- photographic apparatus.
Source: ICAO Doc 7300/9, Articles 29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36

Part II - The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) x x

Describe the objectives of ICAO. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 7300/9, Article 44
Recognise the organisation and duties of the ICAO Assembly, x x x x x x x x
Council and Air Navigation Commission (ANC).
Source: ICAO Doc 7300/9, Articles 48, 49, 50, 54, 56, 57

x
Describe the annexes to the Convention. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 7300/9, Articles 54, 90, 94, 95

Other conventions and agreements x


The International Air Services Transit Agreement (ICAO Doc 7500) x
Explain the two technical freedoms of the air. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 7500
The International Air Transport Agreement (ICAO Doc 9626) x
Explain the three commercial freedoms of the air. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 9626
x

Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation - x


The Tokyo Convention of 1963
x

Describe the measures and actions to be taken by the pilot-in- x x x x x x x


command (PIC) of an aircraft in order to suppress unlawful acts
against the safety of the aircraft.
Source: ICAO Doc 8364 — Convention on Offences and Certain
Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraf, Tokyo, 14 September
1963

Intentionally lef blank x


Private international law x
x

Explain the legal significance of the issue of a passenger ticket or of x x x x x x x


baggage/cargo documents (that the issue is a form of contract).
Source: ICAO Doc 9740 Convention for the Unification of Certain
Rules for International Carriage — The Montreal Convention of
1999

Describe the consequences for an airline or the PIC when a x x x x x x x


document of carriage is not issued (that the contract is unaffected).
Source: ICAO Doc 9740 Convention for the Unification of Certain
Rules for International Carriage — The Montreal Convention of
1999

Explain the consequences for an airline operator of Regulation (EC) x x x x x x x x


No 261/2004 on passenger rights in the event of delay, cancellation
or denial of boarding.
Source: Regulation (EC) No 261/2004

Explain the liability limit in relation to destruction, loss, damage or x x x x x x x


delay of baggage.
Source: ICAO Doc 9740 Convention for the Unification of Certain
Rules for International Carriage — The Montreal Convention of
1999

World organisations x
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) x
Describe the objectives of IATA. x x x x
Source: IATA web page
European organisations x
European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Regulation (EU) x x x
2018/1139
Describe the objectives of EASA. x x x x x x X

Describe the role of EASA in European civil aviation. x x x x x x


x

State that the structure of the regulatory material related to EASA x x x x x x x


involves: hard law (regulations, delegated acts, implementing acts,
and implementing rules); soft law (certification specifications,
acceptable means of compliance, and guidance material).

x
State the meaning of the terminology associated with the structure x x x x x x x
of the regulatory material related to EASA, specifically: regulations,
delegated acts, implementing acts, and implementing rules, as
applicable until 11 September 2023; and certification specifications,
acceptable means of compliance, and guidance material.

EUROCONTROL x
Describe the Single European Sky (SES) regulations. x x x x x x X

x
x
AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT, AIRCRAFT NATIONALITY AND x
REGISTRATION MARKS
Intentionally lef blank x
x
x

Certificate of Airworthiness (CofA) x


Certificate of Airworthiness (CofA) - Details x
State the issuing authority of a CofA. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 8, Chapter 3.2 Issuance and continued validity
of a Certificate of Airworthiness

State the necessity to hold a CofA. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 7300, Article 31
Explain the prerequisites for the issue of a CofA according to x x x x x x x X
Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012.
Source: Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012, SUBPART H

State who shall determine an aircraft’s continuing airworthiness. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 8, Chapter 3.2 Issuance and continued validity
of a Certificate of Airworthiness

Describe how a CofA can be renewed or may remain valid. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 8 Chapter 3.2 Issuance and continued validity
of a Certificate of Airworthiness; Chapter 3.5 Temporary loss of
airworthiness; Chapter 3.6 Damage to aircraf

ICAO Annex 7 - Aircraf Nationality and Registration Marks x x


ICAO Annex 7 - Definitions x
Recall the definition of the following terms: x x x x x x x x X
- aircraft;
- heavier-than-air aircraft;
- State of Registry.
Source: ICAO Annex 7, Chapter 1 Definitions

Nationality marks, common marks and registration marks x x

Nationality marks, common marks and registration marks - x


assignment and location.
Source: ICAO Annex 7

State the location of nationality marks, common marks and x x x x


registration marks.
Source: ICAO Annex 7, Chapter 4.3 Heavier-than-air aircraf; ICAO
Annex 7, Chapter 9 Identification plate

x
Explain who is responsible for assigning nationality marks, common x x x x x x x
marks and registration marks.
Source: ICAO Annex 7, Chapter 3 Nationality, common and
registration marks to be used

Intentionally lef blank x


PERSONNEL LICENSING x
ICAO Annex 1 x
Differences between ICAO Annex 1 and Regulation (EU) x
No 1178/2011 (hereinafer: Aircrew Regulation)
Describe the relationship and differences between ICAO Annex 1 x x x x x x x X
and the Aircrew Regulation.
Aircrew Regulation - Annex I (Part-FCL). x
Source: Aircrew Regulation
Definitions x
Define the following: Category, class and type of aircraft, cross- x x x x x x x x x
country, dual instruction time, flight time, student pilot-in-command
(SPIC), instrument time, instrument flight time, instrument ground
time, night, private pilot, proficiency check, renewal, revalidation,
skill test, solo flight time.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.010 Definitions

Define the following: multi-crew cooperation (MCC), multi-pilot x x x x x x


aircraft, rating.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.010 Definitions; Note:
"rating" is defined in point 1.1 Definitions of ICAO Annex 1

Content and structure x


Explain the structure of Part-FCL. x x x x x x x x x
Source: Aircrew Regulation, Article 1 Subject matter
x

Explain the requirements to act as a flight crew member of a civil x x x x x x x x x


aircraft registered in a Member State, and know the general
principles of the licensing system (light aircraft pilot licence (LAPL),
private pilot licence (PPL), commercial pilot licence (CPL), multi-crew
pilot licence (MPL), airline transport pilot licence (ATPL)).
Source: Regulation (EU) 2018/1139, Article 21 and point 2 of Annex
IV ‘Essential requirements for aircrew’ to this Regulation; Aircrew
Regulation, point FCL.015 Application and issue, revalidation and
renewal of licences, ratings and certificates

List the two factors that are relevant to the exercise of the privileges x x x x x x x x X
of a licence.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.040 Exercise of the privileges
of licences

State the circumstances in which a language proficiency x x x x x x x x X


endorsement is required.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.055 Language proficiency

List the restrictions for licence holders with an age of 60 years or x x x x x x x X


more.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.065 Curtailment of privileges
of licence holders aged 60 years or more in commercial air
transport

Explain the term ‘competent authority’. x x x x x x x x X


Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.001 Competent authority

Describe the obligation to carry and present documents (e.g. a x x x x x x x x


flight crew licence) under Part-FCL.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.045 Obligation to carry and
present documents

Commercial pilot licence (CPL) x


State the requirements for the issue of a CPL. x x x x x x X
Source: Aircrew Regulation: point FCL.300 CPL - Minimum age;
Appendix 3, D. CPL integrated course - Aeroplanes, Flying Training
(8, a–f); Appendix 3, E. CPL modular course - Aeroplanes,
Experience (12, a–d)

State the privileges of a CPL. x x x x x x


Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.305 CPL - Privileges and
conditions

Airline transport pilot licence (ATPL) and multi-crew pilot licence x


(MPL)
State the requirements for the issue of an ATPL. x x x x X
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.500 ATPL - Minimum age;
Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.510.A ATPL(A) - Prerequisites,
experience and crediting ((a) and (b)); Aircrew Regulation, point
FCL.510.H ATPL(H) - Prerequisites, experience and crediting

State the privileges of an ATPL. x x x x


Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.505 ATPL - Privileges
State the requirements for the issue of an MPL. x x x X
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.400.A MPL - Minimum age;
Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.410.A MPL - Training course and
theoretical knowledge examinations and Appendix 5 (items 1 to 8)

State the privileges of an MPL. x x x


Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.405.A MPL - Privileges
Ratings x
State the requirements for class ratings, their validity and privileges. x x x
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.740 Validity and renewal of
class and type ratings; Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.705 Privileges
of the holder of a class or type rating; Aircrew Regulation, point
FCL.720.A Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue
of class or type ratings - aeroplanes

State the requirements for type ratings, their validity and privileges. x x x x x x
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.705 Privileges of the holder
of a class or type rating; Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.720.A
Experience requirements and prerequisites for the issue of class or
type ratings - aeroplanes; Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.740
Validity and renewal of class and type ratings

State the requirements for instrument ratings, their validity and x x x x x


privileges (instrument rating (IR), competency-based instrument
rating (CBIR) and en-route instrument rating (EIR)).
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.610 IR - Prerequisites and
crediting; Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.605 IR - Privileges; Aircrew
Regulation, point FCL.625 IR - Validity, revalidation and renewal

State the requirements for other ratings, their validity and privileges x x x x x x
according to Part-FCL.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.800 Aerobatic rating; Aircrew
Regulation, point FCL.805 Sailplane towing and banner towing
ratings; Aircrew Regulation, point FCL.810 Night rating; Aircrew
Regulation, point FCL.815 Mountain rating; Aircrew Regulation,
point FCL.820 Flight test rating.

Aircrew Regulation - Annex IV (Part-MED) x


Aircrew Regulation - Annex IV (Part-MED) - Details x
Describe the relevant content of Part-MED - Medical requirements x x x x x x x x X
(administrative parts and requirements related to licensing only).
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point MED.A.001 Competent
authority; Aircrew Regulation, point MED.A.005 Scope; Aircrew
Regulation, point MED.A.045 Validity, revalidation and renewal of
medical certificates

State the requirements for the issue of a medical certificate. X x x x x x x x


Source: Aircrew Regulation, point MED.A.040 Issue, revalidation
and renewal of medical certificates

Name the class of medical certificate required when exercising the x x x x x x x


privileges of a CPL, MPL or ATPL.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point MED.A.030 Medical certificates

State the actions to be taken in case of a decrease in medical x x x x x x x x


fitness.
Source: Aircrew Regulation, point MED.A.020 Decrease in medical
fitness

RULES OF THE AIR ACCORDING TO ICAO ANNEX 2 AND SERA x x


Overview of ICAO Annex 2 and SERA (Commission Implementing x x
Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 and its references and subsequent
amendments)

ICAO Annex 2 and SERA - Relationship and content x


Explain the scope and purpose of ICAO Annex 2. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 2, Foreword, Applicability
Explain the scope and main content of SERA. x x x x x x x
Source: SERA, Article 1 Subject matter and scope
Rules of the Air x
Applicability of the Rules of the Air x
Explain the principle of territorial application of the various Rules of x x x x x x x
the Air, e.g. ICAO, SERA, national rules.
Source: ICAO Annex 2, Chapter 2, 2.1 Territorial application of the
rules of the air; SERA.1001 and SERA.2001

Explain the necessity to comply with the Rules of the Air. x x x x x x x


Source: SERA.2005 Compliance with the rules of the air
State the responsibilities of the PIC. x x x x x x x
Source: SERA.2010 Responsibilities.

Identify under what circumstances departure from the Rules of the x x x x x x x


Air may be allowed.
Source: SERA.2010 Responsibilities

Explain the duties of the PIC concerning pre-flight actions in case of x x x x x x


an instrument flight rule (IFR) flight.
Source: SERA.2010 Responsibilities

State that the PIC of an aircraft has final authority as to the x x x x x x x


disposition of the aircraft while in command.
Source: SERA.2015 Authority of pilot-in-command of an aircraf

Explain when the use of psychoactive substances, taking into x x x x x x x x


consideration their effects, by flight crew members is prohibited.
Source: SERA.2020 Problematic use of psychoactive substances

General rules x
General rules - Collision avoidance - SERA x
Describe the rules for the avoidance of collisions. x x x x x x
Source: SERA Chapter 2 Avoidance of collisions (except water
operations)

Describe the lights, including their angles, to be displayed by x x x x x x


aircraft.
Source: SERA.3215 Lights to be displayed by aircraf; ICAO Annex 2,
Chapter 3, 3.2.3; ICAO Annex 6, Part I, Chapter 6, 6.10 and
Appendix 1; and ICAO Annex 6, Part III, Chapter 4, 4.42.

Interpret marshalling signals. x x x x x x


Source: SERA Appendix 1, Chapter 4 Marshalling signals
State the basic requirements for minimum height (HGT) for the x x x x x x
flight over congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, or over
an open-air assembly of persons.
Source: SERA.3105 Minimum heights

Define when the cruising levels shall be expressed in terms of flight x x x x x x


levels (FLs).
Source: SERA.3110 Cruising levels

Define under what circumstances cruising levels shall be expressed x x x x x x


in terms of altitude (ALT).
Source: SERA.3110 Cruising levels

Explain the limitation for proximity to other aircraft and the right-of- x x x x x x
way rules, including holding at runway (RWY) holding positions and
lighted stop bars.
Source SERA.3205 Proximity; SERA.3210 Right-of-way

Describe the meaning of light signals displayed to aircraft and by x x x x x x


aircraft.
Source: SERA.3215 Lights to be displayed by aircraf; SERA,
Appendix 1, Chapter 3 Signals for aerodrome traffic

Describe the requirements when carrying out simulated instrument x x x x x


flights.
Source: SERA.3220 Simulated instrument flights

Explain the basic rules for an aircraft operating on and in the vicinity x x x x x x
of an aerodrome (AD).
Source: SERA.3225 Operation on and in the vicinity of an
aerodrome

Explain the requirements for the submission of an air traffic service x x x x x x


(ATS) flight plan.
Source: SERA.4001 Submission of a flight plan

x
Explain the actions to be taken in case of flight plan change or delay. x x x x x x x x
Source: SERA.4015 Changes to a flight plan; SERA.8020 Adherence
to flight plan

State the actions to be taken in case of inadvertent changes to track, x x x x x x x x


true airspeed (TAS) and time estimate affecting the current flight
plan.
Source: SERA.8020 Adherence to flight plan

Explain the procedures for closing a flight plan. x x x x x x x


Source: SERA.4020 Closing a flight plan
State for which flights an air traffic control (ATC) clearance shall be x x x x x x x
obtained.
Source: SERA.8015 Air traffic control clearances

State how a pilot may request ATC clearance. x x x x x x x


Source: SERA.8015 Air traffic control clearances
State the action to be taken if an ATC clearance is not satisfactory to x x x x x x x
a PIC.
Source: SERA.8015 Air traffic control clearances

Describe the required actions to be carried out if the continuation of x x x x x x x


a controlled visual flight rule (VFR) flight in visual meteorological
conditions (VMC) is not practicable any more.
Source: SERA.8020 Adherence to flight plan

Describe the provisions for transmitting a position report to the x x x x x x x x x


appropriate ATS unit including time of transmission and normal
content of the message.
Source: SERA.8025 Position reports

Describe the necessary action when an aircraft experiences a x x x x x x x x x


communication (COM) failure.
Source: SERA.8035 Communications

State what information an aircraft being subjected to unlawful x x x x x x x


interference shall give to the appropriate ATS unit.
Source: SERA.11001 Unlawful interference

Visual flight rules (VFR) x


Visual flight rules (VFR) - SERA x
Describe the VFR as contained in Commission Implementing x x x x x x x
Regulation (EU) No 923/2012.
Source: SERA.5001 VMC visibility and
distance from cloud minima; SERA.5005 Visual flight rules;
SERA.5010 Special VFR in control zones

Instrument flight rules (IFR) x


Instrument flight rules (IFR) - SERA x
Describe the IFR as contained in Commission Implementing x x x x x x
Regulation (EU) No 923/2012.
Source: SERA.5015 Instrument flight rules (IFR) - Rules applicable
to all IFR flights; SERA.5020 IFR - Rules applicable to IFR flights
within controlled airspace; SERA.5025 IFR - Rules applicable to IFR
flights outside controlled airspace

Interception of civil aircraf x


Interception of civil aircraf - SERA x
List the circumstances in which interception of a civil aircraft may x x x x x x x x
occur.
Source: SERA.11015 Interception; ICAO Doc 9433, 1.2
Circumstances in which interception may occur

State what primary action should be carried out by an intercepted x x x x x x x


aircraft.
Source: SERA.11015 Interception

State which frequency should primarily be tried in order to contact x x x x x x x


an intercepting aircraft.
Source: SERA.11015 Interception

State on which mode and code a transponder on board the x x x x x x x


intercepted aircraft should be operated.
Source: SERA.11015 Interception

Recall the interception signals and phrases. x x x x x x x


Source: SERA.11015 Interception, Tables S11-1, S11-2, S11-3
AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS x

Intentionally lef blank x


x
x

Definitions and abbreviations (PANS-OPS Flight Procedures, ICAO x x


Doc 8168, Volume I)
Definitions and abbreviations - ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I x x
Recall all definitions included in ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, x x x x x x
Section 1, Chapter 1.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1, Chapter 1

Interpret all abbreviations and acronyms as shown in ICAO Doc x x x x x x


8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1, Chapter 2.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1, Chapter 2

Departure procedures - (ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I) x x


General criteria (assuming all engines operating) x
State the factors dictating the design of instrument departure x x x x x X x
procedures.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 1, Chapter 1, 1.1
General

Explain in which situations the criteria for omnidirectional x x x x x x


departures are applied.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 2, Chapter 3,
Omnidirectional departures, 3.1.1; 3.1.2; 3.1.3

Standard instrument departures (SIDs) x


Explain the terms ‘straight departure’ and ‘turning departure’. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 2, Chapter 2, 2.1
General; 2.3 Straight Departures; 2.4 Turning (excluding maximum
speeds)

Omnidirectional departures x
Explain when what is the meaning of an ‘omnidirectional method is x x x x x x
used for departure.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Attachment B, paragraph 2.5

Intentionally lef blank x


x

Intentionally lef blank x

Approach procedures - ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I x x


General criteria x
State the general criteria (except ‘Speeds for procedure x x x x x
calculations’) of the approach procedure design: instrument
approach areas; accuracy of fixes; fixes formed by intersections;
intersection fix-tolerance factors; other fix-tolerance factors;
descent gradient.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1

Name the five possible segments of an instrument approach x x x x x x


procedure.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1,
1.2.3 Segments of the approach procedure

State the reasons for establishing aircraft categories for the x x x x x x


approach.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1, 1.4
Categories of aircraf

State the maximum angle between the final approach track and the x x x x x x
extended RWY centre line to still consider a non-precision approach
as being a ‘straight-in approach’.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1,
1.2.4 Types of approach

State the minimum obstacle clearance (MOC) provided by the x x x x x x


minimum sector altitudes (MSAs) established for an aerodrome.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 4, Chapter 1, 1.3
Minimum sector altitudes (MSA)/terminal arrival altitudes (TAA)

x
State that a pilot shall apply wind corrections when carrying out an x x x x x x x
instrument approach procedure.
State the most significant factor influencing the conduct of x x x x x x x
instrument approach procedures.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 2, Chapter 1

Explain why a pilot should not descend below obstacle clearance x x x x x x x


altitude/height (OCA/H), which are established for: precision
approach procedures; non-precision approach procedures; visual
(circling) procedures; APV approach procedures.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1, 1.6
Obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H)

Describe in general terms the relevant factors for the calculation of x x x x x x x


operational minima.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1, 1.7
Factors affecting operational minima

State the following acronyms in plain language: DA, DH, OCA, OCH, x x x x x x x
MDA, MDH, MOC, DA/H, OCA/H, MDA/H.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1, Chapters 1 and
2

Explain the relationship between the terms: DA, DH, OCA, OCH, x x x x x x x
MDA, MDH, MOC, DA/H, OCA/H, and MDA/H.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1
General requirements

Approach procedure design x


Describe how the vertical cross section for each of the five approach x x x x x x
segments is broken down into the various areas.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1
General requirements

State within which area of the cross section the minimum obstacle x x x x x x
clearance (MOC) is provided for the whole width of the area.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 1, Chapter 1, 1.3
Areas, 1.3.1

Define the terms ‘IAF’, ‘IF’, ‘FAF’, ‘FAP’, ‘MAPt’ and ‘TP’. x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1 Definitions,
abbreviations and acronyms and units of measurement

State the accuracy of facilities providing track (VHF omnidirectional x x x x x x x x


radio range (VOR), instrument landing system (ILS), non-directional
beacon (NDB)).
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Attachment A, Section 2, Table
A-2-1. System use accuracy (2 SD) of facility providing track
guidance and facility not providing track guidance

State the optimum descent gradient (preferred for a precision x x x x x x x


approach) in degrees and per cent.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1, 1.10
Descent gradient.

Arrival and approach segments x


Name the five standard segments of an instrument approach x x x x x x
procedure, and state the beginning and end for each of them.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 1, 1.2
Instrument approach procedure

Describe where an arrival route normally ends. x X x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 4 Arrival
procedures, Chapter 1 General requirements

x
State the main task of the initial approach segment. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 3
Initial approach segment
Describe the maximum angle of interception between the initial x x x x x x x
approach segment and the intermediate approach segment
(provided at the intermediate fix) for a precision approach and a
non-precision approach.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 3
Initial approach segment

Describe the main task of the intermediate approach segment. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 4
Intermediate approach segment

State the main task of the final approach segment. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 5 Final
approach segment

Name the two possible aims of a final approach. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, 5, Chapter 1
General requirements and Chapter 5 Final approach

Explain the term ‘final approach point’ in case of an ILS approach. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 5 Final
approach segment

State what happens if an ILS glide path (GP) becomes inoperative x x x x x x x


during the approach.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 5 Final
approach segment

Missed approach x
Name the three phases of a missed approach procedure and x x x x x x
describe their geometric limits.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 7
Missed approach segment

State the main task of a missed approach procedure. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 7
Missed approach segment

Define the term ‘missed approach point (MAPt)’. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1 Definitions,
abbreviations and acronyms and units of measurement

Describe how an MAPt may be established in an approach x x x x x x x


procedure.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 7
Missed approach segment
State the pilot’s action if, upon reaching the MAPt, the required x x x x x x x
visual reference is not established.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 7
Missed approach segment

Describe what a pilot is expected to do in the event a missed x x x x x x x


approach is initiated prior to arriving at the MAPt.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 7
Missed approach segment

State whether the pilot is obliged to cross the MAPt at the height x x x x x x x
(HGT)/altitude (ALT) required by the procedure or whether they are
allowed to cross the MAPt at a HGT/ALT greater than that required
by the procedure.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 7
Missed approach segment

Visual manoeuvring (circling) in the vicinity of the aerodrome (AD) x

Describe what is meant by ‘visual manoeuvring (circling)’. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 6
Visual manoeuvring (circling)

Describe how a prominent obstacle in the visual manoeuvring x x x x x x


(circling) area outside the final approach and missed approach area
has to be considered for the visual circling.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 6
Visual manoeuvring (circling)

State for which category of aircraft the obstacle clearance x x x x x x


altitude/height (OCA/H) within an established visual manoeuvring
(circling) area is determined.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 6
Visual manoeuvring (circling)
Describe how the minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) is x x x x x x
specified for visual manoeuvring (circling) if the OCA/H is known.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 6
Visual manoeuvring (circling)

State the conditions to be fulfilled before descending below MDA/H x x x x x x


in a visual manoeuvring (circling) approach.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 6
Visual manoeuvring (circling)

Explain why there can be no single procedure designed that will x x x x x x


cater for conducting a circling approach in every situation.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 6
Visual manoeuvring (circling)

State how the pilot is expected to act after initial visual contact x x x x x x
during a visual manoeuvring (circling).
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 6
Visual manoeuvring (circling)

Describe what the pilot is expected to do if visual reference is lost x x x x x x


while circling to land from an instrument approach.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 5, Chapter 6
Visual manoeuvring (circling)

Intentionally lef blank x x


Note: VOR and VOR/DME are covered under 062 02 03 00 and 062
02 04 00

x x

x x

x x

x x

Holding procedures - ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I x x


Entry and holding x
Explain why deviations from the in-flight procedures of a holding x x x x x x
established in accordance with ICAO Doc 8168 are dangerous.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

State that if for any reason a pilot is unable to conform to the x x x x x x


procedures for normal conditions laid down for any particular
holding pattern, this pilot should advise ATC as early as possible.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

Describe the shape and terminology associated with the holding x x x x x x x


pattern.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

State the bank angle and rate of turn to be used whilst flying in a x x x x x x x
holding pattern.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

Explain why a pilot in a holding pattern should attempt to maintain x x x x x x x


tracks and how this can be achieved.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

Describe where outbound timing begins in a holding pattern. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

State where the outbound leg in a holding terminates if the x x x x x x x


outbound leg is based on DME.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

Describe the three heading entry sectors for entries into a holding x x x x x x x
pattern.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

Describe the terms ‘parallel entry’, ‘offset entry’ and ‘direct entry’. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6
Determine the correct entry procedure for a given holding pattern. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

State the still-air time for flying the outbound entry heading with or x x x x x x x
without DME.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

Describe what the pilot is expected to do when clearance is received x x x x x x x


specifying the time of departure from the holding point.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

Obstacle clearance x
Describe the layout of the basic holding area, entry area and buffer x x x x x x x
area of a holding pattern.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

State which obstacle clearance is provided by a minimum x x x x x x x


permissible holding level referring to the holding area, the buffer
area (general only) and over high terrain or in mountainous areas.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part II, Section 6

Altimeter-setting procedures - ICAO Doc 8168 x x


Basic requirements and procedures x
Describe the two main objectives of altimeter settings. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 1
Define the terms ‘QNH’ and ‘QFE’. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 2, Chapter 2; ICAO
Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 1

Describe the different terms for ALT or flight levels (FLs) respectively, x x x x x x x x x
which are the references during climb or descent to change the
altimeter settings from QNH to 1013.2 hPa and vice versa.
Source: ICAO Doc
8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 1

Define the term ‘flight level (FL)’. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1 Definitions,
abbreviations and acronyms and units of measurement

State where FL zero shall be located. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2
State the interval by which consecutive FLs shall be separated. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2

Describe how FLs are defined. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2
Define the term ‘transition altitude (TA)’. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1 Definitions,
abbreviations and acronyms and units of measurement

State how TAs shall normally be specified. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2
Explain how the HGT of the TA is calculated and expressed in x x x x x x x x x
practice.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2

State where TAs shall be published. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2
Define the term ‘transition level (TRL)’. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1 Definitions,
abbreviations and acronyms and units of measurement

State when the TRL is normally passed on to the aircraft. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2
State how the vertical position of the aircraft shall be expressed at x x x x x x x x x
or below the TA and TRL.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2

Define the term ‘transition layer’. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume I, Part I, Section 1 Definitions,
abbreviations and acronyms and units of measurement

Describe when the vertical position of an aircraft passing through x x x x x x x x x


the transition layer shall be expressed in terms of FLs and when in
terms of ALT.

Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2


State when the QNH altimeter setting shall be made available to x x x x x x x x x
departing aircraft.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2
Explain when the vertical separation of an aircraft during en-route x x x x x x x x x
flight shall be assessed in terms of ALT and when in terms of FLs.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 3

Explain when, in air–ground communications during an en-route x x x x x x x x x


flight, the vertical position of an aircraft shall be expressed in terms
of ALT and when in terms of FLs.

Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 3


Describe why QNH altimeter-setting reports should be provided x x x x x x x x x
from sufficient locations.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2

State how a QNH altimeter setting shall be made available to aircraft x x x x x x x x x


approaching a controlled aerodrome (AD) for landing.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2

State under which circumstances the vertical position of an aircraft x x x x x x x x x


above the TRL may be referenced in ALT.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 2

Procedures for operators and pilots x


x

State on which setting at least one altimeter shall be set prior to x x x x x x x x x x


take-off.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 3

State where during the climb the altimeter setting shall be changed x x x x x x x x x x
from QNH to 1013.2 hPa.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 3

Describe when a pilot of an aircraft intending to land at an AD shall x x x x x x x x x x


obtain the TRL.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 3

Describe when a pilot of an aircraft intending to land at an AD shall x x x x x x x x x x


obtain the actual QNH altimeter setting.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 3

State where the altimeter settings shall be changed from 1013.2 hPa x x x x x x x x x x
to QNH during descent for landing.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 2, Chapter 3

Parallel or near-parallel instrument RWYs - ICAO Doc 8168, Volume x x


I
Simultaneous operation on parallel or near-parallel instrument x
RWYs
Describe the difference between independent and dependent x x x x x x x x x x x
parallel approaches.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 3, Chapter 1

Describe the following different operations: simultaneous x x x x x x x x x x


instrument departures; segregated parallel approaches/departures;
semi-mixed and mixed operations.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 3, Chapter 1

Describe the terms ‘normal operating zone (NOZ)’ and ‘no x x x x x x x x x


transgression zone (NTZ)’.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 1, Chapter 1; ICAO Doc
4444, Chapter 6 (Note: For the dimensions of the NTZ)

State the aircraft avionics requirements for conducting parallel x x x x x x x x x


instrument approaches.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 3, Chapter 1

State where guidance material may be located for simultaneous x x x x x x x x x


operations on parallel or near-parallel instrument runways.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 3, Chapter 1

State the radar requirements for simultaneous, independent, and x x x x x x x x x


parallel instrument approaches, and how weather conditions effect
these.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 3, Chapter 1; ICAO Doc
4444, Chapter 6

State the maximum angle of interception for an ILS localiser course x x x x x x x x x


(CRS) or microwave landing system (MLS) final approach track in
case of simultaneous, independent, and parallel instrument
approaches.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 3, Chapter 1
Describe the special conditions for tracks on missed approach x x x x x x x x x
procedures and departures in case of simultaneous or parallel
operations.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 3, Chapter 1

Secondary surveillance radar (transponder) operating procedures - x x


ICAO Doc 8168
Operation of transponders x
State when and where the pilot shall operate the transponder. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 1

State the modes and codes that the pilot shall operate in the x x x x x x x x x
absence of any ATC directions or regional air navigation agreements.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 1

State when the pilot shall operate Mode C. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 1
State when the pilot shall ‘SQUAWK IDENT’. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 1
State the transponder code to indicate: a state of emergency; a x x x x x x x x x
COM failure; unlawful interference.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 1

See details above. x x x x x x x x x

Describe the consequences of a transponder failure in flight. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 1
State the primary action of the pilot in the case of an unserviceable x x x x x x x x x
transponder before departure when no repair or replacement at the
given AD is possible.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 1

State when the pilot shall operate Mode S. x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 1
Operation of airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) x
equipment
Describe the main reason for using ACAS. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.1 ACAS
overview

State whether the ‘use of ACAS indications’ described in ICAO Doc x x x x x x x x


8168 is absolutely mandatory.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.2 Use of
ACAS indications

Explain the pilots’ reaction required to allow ACAS to fulfil its role of x x x x x x x x
assisting pilots in the avoidance of potential collisions.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.2 Use of ACAS
indications

Explain why pilots shall not manoeuvre their aircraft in response to x x x x x x x x


traffic advisories (TAs) only.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.2 Use of
ACAS indications

Explain the significance of TAs in view of possible resolution x x x x x x x x


advisories (RAs).
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.2 Use of
ACAS indications

State why a pilot should follow RAs immediately. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.2 Use of
ACAS indications

List the reasons which may force a pilot to disregard an RA. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.2 Use of
ACAS indications

Explain the importance of instructing ATC immediately that an RA x x x x x x x x x


has been followed.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.2 Use of
ACAS indications

Explain the duties of a pilot with regard to ATC when an RA x x x x x x x x x


situation is resolved.
Source: ICAO Doc 8168, Volume III, Section 4, Chapter 3, 3.2 Use of
ACAS indications

REGULATION (EU) No 965/2012 ON AIR OPERATIONS x


Regulation structure x
Describe the subject matter and scope of that Regulation. x x x x x x x x
Source: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012, Article 1 Subject matter and
scope

State that Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 covers all types of x x x x x x x x x


commercial and non-commercial operations.
Definitions (Annex I) x
Recall the definitions in the Regulation not already given in ICAO x x x x x x x x
PAN-OPS.
Source: Regulation (EU) No 965/2012, Article 2 Definitions

Part-SPA (Annex V), Part-NCC (Annex VI) and Part-NCO (Annex VII) x

Describe the scope of these Parts. x x x x x x


Explain the main content of these Parts, except the operational x x x x x x x
procedures.
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES (ATS) AND AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT x
(ATM)
ICAO Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services x
Definitions x
Recall the definitions given in ICAO Annex 11. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 1 Definitions
General x
State the objectives of ATS. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.2 Objectives of ATS
Describe the three basic types of ATS. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.3 Divisions of the air traffic
services

Describe the three basic types of ATC services. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.3 Divisions of the air traffic
services

State on which frequencies a pilot can expect ATC to contact them x x x x x x x x


in case of an emergency.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.24 Service to aircraf in the
event of an emergency, 2.25 In-flight contingencies, Chapter 5, 5.3
Use of communication facilities, and Chapter 6, 6.1.1.1 (referring to
Annex 10, Volumes II and V), Chapter 4, 4.1.3.1

Describe the procedure for the transfer of an aircraft from one ATC x x x x x x x x
unit to another.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 3, 3.6.1 Transfer of responsibility
for control

Airspace x
Describe the purpose for establishing flight information regions x x x x x x x
(FIRs) including upper flight information regions (UIRs).
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2: 2.10; 2.11.

Describe the various rules and services that apply to the various x x x x x x x x
classes of airspace.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.6 Classification of airspaces
and Annex 11, Appendix 4

Explain which airspace shall be included in an FIR or UIR. x x x x x x


State the designation for those portions of the airspace where flight x x x x x x x
information service (FIS) and alerting service shall be provided.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.5 Designation of the portions
of the airspace and controlled aerodromeswhere air traffic services
will be provided

State the designations for those portions of the airspace where ATC x x x x x x x
services shall be provided.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.5 Designation of the portions
of the airspace and controlled aerodromeswhere air traffic services
will be provided

Identify whether or not control areas (CTAs) and control zones x x x x x x x


(CTRs) designated within an FIR shall form part of that FIR.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.5 Designation of the portions
of the airspace and controlled aerodromeswhere air traffic services
will be provided

State the lower limit of a CTA as far as ICAO Standards are x x x x x x x


concerned.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.11.3 Control areas
State whether or not the lower limit of a CTA has to be established x x x x x x x
uniformly.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.11.3 Control areas

Explain why a UIR or upper CTA should be delineated to include the x x x x x x x x


upper airspace within the lateral limits of a number of lower FIRs or
CTAs.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.11 Specifications for flight
information regions, control areas and control zones

Describe in general the lateral limits of CTRs. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.11.5 Control zones
State the minimum extension (in NM) of the lateral limits of a CTR. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.11.5 Control zones

State the upper limits of a CTR located within the lateral limits of a x x x x x x x
CTA.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.11.5 Control zones

Air traffic control (ATC) services x


Name all classes of airspace in which ATC services shall be provided. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 3, 3.1 Application

Name the ATS units providing ATC services (area control service, x x x x x x x x
approach control service, aerodrome control service).
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 3, 3.2 Provision of air traffic
control service

Describe which unit(s) may be assigned with the task to provide x x x x x x x x


specified services on the apron.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 3, 3.2 Provision of air traffic
control service

State the purpose of clearances issued by an ATC unit. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 3, 3.3 Operation of air traffic
control service

List the various (five possible) parts of an ATC clearance. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 3, 3.7.1 Contents of clearances

x
x

Explain why the movement of persons, vehicles and towed aircraft x x x x x x x x


on the manoeuvring area of an AD shall be controlled by the
aerodrome control tower (TWR) (as necessary).
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 3, 3.8 Control of persons and
vehicles at aerodromes, 3.8.1

Flight information service (FIS) x


State for which aircraft FIS shall be provided. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 4, 4.1 Application
State whether or not FIS shall include the provision of pertinent x x x x x x x x
significant meteorological information (SIGMET) and air
meteorological information report (AIRMET) information.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 4, 4.2 Scope of flight information
service

State which information FIS shall include in addition to SIGMET and x x x x x x x x


AIRMET information.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 4, 4.2 Scope of flight information
service

Indicate which other information the FIS shall include in addition to x x x x x x x x


the special information given in Annex 11.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 4, 4.2 Scope of flight information
service, 4.2.2 Note 2 and Attachment B

State the meaning of the acronym ‘ATIS’ in plain language. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 4, 4.3.4 Voice-automatic terminal
information service (Voice-ATIS) broadcasts

x
x
List the basic information concerning automatic terminal x x x x x x x x
information service (ATIS) broadcasts (e.g. frequencies used,
number of ADs included, updating, identification, acknowledgment
of receipt, language and channels, ALT- setting).
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 4, 4.3.4 Voice-automatic terminal
information service (Voice-ATIS) broadcasts

State the content of an ATIS message. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 4, 4.3.7 ATIS for arriving and
departing aircraf

State the reasons and circumstances when an ATIS message shall be x x x x x x x x


updated.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 4, 4.3.6 Automatic terminal
information service (voice and/or data link)

Alerting service x
State who provides the alerting service. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 2, 2.10 Establishment and
designation of the units providing air traffic services

State who is responsible for initiating the appropriate emergency x x x x x x


phase.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 5 Alerting service

State the aircraft to which alerting service shall be provided. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 5 Alerting service
State which unit shall be notified by the responsible ATS unit x x x x x x
immediately when an aircraft is considered to be in a state of
emergency.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 5 Alerting service

Name the three stages of emergency and describe the basic x x x x x x


conditions for each kind of emergency.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 5 Alerting service

State the meaning of the expressions ‘INCERFA’, ‘ALERFA’ and x x x x x x x


‘DETRESFA’.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 5 Alerting service

State the information to be provided to those aircraft that operate in x x x x x x x


the vicinity of an aircraft that is either in a state of emergency or
unlawful interference.

Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 5 Alerting service


Principles governing required navigation performance (RNP) and x
air traffic service (ATS) route designators
State the meaning of the acronym ‘RNP’. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 1 Definitions
State the factors that RNP is based on. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 1 Definitions (Navigation
specification)

Describe the reason for establishing a system of route designators x x x x x x x


and navigation specifications.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Appendix 1, 1. Designators for ATS routes
and navigation specifications

State whether or not a prescribed RNP type is considered an integral x x x x x x


part of the ATS route designator.
Source: ICAO Annex 11, Appendix 1, 1. Designators for ATS routes
and navigation specifications

Explain the composition of an ATS route designator. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 11, Appendix 1, 2. Composition of designator
(not to the extent of memorising the codes in 2.2.1)

ICAO Doc 4444 - Air Traffic Management x


Foreword (Scope and purpose) x
x

State which ATS units provide clearances that do, and do not, x x x x x x x x x
include the prevention of collision with terrain.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Foreword, 2 Scope and purpose, 2.1

Definitions x
Recall all definitions given in ICAO Doc 4444 except the following x x x x x x x x
accepting unit/controller, AD taxi circuit, aeronautical fixed service
(AFS), aeronautical fixed station, air-taxiing, allocation, approach
funnel, assignment, data convention, data processing, discrete code,
D-value, flight status, ground effect, receiving unit/controller,
sending unit/controller, transfer of control point, transferring
unit/controller, unmanned free balloon.

Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 1 Definitions

ATS system capacity and air traffic flow management (ATFM) x

Explain when and where ATFM services shall be implemented. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 3, 3.2 Air traffic flow management,
3.2.1 General

General provisions for air traffic services (ATS) x


Describe who is responsible for the provision of flight information x x x x x x x x
and alerting services within an FIR, within controlled airspace and at
controlled ADs.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.2 Responsibility for the
provision of flight information service and alerting service

ATC clearances x
x

State which information the issue of an ATC clearance is based on. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5 Air traffic control clearances,
4.5.1 Scope and purpose

Describe what a PIC should do if an ATC clearance is not suitable. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5 Air traffic control clearances,
4.5.1 Scope and purpose

State who bears the responsibility for adhering to the applicable x x x x x x x x x


rules and regulations whilst flying under the control of an ATC unit.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5 Air traffic control clearances,
4.5.1 Scope and purpose

State the two primary purposes of clearances issued by ATC units. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5 Air traffic control clearances,
4.5.1 Scope and purpose

State why clearances must be issued ‘early enough’ to aircraft. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5 Air traffic control clearances,
4.5.1 Scope and purpose

Explain what is meant by the expression ‘clearance limit’. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5.7 Description of air traffic
control clearances, 4.5.7.1 Clearance limit

Explain the meaning of the phrases ‘cleared via flight planned x x x x x x x x x


route’, ‘cleared via (designation) departure’ and ‘cleared via
(designation) arrival’ in an ATC clearance.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5.7 Description of air traffic
control clearances, 4.5.7.2 Route of flight

List which items of an ATC clearance shall always be read back by x x x x x x x x x


the flight crew.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5.7.5 Readback of clearances

Horizontal speed control instructions x


Explain the reason for speed control by ATC. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.6 Horizontal speed control
instructions, 4.6.1 General

Define the maximum speed changes that ATC may impose. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.6.3 Descending and arriving
aircraf

State within what distance from the THR the PIC should not expect x x x x x x x x
any kind of speed control.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.6.3 Descending and arriving
aircraf

Change from IFR to VFR flight x


Explain how the change from IFR to VFR can be initiated by the PIC. x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.8 Change from IFR to VFR
flight
Describe the expected reaction of the appropriate ATC unit upon a x x x x x
request to change from IFR to VFR.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.8 Change from IFR to VFR
flight
Wake turbulence x
State the wake-turbulence categories of aircraft. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.9.1 Wake turbulence
categories of aircraf

State the wake-turbulence separation minima. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.8 Time-based wake
turbulence longitudinal separation minima; ICAO Doc 4444,
Chapter 8, 8.7.3.4 (table of distance-based wake turbulence
separation minima) and 8.7.3.4.1 (appropriate conditions for
application)

Describe how a ‘heavy’ aircraft shall indicate this in the initial x x x x x x x


radiotelephony contact with ATS.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.9.2 Indication of heavy wake
turbulence category

Altimeter-setting procedures x
Define the following terms: TRL; transition layer; and TA. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 1 Definitions

Describe how the vertical position of an aircraft in the vicinity of an x x x x x x x x


AD shall be expressed at or below the TA, at or above the TRL, and
while climbing or descending through the transition layer.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.10.1 Expression of vertical
position of aircraf

Describe when the HGT of an aircraft using QFE during an NDB x x x x x x x x


approach is referred to the landing THR instead of the AD elevation.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.10.1 Expression of vertical
position of aircraf

State in which margin altimeter settings provided to aircraft shall be x x x x x x x x


rounded up or down.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.10.4 Provision of altimeter
setting information

Describe the expression ‘lowest usable FL’. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.10.4 Provision of altimeter
setting information

Determine how the vertical position of an aircraft on an en-route x x x x x x x x


flight is expressed at or above the lowest usable FL and below the
lowest usable FL.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.10.1 Expression of vertical
position of aircraf

State who establishes the TRL to be used in the vicinity of an AD. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.10.2 Determination of the
transition level

Decide how and when a flight crew member shall be informed x x x x x x x x


about the TRL.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.10.4 Provision of altimeter
setting information

State whether or not the pilot can request TRL to be included in the x x x x x x x x
approach clearance.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.10.4 Provision of altimeter
setting information

Position reporting x
Describe when position reports shall be made by an aircraft flying x x x x x x x x
on routes defined by designated significant points.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.11.1 Transmission of position
reports, 4.11.1.1

List the six items that are normally included in a voice position x x x x x x x x
report.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.11.2 Contents of voice
position reports

State the requirements for using a simplified position report with FL, x x x x x x x x X
next position (and time-over) and ensuing significant points
omitted.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.11.2 Contents of voice
position reports
State the item of a position report which must be forwarded on to x x x x x x x x
ATC with the initial call after changing to a new frequency.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.11.2 Contents of voice
position reports

Indicate the item of a position report which may be omitted if x x x x x x x x


secondary surveillance radar (SSR) Mode C is used.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.11.2 Contents of voice
position reports

Explain in which circumstances the airspeed should be included in a x x x x x x x


position report.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.11.2 Contents of voice
position reports

Explain the meaning of the acronym ‘ADS’. x x x x x x x


x
x
Describe which expression shall precede the level figures in a x x x x x x x x
position report if the level is reported in relation to 1013.2 hPa
(standard pressure).
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.5.7.5 Readback of clearances;
ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.11.2 Contents of voice position
reports

Reporting of operational and meteorological information x

List the occasions when special air-reports shall be made. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.12.3 Contents of special air-
reports 4.12.3.1 (a to k inclusive)

Separation methods and minima x


Explain the general provisions for the separation of controlled air x x x x x
traffic.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.2.1 General and 5.2.2
Degraded aircraf performance

Name the different kinds of separation used in aviation. x x x x x X


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5; ICAO Annex 11, Chapter 3, 3.5.2

State the difference between the type of separation provided within x x x x x


the various classes of airspace and the various types of flight.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.2 Provisions for the
separation of controlled traffic

State who is responsible for the avoidance of collision with other x x x x x


aircraft when operating in VMC.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.9 Clearances to fly
maintaining own separation while in VMC

Describe how vertical separation is obtained. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.3.1 Vertical separation
application

State the required vertical separation minimum. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.3.2 Vertical separation
minimum
Describe how the cruising levels of aircraft flying to the same x x x x x x
destination and in the expected approach sequence are correlated
with each other.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.3.3 Assignment of cruising
levels for controlled flights

Name the conditions that must be adhered to when two aircraft are x x x x x x
cleared to maintain a specified vertical separation between them
during climb or descent.

Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.3.4 Vertical separation during


climb or descent
State the two main methods for horizontal separation. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5
Describe how lateral separation of aircraft at the same level may be x x x x x x
obtained.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.4.1 Lateral separation,
5.4.1.1.2

Explain the term ‘geographical separation’. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.4.1 Lateral separation
Describe track separation between aircraft using the same x x x x x x
navigation aid or method.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.4.1.2 Lateral separation
criteria and minima, 5.4.1.2.1.2
Describe the three basic means for the establishment of x x x x x x
longitudinal separation.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.4.2

State the minimum standard horizontal radar separation in NM. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5

Describe the method of the Mach number technique. x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.4.2.4 Longitudinal separation
minima with mach number technique based on time

Separation in the vicinity of aerodromes (ADs) x


Describe the expression ‘essential local traffic’. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.2 Essential local traffic
State which possible decision the PIC may choose to take if they are x x x x x x x
asked to accept take-off in a direction which is not ‘into the wind’.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.3.3 Departure sequence

State the condition to enable ATC to initiate a visual approach for an x x x x x x x x


IFR flight.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.5.3 Visual approach, 6.5.3.1

State whether or not separation shall be provided by ATC between x x x x x x x x


an aircraft executing a visual approach and other arriving or
departing aircraft.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.5.3 Visual approach, 6.5.3.4

State in which case, when the flight crew are not familiar with the x x x x x x x x
instrument approach procedure being carried out, only the final
approach track has to be given to them by ATC.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.5.4 Instrument approach

Describe which FL should be assigned to an aircraft first arriving x x x x x x x x


over a holding fix for landing.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.5.5 Holding

State which kinds of priority can be applied to aircraft for a landing. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.5.6 Approach sequence,
6.5.6.1 General

Describe the situation when a pilot of an aircraft in an approach x x x x x x x x


sequence indicates their intention to hold for weather
improvements.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.5.6 Approach sequence,
6.5.6.1 General

Explain the term ‘expected approach time’ and the procedures for x x x x x x x x
its use.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.5.7 Expected approach time

State the reasons which could probably lead to the decision to use x x x x x x x x
another take-off or landing direction than the one into the wind.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7, 7.2 Selection of runway-in-use

State the possible consequences for a PIC if the ‘RWY-in-use’ is not x x x x x x x x


considered suitable for the operation involved.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7

Miscellaneous separation procedures x


x

State the minimum separation between departing and arriving x x x x x x x x


aircraft.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.7 Separation of departing
aircraf from arriving aircraf

See below

State the non-radar wake-turbulence longitudinal separation x x x x x x x x


minima.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5 and 6
Describe the consequences of a clearance to ‘maintain own x x x x x x x x
separation’ while in VMC.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.8 Time-based wake
turbulence longitudinal separation minima, 5.8.1; ICAO Doc 4444,
Chapter 6, 6.5.3 Visual approach

Give a brief description of ‘essential traffic’ and ‘essential traffic x x x x x x x x


information’.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 5, 5.10 Essential traffic
information

Describe the circumstances under which a reduction in separation x x x x x x x x


minima may be allowed.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.1 Reduction in separation
minima in the vicinity of aerodromes

Arriving and departing aircraf x


List the elements of information which shall be transmitted to an x x x x x x x x
aircraft as early as practicable if an approach for landing is intended.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.6 Information for arriving
aircraf

List the elements of information to be transmitted to an aircraft at x x x x x x x x


the commencement of final approach.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.6 Information for arriving
aircraf

List the elements of information to be transmitted to an aircraft x x x x x x x x


during final approach.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.6 Information for arriving
aircraf

State the prerequisites for operating on parallel or near-parallel x x x x x x x


RWYs including the different combinations of parallel arrivals or
departures.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.7 Operations on parallel or
near-parallel runways

State the sequence of priority between aircraft landing (or in the x x x x x x x x


final stage of an approach to land) and aircraft intending to depart.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7, 7.8 Order of priority for arriving
and departing aircraf

State the significant changes in the meteorological conditions in the x x x x x x x x x


take-off or climb-out area that shall be transmitted without delay to
a departing aircraft.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.4.1 Meteorological conditions

State the significant changes that shall be transmitted as early as x x x x x x x x x


practicably possible to an arriving aircraft, particularly changes in
the meteorological conditions.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 6, 6.6 Information for arriving
aircraf

Procedures for aerodrome (AD) control service x


x

Name the operational failure or irregularity of AD equipment which x x x x x x x x x


shall be reported by the TWR immediately.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7, 7.1.3 Failure or irregularity of
aids and equipment

Explain that, after a given period of time, the TWR shall report to x x x x x x x x x
the area control centre (ACC) or flight information centre (FIC) if an
aircraft does not land as expected.

Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7, 7.1.2 Alerting service provided


by aerodrome control towers
Describe the procedures to be observed by the TWR whenever VFR x x x x x x x x x
operations are suspended.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7, 7.13 Suspension of visual flight
rules operations
Explain the term ‘RWY-in-use’ and its selection. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7, 7.2 Selection of runway-in-use

List the information the TWR should give to an aircraft prior to: x x x x x x x x x
taxiing for take-off; take-off; entering the traffic circuit.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7, 7.4.1.2 Aerodrome and
meteorological information

Explain that a report of surface wind direction given to a pilot by the x x x x x x x x x


TWR is magnetic.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 11, 11.4.3.2 Messages containing
meteorological information

Explain the exact meaning of the expression ‘RWY vacated’. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 7, 7.10.3.4
Radar services x
x

State the basic identification procedures used with radar. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.6.2.3 SSR and/or MLAT
identification procedures and Chapter 8, 8.6.2.4 PSR identification
procedures

Define the term ‘PSR’. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 1 Definitions
Describe the circumstances under which an aircraft provided with x x x x x x x x x
radar service should be informed of its position.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.6.4 Position information

List the possible forms of position information passed on to the x x x x x x x x x


aircraft by radar services.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.6.4 Position information

Describe the term ‘radar vectoring’. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.6.5 Vectoring
State the aims of radar vectoring as shown in ICAO Doc 4444. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.6.5 Vectoring
Describe how radar vectoring shall be achieved. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.6.5 Vectoring
Describe the information which shall be given to an aircraft when x x x x x x x x x
radar vectoring is terminated and the pilot is instructed to resume
own navigation.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.6.5 Vectoring

Explain the procedures for the conduct of surveillance radar x x x x x x x x x


approaches (SRAs).
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.9.7.1 Surveillance radar
approach

Describe what kind of action (concerning the transponder) the pilot x x x x x x x x x


is expected to perform in case of emergency if they have previously
been directed by ATC to operate the transponder on a specific code.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 8, 8.8.1 Emergencies

Air traffic advisory service x


Describe the objective and basic principles of the air traffic advisory x x x x x x x x
service.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 9, 9.1.4.1 Objective and basic
principles

State to which aircraft air traffic advisory service may be provided. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 9, 9.1.4.1 Objective and basic
principles

Explain the difference between advisory information and x x x x x x x x


clearances, stating which ATS units are responsible for their issue.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 9, 9.1.4.1.3

Procedures related to emergencies, communication (COM) failure x


and contingencies
State the mode and code of SSR equipment a pilot might operate in x x x x x x x x
a (general) state of emergency or (specifically) in case the aircraft is
subject to unlawful interference.

Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 15, 15.1 Emergency procedures

State the special rights an aircraft in a state of emergency can x x x x x x x x


expect from ATC.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 15, 15.1.1 General; 15.1.2
Priority; 15.1.3 Unlawful interference and aircraf bomb threat
Describe the expected action of aircraft after receiving a broadcast x x x x x x x x
from ATS concerning the emergency descent of an aircraft.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 15, 15.1.4 Emergency descent

State how it can be ascertained, in case of a failure of two-way x x x x x x x x


COM, whether the aircraft is able to receive transmissions from the
ATS unit.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 15, 15.3 Air-ground
communications failure

State on which frequencies appropriate information, for an aircraft x x x x x x x x x


encountering two-way COM failure, shall be sent by ATS.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 15, 15.3.5

State what is meant by the expressions ‘strayed aircraft’ and x x x x x x x x x


‘unidentified aircraft’.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 15, 15.5.1 Strayed or unidentified
aircraf

Explain the reasons for fuel-dumping and state the minimum level. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 15, 15.5.3 Fuel dumping

Explain the possible request of ATC to an aircraft to change its radio- x x x x x x x x x


telephone (RTF) call sign.
Miscellaneous procedures x
Explain the meaning of ‘AIRPROX’. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 1 Definitions; ICAO Doc 4444,
Chapter 16, 16.3 Air traffic incident report

Describe the task of an air traffic incident report. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 16, 16.3 Air traffic incident report

AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICE (AIS) x


Introduction x
Introduction to ICAO Annex 15 - Aeronautical Information Service x
(AIS)
State, in general terms, the objective of an AIS. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 1, Note 1
Definitions of ICAO Annex 15 x
Definitions of ICAO Annex 15 x
Recall the following definitions aeronautical information circular x x x x x x x x x x
(AIC), aeronautical information publication (AIP), AIP amendment,
AIP supplement, aeronautical information regulation and control
(AIRAC), danger area, aeronautical information management,
international airport, international NOTAM office (NOF),
manoeuvring area, movement area, NOTAM, pre-flight information
bulletin (PIB), prohibited area, restricted area, SNOWTAM, ASHTAM.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 1, 1.1 Definitions

General x
General - AIS responsibilities and functions x
State during which period of time an AIS shall be available with x x x x x x x x x
reference to an aircraft flying in the area of responsibility of an AIS,
provided a 24-hour service is not available.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 2, 2.2 AIS responsibilities and
functions

List, in general, the kind of aeronautical information/data which an x x x x x x x x x


AIS service shall make available in a suitable form to flight crew.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 2, 2.2 AIS responsibilities and
functions

Summarise the duties of an AIS concerning aeronautical information x x x x x x x x x


data for the territory of a particular State.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 2, 2.2 AIS responsibilities and
functions; ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 2, 2.3 Exchange of aeronautical
data and aeronautical information

x
Aeronautical information products and services x x
x

Aeronautical information publication (AIP) x


State the primary purpose of the AIP. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.2.2, Notes 1 and 2
Name the different parts of the AIP. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.2.1, Note 1; PANS-AIM (ICAO
Doc 10066), Chapter 5, 5.2.1.2.5

State the main parts of the AIP where the following information can x x x x x x x x x
be found: differences from the ICAO Standards, Recommended
Practices and Procedures; location indicators, AIS, minimum flight
ALT, meteorological information for aircraft in flight (VOLMET)
service, SIGMET service; general rules and procedures (especially
general rules, VFR, IFR, ALT-setting procedure, interception of civil
aircraft, unlawful interference, air traffic incidents); ATS airspace
(especially FIR, UIR, TMA); ATS routes (especially lower ATS routes,
upper ATS routes, area navigation routes); AD data including aprons,
taxiways (TWYs) and check locations/positions data; navigation
warnings (especially prohibited, restricted and danger areas);
aircraft instruments, equipment and flight documents; AD surface
movement guidance and control system and markings; RWY physical
characteristics, declared distances, approach (APP) and RWY
lighting; AD radio navigation and landing aids; charts related to an
AD; entry, transit and departure of aircraft, passengers, crew and
cargo, and the significance of this information to flight crew.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.2.1, Note 1; PANS-AIM (ICAO
Doc 10066), Appendix 2

State how permanent changes to the AIP shall be published. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.4 Distribution services and
Chapter 6, 6.3.1 AIP updates, 6.3.1.2; PANS-AIM (ICAO Doc 10066),
Chapter 5, 5.2.1 Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP),
5.2.1.3, 5.4 Distribution services, Chapter 6, 6.1.2 Specifications for
AIP amendments

Explain what kind of information shall be published in the form of x x x x x x x x


AIP Supplements.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 6, 6.3.1 AIP
updates, 6.3.1.3; PANS-AIM (ICAO Doc 10066), Chapter 5, 5.2.1.4
Specifications for AIP Supplements

Notices to airmen (NOTAMs) x


Describe how information shall be published which in principle x x x x x x x x x
would belong to NOTAMs but includes extensive text or graphic.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 6, 6.3.1.3, 6.3.2.1 and 6.3.2.2

Summarise the essential information which leads to the issue of a x x x x x x x x x


NOTAM.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 6, 6.3.2.3

State to whom NOTAMs shall be distributed. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.4.2
Explain how information regarding snow, ice and standing water on x x x x x x x x x
AD pavements shall be reported.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.2.6 Note; PANS-AIM (ICAO
Doc 10066), Appendix 4 Instructions for the completion of the
SNOWTAM format

Describe the means by which NOTAMs shall be distributed. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.4 Distribution services; PANS-
AIM (ICAO Doc 10066), 5.2.5 NOTAM, 5.2.5.1.3, and Appendix 7

Define and state which information an ASHTAM may contain. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 15, Appendix 3 ASHTAM format

Aeronautical information regulation and control (AIRAC) x

List the circumstances under which the information concerned shall x x x x x x x x x x


or should be distributed as an AIRAC.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 6, 6.2
x

Aeronautical information circulars (AICs) x


Describe the type of information that may be published in AICs. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.2.4 Aeronautical Information
Circulars; PANS-AIM (ICAO Doc 10066), Chapter 5, 5.2.2
Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC)

Explain the organisation of AICs. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.2.4, Note; PANS-AIM (ICAO
Doc 10066), Chapter 5, 5.2.2 Aeronautical Information Circulars
(AIC), 5.2.2.3 to 5.2.2.9

x
Pre-flight and post-flight information/data x
x

Summarise, in addition to the elements of the integrated AIP and x x x x x x x x x


maps/charts, the additional current information relating to the AD
of departure that shall be provided as pre-flight information.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.5 Pre-flight information
service; PANS-AIM (ICAO Doc 10066), Chapter 5, 5.5 Pre-flight
information services

Describe how a recapitulation of current NOTAM and other x x x x x x x x x x


information of urgent character shall be made available to flight
crew.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.5 Pre-flight information
service, Note 2

State which post-flight information from flight crew shall be x x x x x x x x x


submitted to AIS for distribution as required by the circumstances.
Source: ICAO Annex 15, Chapter 5, 5.6 Post-flight information
service

ATM service providers x


ATM x
State that Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 2017/373 x x x x
provides: general requirements for the provision of air navigation
services; specific requirements for the provision of air traffic
services; specific requirements for the provision of meteorological
services; specific requirements for the provision of aeronautical
information services; specific requirements for the provision of
communication, navigation or surveillance services.

AERODROMES (ICAO Annex 14, Volume I - Aerodrome Design and x


Operations, and Regulation (EU) No 139/2014)
General x
General - AD reference code x
x

Describe the intent of the AD reference code and state the functions x x x x
of the two code elements.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 1, 1.6 Reference Code

Aerodrome (AD) data x


Aerodrome (AD) reference point x
Describe where the AD reference point shall be located and where it x x x x x x x x
shall normally remain.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 2, 2.2 Aerodrome
reference point

Pavement strengths x
Explain the terms: ‘pavement classification number (PCN)’ and x x x x x x x
‘aircraft classification number (ACN)’, and describe their mutual
dependence.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 2, 2.6 Strength of
pavements
Describe how the bearing strength for an aircraft with an apron x x x x x x x
mass equal to or less than 5 700 kg shall be reported.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 2, 2.6 Strength of
pavements

Declared distances x
State that ICAO Annex 14 provides guidance on the calculation of x x x x x x x
declared distances (TORA, TODA, ASDA, LDA).

Recall the definitions for the four main declared distances. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 1, 1.1 Definitions
Condition of the movement area and related facilities x
State the purpose of informing AIS and ATS units about the x x x x x x x
condition of the movement area and related facilities.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 2, 2.9 Condition of the
movement area and related facilities

List the matters of operational significance or affecting aircraft x x x x x x x


performance which should be reported to AIS and ATS units to be
transmitted to aircraft involved.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 2, 2.9 Condition of the
movement area and related facilities

Describe the three different types of water deposit on RWYs. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 2, 2.9 Condition of the
movement area and related facilities

Explain the different types of frozen water on the RWY and their x x x x x x x
impact on aircraft braking performance.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 1, 1.1 Definitions and
Chapter 2, 2.9 Condition of the movement area and related
facilities

Describe the five levels of braking action including the associated x x x x x x


coefficients and codes.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Attachment A, 6. Assessing the
surface friction characteristics of snow-, slush-, ice- and frost-
covered paved surfaces

Physical characteristics x
Runways (RWYs) x
Describe where a THR should normally be located. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.1.5 and 3.1.6
Location of threshold

Describe the general considerations concerning RWYs associated x x x x x x x x


with a stopway (SWY) or clearway (CWY).
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.1.9 Runways with
stopways or clearways

Runway (RWY) strips x


Explain the term ‘runway strip’. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.4 General, 3.4.1

Runway-end safety area x


Explain the term ‘runway-end safety area’. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.5 Runway end
safety area 3.5.1 and 3.5.2

Clearway (CWY) x
Explain the term ‘clearway’. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.6 Clearways
Stopway (SWY) x
Explain the term ‘stopway’. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.7 Stopways
Intentionally lef blank x
x

Taxiways (TWYs) x
x

Describe the reasons and the requirements for rapid-exit TWYs . x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.9 Taxiways –
Rapid-exit taxiways
Explain TWY widening in curves. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.9.5 Taxiways
curves

Explain when and where holding bays should be provided. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.12
Describe where RWY holding positions shall be established. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.12
Describe the term ‘road holding position’. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 1, 1.1 and Chapter 3,
3.12

Describe where intermediate TWY holding positions should be x x x x x x x x


established.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 3, 3.12

Visual aids for navigation x


Indicators and signalling devices x
Describe the wind-direction indicators with which ADs shall be x x x x x x x x
equipped.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.1.1 Wind dire ction
indicator (Application, Location and Characteristics)

Describe a landing-direction indicator. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.1.2 Landing
direction indicator

Explain the capabilities of a signalling lamp. x x x x x x x x


State which characteristics a signal area should have. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.1.4 Signal panels
and signal area, 5.1.4.1 to 5.1.4.3

Interpret all indications and signals that may be used in a signal x x x x x x x x x


area.
Source: Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 923/2012
(SERA) - Appendix 1 Signals, 3.2 Visual ground signals

Markings x
Name the colours used for the various markings (RWY, TWY, aircraft x x x x x x x x
stands, apron safety lines).
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.2 Markings

State where a RWY designation marking shall be provided and x x x x x x x x


describe the different layouts (excluding dimensions).
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.2 Markings

Describe the application and general characteristics (excluding x x x x x x x x


dimensions) of: RWY-centre-line markings; THR markings;
touchdown-zone (TDZ) markings; RWY-side-stripe markings; TWY-
centre-line markings; RWY holding position markings; intermediate
holding position markings; aircraft-stand markings; apron safety
lines; road holding position markings; mandatory instruction
markings; information markings.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.2 Markings

Lights x
Describe the mechanical safety considerations regarding elevated x x x x x x x x
approach lights and elevated RWY, SWY and TWY lights.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.1.4 to 5.3.1.8
(Elevated approach lights, elevated lights and surface lights)

List the conditions for the installation of an aerodrome beacon x x x x x x x x x


(ABN) and describe its general characteristics.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.3 Aeronautical
beacons

Describe the different kinds of operations for which a simple x x x x x x x x x


approach lighting system shall be used.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.4 Approach
lighting systems

Describe the basic installations of a simple approach lighting system x x x x x x x x x


including the dimensions and distances normally uses.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.4.2
Describe the principle of a precision approach category I lighting x x x x x x x x x
system including information such as location and characteristics.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.4.10; ICAO Annex
14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.4.14

Describe the principle of a precision approach category II and III x x x x x


lighting system including information such as location and
characteristics, especially the inner 300 m of the system.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.4.22; ICAO Annex
14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.4.30; ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1,
Chapter 5, 5.3.4.31

Describe the wing bars of the precision approach path indicator x x x x x x x x x


(PAPI) and the abbreviated precision approach path indicator
(APAPI). Interpret what the pilot will see during the approach using
PAPI.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5, 5.3.5.24 to 5.3.5.27
PAPI and APAPI

Interpret what the pilot will see during an approach using a x x x x x


helicopter approach path indicator (HAPI).
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume II, Chapter 5, 5.3.6 Visual
approach slope indicator

Explain the application and characteristics (as applicable, but limited x x x x x x x x x


to colour, intensity, direction and whether fixed or flashing) of: RWY-
edge lights; RWY-THR and wing-bar lights; RWY-end lights; RWY-
centre-line lights; RWY-lead-in lights; RWY-TDZ lights; SWY lights;
TWY-centre-line lights; TWY-edge lights; stop bars; intermediate
holding position lights; RWY guard lights; road holding position
lights.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5

State the timescale within which aeronautical ground lights shall be x x x x x x x x x


made available to arriving aircraft.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Section 7.15 Aeronautical ground lights

Signs x
x
Explain which signs are the only ones on the movement area x x x x x x x x x
utilising red.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

List the provisions for illuminating signs. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs
x

Name the kinds of signs which shall be included in mandatory x x x x x x x x x


instruction signs.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

Name the colours used for mandatory instruction signs. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs
Describe by which sign a pattern ‘A’ RWY holding position (i.e. at an x x x x x x x x x
intersection of a TWY and a non-instrument, non-precision
approach or take-off RWY) marking shall be supplemented.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

Describe by which sign a pattern ‘B’ RWY holding position (i.e. at an x x x x x x x x x


intersection of a TWY and a precision approach RWY) marking shall
be supplemented.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

Describe the location of: a RWY designation sign at a TWY/RWY x x x x x x x x x


intersection; a ‘NO ENTRY’ sign; a RWY holding position sign.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

State which sign indicates that a taxiing aircraft is about to infringe x x x x x x x x x


an obstacle limitation surface or interfere with the operation of
radio navigation aids (e.g. ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area).
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs
Describe the various possible inscriptions on RWY designation signs x x x x x x x x x
and on holding position signs.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

x
Describe the colours used in connection with information signs. x x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

Describe the possible inscriptions on information signs. x x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs
Explain the application, location and characteristics of aircraft stand x x x x x x x x x
identification signs.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

Explain the application, location and characteristics of road holding x x x x x x x x x


position signs.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.4 Signs

Markers x
Explain why markers located near a RWY or TWY shall be HGT x x x x x x x x
limited.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.5 Markers

Explain the application and characteristics (excluding dimensions) x x x x x x x x


of: unpaved RWY-edge markers; TWY-edge markers; TWY-centre-
line markers; unpaved TWY-edge markers; boundary markers; SWY-
edge markers.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 5.5 Markers

Visual aids for denoting obstacles x


Marking of objects x
State how fixed or mobile objects shall be marked if colouring is not x x x x x x x
practicable.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 6, 6.2.3.1 Marking

Describe marking by colours (fixed or mobile objects). x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 6, 6.2.2 Mobile objects:
6.2.2.1, 6.2.2.2; 6.2.2.3; 6.2.2.4; ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter
6, 6.2.3 Fixed objects: 6.2.3.1; 6.2.3.2; 6.2.3.3

Explain the use of markers for the marking of objects, overhead x x x x x x x


wires, cables, etc.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 6, 6.2.5 Overhead
wires, cables, etc., and supporting towers

Explain the use of flags for the marking of objects. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 6, 6.2.3 Fixed objects:
6.2.3.5; 6.2.3.6; 6.2.3.7

Lighting of objects x
Name the different types of lights to indicate the presence of x x x x x x x
objects which must be lighted.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 6, 6.2 Marking and/or
lighting of objects: 6.2.1.1

Describe (in general terms) the location of obstacle lights. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 6, 6.2 Marking and/or
lighting of objects: 6.2.1.3

Describe (in general and for normal circumstances) the colour and x x x x x x x x
sequence of low-intensity obstacle lights, medium-intensity obstacle
lights and high-intensity obstacle lights.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 6: Table 6-1.
Characteristics of obstacle lights

State that information about lights to be displayed by aircraft is x x x x x x x x


provided in both ICAO Annex 2 (Rules of the Air) and SERA.
Visual aids for denoting restricted use of areas x
Visual aids for denoting restricted use of areas on RWYs and TWYs x

Describe the colours and meaning of ‘closed markings’ on RWYs and x x x x x x x x


TWYs.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 7, 7.1 Closed runways
and taxiways, or parts thereof
State how the pilot of an aircraft moving on the surface of a TWY, x x x x x x x x
holding bay or apron shall be warned that the shoulders of these
surfaces are ‘non-load-bearing’.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 7, 7.2 Non-load-
bearing surfaces

Describe the pre-THR marking (including colours) when the surface x x x x x x x x


before the THR is not suitable for normal use by aircraft.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 7, 7.3 Pre-threshold
area

Aerodrome (AD) operational services, equipment and installations x

Rescue and firefighting (RFF) x


State the principal objective of RFF services. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 9, 9.2 Rescue and
firefighting

Explain the basic information the AD category (for RFF) depends x x x x x x x x


upon.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 9, 9.2 Rescue and
firefighting

Describe what is meant by the term ‘response time’, and state its x x x x x x x x
normal and maximum limits.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 9, 9.2 Rescue and
firefighting

Apron management service x


x

State who has a right-of-way against vehicles operating on an apron. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 9, 9.5 Apron
management service

Ground-servicing of aircraf x
Describe the necessary actions during the ground-servicing of an x x x x x x x
aircraft with regard to the possible event of a fuel fire.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Chapter 9, 9.6 Ground servicing
of aircraf

Attachment A to ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1 - Supplementary x


Guidance Material
Declared distances x
List the four types of ‘declared distances’ on a RWY and also the x x x x x x x
appropriate abbreviations.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Attachment A, 3. Calculation of
declared distances: 3.1

Explain the circumstances which lead to the situation that the four x x x x x x x
declared distances on a RWY are equal to the length of the RWY.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Attachment A, 3. Calculation of
declared distances: 3.2

Describe the influence of a CWY, SWY or displaced THR upon the x x x x x x x


four ‘declared distances’.
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Attachment A, 3. Calculation of
declared distances: 3.3; 3.4; 3.5

Intentionally lef blank x


x
x

x
x
Approach lighting systems x
Name the two main groups of approach lighting systems. x x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 14, Volume 1, Attachment A, 12.1 Types and
characteristics

Describe the two different versions of a simple approach lighting x x x x x x x x


system.
Describe the two different basic versions of precision approach x x x x x x x x
lighting systems for CAT I.
Describe the diagram of the inner 300 m of the precision approach x x
lighting system in the case of CAT II and III.
Describe how the arrangement of an approach lighting system and x x x x x x x x
the location of the appropriate THR are interrelated.

FACILITATION (ICAO Annex 9) x


Intentionally lef blank x
x
x
x
x
Entry and departure of aircraf x
General declaration x
Describe the purpose and use of aircraft documents as regards a x x x x x x
‘general declaration’.
Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 2 Entry and departure of aircraf,
Section B Documents - requirements and use and Section D
Disinsection of aircraf

Entry and departure of crew x


Explain entry requirements for crew. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 3, K. Entry procedures and
responsibilities; N. Identification and entry of crew and other
aircraf operators’ personnel

Explain the reasons for the use of crew member certificates (CMC) x x x x x x
for crew members engaged in international air transport.
Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 3, N. Identification and entry of
crew and other aircraf operators’ personnel

Explain in which cases Contracting States should accept the CMC as x x x x x x


an identity document instead of a passport or visa.
Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 3, N. Identification and entry of
crew and other aircraf operators’ personnel

Entry and departure of passengers and baggage x


Explain the entry requirements for passengers and their baggage. x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 3 Entry and departure of persons
and their baggage A. General; B. Documents required for travel; F.
Entry/re-entry visas; P. Emergency assistance/entry visas in cases
of force majeure

Explain the requirements and documentation for unaccompanied X x x x x x


baggage.
Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 3, M. Disposition of baggage
separated from its owner; ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 4, C. Release and
clearance of export and import cargo

Identify the documentation required for the departure and entry of x x x x x x


passengers and their baggage.
Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 3. Entry and departure of persons
and their baggage

Explain the arrangements in the event of a passenger being x x x x x x


declared an inadmissible person.
Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 5, INADMISSIBLE PERSONS AND
DEPORTEES: A. General; B. Inadmissible persons

Describe the pilot’s authority towards unruly passengers. x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 9, Chapter 6, E. Unruly passengers
Entry and departure of cargo x
Explain the entry requirements for cargo. x x x x x x
x

SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR) x


Essential SAR definitions x

Essential SAR definitions - ICAO Annex 12 x


Recall the definitions of the following terms alert phase, distress x x x x x x x
phase, emergency phase, operator, PIC, rescue coordination centre,
State of Registry, uncertainty phase.
Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 1 Definitions

SAR - Organisation x
SAR - Organisation - Establishment and provision x
Describe how ICAO Contracting States shall arrange for the x x x x x x x
establishment and prompt provision of SAR services.
Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 2

Explain the establishment of SAR by Contracting States. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 2
Describe the areas within which SAR services shall be established by x x x x x x x
Contracting States.
Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 2

State the period of time per day within which SAR services shall be x x x x x x x
available.
Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 2

Describe for which areas rescue coordination centres shall be x x x x x x x


established.
Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 2

Operating procedures for non-SAR crews x


Operating procedures for non-SAR crews - PIC x
Explain the SAR operating procedures for the PIC who arrives first at x x x x x x x
the scene of an accident.
Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 5, 5.6 Procedures at thescene of
an accident

Explain the SAR operating procedures for the PIC intercepting a x x x x x x x


distress transmission.
Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 5, 5.7 Procedures for a pilot-in-
command intercepting a distress transmission

Search and rescue signals x


Search and rescue signals - Survivors x
Explain the ‘ground–air visual signal code’ for use by survivors. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 5.8 Search and rescue signals and
Appendix

Recognise the SAR ‘air-to-ground signals’ for use by survivors. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 12, Chapter 5.8 Search and rescue signals and
Appendix

SECURITY - Safeguarding International Civil Aviation against Acts of x


Unlawful Interference (ICAO Annex 17)
Essential definitions of ICAO Annex 17 x
Essential definitions of ICAO Annex 17 x
Recall the definitions of the following terms airside, aircraft security x x x x x x x
check, screening, security, security control, security-restricted area,
unidentified baggage.
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 1 Definitions

General principles x
General principles - Objectives of security x
State the objectives of security. x x x x x x x
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 2, 2.1 Objectives
x

Intentionally lef blank x


x

Preventive security measures x


Preventive security measures x
Describe the objects not allowed (for reasons of aviation security) x x x x x x x
on board an aircraft that is engaged in international civil aviation.
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 4, 4.1 Objective

State what each Contracting State is supposed to do if passengers x x x x x x x


subjected to security control have mixed after a security screening
point.
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 4, 4.4 Measures relating to
passengers and their cabin baggage
x

Explain what has to be done when passengers who are obliged to x x x x x x x


travel because of judicial or administrative proceedings are
supposed to board an aircraft.
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 4, 4.7 Measures relating to special
categories of passengers

Explain what has to be considered if law enforcement officers carry x x x x x x x


weapons on board.
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 4, 4.7 Measures relating to special
categories of passengers

Management of response to acts of unlawful interference x

Management of response to acts of unlawful interference x


Describe the assistance each Contracting State shall provide to an x x x x x x x
aircraft subjected to an act of unlawful seizure.
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 5, 5.2 Response

State the circumstances which could prevent a Contracting State x x x x x x x


from detaining an aircraft on the ground after being subjected to an
act of unlawful seizure.
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 5, 5.2 Response

Operators’ security programme x


Operators’ security programme - Principles x
Describe the principles of the written operator’s security x x x x x x x
programme each Contracting State requires from operators.
Source: ICAO Annex 17, Chapter 3, 3.3 Aircraf operators

Security procedures in other documents, i.e. ICAO Annexes 2, 6 x


and 14, ICAO Doc 4444, Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 and CS-ADR-
DSN

ICAO Annex 2 - Rules of the Air, including Attachment B - Unlawful x


interference
Describe what the PIC should do, in a situation of unlawful x x x x x x
interference, unless considerations aboard the aircraft dictate
otherwise.
Source: ICAO Annex 2, Chapter 3, 3.7 Unlawful interference

Describe what the PIC, of an aircraft subjected to unlawful x x x x x x


interference, should do if the aircraft must depart from its assigned
track; the aircraft must depart from its assigned cruising level; the
aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of the unlawful interference.
Source: ICAO Annex 2, Attachment B ‘Unlawful interference’

Describe what the PIC should attempt to do with regard to x x x x x x x


broadcast warnings and the level at which to proceed, in a situation
of unlawful interference, if no applicable regional procedures for in-
flight contingencies have been established.
Source: ICAO Annex 2, Attachment B ‘Unlawful interference’

ICAO Annex 6 - Operation of Aircraf Chapter 13 - Security x


Describe the special considerations referring to flight crew x x x x
compartment doors with regard to aviation security.
Source: ICAO Annex 6, Part I — International Commercial Air
Transport — Aeroplanes, Chapter 13, 13.2 Security of the flight
crew compartment

ICAO Annex 14 Volume I - Aerodromes Chapter 3 - Physical x


characteristics
Describe what minimum distance an isolated aircraft parking x x x x x x
position (after the aircraft has been subjected to unlawful
interference) should have from other parking positions, buildings or
public areas.
Source: ICAO Annex 14 Volume I, Chapter 3, 3.14 Isolated aircraf
parking position

ICAO Doc 4444 - Air Traffic Management x


Describe the considerations that must take place with regard to a x x x x x x
taxi clearance in case an aircraft is known or believed to have been
subjected to unlawful interference.
Source: ICAO Doc 4444, Chapter 15, 15.1.3 Unlawful interference
and aircraf bomb threat

AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT INVESTIGATION x


Essential definitions of ICAO Annex 13 x
Definitions and descriptions x
Recall the definitions of the following terms: accident, aircraft, flight x x x x x x x
recorder, incident, investigation, maximum mass, operator, serious
incident, serious injury, State of Design, State of Manufacture, State
of Occurrence, State of the Operator, State of Registry.
Source: ICAO Annex 13, Chapter 1 Definitions

Explain the difference between ‘serious incident’ and ‘accident’. x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 13, Chapter 1 Definitions and Attachment C
‘List of examples of serious incidents’

Determine whether a certain occurrence has to be defined as a x x x x x x x


serious incident or as an accident.
Source: ICAO Annex 13, Chapter 1 Definitions and Attachment C
‘List of examples of serious incidents’

Recognise the description of an accident or incident. x x x x x x x x


Source: ICAO Annex 13, Chapter 1 Definitions
x
x

Accident and incident investigation in ICAO Annex 13 x


Objectives and procedures x
State the objective(s) of the investigation of an accident or incident x x x x x x x x
according to ICAO Annex 13.
Source: ICAO Annex 13, Chapter 3, 3.1 Objective of the
investigation

Describe the general procedures for the investigation of an accident x x x x x x x x


or incident according to ICAO Annex 13.
Source: ICAO Annex 13, Chapter 4, 4.1; ICAO Annex 13, Chapter 5,
5.1 to 5.4.1

Accident and incident investigation in EU regulations x

Occurrences x
Identify an occurrence as being either an accident, incident or x x x x x x x
serious incident in Regulation (EU) No 996/2010 of the European
Parliament and of the Council of 20 October 2010 on the
investigation and prevention of accidents and incidents in civil
aviation.
Source: Regulation (EU) No 996/2010, Article 2(1), (7) and (16) and
Annex ‘List of examples of serious incidents’

Describe the relationship between Regulation (EU) No 996/2010 of x x x x x x x


the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 October 2010 on
the investigation and prevention of accidents and incidents in civil
aviation and Regulation (EU) No 376/2014 of the European
Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 on the reporting,
analysis and follow-up of occurrences in civil aviation.
Source: Regulation (EU) No 376/2014, p. L122/18 (3) and p.
L122/21 (28); Regulation (EU) No 996/2010

State the subject matter and scope of Regulation (EU) No 376/2014 x x x x x x x


(Article 3).
Source: Regulation (EU) No 376/2014, Article 3

Identify occurrences that must be reported (Regulation (EU) No x x x x x x


376/2014, Article 4).
Source: Regulation (EU) No 376/2014, Article 4

Identify occurrences that should be voluntarily reported (Regulation x x x x x x


(EU) No 376/2014, Article 5).
Source: Regulation (EU) No 376/2014, Article 5

Describe how information from occurrences is collected, stored and x x x x x x


analysed (Regulation (EU) No 376/2014, Articles 6, 8, 13 and 14).
Source: Regulation (EU) No 376/2014, Articles 6, 8, 13 and 14
Old syllabus text Old syllabus New syllabus
reference reference
Index

1 AIRCRAFT GENERAL KNOWLEDGE - AIRFRAME, SYSTEMS 021.00.00.00 021.00.00.00


AND POWER PLANT
2 SYSTEM DESIGN, LOADS, STRESSES, MAINTENANCE 021.01.00.00 021.01.00.00
3 System design 021.01.01.00 021.01.01.00
4 Design concepts 021.01.01.01 021.01.01.01
Describe the following structural design philosophy: - safe 021.01.01.01.01 021.01.01.01.01
5 life; - fail‑safe (multiple load paths); - damage ‑tolerant.

Describe the following system design philosophy: - 021.01.01.01.02 021.01.01.01.02


6 redundancy.
7 Level of certification 021.01.01.02 021.01.01.02
Explain and state the safety objectives associated with 021.01.01.02.01
8 failure conditions (AMC 25.1309 Fig. 2).
Explain the relationship between the probability of a 021.01.01.02.02
9 failure and the severity of the failure effects.
Explain why some systems are duplicated or triplicated. 021.01.01.02.03 021.01.01.02.01
10
021.01.01.02.02

11

021.01.01.02.03

12

021.01.01.02.04
13

14 Loads and stresses 021.01.02.00 021.01.02.00


15 021.01.02.01
021.01.02.01.01

16

Explain the following terms: - stress - strain – tension – 021.01.02.00.01 021.01.02.01.02


compression buckling – bending - torsion - static loads -
17 dynamic loads - cyclic loads - elastic and plastic
deformation.

Describe the relationship between stress and strain for a 021.01.02.00.02


18 metal.
021.01.02.01.03

19

20 Fatigue 021.01.03.00 021.01.03.00


21 021.01.03.01
Describe the phenomenon of fatigue. 021.01.03.00.01 021.01.03.01.04
22
(Merged into 021.01.03.01.04)
Explain the relationship between the magnitude of the 021.01.03.00.02
23 alternating stress and the number of cycles (S/N diagram
or Wöhler curve).

Explain the implication of stress concentration factor. 021.01.03.00.03


24
021.01.03.01.01
25

021.01.03.01.02
26

021.01.03.01.03
27
Describe the phenomenon of fatigue. 021.01.03.00.01 021.01.03.01.04

(Moved from 021.01.03.00.01)


28

Describe the interaction between fatigue and corrosion 021.01.04.00.02 021.01.03.01.04


29 (stress corrosion).
(Merged into 021.01.03.01.04)

30 Corrosion 021.01.04.00 021.01.04.00


Describe the following types of corrosion: - oxidation - 021.01.04.00.01
31 electrolytic.
Describe the interaction between fatigue and corrosion 021.01.04.00.02 021.01.03.01.04
32 (stress corrosion).
(Moved and merged into 021.01.03.01.04)

33 Maintenance 021.01.05.00 021.01.05.00


Maintenance methods: hard-time and on-condition 021.01.05.01 021.01.05.01
34 monitoring
Explain the following terms: - hard time maintenance - 021.01.05.01.01 021.01.05.01.01
35 on condition maintenance.

36 AIRFRAME 021.02.00.00 021.02.00.00


37 Construction and attachment methods 021.02.01.00 021.02.01.00
021.02.01.01
38
Describe the principles of the following construction 021.02.01.00.01
methods: - monocoque - semi-monocoque – cantilever -
39 sandwich, including honey comb - truss.

Describe the following attachment methods: - riveting – 021.02.01.00.02 021.02.01.01.01


welding – bolting - pinning - adhesives (bonding).
40

State that sandwich structural parts need additional 021.02.01.00.03


41 provisions to carry concentrated loads.
021.02.01.01.02

42

43 Materials 021.02.02.00 021.02.02.00


44 021.02.02.01
Explain the following material properties: - elasticity – 021.02.02.00.01
45 plasticity - stiffness – strength - strength to density ratio.

Compare the above properties as they apply to 021.02.02.00.02


46 aluminium alloys, magnesium alloys, titanium alloys, steel
and composites.

Explain the need to use alloys rather than pure metals. 021.02.02.00.03
47
Explain the principle of a composite material. 021.02.02.00.04 021.02.02.01.01

48

Describe the function of the following components: - 021.02.02.00.05 021.02.02.01.01


49 matrix, resin or filler - fibres.
(Merged into 021.02.02.01.01)

State the advantages and disadvantages of composite 021.02.02.00.06 021.02.02.01.02


materials compared with metal alloys considering the
following: - strength to weight ratio - capability to tailor
the strength to the direction of the load – stiffness -
electrical conductivity (lightning) - resistance to fatigue -
50 resistance to corrosion and cost.

State that the following are composite fibre materials: - 021.02.02.00.07 021.02.02.01.01
51 carbon – glass - aramide (Kevlar).
(Merged into 021.02.02.01.01)
021.02.02.01.03

52

Aeroplane: Wings, tail surfaces and control surfaces 021.02.03.00 021.02.03.00


53
54 Design and construction 021.02.03.01 021.02.03.01
Describe the following types of construction: - cantilever - 021.02.03.01.01 021.02.03.01.01
non cantilever (braced).
55

Describe the following design configurations: - 021.02.03.03.05 021.02.03.01.01


56 conventional (low or mid set) tailplane - T-tail.
(Moved from 021.02.03.03.05)

57 Structural components 021.02.03.02 021.02.03.02


Describe the function of the following structural 021.02.03.02.01 021.02.03.02.01
58 components: - spar and its components (web and girder
or cap). – rib – stringer – skin - torsion box.

59 Loads, stresses and aeroelastic vibrations (flutter) 021.02.03.03 021.02.03.03


Describe the vertical and horizontal loads on the ground. 021.02.03.03.01 021.02.03.03.01
60
Describe the loads in flight for symmetrical and 021.02.03.03.02 021.02.03.03.02
asymmetrical conditions, considering both vertical and
horizontal loads and loads due to engine failure.
61

Describe the principle of flutter, flutter damping and 021.02.03.03.03 021.02.03.03.03


62 resonance for the wing and the control surfaces.

Explain the significance on stress relief and flutter of the 021.02.03.03.04 021.02.03.03.04
following: - chord wise and span wise position of masses
(e.g. engines, fuel and balance masses, control balance
masses). - torsional stiffness - bending flexibility.
63

Describe the following design configurations: - 021.02.03.03.05 021.02.03.01.01


conventional (low or mid set) tailplane - T-tail.
64
(Merged into 021.02.03.01.01)
Fuselage, landing gear, doors, floor, wind-screen and 021.02.04.00 021.02.04.00
65 windows

66 021.02.04.01
Describe the following types of fuselage construction: - 021.02.04.00.01 021.02.04.01.01
67 monocoque - semi-monocoque.
Describe the construction and the function of the 021.02.04.00.02 021.02.04.01.02
following structural components of a fuselage: - frames –
bulkhead - stiffeners, stringers, longerons - skin, doublers
68 - floor suspension (crossbeams) - floor panels - firewall.

Describe the loads on the fuselage due to pressurisation. 021.02.04.00.03 021.02.04.01.03


69
Describe the following loads on a main landing gear: - 021.02.04.00.04 021.02.04.01.04
70 touch down loads (vertical and horizontal) - taxi loads on
bogie gear (turns).
Describe the structural danger of a nose wheel landing 021.02.04.00.05 021.02.04.01.05
71 with respect to: - Fuselage loads - Nose wheel strut loads.

Describe the structural danger of a tail strike with respect 021.02.04.00.06 021.02.04.01.06
72 to: - fuselage and aft bulkhead damage (pressurisation).

Describe door and hatch construction for pressurised and 021.02.04.00.07 021.02.04.01.07
unpressurised aeroplanes including: - door and frame
73 (plug type) - hinge location - locking mechanism.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the 021.02.04.00.08 021.02.04.01.08


74 following fuselage cross sections: - circular - double
bubble (two types) – oval - rectangular.

State that flight deck windows are constructed with 021.02.04.00.09 021.02.04.01.09
75 different layers.
Explain the function of window heating for structural 021.02.04.00.10 021.02.04.01.10
76 purposes.
Explain the implication of a direct vision window (see CS 021.02.04.00.11 021.02.04.01.11
77 25.773 (b) (3)).

78 State the need for an eye reference position. 021.02.04.00.12 021.02.04.01.12


Explain the function of floor venting (blow out panels). 021.02.04.00.13 021.02.04.01.13
79
Describe the construction and fitting of sliding doors. 021.02.04.00.14 021.02.04.01.14
80

81 Helicopter : Flight controls structural aspects 021.02.05.00 021.02.05.00


82 Design and construction 021.02.05.01 021.02.05.01
83 List the functions of flight controls. 021.02.05.01.01 021.02.05.01.01
Describe and explain the different flight control design 021.02.05.01.02
concepts for conventional, tandem, coaxial, side by side,
84 NOTAR and Fenestron equipped helicopters.

Explain the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of 021.02.05.01.03


85 the respective designs above.

86 Explain the function of the synchronised elevator. 021.02.05.01.04


Describe the construction methods and alignment of 021.02.05.01.05 021.02.05.01.02
87 vertical and horizontal stabilisers.

88 Structural components and materials 021.02.05.02 021.02.05.02


Name the main components of flight and control 021.02.05.02.01
89 surfaces.
Describe the fatigue life and methods of checking for 021.02.05.02.02 021.02.05.02.01
90 serviceability of flight and control surface components
and materials.
91 Loads, stresses and aeroelastic vibrations 021.02.05.03 021.02.05.03
Describe and explain where the main stresses are applied 021.02.05.03.01
92 to components.
Describe the dangers and stresses regarding safety and 021.02.05.03.02 021.02.05.03.01
93 serviceability in flight when the manufacturers design
envelope is exceeded.
Explain the procedure for: - static chord wise balancing - 021.02.05.03.03
static span wise balancing - blade alignment - dynamic
94 chord wise balancing - dynamic span wise balancing.

Explain the process of blade tracking including: - the pre- 021.02.05.03.04 021.02.05.03.02
track method of blade tracking - the use of delta
incidence numbers - aircraft configuration whilst carrying
out tracking - factors affecting blade flying profile - ground
tracking and in-flight trend analysis - use of pitch link and
95 blade trim tab adjustments - tracking techniques,
including stroboscopic and electronic.

Describe the early indications and vibrations which are 021.02.05.03.05 021.02.05.03.03
likely to be experienced when the main rotor blades and
tail rotor are out of balance and/or tracking, including the
96 possible early indications due to possible fatigue and
overload.

Explain how a vibration harmonic can be set up in other 021.02.05.03.06 021.02.05.03.04


97 components which can lead to their early failure.

Describe the three planes of vibration measurement i.e.: 021.02.05.03.07 021.02.05.03.05


98 vertical, lateral, fore and aft.

99 Structural limitations 021.02.06.00 021.02.06.00


100 021.02.06.01
Define and explain the following maximum structural 021.02.06.00.01 021.02.06.01.01
masses: - Maximum ramp mass - Maximum take-off mass
- Maximum zero fuel mass - Maximum landing mass.
Remark: These limitations may also be found in the
101 relevant part of subjects 031, 032 and 034.

Explain that airframe life is limited by fatigue, created by 021.02.06.00.02 021.02.06.01.02


102 alternating stress and the number of load cycles.

Explain the maximum structural masses: - Maximum take- 021.02.06.00.03 021.02.06.01.03


103 off mass.
Explain that airframe life is limited by fatigue, created by 021.02.06.00.04 021.02.06.01.04
104 the load cycles.

105 HYDRAULICS 021.03.00.00 021.03.00.00


106 Hydromechanics: basic principles 021.03.01.00 021.03.01.00
107 021.03.01.01
Explain the concept and basic principles of hydro- 021.03.01.00.01 021.03.01.01.01
mechanics including: - Hydrostatic pressure - Pascal’s law -
The relationship between pressure, force and area -
108 Transmission of power: Multiplication of force, decrease
of displacement.

109 Hydraulic systems 021.03.02.00 021.03.02.00


110 Hydraulic fluids: types, characteristics, limitations 021.03.02.01 021.03.02.01
List and explain the desirable properties of a hydraulic 021.03.02.01.01 021.03.02.01.01
fluid: - thermal stability - corrosiveness - flashpoint and
111 flammability - volatility - viscosity.

State that hydraulic fluids are irritating for skin and eyes. 021.03.02.01.02 021.03.02.01.02
112
List the two different types of hydraulic fluids: - synthetic - 021.03.02.01.03 021.03.02.01.03
113 mineral.
State that different types of hydraulic fluids cannot be 021.03.02.01.04 021.03.02.01.04
114 mixed.
State that at the pressures being considered hydraulic 021.03.02.01.05 021.03.02.01.05
115 fluid is considered incompressible.
System components: design, operation, degraded modes 021.03.02.02 021.03.02.02
116 of operation, indications and warnings

117 Explain the working principle of a hydraulic system. 021.03.02.02.01 021.03.02.02.01


Describe the difference in principle of operation between 021.03.02.02.02 021.03.02.02.02
a constant pressure system and a system pressurised only
118 on specific demand (open-centre).

State the differences in principle of operation between a 021.03.02.02.03 021.03.02.02.03


passive hydraulic system (without a pressure pump) and
119 an active hydraulic system (with a pressure pump).

List the main advantages and disadvantages of system 021.03.02.02.04 021.03.02.02.04


120 actuation by hydraulic or purely mechanical means with
respect to: - weight - size - force.

121 List the main users of hydraulic systems. 021.03.02.02.05 021.03.02.02.05


State that hydraulic systems can be classified as either 021.03.02.02.06 021.03.02.02.06
122 high pressure (typically 3000 psi or higher) and low
pressure (typically up to 2000 psi).

State that the normal hydraulic pressure of most large 021.03.02.02.07 021.03.02.02.07
transport aircraft is 3000 psi.
123

Explain the working principle of a low pressure (0-2000 021.03.02.02.08 021.03.02.02.08


124 psi) open centred system using an off loading valve and an
RPM dependent pump.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a high 021.03.02.02.09 021.03.02.02.09


125 pressure system over a low pressure system.
Describe the working principle and functions of pressure 021.03.02.02.10 021.03.02.02.10
pumps including: - constant pressure pump (swashplate
or camplate) - pressure pump whose output is dependent
126 on pump RPM (gear type).
State that for an aeroplane, the power sources of a 021.03.02.02.11 021.03.02.02.11
hydraulic pressure pump can be: - manual - engine
gearbox - electrical - air (pneumatic and Ram Air Turbine)
127 -pumps.
hydraulic (Power Transfer Unit) or reversible motor

State that for a helicopter, the power sources of a 021.03.02.02.12 021.03.02.02.12


hydraulic pressure pump can be: - manual - engine -
128 gearbox - electrical.

Describe the working principle and functions of the 021.03.02.02.13 021.03.02.02.13


following hydraulic system components: - reservoir
(pressurised and unpressurised) - accumulators - case
drain lines and fluid cooler return lines - piston actuators
(single and double acting) - hydraulic motors - filters -
non-return (check) valves - relief valves - restrictor valves -
selector valves (linear and basic rotary selectors, two and
129 four ports) - by‑pass valves - shuttle valves - fire shut‑off
valves - priority valves - fuse valves - pressure and return
pipes.

Explain why many transport aeroplanes have “demand” 021.03.02.02.14 021.03.02.02.14


130 hydraulic pumps.
Explain how redundancy is obtained by giving examples. 021.03.02.02.15 021.03.02.02.15
131
Interpret the hydraulic system schematic appended to 021.03.02.02.16 021.03.02.02.16
132 these LOs (to be introduced at a latter date).

133 Explain the implication of a high system demand. 021.03.02.02.17 021.03.02.02.17


Explain the implication of a system internal leakage 021.03.02.02.18
134 including hydraulic lock of piston actuators.
List and describe the instruments and alerts for 021.03.02.02.19 021.03.02.02.18
135 monitoring a hydraulic system.
State the indications and explain the implications of the 021.03.02.02.20 021.03.02.02.19
136 following malfunctions: - system leak or low level - low
pressure - high temperature.

137 LANDING GEAR, WHEELS, TYRES, BRAKES 021.04.00.00 021.04.00.00


138 Landing gear 021.04.01.00 021.04.01.00
139 Types 021.04.01.01 021.04.01.01
Name, for an aeroplane, the following different landing 021.04.01.01.01 021.04.01.01.01
140 gear configurations: - nose-wheel - tail-wheel.

Name, for a helicopter, the following different landing 021.04.01.01.02 021.04.01.01.02


141 gear configurations: - nose-wheel - tail-wheel - skids.

System components, design, operation, indications and 021.04.01.02 021.04.01.02


142 warnings, on-ground/in-flight protections, emergency
extension systems
Explain the function of the following components of a 021.04.01.02.01 021.04.01.02.01
landing gear - oleo leg/shock strut - axles - bogies and
bogie beam - drag struts - side stays/struts - torsion links -
143 locks (over centre) - gear doors and retraction
mechanisms (normal and emergency operation).

Explain the function of the following components of a 021.04.01.02.02 021.04.01.02.02


landing gear - oleo leg/shock strut - axles - drag struts -
side stays/struts - torsion links - locks (over centre) - gear
144 doors and retraction mechanisms (normal and emergency
operation).

Name the different components of a landing gear, using 021.04.01.02.03 021.04.01.02.03


145 the diagram appended to these LOs.
Describe the sequence of events during normal operation 021.04.01.02.04 021.04.01.02.04
146 of the landing gear.
State how landing gear position indication and alerting is 021.04.01.02.05 021.04.01.02.05
147 implemented.
Describe the various protection devices to avoid 021.04.01.02.06 021.04.01.02.06
inadvertent gear retraction on the ground: - ground lock
(pins), - protection devices in the gear retraction
148 mechanism.

Explain the speed limitations for gear operation (VLO and 021.04.01.02.07 021.04.01.02.07
149 VLE).

Describe the sequence for emergency gear extension: - 021.04.01.02.08 021.04.01.02.08


150 unlocking - operating - down locking.
Describe some methods for emergency gear extension 021.04.01.02.09 021.04.01.02.09
151 including: - gravity/free fall - air or nitrogen pressure -
manually/mechanically.

152 Nose-wheel steering 021.04.02.00 021.04.02.00


153 021.04.02.01
Explain the operating principle of nose ‑wheel steering. 021.04.02.00.01 021.04.02.01.01
154
Explain for a helicopter the functioning of differential 021.04.02.00.02 021.04.02.01.02
155 braking with free castoring nose wheel.

Describe for an aeroplane the functioning of the following 021.04.02.00.03 021.04.02.01.03


systems: - differential braking with free castoring nose
156 wheel - tiller or hand wheel steering - rudder pedal nose
wheel steering.

Explain the centering mechanism of the nose wheel. 021.04.02.00.04 021.04.02.01.04


157
Define the term ‘shimmy’ and the possible consequences 021.04.02.00.05 021.04.02.01.05
for the nose and the main wheel system.
158
159 Explain the purpose of main wheel (body) steering. 021.04.02.00.06 021.04.02.01.06
160 Brakes 021.04.03.00 021.04.03.00
161 Types and materials 021.04.03.01 021.04.03.01
Describe the basic operating principle of a disk brake. 021.04.03.01.01 021.04.03.01.01
162
State the different materials used in a disc brake (steel, 021.04.03.01.02 021.04.03.01.02
163 carbon).
Describe their characteristics plus advantages and 021.04.03.01.03 021.04.03.01.03
disadvantages such as: - weight - temperature limits -
164 internal friction coefficient. - wear.

System components, design, operation, indications and 021.04.03.02 021.04.03.02


165 warnings
State the limitation of brake energy and describe the 021.04.03.02.01 021.04.03.02.01
166 operational consequences.
Explain how brakes are actuated. 021.04.03.02.02 021.04.03.02.02
167
Identify the task of an auto retract or in flight brake 021.04.03.02.03 021.04.03.02.03
168 system.

169 State that brakes can be torque limited. 021.04.03.02.04


170 Describe the function of a brake accumulator. 021.04.03.02.05 021.04.03.02.04
171 Describe the function of the parking brake. 021.04.03.02.06 021.04.03.02.05
172 Explain the function of wear indicators. 021.04.03.02.07 021.04.03.02.06
Explain the reason for the brake temperature indicator. 021.04.03.02.08 021.04.03.02.07
173
State that the main power source for brakes in normal 021.04.03.02.09
174 operation and for alternate operation for large transport
aeroplanes is hydraulic.

175 Anti-skid 021.04.03.03 021.04.03.03


Describe the operating principle of an anti ‑skid system 021.04.03.03.01 021.04.03.03.01
176 where the brake performance is based on maintaining the
optimum wheel slip value.

Explain the purpose of the wheel speed signal 021.04.03.03.02 021.04.03.03.02


(tachometer) and of the aeroplane reference speed signal
to the anti-skid computer, considering: - slip ratio for
maximum braking performance - locked wheel prevention
(protection against deep skid on one wheel)- touchdown
protection (protection against brake pressure application
177 during touch down) - hydroplane protection.

Give examples of the impact of an anti-skid system on 021.04.03.03.03 021.04.03.03.03


178 performance.

179 Autobrake 021.04.03.04 021.04.03.04


Describe the operating principle of an auto ‑brake system. 021.04.03.04.01 021.04.03.04.01
180
State that the anti-skid system must be available when 021.04.03.04.02 021.04.03.04.02
181 using auto-brakes.
Explain the difference between the three possible levels 021.04.03.04.03 021.04.03.04.03
of operation of an auto-brake system: - OFF (system off or
reset) - Arm/Disarm (ARM : the system is ready to operate
under certain conditions) - Operative/Inoperative or
182 Activated/De-activated (application of pressure on
brakes).

021.04.03.04.04

183

184 Wheels, rims and tyres 021.04.04.00 021.04.04.00


Types, structural components and materials, operational 021.04.04.01 021.04.04.01
185 limitations, thermal plugs
Describe the different types of tyres such as: - tubeless - 021.04.04.01.01 021.04.04.01.01
186 diagonal (cross ply) - radial (circumferential bias).

Define the following terms - ply rating - tyre tread - tyre 021.04.04.01.02 021.04.04.01.02
187 creep - retread (cover).

188 Explain the function of thermal/fusible plugs. 021.04.04.01.03 021.04.04.01.03


Explain the implications of tread separation and tyre 021.04.04.01.04 021.04.04.01.04
189 burst.

190 State that the ground speed of tyres is limited. 021.04.04.01.05 021.04.04.01.05
Describe material and basic construction of the rim of an 021.04.04.01.06 021.04.04.01.06
aeroplane wheel.
191

192 Helicopter equipment 021.04.05.00 021.04.05.00


193 021.04.05.01
Explain flotation devices and how they are operated. 021.04.05.00.01 021.04.05.01.01
194
Explain the IAS limitations, before, during and after 021.04.05.00.02 021.04.05.01.02
195 flotation device deployment.

Remark: The manual, irreversible and reversible flight 021.04.05.00.02


control systems as discussed in 021 05 01 01, 05 01 02
and 05 01 03 are all considered to be mechanical flight
196 control systems. Fly by Wire flight control systems are
discussed in 021 05 04 00.

197 FLIGHT CONTROLS 021.05.00.00 021.05.00.00


198 Aeroplane: primary flight controls 021.05.01.00 021.05.01.00
199 021.05.01.01
200 Define a primary flight control. 021.05.01.00.01 021.05.01.01.01
List the following primary flight control surfaces: - 021.05.01.00.02 021.05.01.01.02
201 elevator - aileron, roll spoilers - rudder.
List the various means of control surface actuation 021.05.01.00.03 021.05.01.01.03
202 including: - manual - fully powered (irreversible) - partially
powered (reversible).

203 Manual controls 021.05.01.01 021.05.01.02


Explain the basic principle of a fully manual control 021.05.01.01.01 021.05.01.02.01
204 system.

205 Fully powered controls (irreversible) 021.05.01.02 021.05.01.03


Explain the basic principle of a fully powered control 021.05.01.02.01 021.05.01.03.01
206 system.
Explain the concept of irreversibility in a flight control 021.05.01.02.02 021.05.01.03.02
207 system.
Explain the need for a ‘feel system’ in a fully powered 021.05.01.02.03 021.05.01.03.03
208 control system.
Explain the operating principle of a stabiliser trim system 021.05.01.02.04 021.05.01.03.04
209 in a fully powered control system.
Explain the operating principle of rudder and aileron trim 021.05.01.02.05 021.05.01.03.05
210 in a fully powered control system.

211 Partially powered controls (reversible) 021.05.01.03 021.05.01.04


Explain the basic principle of a partially powered control 021.05.01.03.01 021.05.01.04.01
212 system.
Explain why a ‘feel system’ is not necessary in a partially 021.05.01.03.02 021.05.01.04.02
213 powered control system.
System components, design, operation, indications and 021.05.01.05 021.05.01.05
214 warnings, degraded modes of operation, jamming

List and describe the function of the following 021.05.01.04.01 021.05.01.05.01


components of a flight control system: - actuators -
215 control valves - cables or electrical wiring - control surface
position sensors.

Explain how redundancy is obtained in primary flight 021.05.01.04.02 021.05.01.05.02


216 control systems of large transport aeroplanes.

Explain the danger of control jamming and the means of 021.05.01.04.03 021.05.01.05.03
217 retaining sufficient control capability.
Explain the methods of locking the controls on the ground 021.05.01.04.04 021.05.01.05.04
218 and describe “gust or control lock“ warnings.

Explain the concept of a rudder deflection limitation 021.05.01.04.05 021.05.01.05.05


(rudder limiter) system and the various means of
219 implementation (rudder ratio changer, variable stops,
blow-back).

220 Aeroplane: secondary flight controls 021.05.02.00 021.05.02.00


System components, design, operation, degraded modes 021.05.02.01 021.05.02.01
221 of operation, indications and warnings

222 Define a secondary flight control. 021.05.02.01.01 021.05.02.01.01


List the following secondary flight control surfaces: - lift 021.05.02.01.02 021.05.02.01.02
augmentation devices (flaps and slats) - speed brakes -
flight and ground spoilers - trimming devices such as trim
223 tabs, trimmable horizontal stabiliser.

Describe secondary flight control actuation methods and 021.05.02.01.03 021.05.02.01.03


224 sources of actuating power.
Explain the function of a mechanical lock when using 021.05.02.01.04 021.05.02.01.04
225 hydraulic motors driving a screw jack.
Describe the requirement for limiting speeds for the 021.05.02.01.05 021.05.02.01.05
226 various secondary flight control surfaces.
For lift augmentation devices, explain the load limiting 021.05.02.01.06 021.05.02.01.06
227 (relief) protection devices and the functioning of an auto-
retraction system.

Explain how a flap/slat asymmetry protection device 021.05.02.01.07 021.05.02.01.07


228 functions.

229 Describe the function of an auto-slat system. 021.05.02.01.08 021.05.02.01.08


Explain the concept of control surface blow-back 021.05.02.01.09 021.05.02.01.09
230 (aerodynamic forces overruling hydraulic forces).

231 Helicopter: flight controls 021.05.03.00 021.05.03.00


021.05.03.01
232
Explain the methods of locking the controls on the 021.05.03.00.01 021.05.03.01.01
233 ground.
Describe main rotor droop stops and how static rotor 021.05.03.00.02 021.05.03.01.02
234 flapping is restricted.
Describe the need for linear and rotary control input/ 021.05.03.00.03
235 output.
Explain the principle of phase lag and advance angle. 021.05.03.00.04 021.05.03.01.03
236
Describe the following four axis of control operation, their 021.05.03.00.05 021.05.03.01.04
operating principle and their associated cockpit controls: -
collective control - cyclic fore and aft (pitch axis) - cyclic
237 lateral (roll axis) - yaw.

Describe the swashplate or azimuth star control system 021.05.03.00.06 021.05.03.01.05


including the following: - swashplate inputs - the function
of the non-rotating swashplate - the function of the
rotating swashplate - how swashplate tilt is achieved -
swashplate pitch axis - swashplate roll axis - balancing of
238 pitch/roll/collective inputs to the swashplate to equalise
torsional loads on the blades.

Describe the main rotor spider control system including 021.05.03.00.07 021.05.03.01.06
the following: - the collective beam - pitch/roll/collective
239 inputs to the collective beam - spider drive.
Describe the need for control system interlinks, in 021.05.03.00.08
particular: - collective/yaw - collective/throttle -
240 cyclic/stabilator - interaction between cyclic controls and
horizontal/stabilator.

State the need for “feel systems” in the hydraulic actuated 021.05.03.00.09 021.05.03.01.07
241 flight control system.
Describe the purpose of a trim system. 021.05.03.00.10 021.05.03.01.08

242

Describe the purpose of a cyclic beep trim system that 021.05.03.00.11


243 utilises Parallel Trim Actuators to enable the pilot to
control the aircraft.

List and describe the different types of trim system. 021.05.03.00.12


244
Explain the basic components of a trim system in 021.05.03.00.13
particular: - force trim switch - force gradient - parallel
trim actuator - cyclic 4-way trim switch - interaction of
245 trim system with a SAS/SCAS/ASS stability system - trim
motor indicators.

246 Describe the different types of control runs. 021.05.03.00.14 021.05.03.01.09


247 Explain the use of control stops. 021.05.03.00.15 021.05.03.01.10
248 Aeroplane: fly-by-wire (FBW) control systems 021.05.04.00 021.05.04.00
021.05.04.01
249
Explain that a FBW flight control system is composed of 021.05.04.00.01 021.05.04.01.01
the following: - pilot's input command (control
stick/column) - electrical signalling including: - pilot input
to computer - computer to flight control surfaces -
250 feedback from aircraft response to computer - flight
control computers - actuators - control surfaces.

State the advantages and disadvantages of a FBW system 021.05.04.00.02 021.05.04.01.02


in comparison with a conventional flight control system
251 including: - weight - pilot workload - flight envelope
protection.

252 Explain why a FBW system is always irreversible. 021.05.04.00.03 021.05.04.01.03


State the existence of degraded modes of operation. 021.05.04.00.04 021.05.04.01.04

253

021.05.04.01.05
254
021.05.04.01.06

255

021.05.04.01.07

256

021.05.04.01.08
257
021.05.04.01.09
258
021.05.04.01.10
259
021.05.04.01.11
260
Helicopter: fly-by-wire (FBW) control system 021.05.05.00 021.05.05.00
261

262 To be introduced at a later date. 021.05.05.00.01


PNEUMATICS - PRESSURISATION AND AIR- 021.06.00.00 021.06.00.00
263 CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

264 Pneumatic/bleed-air supply 021.06.01.00 021.06.01.00


265 Piston-engine air supply 021.06.01.01 021.06.01.01
State the method of supplying air for the pneumatic 021.06.01.01.01 021.06.01.01.01
266 systems for piston engine aircraft.

State that an air supply is required for the following 021.06.01.01.02 021.06.01.01.02
267 systems: - instrumentation - heating - de-icing.

268 Gas turbine engine: bleed-air supply 021.06.01.02 021.06.01.02


State that the possible bleed air sources for gas turbine 021.06.01.02.01 021.06.01.02.01
269 engine aircraft are the following: - engine - APU - ground
supply.

State that for an aeroplane a bleed air supply can be used 021.06.01.02.02 021.06.01.02.02
for the following systems or components: - anti-icing -
engine air starter - pressurisation of a hydraulic reservoir -
270 air driven hydraulic pumps - pressurisation and air
conditioning.

State that for a helicopter a bleed air supply can be used 021.06.01.02.03 021.06.01.02.03
for the following systems or components: - anti-icing -
271 engine air starter - pressurisation of a hydraulic reservoir.
State that the bleed air supply system can comprise the 021.06.01.02.04 021.06.01.02.04
following: - pneumatic ducts - isolation valve - pressure
regulating valve - engine bleed valve (HP/IP valves) - fan
272 air pre‑cooler - temperature and pressure sensors.

Interpret the pneumatic system schematic appended to 021.06.01.02.05 021.06.01.02.05


273 these Los
Describe the cockpit indications for bleed air systems. 021.06.01.02.06 021.06.01.02.06
274
State how the bleed air supply system is controlled and 021.06.01.02.07 021.06.01.02.07
275 monitored.
List the following air bleed malfunctions: - over 021.06.01.02.08 021.06.01.02.08
temperature - over pressure - low pressure -
276 overheat/duct leak.

277 Helicopter: air-conditioning systems 021.06.02.00 021.06.02.00


Types, system components, design, operation, degraded 021.06.02.01 021.06.02.01
278 modes of operation, indications and warnings

279 Describe the purpose of an air conditioning system. 021.06.02.01.01 021.06.02.01.01


Explain how an air conditioning system is controlled. 021.06.02.01.02 021.06.02.01.02
280
Describe the vapour cycle air conditioning system 021.06.02.01.03 021.06.02.01.03
including systems components, design, operation,
281 degraded modes of operation and system malfunction
indications.

Identify the following components from a diagram of an 021.06.02.01.04 021.06.02.01.04


air conditioning system and describe the operating
principle and function: - air cycle machine (pack,
bootstrap system) - pack cooling fan - water separator -
282 mixing valves - flow control valves - isolation valves - re-
circulation fans - filters for re-circulation - temperature
sensors.

List and describe the controls, indications and warnings 021.06.02.01.05 021.06.02.01.05
283 related to an air conditioning system.
Aeroplane: pressurisation and air-conditioning system 021.06.03.00 021.06.03.00
284
System components, design, operation, degraded modes 021.06.03.01 021.06.03.01
285 of operation, indications and warnings
State that a pressurisation and an air conditioning system 021.06.03.01.01 021.06.03.01.01
286 of an aeroplane controls: - ventilation - temperature -
pressure.

287 State that in general humidity is not controlled. 021.06.03.01.02 021.06.03.01.02


Explain that the following components constitute a 021.06.03.01.03 021.06.03.01.03
pressurisation system: - pneumatic system as the power
source - outflow valve - outflow valve actuator - pressure
288 controller - excessive differential pressure relief valve -
negative differential pressure relief valve.

Explain that the following components constitute an 021.06.03.01.04 021.06.03.01.04


air‑conditioning system and describe their operating
principles and function: - air cycle machine (pack,
bootstrap system) - pack cooling fan - water separator -
mixing valves - flow control valves (outflow valve) -
isolation valves - ram air valve - re-circulation fans - filters
289 for re-circulated air - temperature sensors. Remark: The
bootstrap system is the only air conditioning system
considered for Part-FCL aeroplane examinations.

290 Describe the use of hot trim air. 021.06.03.01.05 021.06.03.01.05


Define the following terms: - cabin altitude - cabin vertical 021.06.03.01.06 021.06.03.01.06
291 speed - differential pressure - ground pressurisation.

Describe the operating principle of a pressurisation 021.06.03.01.07 021.06.03.01.07


292 system.
Describe the emergency operation by manual setting of 021.06.03.01.08 021.06.03.01.08
293 the outflow valve position.
Describe the working principle of an electronic cabin 021.06.03.01.09 021.06.03.01.09
294 pressure controller.
State how the maximum operating altitude is determined. 021.06.03.01.10 021.06.03.01.10
295
State: - the maximum allowed value of cabin altitude - 021.06.03.01.11 021.06.03.01.11
state a typical value of maximum differential pressure for
large transport aeroplane (8 to 9 psi) - the relation
296 between cabin altitude, the maximum differential
pressure and maximum aeroplane operating altitude.

Identify the aural warning when cabin altitude exceeds 021.06.03.01.12 021.06.03.01.12
297 10,000 ft.
List the indications of the pressurisation system. 021.06.03.01.13 021.06.03.01.13
298
021.06.03.01.14

299

300 ANTI-ICING AND DE-ICING SYSTEMS 021.07.00.00 021.07.00.00


Types, design, operation, indications and warnings, 021.07.01.00 021.07.01.00
301 operational limitations
021.07.01.01
302
303 Explain the concepts of de‑icing and anti ‑icing. 021.07.01.00.01 021.07.01.01.01
Name the components of an aircraft which can be 021.07.01.00.02 021.07.01.01.02
304 protected from ice accretion.
State that on some aeroplanes the tail does not have an 021.07.01.00.03 021.07.01.01.03
305 ice protection system.
State the different types of anti-icing/de-icing systems 021.07.01.00.04 021.07.01.01.04
306 (hot-air, electrical, fluid).

Describe the operating principle of these systems. 021.07.01.00.05 021.07.01.01.05


307
Describe the operating principle of the inflatable boot de- 021.07.01.00.06
308 icing system.

309 Ice warning systems 021.07.02.00 021.07.02.00


310 021.07.02.01
Describe the different operating principles of the 021.07.02.00.01 021.07.02.01.01
following ice detectors: - mechanical systems using air
311 pressure - electro-mechanical systems using resonance
frequencies.

Describe the principle of operation of ice warning 021.07.02.00.02 021.07.02.01.02


312 systems.

313 Helicopter blade heating systems 021.07.03.00 021.07.03.00


314 021.07.03.01
315 Describe main and tail rotor blade heating systems. 021.07.03.00.01
Explain the limitations on blade heating and the fact that 021.07.03.00.02 021.07.03.01.01
316 on some helicopters, the heating does not heat all the
main rotor blades at the same time.

317 FUEL SYSTEM 021.08.00.00 021.08.00.00


318 Piston engine 021.08.01.00 021.08.01.00
319 Fuel: types, characteristics, limitations 021.08.01.01 021.08.01.01
State the types of fuel used by piston engine (diesel, 021.08.01.01.01 021.08.01.01.01
320 AVGAS, MOGAS) and their associated limitations.

State the main characteristics of these fuels and give 021.08.01.01.02 021.08.01.01.02
321 typical values regarding their flash points, freezing points
and density.

322 Design, operation, system components, indications 021.08.01.02 021.08.01.02


323 State the tasks of the fuel system. 021.08.01.02.01 021.08.01.02.01
Name the following main components of a fuel system, 021.08.01.02.02 021.08.01.02.02
state their location and state their function. - lines - boost
pump - pressure valves - filter, strainer - tanks (wing, tip,
324 fuselage) - vent system - sump - drain - fuel quantity
sensor - temperature sensor.

Describe a gravity fuel feed system and a pressure feed 021.08.01.02.03 021.08.01.02.03
325 fuel system.
Describe the construction of the different types of fuel 021.08.01.02.04 021.08.01.02.04
tanks and state their advantages and disadvantages: -
326 drum tank - bladder tank - integral tank.

327 Explain the function of cross-feed. 021.08.01.02.05 021.08.01.02.05


328 Define the term ‘unusable fuel’. 021.08.01.02.06 021.08.01.02.06
List the following parameters that are monitored for the 021.08.01.02.07 021.08.01.02.07
329 fuel system: - fuel quantity (low level warning) - fuel
temperature.

330 Turbine engine 021.08.02.00 021.08.02.00


331 Fuel: types, characteristics, limitations 021.08.02.01 021.08.02.01
State the types of fuel used by gas turbine engine (JET-A, 021.08.02.01.01 021.08.02.01.01
332 JET-A1, JET-B).
State the main characteristics of these fuels and give 021.08.02.01.02 021.08.02.01.02
333 typical values regarding their flash points, freezing points
and density.

334 State the existence of additives for freezing. 021.08.02.01.03 021.08.02.01.03


335 Design, operation, system components, indications 021.08.02.02 021.08.02.02
State the tasks of the fuel system. 021.08.02.02.01 021.08.02.02.01

336

Name the main components of a fuel system, state their 021.08.02.02.02 021.08.02.02.02
location and state their function. - lines - centrifugal boost
pump - pressure valves - fuel shut off valve - filter, strainer
- tanks (wing, tip, fuselage, tail) - bafflers - sump - vent
337 system - drain - fuel quantity sensor - temperature sensor
- re/de-fuelling system - fuel dump/jettison system.

Interpret the fuel system schematic appended to these 021.08.02.02.03 021.08.02.02.03


338 LOs.
Explain the limitations in the event of loss of booster 021.08.02.02.04 021.08.02.02.04
339 pump fuel pressure.
Describe the construction of the different types of fuel 021.08.02.02.05 021.08.02.02.05
tanks and state their advantages and disadvantages: -
340 drum tank - bladder tank - integral tank.

341 Explain the function of cross-feed and transfer. 021.08.02.02.06


342 Define the term ‘unusable fuel’. 021.08.02.02.07
Describe the use and purpose of drip sticks (manual 021.08.02.02.08
343 magnetic indicators).
Explain the considerations for fitting a fuel dump/jettison 021.08.02.02.09 021.08.02.02.06
344 system.
List the following parameters that are monitored for the 021.08.02.02.10
345 fuel system: - fuel quantity (low level warning) - fuel
temperature.

346 ELECTRICS 021.09.00.00 021.09.00.00


General, definitions, basic applications: circuit breakers, 021.09.01.00 021.09.01.00
347 logic circuits

348 Static electricity 021.09.01.01 021.09.01.01


Explain static electricity. 021.09.01.01.01 021.09.01.01.01
349

Describe a static discharger and explain its purpose. 021.09.01.01.02 021.09.01.01.02


350

Explain why an aircraft must first be grounded before 021.09.01.01.03 021.09.01.01.03


351 refuelling/de-fuelling.

352 Explain the reason for electrical bonding. 021.09.01.01.04 021.09.01.01.04


353 Direct current (DC) 021.09.01.02 021.09.01.02
State that a current can only flow in a closed circuit. 021.09.01.02.01 021.09.01.02.01
354
Explain the basic principles of conductivity and give 021.09.01.02.02 021.09.01.02.02
355 examples of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

State the operating principle of mechanical (toggle, 021.09.01.02.03 021.09.01.02.03


rocker, push and pull), thermo, time and proximity
switches.

356

Define voltage, current and resistance and state their unit 021.09.01.02.04 021.09.01.02.04
357 of measurement.

358 Explain Ohm’s law in qualitative terms. 021.09.01.02.05 021.09.01.02.05


Explain the effect on total resistance when resistors are 021.09.01.02.06 021.09.01.02.06
359 connected in series or in parallel.
State that resistances can have a positive or a negative 021.09.01.02.07 021.09.01.02.07
360 temperature coefficient (PTC/NTC) and state their use.

Define electrical work and power in qualitative terms and 021.09.01.02.08 021.09.01.02.08
361 state the unit of measurement.
Define the term ”electrical field” and “magnetic field” in 021.09.01.02.09
qualitative terms and explain the difference with the aid
362 of the Lorentz Force (Electro Motive Force : EMF).

Explain the term capacitance and explain the use of a 021.09.01.02.10


363 capacitor as a storage device.

364 Alternating current (AC) 021.09.01.03 021.09.01.03


Explain the term alternating current (AC). 021.09.01.03.01 021.09.01.03.01
365
Define the term phase. 021.09.01.03.02 021.09.01.03.02
366
Explain the principle of single phase and three phase AC 021.09.01.03.03 021.09.01.03.03
367 and state its use in the aircraft.
Define frequency in qualitative terms and state the unit of 021.09.01.03.04 021.09.01.03.04
368 measurement.

369 Explain the use of a particular frequency in aircraft. 021.09.01.03.05


370 Define phase shift in qualitative terms. 021.09.01.03.06 021.09.01.03.05
371 Resistors, capacitors, inductance coil 021.09.01.04 021.09.01.04
Describe the relation between voltage and current of an 021.09.01.04.01
372 ohmic resistor in an AC/DC circuit.
Describe the relation between voltage and current of a 021.09.01.04.02
373 capacitor in an AC/DC circuit.
Describe the relation between voltage and current of a 021.09.01.04.03
374 coil in an AC/DC circuit.

375 Permanent magnets 021.09.01.05 021.09.01.05


376 Explain the term magnetic flux. 021.09.01.05.01
State the pattern and direction of the magnetic flux 021.09.01.05.02
377 outside the magnetic poles and inside the magnet.

378 Electromagnetism 021.09.01.06 021.09.01.06


State that an electrical current produces a magnetic field 021.09.01.06.01 021.09.01.06.01
379 and define the direction of that field.
Describe how the strength of the magnetic field changes 021.09.01.06.02 021.09.01.06.02
380 if supported by a ferromagnetic core.
Explain the purpose and the working principle of a 021.09.01.06.03 021.09.01.06.03
381 solenoid.
Explain the purpose and the working principle of a relay. 021.09.01.06.04 021.09.01.06.04
382
Explain the principle of electromagnetic induction. 021.09.01.06.05 021.09.01.06.05
383

List the parameters affecting the inductance of a coil. 021.09.01.06.06


384
List the parameters affecting the induced voltage in a coil. 021.09.01.06.07
385

386 Circuit protection 021.09.01.07 021.09.01.07


Explain the operating principle of a fuse and a circuit 021.09.01.07.01 021.09.01.07.01
387 breaker.

388 Explain how a fuse is rated. 021.09.01.07.02 021.09.01.07.02


State the difference between a ”trip-free” and ”non-trip- 021.09.01.07.03 021.09.01.07.03
free” circuit breaker.
389

List the following different types of circuit breakers: - 021.09.01.07.04 021.09.01.07.04


390 thermal circuit breakers - magnetic circuit breaker.
021.09.01.07.05

391

021.09.01.07.06
392
021.09.01.07.07
393
021.09.01.07.08
394

395 Semiconductors and logic circuits 021.09.01.08 021.09.01.08


State the differences between semiconductor materials 021.09.01.08.01 021.09.01.08.01
396 and conductors and explain how the conductivity of
semiconductors can be altered.

State the principal function of diodes such as rectification, 021.09.01.08.02


397 voltage limiting.
State the principal function of transistors such as 021.09.01.08.03
398 switching and amplification.
Explain the following five basic functions: AND, OR, NOT, 021.09.01.08.04 021.09.01.08.02
NOR and NAND.
399

400 Describe their associated symbols. 021.09.01.08.05


Interpret logic diagrams using a combination of these 021.09.01.08.06 021.09.01.08.03
401 functions.

402 Batteries 021.09.02.00 021.09.02.00


403 Types, characteristics and limitations 021.09.02.01 021.09.02.01
404 State the function of an aircraft battery. 021.09.02.01.01 021.09.02.01.01
Name the types of rechargeable batteries used in aircraft. 021.09.02.01.02 021.09.02.01.02
405

Compare lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries 021.09.02.01.03 021.09.02.01.03


with respect to weight, voltage, load behaviour, self-
406 discharge, charging characteristics, thermal runaway and
storage life.

Explain the term “cell voltage”. 021.09.02.01.04 021.09.02.01.04


407

State that a battery is composed of several cells. 021.09.02.01.05 021.09.02.01.04


408
(Merged into 021.09.02.01.04)
State the charging voltage that corresponds with different 021.09.02.01.07
409 battery voltages.
Explain the difference between battery voltage and 021.09.02.01.06 021.09.02.01.05
410 charging voltage.

Define the term ”capacity of batteries” and state the unit 021.09.02.01.08 021.09.02.01.06
411 of measurement used.
State the effect of temperature on battery capacity. 021.09.02.01.09 021.09.02.01.07
412
State the relationship between voltage and capacity when 021.09.02.01.10
413 batteries are connected in series or in parallel.

State that in the case of loss of all generated power 021.09.02.01.11 021.09.02.01.08
414 (Battery power only) the remaining electrical power is
time limited.

021.09.02.01.09

415

021.09.02.01.10

416

417 Generation 021.09.03.00 021.09.03.00


Remark: For standardisation, the SET uses the following 021.09.03.00 021.09.03.00
standard expressions: - DC generator: produces DC
output. - DC alternator: produces internal AC, rectified by
integrated rectifying unit, the output is DC. - AC
generator: produces AC output. - Starter generator:
integrated combination of a DC generator with DC output
and a starter motor using battery DC. - Permanent
magnet alternator/generator: produces AC output
418 without field excitation using a permanent magnet.

419 DC generation 021.09.03.01 021.09.03.01


Describe the working principle of a simple DC alternator 021.09.03.01.01 021.09.03.01.01
420 and name its main components.
State in qualitative terms how voltage depends on the 021.09.03.01.02 021.09.03.01.02
421 number of windings, field strength, rpm and load.

List the differences between a DC generator and a DC 021.09.03.01.03


422 alternator with regard to voltage response at low rpm,
power/weight ratio, brush sparking.

423 Explain the principle of voltage control. 021.09.03.01.04


Explain why reverse current flow from the battery to the 021.09.03.01.05 021.09.03.01.03
424 generator must be prevented.
Describe the operating principle of a starter generator 021.09.03.01.06 021.09.03.01.04
425 and state its purpose.

426 AC generation 021.09.03.02 021.09.03.02


Describe the components of a three-phase AC generator 021.09.03.02.01 021.09.03.02.01
427 and the operating principle.
State that the generator field current is used to control 021.09.03.02.02 021.09.03.02.02
428 the voltage.
State in qualitative terms the relation between frequency, 021.09.03.02.03 021.09.03.02.03
429 number of pole pairs, and RPM of a three-phase
generator.

430 Explain the term wild frequency generator. 021.09.03.02.04 021.09.03.02.04


Describe how a three phase AC generator can be 021.09.03.02.05
431 connected to the electrical system.
Describe the purpose and the working principle of a 021.09.03.02.06
432 permanent magnet alternator/generator.
List the following different power sources that can be 021.09.03.02.07 021.09.03.02.05
433 used for an aeroplane to drive an AC generator: - engine -
APU - RAT - Hydraulic.

List the following different power sources that can be 021.09.03.02.08 021.09.03.02.06
434 used for a helicopter to drive an AC generator: - engine -
APU - gearbox.

Constant speed drive (CSD) and integrated drive 021.09.03.03 021.09.03.03


435 generator (IDG) systems
Describe the function and the working principle of a 021.09.03.03.01 021.09.03.03.01
436 constant speed drive (CSD).
Explain the parameters of a CSD that are monitored. 021.09.03.03.02 021.09.03.03.02
437
Describe the function and the working principle of an 021.09.03.03.03 021.09.03.03.03
438 Integrated Drive Generator (IDG).
Explain the consequences of a mechanical disconnect 021.09.03.03.04 021.09.03.03.04
439 during flight for a CSD and an IDG.
021.09.03.03.05
440

Transformers, transformer rectifier units (TRUs), static 021.09.03.04 021.09.03.04


441 inverters
State the function of a transformer and its operating 021.09.03.04.01 021.09.03.04.01
442 principle.
State the function of a Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU), 021.09.03.04.02 021.09.03.04.02
443 its operating principle and the voltage output.

State the function of static inverters, its operating 021.09.03.04.03 021.09.03.04.03


444 principle and the voltage output.

445 Distribution 021.09.04.00 021.09.04.00


446 General 021.09.04.01 021.09.04.01
447 Explain the function of a bus (bus bar). 021.09.04.01.01 021.09.04.01.01
Describe the function of the following buses: - main bus - 021.09.04.01.02 021.09.04.01.02
tie bus - essential bus - emergency bus - ground bus -
448 battery bus - hot (battery) bus.

State that the aircraft structure can be used as a part of 021.09.04.01.03 021.09.04.01.03
449 the electrical circuit (common earth) and explain the
implications for electrical bonding.
450 Explain the function of external power. 021.09.04.01.04 021.09.04.01.04
State that a priority sequence exists between the different 021.09.04.01.05 021.09.04.01.05
451 sources of electrical power on ground and in flight.

452 Introduce the term 'load sharing'. 021.09.04.01.06 021.09.04.01.06


Explain that load sharing is always achieved during 021.09.04.01.07
453 parallel operations.

454 Introduce the term 'load shedding'. 021.09.04.01.08 021.09.04.01.07


Explain that an AC load can be shed in case of generator 021.09.04.01.09 021.09.04.01.08
455 overload.

Interpret an electrical system schematic (appended to 021.09.04.01.10 021.09.04.01.09


456 these LOs). N.B: The system described is a split system.

021.09.04.01.10
457

458 DC distribution 021.09.04.02 021.09.04.02


Describe a simple DC electrical system of a single engine 021.09.04.02.01 021.09.04.02.01
459 aircraft.
Describe a DC electrical system of a multi-engine aircraft 021.09.04.02.02 021.09.04.02.02
460 (CS 23/CS 27) including the distribution consequences of
loss of generator(s) or bus failure.

Describe the DC part of an electrical system of a transport 021.09.04.02.03 021.09.04.02.03


aircraft (CS 25/CS 29) including the distribution
461 consequences of loss of DC supply or bus failure.

462 Give examples of DC consumers. 021.09.04.02.04 021.09.04.02.04


463 AC distribution 021.09.04.03 021.09.04.03
Describe the AC electrical system of a transport aircraft 021.09.04.03.01 021.09.04.03.01
464 for split and parallel operation.

Describe the distribution consequences of: - APU 021.09.04.03.02 021.09.04.03.02


electrical supply and external power priority switching -
465 loss of (all) generator(s) - bus failure.

466 Give examples of AC consumers. 021.09.04.03.03 021.09.04.03.03


Explain the conditions to be met for paralleling AC 021.09.04.03.04 021.09.04.03.04
467 generators.
Explain the terms real and reactive loads. 021.09.04.03.05 021.09.04.03.05
468
State that real/reactive loads are compensated in the case 021.09.04.03.06
469 of paralleled AC generators.
Electrical load management and monitoring systems: 021.09.04.04 021.09.04.04
automatic generators and bus switching during normal
470 and failure operation, indications and warnings
Give examples of system control, monitoring and 021.09.04.04.01 021.09.04.04.01
annunciators.

471

Describe, for normal (on ground/in flight) and degraded 021.09.04.04.02 021.09.04.04.02
modes of operation, the following functions of an
electrical load management system: - distribution -
monitoring - protection (overloading, over/undervoltage,
incorrect frequency).
472

State which parameters are used to monitor an electrical 021.09.04.04.03 021.09.04.04.03


473 system for parallel and split system operation.

Describe how batteries are monitored. 021.09.04.04.04 021.09.04.04.04


474

State that Ni-Cd batteries are monitored to avoid damage 021.09.04.04.05


475 resulting from excessive temperature increase (thermal
runaway).

Interpret various different ammeter indications of an 021.09.04.04.06 021.09.04.04.05


476 ammeter which monitors the charge current of the
battery.

477 Electrical motors 021.09.05.00 021.09.05.00


478 General 021.09.05.01 021.09.05.01
State that the purpose of an electric motor is to convert 021.09.05.01.01 021.09.05.01.01
479 electrical energy into mechanical energy.
021.09.05.01.02
480

021.09.05.01.03

481

482 Operating principle 021.09.05.02 021.09.05.02


Explain the operating principle of an electric motor as 021.09.05.02.01 021.09.05.02.01
being an electrical current carrying conductor inside a
483 magnetic field that experiences a (Lorentz/EMF) force.

484 State that electrical motors can be AC or DC type. 021.09.05.02.02 021.09.05.02.02


021.09.05.02.03
485

486 Components 021.09.05.03 021.09.05.03


Name the following components of an electric motor and 021.09.05.03.01 021.09.05.03.01
explain their function: - rotor (rotating part of an electric
487 motor) - stator (stationary part of an electric motor).

PISTON ENGINES 021.10.00.00 021.10.00.00


488

489 General 021.10.01.00 021.10.01.00


Types of internal-combustion engines: basic principles, 021.10.01.01 021.10.01.01
490 definitions
Define the following terms and expressions: - RPM - 021.10.01.01.01 021.10.01.01.01
torque - Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) - power
output - specific fuel consumption - mechanical efficiency,
491 thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency - compression
ratio, clearance volume, swept (displaced) volume, total
volume.

Describe the influence of compression ratio on thermal 021.10.01.01.02


492 efficiency.

493 Engine: design, operation, components 021.10.01.02 021.10.01.02


Describe the following main engine components and state 021.10.01.02.01 021.10.01.02.01
their function. - crankcase - crankshaft - connecting rod -
494 piston - piston pin - piston rings - cylinder - cylinder head -
valves - valve springs - push rod - camshaft - rocker arm -
cam shaft gear - bearings.
State the materials used for the following engine 021.10.01.02.02
components: - crankcase - crankshaft - connecting rod -
495 piston - piston pin - cylinder - cylinder head - valves -
camshaft.

Name and identify the various types of engine design 021.10.01.02.03 021.10.01.02.02
with regard to cylinder arrangement such as: - horizontal
opposed - in line - radial - and working cycle (4 stroke:
496 petrol and diesel).

Describe the gas state changes, the valve positions and 021.10.01.02.04
497 the ignition timing during the four strokes of the
theoretical piston engine cycle.

Explain the main differences between the theoretical 021.10.01.02.05


498 (Otto cycle) and practical four stroke piston engine cycles.
Describe the differences between petrol engines and 021.10.01.02.06 021.10.01.02.03
diesel engines with respect to: - means of ignition -
maximum compression ratio - air or mixture supply to the
499 cylinder - specific power output (kW/kg) - thermal
efficiency - pollution from the exhaust.

500 Fuel 021.10.02.00 021.10.02.00


501 Types, grades, characteristics, limitations 021.10.02.01 021.10.02.01
Name the type of fuel used for petrol engines including 021.10.02.01.01 021.10.02.01.01
502 its colour (AVGAS).

Name the types of fuel used for diesel engines (kerosene 021.10.02.01.02 021.10.02.01.02
503 or diesel).

504 Define the term 'octane rating'. 021.10.02.01.03 021.10.02.01.03


Describe the combustion process in a piston engine 021.10.02.01.04
505 cylinder for both petrol and diesel engines.
Define the term “flame front velocity“ and describe its 021.10.02.01.05
506 variations depending on the fuel-air mixture for petrol
engines.

Define the term “detonation“ and describe the causes 021.10.02.01.06 021.10.02.01.04
507 and effects of detonation for both petrol and diesel
engines.

Define the term “pre-ignition” and describe the causes 021.10.02.01.07 021.10.02.01.05
508 and effects of pre-ignition for both petrol and diesel
engines.

Identify the conditions and power settings that promote 021.10.02.01.08 021.10.02.01.06
509 detonation for petrol engines.
Describe how detonation in petrol engines is recognised. 021.10.02.01.09 021.10.02.01.07
510
Name the anti-detonation petrol fuel additive (Tetra Ethyl 021.10.02.01.10
511 Lead).
Describe the method and occasions for checking the fuel 021.10.02.01.11 021.10.02.01.08
512 for water content.
State the typical value of fuel density for aviation gasoline 021.10.02.01.12 021.10.02.01.09
513 and diesel fuel.
Explain volatility, viscosity and vapour locking for petrol 021.10.02.01.13 021.10.02.01.10
514 and diesel fuels.

515 Engine fuel pumps 021.10.03.00 021.10.03.00


516 Engine-driven fuel pump 021.10.03.01 021.10.03.01
Describe the need for a separate engine driven fuel 021.10.03.00.01 021.10.03.01.01
517 pump.
List the different types of engine driven fuel pumps: - gear 021.10.03.00.02
518 type - vane type.

519 Carburettor/injection system 021.10.04.00 021.10.04.00


Carburettor: design, operation, degraded modes of 021.10.04.01 021.10.04.01
520 operation, indications and warnings

521 State the purpose of a carburettor. 021.10.04.01.01 021.10.04.01.01


Describe the operating principle of the simple float 021.10.04.01.02 021.10.04.01.02
522 chamber carburettor.
Describe the method of achieving reliable idle operation. 021.10.04.01.03
523
Describe the methods of obtaining mixture control over 021.10.04.01.04 021.10.04.01.03
524 the whole operating engine power setting range
(compensation jet, diffuser).

Describe the methods of obtaining mixture control over 021.10.04.01.05 021.10.04.01.04


525 the whole operating altitude range.
Explain the purpose and the operating principle of an 021.10.04.01.06 021.10.04.01.05
526 accelerator pump.

527 Explain the purpose of power enrichment. 021.10.04.01.07 021.10.04.01.06


Describe the function of the carburettor heat system. 021.10.04.01.08 021.10.04.01.07
528
Explain the effect of carburettor heat on mixture ratio and 021.10.04.01.09 021.10.04.01.08
529 power output.
Explain the purpose and the operating principle of a 021.10.04.01.10 021.10.04.01.09
530 primer pump.
Discuss other methods for priming an engine 021.10.04.01.11 021.10.04.01.10
531 (acceleration pumps).
Explain the danger of carburettor fire, including corrective 021.10.04.01.12 021.10.04.01.11
532 measures.
Injection: design, operation, degraded modes of 021.10.04.02 021.10.04.02
533 operation, indications and warnings
Describe the low pressure, continuous flow type fuel 021.10.04.02.01
534 injection system used on light aircraft piston petrol
engines with the aid of a schematic diagram.

Explain the advantages of an injection system compared 021.10.04.02.02 021.10.04.02.01


535 with a carburettor system.

Explain the requirement for two different pumps in the 021.10.04.02.03


536 fuel injection system and describe their operation.

Describe the task and explain the operating principle of 021.10.04.02.04


537 the fuel and mixture control valves in the injection system
for petrol engines.

Describe the task and explain the operating principle of 021.10.04.02.05


the fuel manifold valve, the discharge nozzles and the fuel
538 flow meter in the fuel injection system for petrol engines.

Describe the injection system of a diesel engine and 021.10.04.02.06


explain the function of the following components: - high
539 pressure fuel injection pump - common rail principle - fuel
lines - fuel injectors.

540 Icing 021.10.04.03 021.10.04.03


Describe the causes and effects of carburettor icing and 021.10.04.03.01 021.10.04.03.01
541 the action to be taken if carburettor icing is suspected.
Name the meteorological conditions within which 021.10.04.03.02 021.10.04.03.02
542 carburettor icing may occur.
Describe the indications of the presence of carburettor 021.10.04.03.03 021.10.04.03.03
543 icing with both a fixed pitch and a constant speed
propeller.

Describe the indications of the presence of carburettor 021.10.04.03.04 021.10.04.03.04


544 icing with a helicopter.
Describe the indications that will occur upon selection of 021.10.04.03.05 021.10.04.03.05
545 carburettor heat depending on whether ice is present or
not.

Explain the reason for the use of alternate air on fuel 021.10.04.03.06 021.10.04.03.06
546 injection systems and describe its operating principle.

State the meteorological conditions under which 021.10.04.03.07 021.10.04.03.07


547 induction system icing may occur.

548 Cooling systems 021.10.05.00 021.10.05.00


549 Design, operation, indications and warnings 021.10.05.01 021.10.05.01
550 Specify the reasons for cooling a piston engine. 021.10.05.01.01 021.10.05.01.01
Describe the design features to enhance cylinder air 021.10.05.01.02 021.10.05.01.02
551 cooling for aeroplanes.
Describe the design features to enhance cylinder air 021.10.05.01.03 021.10.05.01.03
552 cooling for helicopters (e.g. engine driven impeller and
scroll assembly, baffles).

Compare the advantages of liquid and air cooling systems. 021.10.05.01.04 021.10.05.01.04
553
Identify the cylinder head temperature indication to 021.10.05.01.05 021.10.05.01.05
554 monitor engine cooling.
Describe the function and the operation of cowl flaps. 021.10.05.01.06 021.10.05.01.06
555

556 Lubrication systems 021.10.06.00 021.10.06.00


557 Lubricants: characteristics, limitations 021.10.06.01 021.10.06.01
Describe the term ‘viscosity’ including the effect of 021.10.06.01.01 021.10.06.01.01
558 temperature.
Describe the viscosity grade numbering system used in 021.10.06.01.02 021.10.06.01.02
559 aviation.

560 Design, operation, indications and warnings 021.10.06.02 021.10.06.02


State the functions of a piston engine lubrication system. 021.10.06.02.01 021.10.06.02.01
561
Describe the working principle of a dry sump lubrication 021.10.06.02.02 021.10.06.02.02
system and describe the functions of the following
components: - oil tank (reservoir) and its internal
components: hot well; de-aerator; vent; expansion space.
- check valve (non-return valve) - pressure pump and
pressure relief valve - scavenge pump - filters (suction,
562 pressure and scavenge) - oil cooler - oil cooler by-pass
valve (anti-surge and thermo-static) - pressure and
temperature sensors - lines.
563 Describe a wet sump lubrication system. 021.10.06.02.03 021.10.06.02.03
State the differences between a wet and a dry sump 021.10.06.02.04 021.10.06.02.04
564 lubrication system.

State the advantages/disadvantages of each system. 021.10.06.02.05 021.10.06.02.04


565
(Merged into 021.10.06.02.04)

List the following factors that influence oil consumption: - 021.10.06.02.06 021.10.06.02.05
566 oil grade - cylinder and piston wear - condition of piston
rings.

Describe the interaction between oil pressure, oil 021.10.06.02.07 021.10.06.02.06


567 temperature and oil quantity.

568 Ignition circuits 021.10.07.00 021.10.07.00


569 Design, operation 021.10.07.01 021.10.07.01
Describe the working principle of a magneto ignition 021.10.07.01.01 021.10.07.01.01
system and the functions of the following components: -
magneto - contact breaker points - capacitor (condenser)
570 -plug
coils or windings - ignition switches - distributor - spark
- High tension (HT) cable.

State why piston engines are equipped with two 021.10.07.01.02 021.10.07.01.02
571 electrically independent ignition systems.
State the function and operating principle of the following 021.10.07.01.03 021.10.07.01.03
572 methods of spark augmentation: - starter vibrator
(booster coil) - impulse start coupling.

State the function and operating principle of the following 021.10.07.01.04 021.10.07.01.04
573 methods of spark augmentation: - starter vibrator
(booster coil) - both magnetos live.

574 Explain the function of the magneto check. 021.10.07.01.05 021.10.07.01.05


State the reasons for using the correct temperature grade 021.10.07.01.06
575 for a spark plug.
Explain the function of ignition timing advance or retard. 021.10.07.01.07
576
Explain how combustion is initiated in diesel engines. 021.10.07.01.08 021.10.07.01.06
577

578 Mixture 021.10.08.00 021.10.08.00


Definition, characteristic mixtures, control instruments, 021.10.08.01 021.10.08.01
579 associated control levers, indications
Define the following terms: - mixture - chemically correct 021.10.08.01.01 021.10.08.01.01
ratio (stoichiometric) - best power ratio - lean (weak)
580 mixture (lean or rich side of the EGT top) - rich mixture.

State the typical fuel to air ratio values or range of values 021.10.08.01.02 021.10.08.01.02
581 for the above mixtures.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of weak and 021.10.08.01.03 021.10.08.01.03
582 rich mixtures.
Describe the relation between engine specific fuel 021.10.08.01.04 021.10.08.01.04
583 consumption and mixture ratio.
Describe the use of the exhaust gas temperature as an aid 021.10.08.01.05 021.10.08.01.05
584 to mixture setting.
Explain the relation between mixture ratio, cylinder head 021.10.08.01.06 021.10.08.01.06
585 temperature, detonation and pre ignition.

Explain the absence of mixture control in diesel engines. 021.10.08.01.07 021.10.08.01.07


586

587 Aeroplane: propellers 021.10.09.00 021.10.09.00


588 Definitions, general 021.10.09.01 021.10.09.01
Remark: Definitions and aerodynamic concepts are 021.10.09.01 021.10.09.01
589 detailed in subject 081, topic 07 (Propellers) but need to
be appreciated for this subject also.

Constant-speed propeller: design, operation, system 021.10.09.02 021.10.09.02


590 components
Describe the operating principle of a constant speed 021.10.09.02.01 021.10.09.02.01
591 propeller system under normal flight operations with the
aid of a schematic diagram.

Explain the need for a Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) 021.10.09.02.02 021.10.09.02.02
592 indicator to control the power setting with a constant
speed propeller.

593 State the purpose of a torquemeter. 021.10.09.02.03 021.10.09.02.03


State the purpose and describe the operation of a low 021.10.09.02.04 021.10.09.02.04
594 pitch stop (centrifugal latch).
Describe the operating principle of a single acting and a 021.10.09.02.05 021.10.09.02.05
595 double acting variable pitch propeller for single and multi-
engine aeroplanes.

Describe the function and the basic operating principle of 021.10.09.02.06 021.10.09.02.06
596 synchronising and synchro phasing systems.

Explain the purpose and the basic operating principle of 021.10.09.02.07 021.10.09.02.07
597 an auto-feathering system including un-feathering.

598 Reduction gearing: design 021.10.09.03 021.10.09.03


599 State the purpose of reduction gearing. 021.10.09.03.01 021.10.09.03.01
Explain the principles of design for reduction gearing. 021.10.09.03.02
600
Propeller handling: associated control levers, degraded 021.10.09.04 021.10.09.04
601 modes of operation, indications and warnings

Describe the checks to be carried out on a constant speed 021.10.09.04.01 021.10.09.04.01


602 propeller system after engine start.
Describe the operation of a constant speed propeller 021.10.09.04.02 021.10.09.04.02
system during flight at different true air speeds and RPM
603 including an overspeeding propeller.

Describe the operating principle of a variable pitch 021.10.09.04.03 021.10.09.04.03


604 propeller when feathering and un-feathering, including
the operation of cockpit controls.
Describe the operating principle of a variable pitch 021.10.09.04.04 021.10.09.04.04
605 propeller when reverse pitch is selected, including the
operation of cockpit controls.

Describe the operation of the propeller levers during 021.10.09.04.05 021.10.09.04.05


606 different phases of flight.

607 Performance and engine handling 021.10.10.00 021.10.10.00


608 Performance 021.10.10.01 021.10.10.01
Engine Performance: Define pressure altitude, density 021.10.10.01.01
609 altitude.
Describe the effect on power output of a petrol and diesel 021.10.10.01.02 021.10.10.01.01
engine taking into consideration the following
parameters: - ambient pressure, exhaust back pressure -
610 temperature - density altitude - humidity.

611 Explain the term normally aspirated engine. 021.10.10.01.03 021.10.10.01.02


Power Augmentation Devices: Explain the requirement for 021.10.10.01.04 021.10.10.01.03
612 power augmentation (turbocharging) of a piston engine.

Describe the function and the principle of operation of 021.10.10.01.05 021.10.10.01.04


the following main components of a turbocharger: -
turbine - compressor - waste gate - waste gate actuator -
613 absolute pressure controller - density controller -
differential pressure controller.

Explain the difference between an altitude-boosted 021.10.10.01.06 021.10.10.01.05


614 turbocharger and a ground-boosted turbocharger.

615 Explain turbo-lag. 021.10.10.01.07 021.10.10.01.06


616 Define the term critical altitude. 021.10.10.01.08 021.10.10.01.07
617 Explain the function of an intercooler. 021.10.10.01.09 021.10.10.01.08
Define the terms full throttle height and rated altitude. 021.10.10.01.10 021.10.10.01.09
618
021.10.10.01.10
619

620 Engine handling 021.10.10.02 021.10.10.02


State the correct procedures for setting the engine 021.10.10.02.01 021.10.10.02.01
621 controls when increasing or decreasing power.
Define the following terms - Take-off Power - Maximum 021.10.10.02.02 021.10.10.02.02
622 Continuous Power.
Describe the term hydraulicing and the precautions to be 021.10.10.02.03
623 taken prior to engine start.
Describe the start problems associated with extreme cold 021.10.10.02.04 021.10.10.02.03
624 weather.
FADEC for a piston engine: To be introduced at a later 021.10.10.02.05 021.10.10.02.04
date.
625

021.10.10.02.05
626
021.10.10.02.06

627

021.10.10.02.07
628

629 TURBINE ENGINES 021.11.00.00 021.11.00.00


630 Basic principles 021.11.01.00 021.11.01.00
631 Basic generation of thrust and the thrust formula 021.11.01.01 021.11.01.01
Describe how thrust is produced by a basic gas turbine 021.11.01.01.01 021.11.01.01.01
632 engine.
Describe the simple form of the thrust formula for a basic 021.11.01.01.02 021.11.01.01.02
633 straight turbo-jet and perform simple calculations
(including pressure thrust).

State that thrust can be considered to remain 021.11.01.01.03 021.11.01.01.03


634 approximately constant over the whole aeroplane
subsonic speed range.

635 Design, types and components of turbine engines 021.11.01.02 021.11.01.02


List the main components of a basic gas turbine engine. - 021.11.01.02.01 021.11.01.02.01
636 inlet - compressor - combustion chamber - turbine -
outlet.

Describe the system of station numbering in a gas turbine 021.11.01.02.02


637 engine.
Describe the variation of static pressure, temperature and 021.11.01.02.03 021.11.01.02.02
axial velocity in a gas turbine engine under normal
638 operating conditions and with the aid of a working cycle
diagram.

Describe the differences between absolute, 021.11.01.02.04 021.11.01.02.03


639 circumferential (tangential) and axial velocity.
List the different types of gas turbine engines. - straight 021.11.01.02.05 021.11.01.02.04
640 jet - turbo fan - turbo prop.
State that a gas turbine engine can have one or more 021.11.01.02.06 021.11.01.02.05
641 spools.
Describe how thrust is produced by turbojet and turbofan 021.11.01.02.07 021.11.01.02.06
642 engines.
Describe how power is produced by turboprop engines. 021.11.01.02.08 021.11.01.02.07
643
Describe the term ‘equivalent horsepower’ (= thrust 021.11.01.02.09 021.11.01.02.08
644 horsepower + shaft horsepower).
Explain the principle of a free turbine or free power 021.11.01.02.10 021.11.01.02.09
645 turbine.
Define the term bypass ratio and perform simple 021.11.01.02.11 021.11.01.02.10
646 calculations to determine bypass ratio.
Define the terms propulsive power, propulsive efficiency, 021.11.01.02.12 021.11.01.02.11
647 thermal efficiency and total efficiency.

Describe the influence of compressor pressure ratio on 021.11.01.02.13 021.11.01.02.12


648 thermal efficiency.
Explain the variations of propulsive efficiency with 021.11.01.02.14 021.11.01.02.13
649 forward speed for turbojet, turbofan and turboprop
engines.

Define the term ‘specific fuel consumption’ for turbojets 021.11.01.02.15 021.11.01.02.14
650 and turboprops.
Coupled turbine engine: design, operation, components 021.11.01.03 021.11.01.03
651 and materials
Name the main assembly parts of a coupled turbine 021.11.01.03.01 021.11.01.03.01
652 engine and explain the operation of the engine.
Explain the limitations of the materials used, in regard to 021.11.01.03.02 021.11.01.03.02
653 the maximum turbine temperature, engine and drive train
torque limits.

Describe the possible effects on engine components 021.11.01.03.03 021.11.01.03.03


654 when limits are exceeded.
Explain that when engine limits are exceeded, this event 021.11.01.03.04 021.11.01.03.04
655 must be reported.
Free-turbine engine: design, components and materials 021.11.01.04 021.11.01.04
656
Describe the design methods to keep engine size small for 021.11.01.04.01 021.11.01.04.01
657 installation in helicopters.

658 List the main components of a free turbine engine. 021.11.01.04.02 021.11.01.04.02
Describe how the power is developed by a 021.11.01.04.03 021.11.01.04.03
659 turboshaft/free turbine engine.
Explain how the exhaust gas temperature is used to 021.11.01.04.04 021.11.01.04.04
660 monitor turbine stress.

661 Main-engine components 021.11.02.00 021.11.02.00


662 Aeroplane: air intake 021.11.02.01 021.11.02.01
State the functions of the engine air inlet/air intake. 021.11.02.01.01 021.11.02.01.01
663
Describe the geometry of a subsonic (pitot type) air inlet. 021.11.02.01.02 021.11.02.01.02
664
Explain the gas parameter changes in a subsonic air inlet 021.11.02.01.03 021.11.02.01.03
665 at different flight speeds.
Describe the reasons for, and the dangers of, the 021.11.02.01.04 021.11.02.01.04
following operational problems concerning the engine air
inlet: - airflow separation - inlet icing - inlet damage -
666 foreign object damage (FOD) - heavy in-flight turbulence.

667 Compressor and diffuser 021.11.02.02 021.11.02.02


668 State the purpose of the compressor. 021.11.02.02.01 021.11.02.02.01
Describe the working principle of a centrifugal and an 021.11.02.02.02 021.11.02.02.02
669 axial flow compressor.
Name the following main components of a single stage 021.11.02.02.03 021.11.02.02.03
670 and describe their function for a centrifugal compressor: -
impeller - diffuser.

Name the following main components of a single stage 021.11.02.02.04 021.11.02.02.04


671 and describe their function for an axial compressor: -
rotor vanes - stator vanes.
Describe the gas parameter changes in a compressor 021.11.02.02.05 021.11.02.02.05
672 stage.
Define the term pressure ratio and state a typical value 021.11.02.02.06 021.11.02.02.06
673 for one stage of a centrifugal and an axial flow
compressor and for the complete compressor.

State the advantages and disadvantages of increasing the 021.11.02.02.07 021.11.02.02.07


674 number of stages in a centrifugal compressor.

Explain the difference in sensitivity for Foreign Object 021.11.02.02.08 021.11.02.02.08


675 Damage (FOD) of a centrifugal compressor compared with
an axial flow type.

Explain the convergent air annulus through an axial flow 021.11.02.02.09 021.11.02.02.09
676 compressor.
Describe the reason for twisting the compressor blades. 021.11.02.02.10 021.11.02.02.10
677

678 State the tasks of inlet guide vanes (IGVs). 021.11.02.02.11 021.11.02.02.11
State the reason for the clicking noise whilst the 021.11.02.02.12 021.11.02.02.12
679 compressor slowly rotates on the ground.
State the advantages of increasing the number of spools. 021.11.02.02.13 021.11.02.02.13
680
Explain the implications of tip losses and describe the 021.11.02.02.14 021.11.02.02.14
681 design features to minimise the problem.
Explain the problems of blade bending and flapping and 021.11.02.02.15 021.11.02.02.15
682 describe the design features to minimise the problem.

Explain the following terms: - compressor stall, - engine 021.11.02.02.16 021.11.02.02.16


683 surge.
State the conditions that are possible causes of stall and 021.11.02.02.17 021.11.02.02.17
684 surge.

685 Describe the indications of stall and surge. 021.11.02.02.18 021.11.02.02.18


Describe the design features used to minimise the 021.11.02.02.19 021.11.02.02.19
686 occurrence of stall and surge.
Describe a compressor map (surge envelope) with RPM- 021.11.02.02.20 021.11.02.02.20
687 lines, stall limit, steady state line and acceleration line.

688 Describe the function of the diffuser. 021.11.02.02.21 021.11.02.02.21


689 Combustion chamber 021.11.02.03 021.11.02.03
690 Define the purpose of the combustion chamber. 021.11.02.03.01 021.11.02.03.01
691 List the requirements for combustion. 021.11.02.03.02 021.11.02.03.02
Describe the working principle of a combustion chamber. 021.11.02.03.03 021.11.02.03.03
692
Explain the reason for reducing the airflow axial velocity 021.11.02.03.04 021.11.02.03.04
693 at the combustion chamber inlet (snout).

694 State the function of the swirl vanes (swirler). 021.11.02.03.05 021.11.02.03.05
695 State the function of the drain valves. 021.11.02.03.06 021.11.02.03.06
Define the terms ‘primary airflow’ and ‘secondary airflow’ 021.11.02.03.07 021.11.02.03.07
696 and explain their purpose.
Explain the following two mixture ratios: - primary airflow 021.11.02.03.08 021.11.02.03.08
697 to fuel - total airflow (within the combustion chamber) to
fuel.

Describe the gas parameter changes in the combustion 021.11.02.03.09 021.11.02.03.09


698 chamber.
State a typical maximum value of the outlet temperature 021.11.02.03.10 021.11.02.03.10
699 of the combustion chamber.
Describe the following types of combustion chamber and 021.11.02.03.11 021.11.02.03.11
state the differences between them: - can type - can-
700 annular, cannular or tubo-annular - annular - reverse-
flow annular.

Describe the principle of operation of a simplex and a 021.11.02.03.12


701 duplex fuel spray nozzle (atomiser).

702 Turbine 021.11.02.04 021.11.02.04


Explain the purpose of a turbine in different types of gas 021.11.02.04.01 021.11.02.04.01
703 turbine engines.
Describe the principles of operation of impulse, reaction 021.11.02.04.02 021.11.02.04.02
704 and impulse-reaction axial flow turbines.
Name the main components of a turbine stage and their 021.11.02.04.03 021.11.02.04.03
705 function.

706 Describe the working principle of a turbine. 021.11.02.04.04 021.11.02.04.04


Describe the gas parameter changes in a turbine stage. 021.11.02.04.05 021.11.02.04.05
707
Describe the function and the working principle of Active 021.11.02.04.06 021.11.02.04.06
708 Clearance Control.
Describe the implications of tip losses and the means to 021.11.02.04.07 021.11.02.04.07
709 minimise.
Explain why the available engine thrust is limited by the 021.11.02.04.08 021.11.02.04.08
710 turbine inlet temperature.
Explain the divergent gas flow annulus through an axial 021.11.02.04.09 021.11.02.04.09
711 flow turbine.
Describe turbine blade convection, impingement and film 021.11.02.04.10
712 cooling.
Explain the high mechanical-thermal stress in the turbine 021.11.02.04.11 021.11.02.04.10
713 blades and wheels.

714 Explain the term creep. 021.11.02.04.12


715 Explain the consequences of creep on the turbine. 021.11.02.04.13
Explain the terms ‘low cycle fatigue’ and ‘high cycle 021.11.02.04.14
716 fatigue’.

717 Aeroplane: exhaust 021.11.02.05 021.11.02.05


Name the following main components of the exhaust unit 021.11.02.05.01 021.11.02.05.01
718 and their function. - jet pipe - propelling nozzle - exhaust
cone.

719 Describe the working principle of the exhaust unit. 021.11.02.05.02 021.11.02.05.02
Describe the gas parameter changes in the exhaust unit. 021.11.02.05.03 021.11.02.05.03
720
Define the term ‘choked exhaust nozzle’ (not applicable 021.11.02.05.04 021.11.02.05.04
721 for turboprops).
722 Explain how jet exhaust noise can be reduced. 021.11.02.05.05 021.11.02.05.05
723 Helicopter: air intake 021.11.02.06 021.11.02.06
Name and explain the main task of the engine air intake. 021.11.02.06.01 021.11.02.06.01
724
Describe the use of a convergent air intake ducting on 021.11.02.06.02 021.11.02.06.02
725 helicopters.
Describe the reasons for and the dangers of the following 021.11.02.06.03 021.11.02.06.03
operational problems concerning the engine air intake: -
airflow separations - intake icing - intake damage - foreign
726 object damage - heavy in flight turbulence.

Describe the conditions and circumstances during ground 021.11.02.06.04 021.11.02.06.04


727 operations when foreign object damage is most likely to
occur.

Describe and explain the principles of air intake filter 021.11.02.06.05 021.11.02.06.05
systems that can be fitted to some helicopters for
728 operations in icing and sand conditions.

Describe the function of the heated pads on some 021.11.02.06.06 021.11.02.06.06


729 helicopter air intakes.

730 Helicopter: exhaust 021.11.02.07 021.11.02.07


Name the following main components of the exhaust unit 021.11.02.07.01
731 and their function. - jet pipe - exhaust cone.

732 Describe the working principle of the exhaust unit. 021.11.02.07.02 021.11.02.07.01
Describe the gas parameter changes in the exhaust unit. 021.11.02.07.03 021.11.02.07.02
733

734 Additional components and systems 021.11.03.00 021.11.03.00


735 Engine fuel system 021.11.03.01 021.11.03.01
Name the main components of the engine fuel system 021.11.03.01.01 021.11.03.01.01
and state their function.
736

Name the two types of engine driven high-pressure pump 021.11.03.01.02 021.11.03.01.02
737 such as: - gear type - swash plate type.

738 State the tasks of the fuel control unit. 021.11.03.01.03 021.11.03.01.03
List the possible input parameters to a fuel control unit to 021.11.03.01.04 021.11.03.01.04
739 achieve a given thrust/power setting.

740 Engine control system 021.11.03.02 021.11.03.02


741 State the tasks of the engine control system. 021.11.03.02.01 021.11.03.02.01
List the following different types of engine control 021.11.03.02.02 021.11.03.02.02
systems (refer to AMC to CS-E 50 Engine control system
(1) Applicability) and state their respective engine control
(output) parameters: - hydro mechanical (Main Engine
Control: MEC) - hydro mechanical with a limited authority
electronic supervisor (Power Management
System/Control: PMS/PMC) - single channel full authority
Engine control with hydro mechanical back-up - dual
742 channel full authority Electronic Engine Control System
with no back-up or any other combination (FADEC).

Describe a F.A.D.E.C. as a full authority dual channel 021.11.03.02.03 021.11.03.02.03


system including functions such as an electronic engine
control unit , wiring, sensors, variable vanes, active
clearance control, bleed configuration, electrical signalling
743 of TLA (see also AMC to CS-E-50), and an EGT protection
function and engine overspeed.

Explain how redundancy is achieved by using more than 021.11.03.02.04 021.11.03.02.04


744 one channel in a FADEC system.
State the consequences of a FADEC single input data 021.11.03.02.05 021.11.03.02.05
745 failure.
State that all input and output data are checked by both 021.11.03.02.06 021.11.03.02.06
746 channels.
State that a FADEC system uses its own sensors and that 021.11.03.02.07 021.11.03.02.07
747 in some cases also data from aircraft systems are used.

State that a FADEC must have its own source of electrical 021.11.03.02.08 021.11.03.02.08
748 power.

749 Engine lubrication 021.11.03.03 021.11.03.03


750 State the tasks of an engine lubrication system. 021.11.03.03.01 021.11.03.03 .01
Name the following main components of a lubrication 021.11.03.03.02 021.11.03.03 .02
system and state their function. - oil tank and centrifugal
breather - oil pumps (pressure and scavenge pumps) - oil
751 filters (including the by-pass) - oil sumps - chip detectors -
coolers.

Explain that each spool is fitted with at least one ball 021.11.03.03.03 021.11.03.03 .03
752 bearing and two or more roller bearings.
Explain the use of compressor air in oil sealing systems 021.11.03.03.04 021.11.03.03 .04
753 (e.g. labyrinth seals).

754 Engine auxiliary gearbox 021.11.03.04 021.11.03.04


755 State the tasks of the auxiliary gearbox. 021.11.03.04.01 021.11.03.04.01
756 Describe how the gearbox is driven and lubricated. 021.11.03.04.02 021.11.03.04.02
757 Engine ignition 021.11.03.05 021.11.03.05
758 State the task of the ignition system. 021.11.03.05.01 021.11.03.05.01
Name the following main components of the ignition 021.11.03.05.02 021.11.03.05.02
system and state their function. - power sources -
trembler mechanism (vibrator) - transformer - diodes -
759 capacitors - discharge gap (high tension tube) - igniters.

State why jet turbine engines are equipped with two 021.11.03.05.03 021.11.03.05.03
760 electrically independent ignition systems.
Explain the different modes of operation of the ignition 021.11.03.05.04 021.11.03.05.04
761 system.

762 Engine starter 021.11.03.06 021.11.03.06


Name the main components of the starting system and 021.11.03.06.01 021.11.03.06.01
763 state their function.

764 Explain the principle of a turbine engine start. 021.11.03.06.02 021.11.03.06.02


Describe the following two types of starters - electric - 021.11.03.06.03 021.11.03.06.03
765 pneumatic.
Describe a typical start sequence (on ground/in flight) for 021.11.03.06.04 021.11.03.06.04
766 a turbofan.

767 Define 'self-sustaining RPM'. 021.11.03.06.05 021.11.03.06.05


768 Reverse thrust 021.11.03.07 021.11.03.07
Name the following main components of a reverse thrust 021.11.03.07.01 021.11.03.07.01
system and state their function. - reverse thrust select
769 lever - power source (pneumatic or hydraulic) - actuators -
doors - annunciations.

770 Explain the principle of a reverse thrust system. 021.11.03.07.02 021.11.03.07.02


Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using 021.11.03.07.03 021.11.03.07.03
771 reverse thrust.
Describe and explain the following different types of 021.11.03.07.04 021.11.03.07.04
thrust reverser systems. Hot stream reverser - clamshell
or bucket door system Cold stream reverser (only turbo
772 fan engines) - blocker doors - cascade vanes.

Explain the implications of reversing the cold stream (fan 021.11.03.07.05 021.11.03.07.05
773 reverser) only on a high by-pass ratio engine.

Describe the protection features against inadvertent 021.11.03.07.06 021.11.03.07.06


774 thrust reverse deployment in flight as present on most
transport aeroplanes.

Describe the controls and indications provided for the 021.11.03.07.07 021.11.03.07.07
775 thrust reverser system.
Helicopter specifics on design, operation and 021.11.03.08 021.11.03.08
components for additional components and systems
776 such as lubrication system, ignition circuit, starter,
accessory gearbox

777 State the task of the lubrication system. 021.11.03.08.01 021.11.03.08.01


List and describe the common helicopter lubrication 021.11.03.08.02 021.11.03.08.02
778 systems.
Name the following main components of a helicopter 021.11.03.08.03 021.11.03.08.03
lubrication system: - reservoir, - pump assembly, -
external oil filter, - magnetic chip detectors, electronic
779 chip detectors, - thermostatic oil coolers, - breather.

Identify and name the components of a helicopter 021.11.03.08.04 021.11.03.08.04


780 lubrication system from a diagram.
Identify the indications used to monitor a lubrication 021.11.03.08.05 021.11.03.08.05
781 system including warning systems.
Explain the differences and appropriate use of straight oil 021.11.03.08.06 021.11.03.08.06
782 and compound oil and describe the oil numbering system
for aviation use.

Explain and describe the ignition circuit for engine start 021.11.03.08.07 021.11.03.08.07
783 and engine re-light facility when the selection is set for
both automatic and manual functions.

Explain and describe the starter motor and the sequence 021.11.03.08.08 021.11.03.08.08
of events when starting, and that for most helicopters the
784 starter becomes the generator after the starting sequence
is over.

Explain and describe why the engine drives the accessory 021.11.03.08.09 021.11.03.08.09
785 gearbox.

786 Engine operation and monitoring 021.11.04.00 021.11.04.00


787 General 021.11.04.01 021.11.04.01
Explain the following aeroplane engine limitations: - Take- 021.11.04.01.01 021.11.04.01.01
788 off, - Go-around, - Maximum Continuous Thrust/power, -
Maximum Climb Thrust/power.

789 Explain spool-up time. 021.11.04.01.02 021.11.04.01.02


Explain the reason for the difference between ground and 021.11.04.01.03 021.11.04.01.03
790 approach flight idle values (RPM).
State the parameters that can be used for setting and 021.11.04.01.04 021.11.04.01.04
791 monitoring the thrust/power.
Describe the terms alpha-range, beta-range and reverse 021.11.04.01.05 021.11.04.01.05
792 thrust as applied to a turboprop power lever.

Explain the dangers of inadvertent beta-range selection in 021.11.04.01.06 021.11.04.01.06


793 flight for a turboprop.

794 Explain the purpose of engine trending. 021.11.04.01.07 021.11.04.01.07


Explain how the exhaust gas temperature is used to 021.11.04.01.08 021.11.04.01.08
795 monitor turbine stress.
Describe the effect of engine acceleration and 021.11.04.01.09 021.11.04.01.09
796 deceleration on the EGT.
Describe the possible effects on engine components 021.11.04.01.10 021.11.04.01.10
797 when EGT limits are exceeded.
Explain why engine limit exceedences must be reported. 021.11.04.01.11 021.11.04.01.11
798
Explain the limitations on the use of the thrust reverser 021.11.04.01.12 021.11.04.01.12
799 system at low forward speed.

800 Explain the term engine seizure. 021.11.04.01.13 021.11.04.01.13


State the possible causes of engine seizure and explain 021.11.04.01.14 021.11.04.01.14
801 their preventative measures.
Explain the reason for the difference in the pressures of 021.11.04.01.15 021.11.04.01.15
the fuel and oil in the heat-exchanger.

802

Explain oil filter clogging (blockage) and the implications 021.11.04.01.16 021.11.04.01.16
803 for the lubrication system.
Give examples of monitoring instruments of an engine. 021.11.04.01.17 021.11.04.01.17
804
021.11.04.01.18
805

806 Starting malfunctions 021.11.04.02 021.11.04.02


Describe the indications and the possible causes of the 021.11.04.02.01 021.11.04.02.01
following aeroplane starting malfunctions: - false (dry or
wet) start - tailpipe fire (torching) - hot start - abortive
807 (hung) start - no N1 rotation - no FADEC indications.

Describe the indications and the possible causes of the 021.11.04.02.02 021.11.04.02.02
following helicopter starting malfunctions: - false (dry or
wet) start - tailpipe fire (torching) - hot start - abortive
808 (hung) start - no N1 rotation - freewheel failure.

no FADEC indications. 021.11.04.02.03 021.11.04.02.02


809 (Merged into 022.11.04.02.02)

810 Relight envelope 021.11.04.03 021.11.04.03


811 Explain the re-light envelope. 021.11.04.03.01 021.11.04.03.01
812 Performance aspects 021.11.05.00 021.11.05.00
813 Thrust, performance aspects, and limitations 021.11.05.01 021.11.05.01
Describe the variation of thrust and specific fuel 021.11.05.01.01 021.11.05.01.01
814 consumption with altitude at constant TAS.
Describe the variation of thrust and specific fuel 021.11.05.01.02 021.11.05.01.02
815 consumption with TAS at constant altitude.
Explain the term flat rated engine by describing the 021.11.05.01.03 021.11.05.01.03
change of take-off thrust, turbine inlet temperature and
816 engine RPM with OAT.

817 Define the term ‘engine pressure ratio’ (EPR). 021.11.05.01.04 021.11.05.01.04
Explain the use of reduced (flexible) and de-rated thrust 021.11.05.01.05 021.11.05.01.05
for take-off, and explain the advantages and
818 disadvantages when compared with a full rated take-off.
Describe the effects of use of bleed air on RPM, EGT, 021.11.05.01.06 021.11.05.01.06
819 thrust and specific fuel consumption.
Helicopter engine ratings, engine performance and 021.11.05.02 021.11.05.02
820 limitations, engine handling: torque, performance
aspects and limitations

Describe engine rating torque limits for take-off, transient 021.11.05.02.01 021.11.05.02.01
821 and maximum continuous.
Describe turbine outlet temperature (TOT) limits for take- 021.11.05.02.02 021.11.05.02.02
822 off.
Explain why TOT is a limiting factor for helicopter 021.11.05.02.03 021.11.05.02.03
823 performance.
Describe and explain the relationship between maximum 021.11.05.02.04 021.11.05.02.04
torque available and density altitude, which leads to
824 decreasing torque available with the increase of density
altitude.

Explain that hovering down wind on some helicopters will 021.11.05.02.05 021.11.05.02.05
825 noticeably increase the engine TOT.

Explain the reason why the engine performance is less 021.11.05.02.06 021.11.05.02.06
826 when aircraft accessories are switched on i.e. anti-ice,
heating, hoist, filters.

Describe the effects of use of bleed air on engine 021.11.05.02.07 021.11.05.02.07


827 parameters.
Explain that on some helicopter that exceeding the TOT 021.11.05.02.08 021.11.05.02.08
828 limit may cause the main rotor to droop (slow down).

021.11.05.02.09
829

830 Auxiliary power unit (APU) 021.11.06.00 021.11.06.00


Design, operation, functions, operational limitations 021.11.06.01 021.11.06.01
831
State that an APU is a gas turbine engine and list its tasks. 021.11.06.01.01 021.11.06.01.01
832
State the difference between the two types of APU inlets. 021.11.06.01.02 021.11.06.01.02
833
Define maximum operating and maximum starting 021.11.06.01.03 021.11.06.01.03
834 altitude.
Name the typical APU control and monitoring 021.11.06.01.04 021.11.06.01.04
835 instruments.
Describe the APU’s automatic shut-down protection. 021.11.06.01.05 021.11.06.01.05
836

837 PROTECTION AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 021.12.00.00 021.12.00.00


838 Smoke detection 021.12.01.00 021.12.01.00
839 Types, design, operation, indications and warnings 021.12.01.01 021.12.01.01
Explain the operating principle of the following types of 021.12.01.01.01 021.12.01.01.01
840 smoke detection sensors: - optical - ionising.
Give an example of warnings, indications and function 021.12.01.01.02 021.12.01.01.02
841 tests.

842 Fire-protection systems 021.12.02.00 021.12.02.00


Fire extinguishing (engine and cargo compartments) 021.12.02.01 021.12.02.01
843
Explain the operating principle of a built-in fire 021.12.02.01.01 021.12.02.01.01
844 extinguishing system and describe its components.
State that two discharges must be provided for each 021.12.02.01.02 021.12.02.01.02
845 engine (see CS 25.1195(c)).

846 Fire detection 021.12.02.02 021.12.02.02


Explain the following principles involved in fire detection: 021.12.02.02.01 021.12.02.02.01
847 - resistance and capacitance - gas pressure.

Explain fire detection applications such as : - bi-metallic - 021.12.02.02.02 021.12.02.02.02


848 continuous loop - gaseous loop (gas filled detectors).

Explain why generally double loop systems are used. 021.12.02.02.03 021.12.02.02.03
849
Give an example of warnings, indications and function 021.12.02.02.04 021.12.02.02.04
850 test of a fire protection system.

851 Rain-protection system 021.12.03.00 021.12.03.00


852 021.12.03.01
Explain the principle and method of operation of the 021.12.03.00.01 021.12.03.01.01
following windshield rain protecting systems for an
853 aeroplane: - wipers - liquids (rain repellent) - coating.

Explain the principle and method of operation of wipers 021.12.03.00.02 021.12.03.01.02


854 for a helicopter.

855 OXYGEN SYSTEMS 021.13.00.00 021.13.00.00


856 021.13.01.00
021.13.01.01
857
Describe the basic operating principle of a cockpit oxygen 021.13.00.00.01 021.13.01.01.01
system and describe the following different modes of
858 operation: - normal (diluter demand) - 100% - emergency.

Describe the operating principle and the purposes of the 021.13.00.00.02 021.13.01.01.02
859 following two portable oxygen systems: - smoke hood -
portable bottle.

Describe the following two oxygen systems that can be 021.13.00.00.03 021.13.01.01.03
used to supply oxygen to passengers: - fixed system
860 (chemical oxygen generator or gaseous) - portable.

Describe the actuation methods (automatic and manual) 021.13.00.00.04 021.13.01.01.04


861 and the functioning of a passenger oxygen mask.
Compare chemical oxygen generators to gaseous systems 021.13.00.00.05 021.13.01.01.05
862 with respect to: - capacity - flow regulation.

State the dangers of grease or oil related to the use of 021.13.00.00.06 021.13.01.01.06
863 oxygen systems.

864 HELICOPTER: MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS 021.14.00.00 021.14.00.00


Variable rotor speed 021.14.01.00 021.14.01.00
865

866 021.14.01.01
Explain the system when pilots can’ beep’ the NR an 021.14.01.00.01
additional amount when manoeuvring, landing and
taking-off, normally at higher altitudes to obtain extra tail
867 rotor thrust, which makes manoeuvring more positive and
safer.

Explain the system for ‘beeping’ the NR to its upper limit 021.14.01.00.02 021.14.01.01.01
868 to enable safer take-off.

869 Active vibration suppression 021.14.02.00 021.14.01.02


Explain and describe how the active vibration suppression 021.14.02.00.01 021.14.01.02.01
870 system works through high speed actuators and
accelerometer inputs.

871 Night Vision Goggles 021.14.03.00 021.14.01.03


872 To be introduced at a later date. 021.14.03.00.01
873 HELICOPTER: ROTOR HEADS 021.15.00.00 021.15.00.00
874 Main rotor 021.15.01.00 021.15.01.00
875 Types 021.15.01.01 021.15.01.01
Describe the following rotor head systems: - Teetering - 021.15.01.01.01 021.15.01.01.01
876 articulated - hingeless - bearingless.

Describe the following configuration of rotor systems and 021.15.01.01.02 021.15.01.01.02


877 their advantages and disadvantages: - tandem - coaxial -
side by side.

Explain how flapping, dragging and feathering is achieved 021.15.01.01.03 021.15.01.01.03


878 in each rotor head systems.
Structural components and materials, stresses, structural 021.15.01.02 021.15.01.02
879 limitations
Identify from a diagram the main structural components 021.15.01.02.01 021.15.01.02.01
880 of the main types of rotor head system.

List and describe the methods used how to detect 021.15.01.02.02 021.15.01.02.02
881 damage and cracks.
Explain and describe the structural limitations to 021.15.01.02.03 021.15.01.02.03
882 respective rotor systems, including the dangers of
negative G inputs to certain rotor head systems.

Describe the various rotor head lubrication methods. 021.15.01.02.04 021.15.01.02.04


883

884 Design and construction 021.15.01.03 021.15.01.03


Describe the material technology used in rotor head 021.15.01.03.01 021.15.01.03.01
design, including construction using the following
885 materials or mixture of materials: - composites - fibreglass
- alloys - elastomerics.

886 Adjustment 021.15.01.04 021.15.01.04


Describe and explain the methods of adjustment which 021.15.01.04.01 021.15.01.04.01
887 are possible on various helicopter rotor head assemblies.

888 Tail rotor 021.15.02.00 021.15.02.00


889 Types 021.15.02.01 021.15.02.01
Describe the following tail rotor systems - delta 3 hinge - 021.15.02.01.01 021.15.02.01.01
multi bladed delta 3 effect - Fenestron or ducted fan tail
rotor - No Tail Rotor (NOTAR) High velocity air jet flows
from adjustable nozzles (Coanda effect).
890

Identify from a diagram the main structural components 021.15.02.01.02 021.15.02.01.02


of the four main types of tail rotor system.
891

Explain and describe the methods to detect damage and 021.15.02.01.03 021.15.02.01.03
892 cracks on the tail rotor and assembly.
Explain and describe the structural limitations to the 021.15.02.01.04 021.15.02.01.04
respective tail rotor systems and possible limitations
893 regarding the turning rate of the helicopter.

Explain and describe the following methods that 021.15.02.01.05 021.15.02.01.05


helicopter designers use to minimise tail rotor drift and
roll. - reducing the couple arm (tail rotor on a pylon) - off
894 setting the rotor mast - use of “bias” in cyclic control
mechanism.

895 Explain pitch input mechanisms. 021.15.02.01.06 021.15.02.01.06


Explain the relationship between tail rotor thrust and 021.15.02.01.07 021.15.02.01.07
896 engine power.
Describe how the vertical fin on some helicopters reduces 021.15.02.01.08 021.15.02.01.08
897 the power demand of the Fenestron.

898 Design and construction 021.15.02.02 021.15.02.02


List and describe the various tail rotor designs and 021.15.02.02.01 021.15.02.02.01
899 construction methods used on current helicopters in
service.

Describe the rigging and adjustment of the tail rotor 021.15.02.03.01


900 system to obtain optimum position of the pilots’ yaw
pedals.

901 HELICOPTER: TRANSMISSION 021.16.00.00 021.16.00.00


902 Main gearbox 021.16.01.00 021.16.01.00
903 Different types, design, operation, limitations 021.16.01.01 021.16.01.01
Describe the following main principles of helicopter 021.16.01.01.01 021.16.01.01.01
transmission systems for single and twin engine
helicopters: - drive for the main and tail rotor - accessory
904 drive for the generator/s alternator/s, hydraulic and oil
pumps, oil cooler/s and tachometers.

Describe the reason for limitations on multi engine 021.16.01.01.02 021.16.01.01.02


905 helicopter transmissions in various engine out situations.

Describe how the passive vibration control works with 021.16.01.01.03 021.16.01.01.03
906 gearbox mountings.

907 Rotor brake 021.16.02.00 021.16.02.00


908 021.16.02.01
Describe the main function of the disc type of rotor brake. 021.16.02.00.01 021.16.02.01.01
909
Describe both hydraulic and cable operated rotor brake 021.16.02.00.02 021.16.02.01.02
910 systems.
Describe the different options for the location of the rotor 021.16.02.00.03 021.16.02.01.03
911 brake.
List the following operational considerations for the use of 021.16.02.00.04 021.16.02.01.04
rotor brakes: - rotor speed at engagement of rotor brake -
risk of blade sailing in windy conditions - risk of rotor
brake over heating and possible fire when brake is applied
above the maximum limit, particularly when spilled
hydraulic fluid is present - avoid stopping blades over jet
912 pipe exhaust with engine running - cockpit annunciation
of rotor brake operation.

913 Auxiliary systems 021.16.03.00 021.16.03.00


914 021.16.03.01
Explain how the hoist/ winch can be driven by an off-take 021.16.03.00.01
915 from the auxiliary gear box.
Explain how power for the air-conditioning system is 021.16.03.00.02 021.16.03.01.01
916 taken from the auxiliary gear box.

917 Driveshaf and associated installation 021.16.04.00 021.16.04.00


918 021.16.04.01
Describe how power is transmitted from the engine to the 021.16.04.00.01 021.16.04.01.01
919 main rotor gearbox.
Describe the material and construction of the drive shaft. 021.16.04.00.02 021.16.04.01.02
920
Explain the need for alignment between the engine and 021.16.04.00.03 021.16.04.01.03
921 the main rotor gearbox.
Identify how temporary misalignment occurs between 021.16.04.00.04 021.16.04.01.04
922 driving and driven components.
Explain the use of: - flexible couplings - Thomas couplings 021.16.04.00.05
- flexible disc packs - driveshaft support bearings and
923 temperature measurement - subcritical and supercritical
driveshafts.
Explain the relationship between the driveshaft speed 021.16.04.00.06 021.16.04.01.05
924 and torque.
Describe the methods in which power is delivered to the 021.16.04.00.07 021.16.04.01.06
925 tail rotor.
Describe and identify the construction and materials of 021.16.04.00.08 021.16.04.01.07
926 tail rotor/Fenestron driveshafts.

927 Intermediate and tail gearbox 021.16.05.00 021.16.05.00


928 021.16.05.01
Explain and describe the various arrangements when the 021.16.05.00.01 021.16.05.01.01
929 drive changes direction and the need for an intermediate
or tail gear box.

Explain the lubrication requirements for intermediate and 021.16.05.00.02 021.16.05.01.02


930 tail rotor gear boxes and methods of checking levels.

Explain how on most helicopters the tail rotor gear box 021.16.05.00.03 021.16.05.01.03
931 contains gearing etc. for the tail rotor pitch change
mechanism.

932 Clutches 021.16.06.00 021.16.06.00


933 021.16.06.01
934 Explain the purpose of a clutch. 021.16.06.00.01 021.16.06.01.01
Describe and explain the operation of a : - centrifugal 021.16.06.00.02 021.16.06.01.02
935 clutch. - actuated clutch.

936 List the typical components of the various clutches. 021.16.06.00.03 021.16.06.01.03
Identify the following methods by which clutch 021.16.06.00.04 021.16.06.01.04
serviceability can be ascertained : - brake shoe dust. -
vibration. - main rotor run-down time. - engine speed at
937 time of main rotor engagement. - belt tensioning. - start
protection in a belt drive clutch system.

938 Freewheels 021.16.07.00 021.16.07.00


939 021.16.07.01
940 Explain the purpose of a freewheel. 021.16.07.00.01 021.16.07.01.01
Describe and explain the operation of a : - cam and roller 021.16.07.00.02 021.16.07.01.02
941 type freewheel. - sprag clutch type freewheel.

List the typical components of the various freewheels. 021.16.07.00.03 021.16.07.01.03


942
Identify the various locations of freewheels in power 021.16.07.00.04 021.16.07.01.04
943 plant and transmission systems.
Explain the implications regarding the engagement and 021.16.07.00.05 021.16.07.01.05
944 disengagement of the freewheel.

945 HELICOPTER: BLADES 021.17.00.00 021.17.00.00


946 Main-rotor design and blade design 021.17.01.00 021.17.01.00
947 Design, construction 021.17.01.01 021.17.01.01
Describe the different type of blade construction and the 021.17.01.01.01 021.17.01.01.01
948 need for torsional stiffness.
Describe the principles of heating systems/pads on some 021.17.01.01.02 021.17.01.01.02
949 blades for anti/de-icing.
Describe the fully articulated rotor with hinges and 082.05.04.02.01 021.17.01.01.03
950 feathering bearings.
(Moved from 082.05.04.02.01 )

951 Structural components and materials 021.17.01.02 021.17.01.02


List the materials used in the construction of main rotor 021.17.01.02.01 021.17.01.02.01
952 blades.
List the main structural components of a main rotor blade 021.17.01.02.02 021.17.01.02.02
953 and their function.
Describe the drag hinge of the fully articulated rotor and 082.05.03.02.01 021.17.01.02.03
954 the lag flexure in the hingeless rotor.
(Moved from 082.05.03.02.01)

Explain the necessity of drag dampers. 082.05.03.02.02 021.17.01.02.04


955 (Moved to 021.17.01.02.04)

956 Forces and stresses 021.17.01.03 021.17.01.03


Describe main rotor blade loading on the ground and in 021.17.01.03.01 021.17.01.03.01
957 flight.
Describe where the most common stress areas are on 021.17.01.03.02 021.17.01.03.02
958 rotor blades.
Show how the centrifugal force depend on rotor RPM and 082.05.01.01.01 021.17.01.03.03
blade mass and how they pull on the blade attachment to
the hub. Apply the formula to an example. Justify the
959 upper limit of the rotor RPM.
(Moved from 082.05.01.01.01)

Assume a rigid attachment and show how thrust may 082.05.01.01.02 021.17.01.03.04
cause huge oscillating bending moments which stress the
960 attachment.
(Moved from 082.05.01.01.02)

Explain why flapping hinges do not transfer such 082.05.01.01.03 021.17.01.03.05


moments. Show the small flapping hinge offset on fully
articulated rotors and zero offset in the case of teetering
961 rotors.
(Moved from 082.05.01.01.03)

Describe the working principle of the flexible element in 082.05.01.01.04 021.17.01.03.06


the hingeless rotor and describe the equivalent flapping
hinge offset compared to that of the articulated rotor.
962 (Moved from 082.05.01.01.04)

963 Structural limitations 021.17.01.04 021.17.01.04


Explain the structural limitations in terms of bending and 021.17.01.04.01 021.17.01.04.01
964 rotor RPM.

965 Adjustment 021.17.01.05 021.17.01.05


966 Explain the use of trim tabs. 021.17.01.05.01 021.17.01.05.01
967 Tip shape 021.17.01.06 021.17.01.06
Describe the various blade tip shapes used by different 021.17.01.06.01 021.17.01.06.01
968 manufacturers and compare their advantages and
disadvantages.
Describe how on some rotor blade tips, static and 021.17.01.06.02
dynamic balancing weights are attached to threaded rods
and screwed into sockets in the leading edge spar and
969 others in a support embedded into the blade tip.

Origins of the vertical vibrations 082.05.06.01 021.17.01.07


970
Explain the lift (thrust) variations per rev of a blade and 082.05.06.01.01 021.17.01.07.01
the resulting vertical rotor thrust variation in the case of
971 perfect identical blades.
(Moved from 082.05.06.01.01)

Show the resulting frequencies and amplitudes as a 082.05.06.01.02 021.17.01.07.02


function of the number of blades.
972
(Moved from 082.05.06.01.02)
Explain the thrust variation in case of an out-of- track 082.05.06.01.03 021.17.01.07.03
973 blade, causes, frequencies (one-per-rev).
(Moved from 082.05.06.01.03)
Lateral vibrations 082.05.06.02 021.17.01.08
974
Explain imbalances of a blade, causes, and effects. 082.05.06.02.01 021.17.01.08.01
975
(Moved from 082.05.06.02.01)
976 Tail-rotor design and blade design 021.17.02.00 021.17.02.00
977 Design, construction 021.17.02.01 021.17.02.01
Describe the most common design of tail rotor blade 021.17.02.01.01 021.17.02.01.01
construction, consisting of stainless steel shell reinforced
978 by a honeycomb filler and stainless steel leading abrasive
strip.

Explain that ballast weights are located at the inboard 021.17.02.01.02 021.17.02.01.02
trailing edge and tip of blades, the weights used are
979 determined when the blades are manufactured.

Describe how anti-icing/de-icing systems are designed 021.17.02.01.03 021.17.02.01.03


980 into the blade construction of some helicopters.

Describe the two-bladed rotor with teetering hinge, the 082.06.01.01.01 021.17.02.01.04
981 rotors with more than two blades.
(Moved from 082.06.01.01.01)

Describe the dangers to ground personnel, to the rotor 082.06.01.01.03 021.17.02.01.05


blades, possibilities of minimising these dangers.
982 (Moved from 082.06.01.01.03)

983 Structural components and materials 021.17.02.02 021.17.02.02


List the materials used in the construction of tail rotor 021.17.02.02.01
984 blades.
List the main structural components of a tail rotor blade 021.17.02.02.02
985 and their function.

986 Stresses 021.17.02.03 021.17.02.03


Describe the tail rotor blade loading on the ground and in 021.17.02.03.01 021.17.02.03.01
987 flight.
Explain the sources of vibration of the tail rotor and the 082.06.04.01.01 021.17.02.03.02
resulting high frequencies.
988
(Moved from 082.06.04.01.01)
Explain balancing and tracking of the tail rotor. 082.06.04.02.01 021.17.02.03.03
989
(Moved from 082.06.04.02.01)
990 Structural limitations 021.17.02.04 021.17.02.04
Describe the structural limitations of tail rotor blades. 021.17.02.04.01 021.17.02.04.01
991
Describe the method of checking the strike indicators 021.17.02.04.02 021.17.02.04.02
992 placed on the tip of some tail rotor blades.

993 Adjustment 021.17.02.05 021.17.02.05


Describe the adjustment of yaw pedals in the cockpit, to 021.17.02.05.01 021.17.02.05.01
994 obtain full control authority of the tail rotor.

The Fenestron 082.06.02.00 021.17.02.06


995 (Moved from 082.06.02.00)
Show the technical layout of a fenestron tail rotor. 082.06.02.01.01 021.17.02.06.01
996
(Moved from 082.06.02.01.01)
Explain the advantages and disadvantages. 082.06.02.03.01 021.17.02.06.02
997
(Moved from 082.06.02.03.01)
The NOTAR 082.06.03.00 021.17.02.07
998 (Moved from 082.06.03.00)
Show the technical layout. 082.06.03.01.01 021.17.02.07.01
999
(Moved from 082.06.03.01.01)
Explain the control concepts. 082.06.03.02.01 021.17.02.07.02
1000
(Moved from 082.06.03.02.01)
Explain the advantages and disadvantages. 082.06.03.03.01 021.17.02.07.03
1001
(Moved from 082.06.03.03.01)
Moved to/from New syllabus text

Reworded, intent the


another subject

Reworded, intent
Text unmodified
Renumbered

modified
Deleted

same
New
AIRCRAFT GENERAL KNOWLEDGE - AIRFRAME, SYSTEMS
AND POWER PLANT
SYSTEM DESIGN, LOADS, STRESSES, MAINTENANCE
System design
Design concepts
Describe the following structural design philosophy: safe x
life; fail-safe (multiple load paths); damage-tolerant.

Explain the purpose of redundancy in aircraft design. x

Level of certification
x

Explain why some systems are duplicated or triplicated. x x

Explain that all aircraft are certified according to x


specifications determined by the competent authority,
and that these certification specifications cover aspects
such as design, material quality and build quality.

State that the certification specifications for aeroplanes x


issued by EASA are: CS-23 for Normal, Utility, Aerobatic
and Commuter Aeroplanes; CS-25 for Large Aeroplanes.

State that the certification specifications for rotorcraft x


issued by EASA are: CS-27 for Small Rotorcraft; CS-29 for
Large Rotorcraft.

Loads and stresses x


Stress, strain and loads x
Explain how stress and strain are always present in an x
aircraft structure both when parked and during
manoeuvring. Remark: Stress is the internal force per unit
area inside a structural part as a result of external loads.
Strain is the deformation caused by the action of stress on
a material.

Describe the following types of loads that an aircraft may x x


be subjected to, when they occur, and how a pilot may
affect their magnitude: static loads; dynamic loads; cyclic
loads.

x
Describe the areas typically prone to stress that should be x
given particular attention during a pre-flight inspection,
and highlight the limited visual cues of any deformation
that may be evident.

Fatigue and corrosion x


Describe and explain fatigue and corrosion x
See the new LO below x x

Describe the effects of corrosion and how it can be x


visually identified by a pilot during the pre-flight
inspection.

Describe the operating environments where the risk of x


corrosion is increased and how to minimise the effects of
the environmental factors.

Explain that aircraft have highly corrosive fluids on board x


as part of their systems and equipment.
Explain fatigue, how it affects the useful life of an aircraft, x x
and the effect of the following factors on the
development of fatigue: corrosion; number of cycles; type
of flight manoeuvres; stress level; level and quality of
maintenance.

See new LO reference above x x

Intentionally lef blank x


x

See new LO reference above x

Maintenance x
Maintenance methods: hard-time and on-condition x
monitoring
Explain the following terms: hard-time or fixed-time x
maintenance; on-condition maintenance; condition
monitoring.

AIRFRAME x
Attachment methods x
Attachment methods and detecting the development of x
faulty attachments
x

Describe the following attachment methods used for x x


aircraft parts and components: riveting; welding; bolting;
pinning; adhesives (bonding); screwing.

Explain how the development of a faulty attachment x


between aircraft parts or components can be detected by
a pilot during the pre-flight inspection.

Materials x
Composite and other materials x
x

Explain the principle of a composite material, and give x x


examples of typical non-metallic materials used on
aircraft: carbon; glass; Kevlar aramid; resin or filler.

See new LO reference above x x

State the advantages and disadvantages of composite x x


materials compared with metal alloys by considering the
following: strength-to-weight ratio; capability to tailor the
strength to the direction of the load; stiffness; electrical
conductivity (lightning); resistance to fatigue and
corrosion; resistance to cost; discovering damage during a
pre-flight inspection.

See new LO reference above x x

State that several types of materials are used on aircraft x


and that they are chosen based on type of structure or
component and the required/desired material properties.

Aeroplane: wings, tail surfaces and control surfaces x


Design x
Describe the following types of design and explain their x
advantages and disadvantages: high-mounted wing; low-
mounted wing; low- or mid-set tailplane; T-tail.

See new LO reference above x x

Structural components x
Describe the function of the following structural x
components: spar and its components (web and girder or
cap); rib; stringer; skin; torsion box.

Loads, stresses and aeroelastic vibrations (flutter) x


Describe the vertical and horizontal loads on the ground x
and during normal flight.
Describe the vertical and horizontal loads during x
asymmetric flight following an engine failure for a multi-
engine aeroplane, and how a pilot may potentially
overstress the structure during the failure scenario.

Explain the principle of flutter and resonance for the wing x


and control surfaces.

Explain the following countermeasures used to achieve x


stress relief and reduce resonance: chord-wise and span-
wise position of masses (e.g. engines, fuel, balance
masses for wing and control balance masses); torsional
stiffness; bending flexibility; fuel-balancing procedures
during flight (automatic or applied by the pilot).

See new LO reference above x

Fuselage, landing gear, doors, floor, windscreen and x


windows
Construction, functions, loads x
Describe the following types of fuselage construction: x x
monocoque, semi-monocoque.
Describe the construction and the function of the x x
following structural components of a fuselage: frames;
bulkhead; pressure bulkhead; stiffeners, stringers,
longerons; skin, doublers; floor suspension (crossbeams);
floor panels; firewall.

Describe the loads on the fuselage due to pressurisation. x x

Describe the following loads on a main landing gear: x x


touch-down loads (vertical and horizontal); taxi loads on
bogie gear (turns).
Describe the structural danger of a nose-wheel landing x x
with respect to: fuselage loads; nose-wheel strut loads.

Describe the structural danger of a tail strike with respect x x


to: fuselage and aft bulkhead damage (pressurisation).

Describe the door and hatch construction for pressurised x x


and unpressurised aeroplanes including: door and frame
(plug type); hinge location; locking mechanism.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the following x x


fuselage cross sections: circular; double bubble; oval;
rectangular.

Explain why flight-deck windows are constructed with x x


different layers.
Explain the function of window heating for structural x x
purposes.
Explain the implication of a direct-vision window (see CS x x
25.773(b)(3)).
Explain the need for an eye-reference position. x x
Explain the function of floor venting (blow-out panels). x x

Describe the construction and fitting of sliding doors. x x

Helicopter: structural aspects of flight controls x


Design and construction x
List the functions of flight controls. x
x

x
Explain why vertical and horizontal stabilisers may have x x
different shapes and alignments.

Structural components and materials x


x

Describe the fatigue life and methods of checking for x x


serviceability of the components and materials of flight
and control surfaces.
Loads, stresses and aeroelastic vibrations x
x

Describe the dangers and stresses regarding safety and x x


serviceability in flight when the manufacturer’s design
envelope is exceeded.
x

Explain that blade tracking is important both to minimise X x


vibration and to help ensure uniformity of flow through
the disc.

Describe the early indications and vibrations which are x x


likely to be experienced when the main-rotor blades and
tail rotor are out of balance or tracking, including the
possible early indications due to possible fatigue and
overload.

Explain how a vibration harmonic can be set up in other x x


components which can lead to their early failure.

State the three planes of vibration measurement, i.e. x x


vertical, lateral, fore and aft.
Structural limitations x
Maximum structural masses x
Define and explain the following maximum structural x x
masses: maximum ramp mass; maximum take-off mass;
maximum zero fuel mass; maximum landing mass.
Remark: These limitations may also be found in the
relevant part of Subjects 031 ‘Mass and balance’, 032
‘Performance (aeroplane)’ and 034 ‘Performance
(helicopter)’.

Explain that airframe life is limited by fatigue, created by x x


alternating stress and the number of load cycles.

Explain the maximum structural masses: maximum take- x x


off mass.
Explain that airframe life is limited by fatigue, created by x x
load cycles.
HYDRAULICS x
Hydromechanics: basic principles x
Concepts and basic principles x
Explain the concept and basic principles of x x
hydromechanics including: hydrostatic pressure; Pascal’s
law; the relationship between pressure, force and area;
transmission of power: multiplication of force, decrease of
displacement.

Hydraulic systems x
Hydraulic fluids: types, characteristics, limitations x
List and explain the desirable properties of a hydraulic x
fluid with regard to: thermal stability; corrosiveness;
flashpoint and flammability; volatility; viscosity.

State that hydraulic fluids are irritating to skin and eyes.

List the two different types of hydraulic fluids: synthetic; x


mineral.
State that different types of hydraulic fluids cannot be x
mixed.
State that at the pressures being considered, hydraulic x
fluid is considered incompressible.
System components: design, operation, degraded modes x
of operation, indications and warnings
Explain the working principle of a hydraulic system. x
Describe the difference in the principle of operation x
between a constant pressure system and a system
pressurised only on specific demand.

State the differences in the principle of operation x


between a passive hydraulic system (without a pressure
pump) and an active hydraulic system (with a pressure
pump).

List the main advantages and disadvantages of system x


actuation by hydraulic or purely mechanical means with
respect to: weight; size; force.

List the main uses of hydraulic systems. x


State that hydraulic systems can be classified as either x
high pressure (typically 3000 psi or higher) or low
pressure (typically up to 2000 psi).

State that a high-pressure hydraulic system is typically x


operating at 3000 psi but on some aircraft a hydraulic
pressure of 4000 to 5000 psi may also be used.

Explain the working principle of a low-pressure (0–2000 x


psi) system.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a high- x


pressure system over a low-pressure system.
Describe the working principle and functions of pressure x
pumps including: constant pressure pump (swash plate or
cam plate); pressure pump whose output is dependent on
pump revolutions per minute (rpm) (gear type).
Explain the following different sources of hydraulic x
pressure, their typical application and potential
operational limitations: manual; engine gearbox;
electrical; air (pneumatic and ram-air turbine); hydraulic
(power transfer unit) or reversible motor pumps;
accessory.

Explain the following different sources of hydraulic x


pressure, their typical application and potential
operational limitations: manual; engine; gearbox;
electrical.

Describe the working principle and functions of the x


following hydraulic system components: reservoir
(pressurised and unpressurised); accumulators; case drain
lines and fluid cooler return lines; piston actuators (single-
and double-acting); hydraulic motors; filters; non-return
(check) valves; relief valves; restrictor valves; selector
valves (linear and basic rotary selectors, two and four
ports); bypass valves; shuttle valves; fire shut_x001E_off
valves; priority valves; fuse valves; pressure and return
pipes.

Explain the function of the demand pump installed on x


many transport aeroplanes.
Explain how redundancy is obtained by giving examples. x

Interpret a typical hydraulic system schematic to the level x


of detail as found in an aircraft flight crew operating
manual (FCOM).

Explain the implication of a high system demand. x


x

List and describe the instruments and alerts for x x


monitoring a hydraulic system.
State the indications and explain the implications of the x x
following malfunctions: system leak or low level; low
pressure; high temperature.

LANDING GEAR, WHEELS, TYRES, BRAKES x


Landing gear x
Types x
Name, for an aeroplane, the following different landing- x
gear configurations: nose wheel; tail wheel.

Name, for a helicopter, the following different landing- x


gear configurations: nose wheel; tail wheel; skids.

System components, design, operation, indications and x


warnings, on-ground/in-flight protections, emergency
extension systems
Explain the function of the following components of a x
landing gear: oleo leg/shock strut; axles; bogies and bogie
beam; drag struts; side stays/struts; torsion links; locks
(over centre); gear doors.

Explain the function of the following components of a x


landing gear: oleo leg/shock strut; axles; drag struts; side
stays/struts; torsion links; locks (over centre); gear doors.

Name the different components of a landing gear, using x


the diagram appended to these LOs (021).
Describe the sequence of events during normal operation x
of the landing gear.
State how landing-gear position indication and alerting is x
implemented.
Describe the various protection devices to avoid x
inadvertent gear retraction on the ground and explain the
implications of taking off with one or more protection
devices in place: ground lock (pins); protection devices in
the gear retraction mechanism.

Explain the speed limitations for gear operation (VLO x


(maximum landing gear operating speed) and VLE
(maximum landing gear extended speed)).

Describe the sequence for emergency gear extension: x


unlocking; operating; down-locking.
Describe some methods for emergency gear extension x
including: gravity/free fall; air or nitrogen pressure;
manually/mechanically.

Nose-wheel steering x
Design, operation x
Explain the operating principle of nose_x001E_wheel x x
steering.
Explain, for a helicopter, the functioning of differential x x
braking with free-castoring nose wheel.

Describe, for an aeroplane, the functioning of the x x


following systems: differential braking with free-castoring
nose wheel; tiller or hand wheel steering; rudder pedal
nose-wheel steering.

Explain the centring mechanism of the nose wheel. x x

Define the term ‘shimmy’ and the possible consequences x x


of shimmy for the nose- and the main-wheel system and
explain the purpose of a shimmy damper to reduce the
severity of shimmy.
Explain the purpose of main-wheel (body) steering. x x
Brakes x
Types and materials x
Describe the basic operating principle of a disc brake. x

State the different materials used in a disc brake (steel, x


carbon).
Describe the characteristics, advantages and x
disadvantages of steel and carbon brake discs with regard
to: weight; temperature limits; internal-friction
coefficient; wear.

System components, design, operation, indications and x


warnings
Explain the limitation of brake energy and describe the x
operational consequences.
Explain how brakes are actuated: hydraulically, x
electrically.
Explain the purpose of an in-flight wheel brake system. x

x
Describe the function of a brake accumulator. x x
Describe the function of the parking brake. x x
Explain the function of brake-wear indicators. x x
Explain the reason for the brake-temperature indicator. x x

Anti-skid x
Describe the operating principle of anti_x001E_skid wher x
excessive brake pressure applied is automatically reduced
for optimum breaking performance.

Explain that the anti-skid computer compares wheel x


speed to aeroplane reference speed to provide the
following: slip ratio for maximum braking performance;
locked-wheel prevention (protection against deep skid on
one wheel); touchdown protection (protection against
brake-pressure application during touchdown);
hydroplane protection.

Give examples of the impact of an anti-skid system on x


performance, and explain the implications of anti-skid
system failure.

Autobrake x
Describe the operating principle of an autobrake system. x
Explain why the anti-skid system must be available when x
using autobrakes.
Explain the difference between the three modes of x
operation of an autobrake system: OFF (system off or
reset); Armed (the system is ready to operate under
certain conditions); Activated/Deactivated (application of
pressure on brakes).

Describe how an autobrake system setting will either x


apply maximum braking (RTO or MAX) or result in a given
rate of deceleration, where the amount of braking applied
may be affected by: the use of reverse thrust; slippery
runway.

Wheels, rims and tyres x


Types, structural components and materials, operational x
limitations, thermal plugs
Describe the different types of tyres such as: tubeless; x
diagonal (cross ply); radial (circumferential bias).
Define the following terms: ply rating; tyre tread; tyre x
creep; retread (cover).
Explain the function of thermal/fusible plugs. x
Explain the implications of and how to identify tread x
separation and wear or damage with associated increased
risk of tyre burst.

Explain why the ground speed of tyres is limited. x


Describe the following tyre checks a pilot will perform x
during the pre-flight inspection and identify probable
causes: cuts and damages; flat spots.

Helicopter equipment x
Flotation devices x
Explain flotation devices, how they are operated, and x x
their limitations.
Explain why indicated airspeed (IAS) limitations before, x x
during and after flotation-device deployment must be
observed.

FLIGHT CONTROLS X
Aeroplane: primary flight controls X
Definition and control surfaces X
Define a ‘primary flight control’. x x
List the following primary flight control surfaces: elevator, x x
aileron, roll spoilers, flaperon; rudder.
List the various means of control surface actuation x x
including: manual; fully powered (irreversible); partially
powered (reversible).

Manual controls X
Explain the basic principle of a fully manual control x x
system.
Fully powered controls (irreversible) X
Explain the basic principle of a fully powered control x x
system.
Explain the concept of irreversibility in a flight control x x
system.
Explain the need for a ‘feel system’ in a fully powered x x
control system.
Explain the operating principle of a stabiliser trim system x x
in a fully powered control system.
Explain the operating principle of rudder and aileron trim x x
in a fully powered control system.
Partially powered controls (reversible) X
Explain the basic principle of a partially powered control x x
system.
Explain why a ‘feel system’ is not necessary in a partially x x
powered control system.
System components, design, operation, indications and X
warnings, degraded modes of operation, jamming

List and describe the function of the following x x


components of a flight control system: actuators; control
valves; cables; electrical wiring; control surface position
sensors.

Explain how redundancy is obtained in primary flight x x


control systems of large transport aeroplanes.

Explain the danger of control jamming and the means of x x


retaining sufficient control capability.
Explain the methods of locking the controls on the ground x x
and describe ‘gust or control lock’ warnings.

Explain the concept of a rudder deflection limitation x x


(rudder limiter) system and the various means of
implementation (rudder ratio changer, variable stops,
blow-back).

Aeroplane: secondary flight controls x


System components, design, operation, degraded modes x
of operation, indications and warnings
Define a ‘secondary flight control’. x
List the following secondary flight control surfaces: lift- x
augmentation devices (flaps and slats); speed brakes;
flight and ground spoilers; trimming devices such as trim
tabs, trimmable horizontal stabiliser.

Describe secondary flight control actuation methods and x


sources of actuating power.
Explain the function of a mechanical lock when using x
hydraulic motors driving a screw jack.
Describe the requirement for limiting flight speeds for the x
various secondary flight control surfaces.
For lift-augmentation devices, explain the load-limiting x
(relief) protection devices and the functioning of an auto-
retraction system.

Explain how a flap/slat asymmetry protection device x


functions, and describe the implications of a flap/slat
asymmetry situation.

Describe the function of an auto-slat system. x


Explain the concept of control surface blow-back x
(aerodynamic forces overruling hydraulic forces).
Helicopter: flight controls x
Droop stops, control systems, trim systems, control stops x

Explain the methods of locking the controls on the x x


ground.
Describe main-rotor droop stops and how rotor flapping is x x
restricted.
x

Explain the principle of phase lag and advance angle. x x

Describe the following four axes of control operation, x x


their operating principle and their associated cockpit
controls: collective control; cyclic fore and aft (pitch axis);
cyclic lateral (roll axis); yaw.

Describe the swash plate or azimuth star control system x x


including the following: swash plate inputs; the function
of the non-rotating swash plate; the function of the
rotating swash plate; how swash plate tilt is achieved;
swash plate pitch axis; swash plate roll axis; balancing of
pitch/roll/collective inputs to the swash plate to equalise
torsional loads on the blades.

Describe the operation of the spider control system. x x


x

State the need for artificial feel in a hydraulically actuated x x


flight control system.
Describe and explain the purpose of a trim system using x x
the following terms: force-trim switch; force gradient;
parallel trim actuator; cyclic 4-way trim switch; interaction
of trim system with an SAS/SCAS/ASS stability system;
trim-motor indicators.

Describe the different types of control runs. x x


Explain the use of control stops. x x
Aeroplane: fly-by-wire (FBW) control systems x
Composition, explanation of operation, modes of x
operation
Explain that an FBW flight control system is composed of x x
the following: pilot’s input command (control
column/sidestick/rudder pedals); electrical signalling
paths, including: pilot input to computer, computer to
flight control surfaces, feedback from aircraft response to
computer; flight control computers; actuators; flight
control surfaces.

State the advantages of an FBW system in comparison x x


with a conventional flight control system including:
weight; pilot workload; flight-envelope protection.

Explain why an FBW system is always irreversible. x x


Explain the different modes of operation: normal x x
operation (e.g. normal law or normal mode); downgraded
operation (e.g. alternate law or secondary mode); direct
law.

Describe the implications of mode degradation in relation x


to pilot workload and flight-envelope protection.
Intentionally left blank x
Describe the implications for pilot workload during flight
in normal operation (normal law/normal mode) during
the following scenarios: an undetected system error
activates the envelope protection; aircraft departs from
intended flight path; aircraft does not respond as
expected to control inputs.

For aircraft using sidestick for manual control, describe x


the implications of: dual control input made by the pilot;
the control takeover facility available to the pilot.

Intentionally left blank x


Describe solutions or actions to regain control.
Explain why several types of computers are needed and x
why they should be dissimilar.
Explain why several control surfaces on every axis are x
needed on FBW aircraft.
Explain why several sensors are needed on critical x
parameters.
Helicopter: fly-by-wire (FBW) control systems - to be x
introduced at a later date
Merged into the subtopic title x
PNEUMATICS - PRESSURISATION AND AIR- x
CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
Pneumatic/bleed-air supply x
Piston-engine air supply x
Describe the following means of supplying air for the x
pneumatic systems for piston-engine aircraft: compressor;
vacuum pump.

State that an air supply is required for the following x


systems: instrumentation; heating; de-icing.
Gas turbine engine: bleed-air supply x
State that the possible bleed-air sources for gas turbine x
engine aircraft are the following: engine; auxiliary power
unit (APU); ground supply.

State that for an aeroplane a bleed-air supply can be used x


for the following systems or components: ice protection;
engine air starter; pressurisation of a hydraulic reservoir;
air-driven hydraulic pumps; pressurisation and air
conditioning.

State that for a helicopter a bleed-air supply can be used x


for the following systems or components: anti-icing;
engine air starter; pressurisation of a hydraulic reservoir.
State that the bleed-air supply system can comprise the x
following: pneumatic ducts; isolation valve; pressure-
regulating valve; engine bleed valve (HP/IP valves); fan-air
pre-cooler; temperature and pressure sensors.

Interpret a basic pneumatic system schematic to the level x


of detail as found in an FCOM.
Describe the cockpit indications for bleed-air systems. x

Explain how the bleed-air supply system is controlled and x


monitored.
State the following bleed-air malfunctions: over- x
temperature; over-pressure; low pressure; overheat/duct
leak; and describe the potential consequences.

Helicopter: air-conditioning systems


Types, system components, design, operation, degraded
modes of operation, indications and warnings

Describe the purpose of an air-conditioning system. x


Explain how an air-conditioning system is controlled. x

Describe the vapour cycle air-conditioning system x


including system components, design, operation,
degraded modes of operation and system malfunction
indications.

Identify the following components from a diagram of an x


air-conditioning system and describe the operating
principle and function: air-cycle machine (pack, bootstrap
system); pack-cooling fan; water separator; mixing valves;
flow-control valves; isolation valves; recirculation fans;
filters for recirculation; temperature sensors.

List and describe the controls, indications and warnings x


related to an air-conditioning system.
Aeroplane: pressurisation and air-conditioning system x

System components, design, operation, degraded modes x


of operation, indications and warnings
Explain that a pressurisation and an air-conditioning x
system of an aeroplane controls: ventilation; temperature;
pressure.

Explain how humidity is controlled. x


Explain that the following components constitute a x
pressurisation system: pneumatic system as the power
source; outflow valve; outflow valve actuator; pressure
controller; excessive differential pressure-relief valve;
negative differential pressure-relief valve.

Explain that the following components constitute an x


air_x001E_conditioning system and describe their
operating principles and function: air-cycle machine (pack,
bootstrap system); pack-cooling fan; water separator;
mixing valves; flow-control valves (outflow valve);
isolation valves; ram-air valve; recirculation fans; filters for
recirculated air; temperature sensors. Remark: The
bootstrap system is the only air-conditioning system
considered for Part-FCL aeroplane examinations.

Describe the use of hot trim air. x


Define the following terms: cabin altitude; cabin vertical x
speed; differential pressure; ground pressurisation.

Describe the operating principle of a pressurisation x


system.
Describe the emergency operation by manual setting of x
the outflow valve position.
Describe the working principle of an electronic cabin- x
pressure controller.
State how the maximum operating altitude is determined. x

Explain: why the maximum allowed value of cabin altitude x


is limited; a typical value of maximum differential pressure
for large transport aeroplanes; the relation between cabin
altitude, the maximum differential pressure and maximum
aeroplane operating altitude.

Explain the typical warning on a transport category x


aircraft when cabin altitude exceeds 10 000 ft.
List and interpret typical indications of the pressurisation x
system.
Describe the main operational differences between a x
bleed-air-driven air-conditioning system and an
electrically driven air-conditioning system as found on
aircraft without engine bleed-air system.

ANTI-ICING AND DE-ICING SYSTEMS x


Types, operation, indications x

Types, design, operation, indications and warnings, x


operational limitations
Explain the concepts of anti_x001E_icing and x x
de_x001E_icing.
Name the components of an aircraft which can be x x
protected from ice accretion.
State that on some aeroplanes the tail does not have an x x
ice-protection system.
State the different types of anti-icing/de-icing systems and x x
describe their operating principle: hot air; electrical; fluid.

Describe the operating principle of the inflatable boot de- x x


icing system.
x

Ice warning systems x


Types, operation, and indications x
Describe the different operating principles of the x x
following ice detectors: mechanical systems using air
pressure; electromechanical systems using resonance
frequencies.

Describe the principle of operation of ice warning x x


systems.
Helicopter blade heating systems x
Limitations x
x
Explain the limitations on blade heating and the fact that x x
on some helicopters the heating does not heat all the
main-rotor blades at the same time.

FUEL SYSTEM x
Piston engine x
Fuel: types, characteristics, limitations x
State the types of fuel used by a piston engine and their x
associated limitations: diesel; JET-A1 (for high-
compression engines); AVGAS; MOGAS.

State the main characteristics of these fuels and give x


typical values regarding their flash points, freezing points
and density.

Design, operation, system components, indications x


State the tasks of the fuel system. x
Name the following main components of a fuel system, x
and state their location and their function: lines; boost
pump; pressure valves; filter, strainer; tanks (wing, tip,
fuselage); vent system; sump; drain; fuel-quantity sensor;
fuel-temperature sensor.

Describe a gravity fuel feed system and a pressure feed x


fuel system.
Describe the construction of the different types of fuel x
tanks and state their advantages and disadvantages: drum
tank; bladder tank; integral tank.

Explain the function of cross-feed. x


Define the term ‘unusable fuel’. x
List the following parameters that are monitored for the x
fuel system: fuel quantity (low-level warning); fuel
temperature.

Turbine engine x
Fuel: types, characteristics, limitations x
State the types of fuel used by a gas turbine engine: JET-A; x
JET-A1; JET-B.
State the main characteristics of these fuels and give x
typical values regarding their flash points, freezing points
and density.

State the existence of additives for freezing. x


Design, operation, system components, indications x
Explain the function of the fuel system: lines; centrifugal x
boost pump; pressure valves; fuel shut-off valve; filter,
strainer; tanks (wing, tip, fuselage, tail); bafflers/baffles;
sump; vent system; drain; fuel-quantity sensor; fuel-
temperature sensor; refuelling/defueling system; fuel
dump/jettison system.

Name the main components of the fuel system and state x


their location and their function: trim fuel tanks; bafflers;
refuelling/defueling system; fuel dump/jettison system.
Remark: For completion of list, please see 021 08 01 02
(02).

Interpret a typical fuel system schematic to the level of x


detail as found in an aircraft FCOM.
Explain the limitations in the event of loss of booster x
pump fuel pressure.
Describe the use and purpose of drip sticks (manual x
magnetic indicators) (may also be known as dip stick or
drop stick).

x
x
x

Explain the considerations for fitting a fuel dump/jettison x x


system and, if fitted, its function.
x

ELECTRICS x
General, definitions, basic applications: circuit breakers, x
logic circuits
Static electricity x
Explain static electricity and describe the flying conditions x
where aircraft are most susceptible to build-up of static
electricity.

Describe a static discharger and explain the following: its x


purpose; typical locations; pilot’s role of observing it
during pre-flight inspection.

Explain why an aircraft must first be grounded before x


refuelling/defueling.
Explain the reason for electrical bonding. x
Direct current (DC) x
Explain the term ‘direct current’ (DC), and state that x
current can only flow in a closed circuit.
Explain the basic principles of conductivity and give x
examples of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

Describe the difference in use of the following mechanical x


switches and explain the difference in observing their
state (e.g. ON/OFF), and why some switches are guarded:
toggle switch; rocker switch; pushbutton switch; rotary
switch. Explain the difference in observing their state (e.g.
ON/OFF) and why some switches are guarded.

Define voltage and current, and state their unit of x


measurement.
Explain Ohm’s law in qualitative terms. x
Explain the effect on total resistance when resistors are x
connected in series or in parallel.
State that resistances can have a positive or a negative x
temperature coefficient (PTC/NTC) and state their use.

Define electrical power and state the unit of x


measurement.
x

Alternating current (AC) x


Explain the term ‘alternating current’ (AC), and compare x
its use to DC with regard to complexity.
Define the term ‘phase’, and explain the basic principle of x
single-phase and three-phase AC.
State that aircraft can use single-phase or three-phase AC. x

Define frequency and state the unit of measurement. x

x
Define ‘phase shift’ in qualitative terms. x x
Intentionally lef blank x
x

Intentionally lef blank x


x
x

Electromagnetism x
State that an electrical current produces a magnetic field. x

Describe how the strength of the magnetic field changes x


with the magnitude of the current.
Explain the purpose and the working principle of a x
solenoid.
Explain the purpose and the working principle of a relay. x

Explain the principle of electromagnetic induction and x


how two electrical components or systems may affect
each other through this principle.

Circuit protection
Explain the working principle of a fuse and a circuit x
breaker.
Explain how a fuse is rated. x
Describe the principal difference between the following x
types of circuit breakers: thermal circuit breaker sensing
magnitude of current; magnetic circuit breaker sensing
direction of current.

Describe how circuit breakers may be used to reset x


aircraft systems/computers in the event of system failure
(when part of a described procedure).
Explain a short circuit in practical terms using Ohm’s Law, x
power and energy expressions highlighting the risk of fire
due to power transfer and extreme energy dissipation.

Explain the risk of fire resulting from excessive heat in a x


circuit subjected to overcurrent.
Explain that overcurrent situations may be transient. x

Explain the hazards of multiple resets of a circuit breaker x


or the use of incorrect fuse rating when replacing blown
fuses.

Semiconductors and logic circuits x


Describe the effect of temperature on semiconductors x
with regard to function and longevity of the component.

Describe the following five basic logic functions, as used x


in aircraft FCOM documentation, and recognise their
schematic symbols according to the ANSI/MIL standard:
AND; OR; NOT; NOR; NAND.

x
Interpret a typical logic circuit schematic to the level of x
detail as found in an aircraft FCOM.
Batteries x
Types, characteristics and limitations x
State the function of an aircraft battery. x
Name the types of rechargeable batteries used in aircraft: x
lead-acid; nickel-cadmium; lithium-ion; lithium-polymer.

Compare the different battery types with respect to: load x


behaviour; charging characteristics; risk of thermal
runaway.

Explain the term ‘cell voltage’ and describe how a battery x


may consist of several cells that combined provide the
desirable voltage and capacity.

See the LO above x x

Explain the difference between battery voltage and x x


charging voltage.

Define the term ‘capacity of batteries’ and state the unit x x


of measurement used.
State the effect of temperature on battery capacity and x x
performance.
x

State that in the case of loss of all generated power x x


(battery power only) the remaining electrical power is
time-limited.

Explain how lithium-type batteries pose a threat to x


aircraft safety and what affects this risk: numbers of
batteries on board an aircraft including those brought on
board by passengers; temperature, of both battery and
environment; physical condition of the battery; battery
charging.

Describe how to contain a battery thermal runaway x


highlighting the following: how one cell can affect the
neighbouring cells; challenges if it happens in an aircraft
during flight.

Generation x
Remark: For standardisation purposes, the following x
standard expressions are used:
— DC generator: produces DC output;
— DC alternator: produces AC, rectified by integrated
rectifying unit, the output is DC;
— DC alternator: producing a DC output by using a
rectifier;
— AC generator: produces AC output;
— starter generator: integrated combination of a
generator and a starter motor;
— permanent magnet alternator/ generator: self-exciting
AC generator.

DC generation x
Describe the basic working principle of a simple DC x
generator or DC alternator.
Explain the principle of voltage control and why it is x
required.

x
Explain the purpose of reverse current protection from x x
the battery/busbar to the alternator.
Describe the basic operating principle of a starter x x
generator and state its purpose.
AC generation x
Describe the working principle of a brushless three-phase x
AC generator.
State that the generator field current is used to control x
voltage.
State the relationship between output frequency and the x
rpm of a three-phase AC generator.

Explain the term ‘frequency wild generator’. x


x

List the following different power sources that can be x x


used for an aeroplane to drive an AC generator: engine;
APU; RAT; hydraulic.

List the following different power sources that can be x x


used for a helicopter to drive an AC generator: engine;
APU; gearbox.

Constant speed drive (CSD) and integrated drive x


generator (IDG) systems
Describe the function of a CSD. x

Explain the parameters of a CSD that are monitored. x

Describe the function of an IDG. x

Explain the consequences of a mechanical disconnection x


during flight for a CSD and an IDG.
Explain that a CSD/IDG has its own, independent oil x
system and how a leak from this may appear as an engine
oil leak.

Transformers, transformer rectifier units (TRUs), static x


inverters
State the function of a transformer. x

State the function of a TRU and its purpose, including x


type of output.

State the function of a static inverter and its purpose, x


including type of output.
Distribution x
General x
Explain the function of a busbar. x
Describe the function of the following buses: AC bus; DC x
bus; emergency AC or DC bus; essential AC or DC bus;
battery bus; hot bus, ground servicing or maintenance
bus.

State that the aircraft structure can be used as a part of x


the electrical circuit (common earth) and explain the
implications for electrical bonding.
Explain the function of external power. x
State that a priority sequence exists between the different x
sources of electrical power on ground and in flight.

Explain the term ‘load sharing’. x


x

Explain the term ‘load shedding’. x x


Describe typical systems that can be shed in the event of a x x
supply failure, such as passenger entertainment system
and galley power.

Interpret a typical electrical system schematic to the level x x


of detail as found in an aircraft FCOM.

Explain the difference between a supply (e.g. generator) x


failure and a bus failure, and the operating consequences
of either.

DC distribution x
Describe a simple DC electrical system of a single-engine x
aircraft.
Describe a DC electrical system of a multi-engine aircraft x
(CS-23/CS-27) including the distribution consequences of
loss of generator(s) or bus failure.

Describe the DC part of an electrical system of a transport x


aircraft (CS-25/CS-29) including the distribution
consequences of loss of DC supply or bus failure.

Give examples of DC consumers. x


AC distribution x
Explain the difference in the principle of operation for a x
split AC electrical system and a parallel AC electrical
system.

Describe the following distribution consequences: power x


transfer between different power supplies; power transfer
in the event of a supply failure; loss of all normal AC
supplies.

Give examples of AC consumers. x


Explain the conditions to be met for paralleling AC x
generators.
State that volt-ampere (VA) is the unit for total power x
consumed in an AC system.
x

Electrical load management and monitoring systems: x


automatic generators and bus switching during normal
and failure operation, indications and warnings
Give examples of system control, monitoring and x
annunciators using the following terms: generator control
unit (GCU) for monitoring generator output and providing
network protection; exciter contactor/breaker/relay for
control of generator exciter field; generator
contactor/breaker/relay for connecting the generator to
the network; bus-tie contactor/breaker/relay for
connecting busbars together; generator switch on the
flight deck for manual control of exciter contactor;
IDG/CSD disconnect switch on the flight deck for
mechanical disconnection of the generator; bus-tie switch
on the flight deck with AUTO and OFF positions only.

Describe, for normal and degraded modes of operation, x


the following functions of an electrical load management
system on ground and in flight using the terms in 021 09
04 04 (01): distribution; monitoring; protection in the
event of incorrect voltage; protection in the event of
incorrect frequency; protection in the event of a
differential fault.

Describe the requirement for monitoring the aircraft x


batteries.

Explain the importance of monitoring the temperature of x


nickel-cadmium and lithium-type batteries.

Interpret various different ammeter indications of an x x


ammeter which monitors the charge current of the
battery.

Electrical motors x
General x
State that the purpose of an electrical motor is to convert x
electrical energy into mechanical energy.
State that because of the similarity in design, a generator x
and an electrical motor may be combined into a starter
generator.

Explain that the size of the engine determines how much x


energy is required for starting, and state the following:
small turbine engines may be able to use the battery for a
very limited number of start attempts; large turbine
engines require one or more power sources, either
external or on-board.

Operating principle x
Describe how the torque of an electrical motor is x
determined by the supplied voltage and current, and the
resulting magnetic fields within the engine.

State that electrical motors can be either AC or DC. x


Explain the consequences of the following: rotor seizure; x
rotor runaway.
Components x
Name the following components of an electrical motor: x
rotor (rotating part of an electrical motor); stator
(stationary part of an electrical motor).

PISTON ENGINES x
Remark: This topic includes diesel engines and petrol
engines

General x
Types of internal-combustion engines: basic principles, x
definitions
Define the following terms and expressions: rpm; torque; x
manifold absolute pressure (MAP); power output; specific
fuel consumption; compression ratio, clearance volume,
swept (displaced) volume, total volume.

Engine: design, operation, components x


Describe the basic operating principle of a piston engine: x
crankcase; crankshaft; connecting rod; piston; piston pin;
piston rings; cylinder; cylinder head; valves; valve springs;
push rod; camshaft; rocker arm; camshaft gear; bearings.

Name and identify the various types of engine design with x x


regard to cylinder arrangement and their
advantages/disadvantages: horizontally opposed; in line;
radial; and working cycle (four stroke: petrol and diesel).

x
Describe the differences between petrol and diesel x x
engines with respect to: means of ignition; maximum
compression ratio; regulating air or mixture supply to the
cylinder; pollution from the exhaust.

Fuel x
Types, grades, characteristics, limitations x
Name the type of fuel used for petrol engines including its x
colour (AVGAS); 100 (green); 100LL (blue).

Name the type of fuel normally used for aviation diesel x


engines (JET-A1).
Define the term ‘octane rating’. x
x

Define the term ‘detonation’ and describe the causes and x x


effects of detonation for both petrol and diesel engines.

Define the term ‘pre-ignition’ and describe the causes and x x


effects of pre-ignition for both petrol and diesel engines.

Identify the conditions and power settings that promote x x


detonation for petrol engines.
Describe how detonation in petrol engines is recognised. x x

Describe the method and occasions for checking the fuel x x


for water content.
State the typical value of fuel density for aviation gasoline x x
and diesel fuel.
Explain volatility, viscosity and vapour locking for petrol x x
and diesel fuels.
Engine fuel pumps x
Engine-driven fuel pump x
Explain the need for a separate engine-driven fuel pump. x x

Carburettor/injection system x
Carburettor: design, operation, degraded modes of x
operation, indications and warnings
State the purpose of a carburettor. x
Describe the operating principle of the simple float x
chamber carburettor.
x

Describe the methods of obtaining mixture control over x x


the whole operating engine power setting range
(compensation jet, diffuser).

Describe the methods of obtaining mixture control over x x


the whole operating altitude range.
Explain the purpose and the operating principle of an x x
accelerator pump.
Explain the purpose of power enrichment. x x
Describe the function of the carburettor heat system. x x

Explain the effect of carburettor heat on mixture ratio and x x


power output.
Explain the purpose and the operating principle of a x x
primer pump.
Discuss other methods for priming an engine x x
(acceleration pumps).
Explain the danger of carburettor fire, including corrective x x
measures.
Injection: design, operation, degraded modes of x
operation, indications and warnings
x

Explain the advantages and difference in operation of an x x


injection system compared with a carburettor system.

Icing x
Describe the causes and effects of carburettor icing and x
the action to be taken if carburettor icing is suspected.
Name the meteorological conditions under which x
carburettor icing may occur.
Describe the indications of the presence of carburettor x
icing for both a fixed pitch and a constant speed propeller.

Describe the indications of the presence of carburettor x


icing for a helicopter.
Describe the indications that will occur upon selection of x
carburettor heat depending on whether ice is present or
not.

Explain the reason for the use of alternate air on fuel x


injection systems and describe its operating principle.

State the meteorological conditions under which x


induction system icing may occur.
Cooling systems x
Design, operation, indications and warnings x
Specify the reasons for cooling a piston engine. x
Describe the design features to enhance cylinder air x
cooling for aeroplanes.
Describe the design features to enhance cylinder air x
cooling for helicopters (e.g. engine-driven impeller and
scroll assembly, baffles).

Compare the differences between liquid- and air-cooling x


systems.
Identify the cylinder head temperature indication to x
monitor engine cooling.
Describe the function and the operation of cowl flaps. x

Lubrication systems x
Lubricants: characteristics, limitations x
Describe the term ‘viscosity’ including the effect of x
temperature.
Describe the viscosity grade numbering system used in x
aviation.
Design, operation, indications and warnings x
State the functions of a piston-engine lubrication system. x

Describe the working principle of a dry-sump lubrication x


system and describe the functions of the following
components: oil tank (reservoir) and its internal
components: hot well, de-aerator, vent, expansion space;
check valve (non-return valve); pressure pump and
pressure-relief valve; scavenge pump; filters (suction,
pressure and scavenge); oil cooler; oil cooler bypass valve
(anti-surge and thermostatic); pressure and temperature
sensors; lines.
Describe a wet-sump lubrication system. x
State the differences between a wet- and a dry-sump x
lubrication system and their advantages and
disadvantages.

See new LO reference above x x

List the following factors that influence oil consumption: x x


oil grade; cylinder and piston wear; condition of piston
rings.

Describe the interaction between oil pressure, oil x x


temperature and oil quantity.
Ignition circuits x
Design, operation x
Describe the working principle of a magneto-ignition x
system and the functions of the following components:
magneto; contact-breaker points; capacitor (condenser);
coils or windings; ignition switches; distributor; spark
plug; high-tension (HT) cable.

State why piston engines are equipped with two x


electrically independent ignition systems.
State the function and operating principle of the following x
methods of spark augmentation: starter vibrator (booster
coil); impulse-start coupling.

State the function and operating principle of the following x


methods of spark augmentation: starter vibrator (booster
coil); both magnetos live.

Explain the function of the magneto check. x


x

Explain how combustion is initiated in diesel engines. x x

Mixture x
Definition, characteristic mixtures, control instruments, x
associated control levers, indications
Define the following terms: mixture; chemically correct x
ratio (stoichiometric); best power ratio; lean (weak)
mixture (lean or rich side of the exhaust gas temperature
(EGT) top); rich mixture.

State the typical fuel-to-air ratio values or range of values x


for the above mixtures.
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of weak and x
rich mixtures.
Describe the relation between engine-specific fuel x
consumption and mixture ratio.
Describe the use of the exhaust gas temperature as an aid x
to mixture-setting.
Explain the relation between mixture ratio, cylinder head x
temperature, detonation and pre-ignition.

Explain the absence of mixture control in diesel engines. x

Aeroplane: propellers x
Definitions, general x
Remark: Definitions and aerodynamic concepts are x
detailed in subject 081, topic 07 (Propellers) but need to
be appreciated for this subject also.

Constant-speed propeller: design, operation, system x


components
Describe the operating principle of a constant-speed x
propeller system under normal flight operations with the
aid of a schematic.

Explain the need for a MAP indicator to control the power x


setting with a constant-speed propeller.

State the purpose of a torque-meter. x


State the purpose and describe the operation of a low- x
pitch stop (centrifugal latch).
Describe the operating principle of a single-acting and a x
double-acting variable pitch propeller for single- and
multi-engine aeroplanes.

Describe the function and the basic operating principle of x


synchronising and synchro-phasing systems.

Explain the purpose and the basic operating principle of x


an auto-feathering system and unfeathering.

Reduction gearing: design x


State the purpose of reduction gearing. x
x

Propeller handling: associated control levers, degraded x


modes of operation, indications and warnings

Describe the checks to be carried out on a constant-speed x


propeller system after engine start.
Describe the operation of a constant-speed propeller x
system during flight at different true airspeeds (TAS) and
rpm including an overspeeding propeller.

Describe the operating principle of a variable pitch x


propeller when feathering and unfeathering, including the
operation of cockpit controls.
Describe the operating principle of a variable pitch x
propeller when reverse pitch is selected, including the
operation of cockpit controls.

Describe the operation of the propeller levers during x


different phases of flight.
Performance and engine handling x
Performance x
x

Describe the effect on power output of a petrol and diesel x x


engine taking into consideration the following
parameters: ambient pressure, exhaust back pressure;
temperature; density altitude; humidity.

Explain the term ‘normally aspirated engine’. x x


Power-augmentation devices: explain the requirement for x x
power augmentation (turbocharging) of a piston engine.

Describe the function and the principle of operation of x x


the following main components of a turbocharger:
turbine; compressor; waste gate; waste-gate actuator.

Explain the difference between an altitude-boosted x x


turbocharger and a ground-boosted turbocharger.

Explain turbo lag. x x


Define the term ‘critical altitude’. x x
Explain the function of an intercooler. x x
Define the terms ‘full-throttle height’ and ‘rated altitude’. x x

Explain the purpose of a supercharger and the basic x


differences from a turbocharger.
Engine handling x
State the correct procedures for setting the engine x
controls when increasing or decreasing power.
Define the following terms: take-off power; maximum x
continuous power.
x

Describe the start problems associated with extreme cold x x


weather.
Describe the principal difference between a full-authority x x
digital engine control (FADEC) system-controlled engine
and traditional manual engine controls.

Describe the engine controls available on the flight deck x


for a FADEC-controlled engine.
Explain that the FADEC has full authority of the control of x
all engine parameters ensuring efficient and correct
running of the engine, including protection in the event of
failure.

Explain the need for FADEC redundancy with regard to x


power supply and data input and output.
TURBINE ENGINES x
Basic principles x
Basic generation of thrust and the thrust formula x
Describe how thrust is produced by a basic gas turbine x
engine.
Describe the simple form of the thrust formula for a basic, x
straight jet engine and perform simple calculations
(including pressure thrust).

State that thrust can be considered to remain x


approximately constant over the whole aeroplane
subsonic speed range.

Design, types and components of turbine engines x


List the main components of a basic gas turbine engine: x
inlet; compressor; combustion chamber; turbine; outlet.

Describe the variation of static pressure, temperature and x x


axial velocity in a gas turbine engine under normal
operating conditions and with the aid of a working cycle
diagram.

Describe the differences between absolute, x x


circumferential (tangential) and axial velocity.
List the different types of gas turbine engines: straight jet; x x
turbofan; turboprop.
State that a gas turbine engine can have one or more x x
spools.
Describe how thrust is produced by turbojet and turbofan x x
engines.
Describe how power is produced by turboprop engines. x x

Describe the term ‘equivalent horsepower’ (= thrust x x


horsepower + shaft horsepower).
Explain the principle of a free turbine or free-power x x
turbine.
Define the term ‘bypass ratio’ and perform simple x x
calculations to determine it.
Define the terms ‘propulsive power’, ‘propulsive x x
efficiency’, ‘thermal efficiency’ and ‘total efficiency’.

Describe the influence of compressor-pressure ratio on x x


thermal efficiency.
Explain the variations of propulsive efficiency with x x
forward speed for turbojet, turbofan and turboprop
engines.

Define the term ‘specific fuel consumption’ for turbojets x x


and turboprops.
Coupled turbine engine: design, operation, components x
and materials
Name the main assembly parts of a coupled turbine x
engine and explain its operation.
Explain the limitations of the materials used with regard x
to maximum turbine temperature, engine and drive train
torque limits.

Describe the possible effects on engine components when x


limits are exceeded.
Explain that when engine limits are exceeded, this event x
must be reported.
Free-turbine engine: design, components and materials x

Describe the design methods to keep the engine’s size x


small for installation in helicopters.
List the main components of a free-turbine engine. x
Describe how the power is developed by a x
turboshaft/free-turbine engine.
Explain how the exhaust gas temperature is used to x
monitor turbine stress.
Main-engine components x
Aeroplane: air intake x
State the functions of the engine air inlet/air intake. x

Describe the geometry of a subsonic (pitot-type) air inlet. x

Explain the gas-parameter changes in a subsonic air inlet x


at different flight speeds.
Describe the reasons for, and the dangers of, the following x
operational problems concerning the engine air inlet:
airflow separation; inlet icing; inlet damage; foreign object
damage (FOD); heavy in-flight turbulence.

Compressor and diffuser x


State the purpose of the compressor. x
Describe the working principle of a centrifugal and an x
axial flow compressor.
Name the following main components of a single stage x
and describe their function for a centrifugal compressor:
impeller; diffuser.

Name the following main components of a single stage x


and describe their function for an axial compressor: rotor
vanes; stator vanes.
Describe the gas-parameter changes in a compressor x
stage.
Define the term ‘pressure ratio’ and state a typical value x
for one stage of a centrifugal and an axial flow compressor
and for the complete compressor.

State the advantages and disadvantages of increasing the x


number of stages in a centrifugal compressor.

Explain the difference in sensitivity for FOD of a x


centrifugal compressor compared with an axial flow type.

Explain the convergent air annulus through an axial flow x


compressor.
Describe the reason for twisting the compressor blades. x

State the tasks of inlet guide vanes (IGVs). x


State the reason for the clicking noise whilst the x
compressor slowly rotates on the ground.
State the advantages of increasing the number of spools. x

Explain the implications of tip losses and describe the x


design features to minimise the problem.
Explain the problems of blade bending and flapping and x
describe the design features to minimise the problem.

Explain the following terms: compressor stall; engine x


surge.
State the conditions that are possible causes of stall and x
surge.
Describe the indications of stall and surge. x
Describe the design features used to minimise the x
occurrence of stall and surge.
Describe a compressor map (surge envelope) with rpm x
lines, stall limit, steady state line and acceleration line.

Describe the function of the diffuser. x


Combustion chamber x
Define the purpose of the combustion chamber. x
List the requirements for combustion. x
Describe the working principle of a combustion chamber. x

Explain the reason for reducing the airflow axial velocity x


at the combustion chamber inlet (snout).
State the function of the swirl vanes (swirler). x
State the function of the drain valves. x
Define the terms ‘primary airflow’ and ‘secondary airflow’, x
and explain their purpose.
Explain the following two mixture ratios: primary airflow x
to fuel; total airflow (within the combustion chamber) to
fuel.

Describe the gas-parameter changes in the combustion x


chamber.
State a typical maximum value of the outlet temperature x
of the combustion chamber.
Describe the following types of combustion chambers and x
state the differences between them: can type; can-
annular, cannular or turbo-annular; annular; reverse-flow
annular.

Turbine x
Explain the purpose of a turbine in different types of gas x
turbine engines.
Describe the principles of operation of impulse, reaction x
and impulse-reaction axial flow turbines.
Name the main components of a turbine stage and their x
function.
Describe the working principle of a turbine. x
Describe the gas-parameter changes in a turbine stage. x

Describe the function and the working principle of active x


clearance control.
Describe the implications of tip losses and the means to x
minimise them.
Explain why the available engine thrust is limited by the x
turbine inlet temperature.
Explain the divergent gas-flow annulus through an axial- x
flow turbine.
x

Explain the high mechanical thermal stress in the turbine x x


blades and wheels/discs.
x
x
x

Aeroplane: exhaust x
Name the following main components of the exhaust unit x
and their function: jet pipe; propelling nozzle; exhaust
cone.

Describe the working principle of the exhaust unit. x


Describe the gas-parameter changes in the exhaust unit. x

Define the term ‘choked exhaust nozzle’ (not applicable to x


turboprops).
Explain how jet exhaust noise can be reduced. x
Helicopter: air intake x
Name and explain the main task of the engine air intake. x

Describe the use of a convergent air-intake ducting on x


helicopters.
Describe the reasons for and the dangers of the following x
operational problems concerning engine air intake:
airflow separations; intake icing; intake damage; FOD;
heavy in-flight turbulence.

Describe the conditions and circumstances during ground x


operations when FOD is most likely to occur.

Describe and explain the principles of air intake filter x


systems that can be fitted to some helicopters for
operations in icing and sand conditions.

Describe the function of the heated pads on some x


helicopter air intakes.
Helicopter: exhaust x
x

Describe the working principle of the exhaust unit. x x


Describe the gas-parameter changes in the exhaust unit. x x

Additional components and systems x


Engine fuel system x
Name the main components of the engine fuel system x
and state their function: filters; low-pressure (LP) pump;
high-pressure (HP) pump; fuel manifold; fuel nozzles; HP
fuel cock; fuel control; or hydromechanical unit.

Name the two types of engine-driven high-pressure x


pumps, such as: gear-type; swash plate-type.

State the tasks of the fuel control unit. x


List the possible input parameters to a fuel control unit to x
achieve a given thrust/power setting.
Engine control system x
State the tasks of the engine control system. x
List the following different types of engine control x
systems: hydromechanical; hydromechanical with a
limited authority electronic supervisor; single-channel
FADEC with hydromechanical backup; dual-channel FADEC
with no backup or any other combination.

Describe a FADEC as a full-authority dual-channel system x


including functions such as an electronic engine control
unit, wiring, sensors, variable vanes, active clearance
control, bleed configuration, electrical signalling of thrust
lever angle (TLA) (see also AMC to CS-E-50), and an EGT
protection function and engine overspeed.

Explain how redundancy is achieved by using more than x


one channel in a FADEC system.
State the consequences of a FADEC single input data x
failure.
State that all input and output data is checked by both x
channels in a FADEC system.
State that a FADEC system uses its own sensors and that, x
in some cases, also data from aircraft systems is used.

State that a FADEC must have its own source of electrical x


power.
Engine lubrication x
State the tasks of an engine lubrication system. x
Name the following main components of a lubrication x
system and state their function: oil tank and centrifugal
breather; oil pumps (pressure and scavenge pumps); oil
filters (including the bypass); oil sumps; chip detectors;
coolers.

Explain that each spool is fitted with at least one ball x


bearing and two or more roller bearings.
Explain the use of compressor air in oil-sealing systems x
(e.g. labyrinth seals).
Engine auxiliary gearbox x
State the tasks of the auxiliary gearbox. x
Describe how the gearbox is driven and lubricated. x
Engine ignition x
State the task of the ignition system. x
Name the following main components of the ignition x
system and state their function: power sources; igniters.

State why jet turbine engines are equipped with two x


electrically independent ignition systems.
Explain the different modes of operation of the ignition x
system.
Engine starter
Name the main components of the starting system and x
state their function.
Explain the principle of a turbine engine start. x
Describe the following two types of starters: electric; x
pneumatic.
Describe a typical start sequence (on ground/in flight) for x
a turbofan.
Define ‘self-sustaining rpm’. x
Reverse thrust
Name the following main components of a reverse-thrust x
system and state their function: reverse-thrust select
lever; power source (pneumatic or hydraulic); actuators;
doors; annunciations.

Explain the principle of a reverse-thrust system. x


Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using x
reverse thrust.
Describe and explain the following different types of x
thrust-reverser systems: hot-stream reverser; clamshell or
bucket-door system; cold-stream reverser (only turbofan
engines); blocker doors; cascade vanes.

Explain the implications of reversing the cold stream (fan x


reverser) only on a high bypass ratio engine.

Describe the protection features against inadvertent x


thrust-reverse deployment in flight as present on most
transport aeroplanes.

Describe the controls and indications provided for the x


thrust-reverser system.
Helicopter specifics on design, operation and x
components for additional components and systems
such as lubrication system, ignition circuit, starter,
accessory gearbox

State the task of the lubrication system. x


List and describe the common helicopter lubrication x
systems.
Name the following main components of a helicopter x
lubrication system: reservoir; pump assembly; external oil
filter; magnetic chip detectors, electronic chip detectors;
thermostatic oil coolers; breather.

Identify and name the components of a helicopter x


lubrication system from a diagram.
Identify the indications used to monitor a lubrication x
system including warning systems.
Explain the differences and appropriate use of straight oil x
and compound oil, and describe the oil numbering system
for aviation use.

Explain and describe the ignition circuit for engine start x


and engine relight facility when the selection is set for
both automatic and manual functions.

Explain and describe the starter motor and the sequence x


of events when starting, and that for most helicopters the
starter becomes the generator after the starting sequence
is over.

Explain and describe why the engine drives the accessory x


gearbox.
Engine operation and monitoring x
General x
Explain the following aeroplane engine ratings: take-off; x
go-around; maximum continuous thrust/power;
maximum climb thrust/power.

Explain spool-up time. x


Explain the reason for the difference between ground and x
approach flight idle values (rpm).
State the parameters that can be used for setting and x
monitoring the thrust/power.
Describe the terms ‘alpha range’, ‘beta range’ and x
‘reverse thrust’ as applied to a turboprop power lever.

Explain the dangers of inadvertent beta-range selection in x


flight for a turboprop.
Explain the purpose of engine trending. x
Explain how the exhaust gas temperature is used to x
monitor turbine stress.
Describe the effect of engine acceleration and x
deceleration on the EGT.
Describe the possible effects on engine components when x
EGT limits are exceeded.
Explain why engine-limit exceedances must be reported. x

Explain the limitations on the use of the thrust-reverser x


system at low forward speed.
Explain the term ‘engine seizure’. x
State the possible causes of engine seizure and explain x
their preventative measures.
Describe the potential consequences of a leak in the x
following two designs of fuel and oil heat exchanger: oil
pressure higher than fuel pressure with oil leaking into
the fuel system, potentially affecting the combustion and
running of the engine; fuel pressure higher than oil
pressure with fuel leaking into the oil system, potentially
increasing the risk of a fire due to fuel entering warm
parts of the engine that should be free from fuel.

Explain oil-filter clogging (blockage) and the implications x


for the lubrication system.
Give examples of monitoring instruments of an engine. x

Describe how to identify and assess engine damage based x


on instrument indications.
Starting malfunctions
Describe the indications and the possible causes of the x
following aeroplane starting malfunctions: false (dry or
wet) start; tailpipe fire (torching); hot start; abortive
(hung) start; no N1 rotation; no FADEC indications.

Describe the indications and the possible causes of the x


following helicopter starting malfunctions: false (dry or
wet) start; tailpipe fire (torching); hot start; abortive
(hung) start; no N1 rotation; freewheel failure; no FADEC
indications.

See new LO reference above x x

Relight envelope x
Explain the relight envelope. x
Performance aspects x
Thrust, performance aspects, and limitations x
Describe the variation of thrust and specific fuel x
consumption with altitude at constant TAS.
Describe the variation of thrust and specific fuel x
consumption with TAS at constant altitude.
Explain the term ‘flat-rated engine’ by describing the x
change of take-off thrust, turbine inlet temperature and
engine rpm with outside air temperature (OAT).

Define the term ‘engine pressure ratio’ (EPR). x


Explain the use of reduced (flexible) and derated thrust x
for take-off, and explain the advantages and
disadvantages when compared with a full-rated take-off.
Describe the effects of use of bleed air on rpm, EGT, x
thrust, and specific fuel consumption.
Helicopter engine ratings, engine performance and x
limitations, engine handling: torque, performance
aspects and limitations

Describe engine rating torque limits for take-off, transient x


and maximum continuous.
Describe turbine outlet temperature (TOT) limits for take- x
off.
Explain why TOT is a limiting factor for helicopter x
performance.
Describe and explain the relationship between maximum x
torque available and density altitude, which leads to
decreasing torque available with the increase of density
altitude.

Explain that hovering downwind, on some helicopters, will x


noticeably increase the engine TOT.

Explain the reason why the engine performance is less x


when aircraft accessories (i.e. anti-ice, heating, hoist,
filters) are switched on.

Describe the effects of use of bleed air on engine x


parameters.
Explain that, on some helicopters, exceeding the TOT limit x
may cause the main rotor to droop (slow down).

Describe overtorquing and explain the consequences. x

Auxiliary power unit (APU) x


Design, operation, functions, operational limitations x

State that an APU is a gas turbine engine and list its tasks. x

State the difference between the two types of APU inlets. x

Define ‘maximum operating and maximum starting x


altitude’.
Name the typical APU control and monitoring x
instruments.
Describe the APU’s automatic shutdown protection. x

PROTECTION AND DETECTION SYSTEMS x


Smoke detection x
Types, design, operation, indications and warnings x
Explain the operating principle of the following types of x
smoke detection sensors: optical; ionising.
Give an example of warnings, indications and function x
tests.
Fire-protection systems x
Fire extinguishing (engine and cargo compartments) x

Explain the operating principle of a built-in fire- x


extinguishing system and describe its components.
State that two discharges must be provided for each x
engine (see CS 25.1195(c) Fire-extinguisher systems).

Fire detection x
Explain the following principles of fire detection: x
resistance and capacitance; gas pressure.

Explain fire-detection applications such as: bimetallic; x


continuous loop; gaseous loop (gas-filled detectors).

Explain why generally double-loop systems are used. x

Give an example of warnings, indications and function x


tests of a fire-protection system.
Rain-protection system x
Principle and method of operation x
Explain the principle and method of operation of the x x
following windshield rain-protection systems for an
aeroplane: wipers; liquids (rain-repellent); coating.

Explain the principle and method of operation of wipers x x


for a helicopter.
OXYGEN SYSTEMS x
Cockpit, portable and chemical oxygen systems x
Operating principles, actuation methods, comparison x

Describe the basic operating principle of a cockpit oxygen x x


system and describe the following different modes of
operation: normal (diluter demand); 100 %; emergency.

Describe the operating principle and the purposes of the x x


following two portable oxygen systems: smoke hood;
portable bottle.

Describe the following two oxygen systems that can be x x


used to supply oxygen to passengers: fixed system
(chemical oxygen generator or gaseous system); portable.

Describe the actuation methods (automatic and manual) x x


and the functioning of a passenger oxygen mask.
Compare chemical oxygen generators to gaseous systems x x
with respect to: capacity; flow regulation.

State the dangers of grease or oil related to the use of x x


oxygen systems.
HELICOPTER: MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS x
Variable rotor speed, active vibration suppression, night- x
vision goggles (NVG)
Variable rotor speed x
x

Explain the system for ‘beeping’ the NR to its upper limit. x x

Active vibration suppression x


Explain and describe how the active vibration suppression x x
system works through high-speed actuators and
accelerometer inputs.

NVG - To be introduced at a later date. x


x
HELICOPTER: ROTOR HEADS x
Main rotor x
Types x
Describe the following rotor-head systems: teetering x
(semi-articulated); articulated; hingeless (rigid);
bearingless (semi-articulated).

Describe in basic terms the following configuration of x


rotor systems and their advantages and disadvantages:
tandem; coaxial; side by side.

Explain how flapping, dragging and feathering is achieved x


in each rotor-head system.
Structural components and materials, stresses, structural x
limitations
Identify from a diagram the main structural components x
of the main types of rotor-head systems.

List and describe the methods used to detect damage and x


cracks.
Explain and describe the structural limitations to x
respective rotor systems, including the dangers of
negative G inputs to certain rotor-head systems.

Describe the various rotor-head lubrication methods. x

Design and construction x


Describe the material technology used in rotor-head x
design, including construction, using the following
materials or mixture of materials: composites; fibreglass;
alloys; elastomers.

Adjustment x
Describe and explain the methods of adjustment which x
are possible on various helicopter rotor-head assemblies.

Tail rotor x
Types x
Describe the following tail-rotor systems: delta-3 hinge x
effect; multi-bladed delta-3 effect; Fenestron or ducted
fan tail rotor; no tail rotor (NOTAR) low-velocity air jet
flows from tangential slots (the Coanda effect); NOTAR
high-velocity air jet flows from adjustable nozzles (the
Coandă effect).

Identify from a diagram the main structural components x


of the four main types of tail-rotor systems.

Explain and describe the methods to detect damage and x


cracks on the tail rotor and assembly.
Explain and describe the structural limitations to the x
respective tail-rotor systems and possible limitations
regarding the turning rate of the helicopter.

Explain and describe the following methods that x


helicopter designers use to minimise tail-rotor drift and
roll: reducing the couple arm (tail rotor on a pylon);
offsetting the rotor mast; use of ‘bias’ in cyclic control
mechanism.

Explain pitch-input mechanisms. x


Explain the relationship between tail-rotor thrust and x
engine power.
Describe how the vertical fin on some types reduces the x
power demand of the tail rotor.
Design and construction x
List and describe the various tail-rotor designs and x
construction methods used on helicopters currently in
service.

HELICOPTER: TRANSMISSION x
Main gearbox x
Different types, design, operation, limitations x
Describe the following main principles of helicopter x
transmission systems for single- and twin-engine
helicopters: drive for the main and tail rotor; accessory
drive for the generator(s), alternator(s), hydraulic and oil
pumps, oil cooler(s) and tachometers.

Describe the reason for limitations on multi-engine x


helicopter transmissions in various engine-out situations.

Describe how the passive vibration control works with x


gearbox mountings.
Rotor brake x
Types, operational considerations x
Describe the main function of the disc type of rotor brake. x x

Describe both hydraulic- and cable-operated rotor-brake x x


systems.
Describe the different options for the location of the rotor x x
brake.
List the following operational considerations for the use of x x
rotor brakes: rotor speed at engagement of rotor brake;
risk of blade sailing in windy conditions; risk of rotor-brake
overheating and possible fire when brake is applied above
the maximum limit, particularly when spilled hydraulic
fluid is present; avoid stopping blades over jet-pipe
exhaust with engine running; cockpit annunciation of
rotor-brake operation.

Auxiliary systems x
Powering the air-conditioning system x
x

Explain how power for the air-conditioning system is taken x x


from the auxiliary gearbox.
Driveshaf and associated installation x
Power, construction, materials, speed and torque x
Describe how power is transmitted from the engine to the x x
main-rotor gearbox.
Describe the material and construction of the driveshaft. x x

Explain the need for alignment between the engine and x x


the main-rotor gearbox.
Identify how temporary misalignment occurs between x x
driving and driven components.
x
Explain the relationship between driveshaft speed and x x
torque.
Describe the methods with which power is delivered to x x
the tail rotor.
Describe and identify the construction and materials of x x
tail-rotor/Fenestron driveshafts.
Intermediate and tail gearbox x
Lubrication, gearing x
Explain and describe the various arrangements when the x x
drive changes direction and the need for an intermediate
or tail gearbox.

Explain the lubrication requirements for intermediate and x x


tail-rotor gearboxes and methods of checking levels.

Explain how on most helicopters the tail-rotor gearbox x x


contains gearing, etc., for the tail-rotor pitch-change
mechanism.

Clutches x
Purpose, operation, components, serviceability x
Explain the purpose of a clutch. x x
Describe and explain the operation of a: centrifugal x x
clutch; actuated clutch.
List the typical components of the various clutches. x x
Identify the following methods by which clutch x x
serviceability can be ascertained: brake-shoe dust;
vibration; main-rotor run-down time; engine speed at
time of main-rotor engagement; belt tensioning; start
protection in a belt-drive clutch system.

Freewheels x
Purpose, operation, components, location x
Explain the purpose of a freewheel. x x
Describe and explain the operation of a: cam- and roller- x x
type freewheel; sprag-clutch-type freewheel.

List the typical components of the various freewheels. x x

Identify the various locations of freewheels in power plant x x


and transmission systems.
Explain the implications regarding the engagement and x x
disengagement of the freewheel.
HELICOPTER: BLADES x
Main-rotor design and blade design x
Design, construction x
Describe the different types of blade construction and the x
need for torsional stiffness.
Describe the principles of heating systems/pads on some x
blades for anti-icing/de-icing.
Moved from Describe the fully articulated rotor with hinges and x x
subject 082 feathering hinges.

Structural components and materials x


List the materials used in the construction of main-rotor x
blades.
List the main structural components of a main-rotor blade x
and their function.
Moved from Describe the drag hinge of the fully articulated rotor and x x
subject 082 the lag flexure in the hingeless rotor.

Moved from Explain the necessity for drag dampers. x x


subject 082
Forces and stresses x
Describe main-rotor blade-loading on the ground and in x
flight.
Describe where the most common stress areas are on x
rotor blades.
Moved from Show how the centrifugal forces depend on rotor rpm and x x
subject 082 blade mass and how they pull on the blade’s attachment
to the hub. Justify the upper limit of the rotor rpm.

Moved from Assume a rigid attachment and show how thrust may x x
subject 082 cause huge oscillating bending moments which stress the
attachment.

Moved from Explain why flapping hinges do not transfer such x x


subject 082 moments. Show the small flapping hinge offset on fully
articulated rotors and zero offset in the case of teetering
rotors.

Moved from Describe the working principle of the flexible element in x x


subject 082 the hingeless rotor and describe the equivalent flapping
hinge offset compared to that of the articulated rotor.

Structural limitations x
Explain the structural limitations in terms of bending and x
rotor rpm.
Adjustment x
Explain the use of trim tabs. x
Tip shape x
Describe the various blade-tip shapes used by different x
manufacturers and compare their advantages and
disadvantages.
x

Moved from Origins of the vertical vibrations x x


subject 082
Moved from Explain the lift (thrust) variations per revolution of a blade x x
subject 082 and the resulting vertical total rotor thrust (TRT) variation
in the case of perfectly identical blades.

Moved from Show the resulting frequencies and amplitudes as a x x


subject 082 function of the number of blades.

Moved from Explain the thrust variation in the case of an out-of-track x x


subject 082 blade, causes, and frequencies (one-per-revolution).

Moved from Lateral vibrations x X


subject 082
Moved from Explain blade imbalances, causes, and effects. x x
subject 082
Tail-rotor design and blade design x
Design, construction x
Describe the most common design of tail-rotor blade x
construction, consisting of stainless steel shell reinforced
by a honeycomb filler and stainless steel leading abrasive
strip.

Explain that ballast weights are located at the inboard x


trailing edge and tip of blades, and that the weights used
are determined when the blades are manufactured.

Describe how, for some helicopters, anti-icing/de-icing x


systems are designed into the blade construction.

Moved from Describe the two-bladed rotor with a teetering hinge, and x x
subject 082 rotors with more than two blades.

Moved from Describe the dangers to ground personnel and to the x x


subject 082 rotor blades, and how to minimise these dangers.

Intentionally lef blank x


x

Stresses, vibrations and balancing x


Describe the tail-rotor blade-loading on the ground and in x
flight.
Moved from Explain the sources of vibration of the tail rotor and the x x
subject 082 resulting high frequencies.

Moved from Explain balancing and tracking of the tail rotor. x x


subject 082
Structural limitations x
Describe the structural limitations of the tail-rotor blades. x

Describe the method of checking the strike indicators x


placed on the tip of some tail-rotor blades.

Adjustment x
Describe the adjustment of yaw pedals in the cockpit to x
obtain full-control authority of the tail rotor.

Moved from The Fenestron x x


subject 082
Describe the technical layout of a Fenestron tail rotor. x x
Moved from
subject 082
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a Fenestron x x
Moved from tail rotor.
subject 082
Moved from No tail rotor (NOTAR) x x
subject 082
Describe the technical layout of a NOTAR design. x x
Moved from
subject 082
Explain the control concepts of a NOTAR. x x
Moved from
subject 082
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a NOTAR x x
Moved from design.
subject 082
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
ATPL(A)

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
CPL(A)

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
ATPL(H)/IR

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
ATPL(H)/VFR

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
CPL(H)

IR(A&H)

CBIR, EIR

x
x
x
x
x
Basic Knowledge
Modified EDD
2019/017/R
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x X

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x x x x X
x x x x x X

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x

x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x X

x x x X
x x

x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x
x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x x x
x x x x x
x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x X

x x
x x

x x
x x

x x x

x x x

x x
x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x

x x x

x x
x x

x x
x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x x x x
x x x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x X
x x x x x X

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x X
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x X
x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x X

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x

x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x

x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x x x x
x x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x
x x

x
x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x x
x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x

x x x x x
x x

x x x x x

x x

x x

x x
x x x x x

x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x
x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x x x
x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x

x x x

x x

x x

x x

x x
x x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x X

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x

x x x
Old syllabus text Old syllabus New syllabus
Index reference reference

1 AIRCRAFT GENERAL KNOWLEDGE - INSTRUMENTATION 022.00.00.00 022.00.00.00


2 SENSORS AND INSTRUMENTS 022.01.00.00 022.01.00.00
3 Pressure gauge 022.01.01.00 022.01.01.00
4 022.01.01.01
5 Define pressure, absolute pressure and differential pressure. 022.01.01.00.01 022.01.01.01.01

6 List the following units used for pressure: - Pascal - bar - inches 022.01.01.00.02 022.01.01.01.02
of mercury (in Hg) - pounds per square inch (PSI).

7 State the relationship between the different units. 022.01.01.00.03 022.01.01.01.03

8 List and describe the following different types of sensors used 022.01.01.00.04 022.01.01.01.04
according to the pressure to be measured: - aneroid capsules -
bellows - diaphragms - bourdon tube.

9 Solid state sensors (to be introduced at a latter date) 022.01.01.00.05

10 For each type of sensor identify applications such as: - liquid 022.01.01.00.06 022.01.01.01.05
pressure measurement (fuel, oil, hydraulic) - air pressure
measurement (bleed air systems, air conditioning systems) -
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) gauge.

11 Pressure probes for Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR). 022.01.01.00.07 022.01.01.01.06

12 Give examples of display for each of the applications above. 022.01.01.00.08 022.01.01.01.07

13 Explain the need for remote indicating systems. 022.01.01.00.09

14 Temperature sensing 022.01.02.00 022.01.02.00


15 022.01.02.01
16 Explain temperature. 022.01.02.00.01 022.01.02.01.01

17 List the following units that can be used for temperature 022.01.02.00.02 022.01.02.01.02
measurement: - Kelvin - Celsius - Fahrenheit.
18 State the relationship between these different units. 022.01.02.00.03 022.01.02.01.03

19 Describe and explain the operating principles of the following 022.01.02.00.04


types of sensors: - expansion type ( Bi-metallic strip) - electrical
type (resistance, thermo-couple).
20 State the relationship for a thermo-couple between the 022.01.02.00.05
electromotive force and the temperature to be measured.

21 For each type, identify applications such as: - gas temperature 022.01.02.00.06 022.01.02.01.04
measurement (ambient air, bleed air systems, air conditioning
systems, air inlet, exhaust gas, gas turbine outlets) - liquid
temperature measurement (fuel, oil, hydraulic).

22 Give examples of display for each of the applications above. 022.01.02.00.07 022.01.02.01.05

23 Fuel gauge 022.01.03.00 022.01.03.00


24 022.01.03.01
25 State that the quantity of fuel can be measured by volume or 022.01.03.00.01 022.01.03.01.01
mass.
26 List the following units used for fuel quantity when measured 022.01.03.00.02 022.01.03.01.02
by mass: - kilogramme - pound.
27 State the relationship between these different units. 022.01.03.00.03 022.01.03.01.03

28 Define capacitance and permittivity, and state their relationship 022.01.03.00.04


with density.
29 List and explain the parameters than can affect the 022.01.03.00.05 022.01.03.01.04
measurement of the volume and/or mass of the fuel in a wing
fuel tank: - temperature - aircraft accelerations and attitudes
and explain how the fuel gauge system design compensates for
these changes.

30 Describe and explain the operating principles of the following 022.01.03.00.06 022.01.03.01.05
types of fuel gauges: - float system - capacitance type fuel
gauge system - ultra-sound type of fuel gauge: to be introduced
at a later date.

31 022.01.03.01.06

32 Fuel flowmeters 022.01.04.00 022.01.04.00


33 022.01.04.01
34 Define fuel flow and where it is measured. 022.01.04.00.01 022.01.04.01.01

35 State that fuel flow may be measured by volume or mass per 022.01.04.00.02 022.01.04.01.02
unit of time.
36 List the following units used for fuel flow when measured by 022.01.04.00.03 022.01.04.01.03
mass per hour: - Kilogrammes/hour - Pounds/hour.
37 List the following units used for fuel flow when measured by 022.01.04.00.04 022.01.04.01.04
volume per hour: - Liters/hour - US Gallons/hour.

38 List and describe the following different types of fuel 022.01.04.00.05


flowmeter: - mechanical - electrical (analog) - electronic
(digital) and explain how the signal can be corrected to measure
mass flow.

39 Explain how total fuel consumption is obtained. 022.01.04.00.06 022.01.04.01.05

40 Tachometer 022.01.05.00 022.01.05.00


41 022.01.05.01
42 List the following types of tachometers: - mechanical (rotating 022.01.05.00.01 022.01.05.01.01
magnet) - electrical (three phase tacho-generator) - electronic
(impulse measurement with speed probe and phonic wheel)
and for each type describe its operating principle.

43 For each type, identify applications such as engine speed 022.01.05.00.02


measurement (crankshaft speed for piston engines, spool speed
fo gas turbine engines), wheel speed measurement for anti-skid
systems (anti-skid systems for aeroplane only) and give
examples of display.

44 State that engine speed is most commonly displayed as a 022.01.05.00.03 022.01.05.01.02


percentage.
45 022.01.05.01.03

46 Thrust measurement 022.01.06.00 022.01.06.00


47 022.01.06.01
48 List and describe the following two parameters used to 022.01.06.00.01 022.01.06.01.01
represent thrust : N1, EPR.
49 Explain the operating principle of the EPR gauge and the 022.01.06.00.02 022.01.06.01.02
consequences for the pilot in case of a malfunction including
blockage and leakage.

50 Give examples of display for N1 and EPR. 022.01.06.00.03 022.01.06.01.03

51 Engine torquemeter 022.01.07.00 022.01.07.00


52 022.01.07.01
53 Define Torque. 022.01.07.00.01 022.01.07.01.01

54 Explain the relationship between Power, Torque and RPM. 022.01.07.00.02 022.01.07.01.02

55 List the following units used for torque: - Newton meters - Inch 022.01.07.00.03 022.01.07.01.03
or Foot pounds.
56 State that engine torque can be displayed as a percentage. 022.01.07.00.04 022.01.07.01.04
57 List and describe the following different types of torquemeters: 022.01.07.00.05 022.01.07.01.05
- mechanical - electronic and explain their operating principles.

58 Compare the two systems with regard to design and weight. 022.01.07.00.06 022.01.07.01.06

59 Give examples of display. 022.01.07.00.07 022.01.07.01.07

60 Synchroscope 022.01.08.00 022.01.08.00


61 022.01.08.01
62 State the purpose of a synchroscope. 022.01.08.00.01 022.01.08.01.01

63 Explain the operating principle of a synchroscope. 022.01.08.00.02 022.01.08.01.02

64 Give examples of display. 022.01.08.00.03 022.01.08.01.03

65 Engine-vibration monitoring 022.01.09.00 022.01.09.00


66 022.01.09.01

67 State the purpose of a vibration monitoring system for a jet 022.01.09.00.01 022.01.09.01.01
engine.
68 Describe the operating principle of a vibration monitoring 022.01.09.00.02 022.01.09.01.02
system using the following two types of sensors: - piezo electric
crystal - magnet.

69 State that no specific unit is displayed for a vibration monitoring 022.01.09.00.03 022.01.09.01.03
system.

70 Give examples of display. 022.01.09.00.04 022.01.09.01.04

71 Time measurement 022.01.10.00 022.01.10.00


72 022.01.10.01
73 Explain the use of time/date measurement and recording for 022.01.10.00.01 022.01.10.01.01
engines and system maintenance.

74 MEASUREMENT OF AIR-DATA PARAMETERS 022.02.00.00 022.02.00.00


75 Pressure measurement 022.02.01.00 022.02.01.00
76 Definitions 022.02.01.01 022.02.01.01
77 Define static, total and dynamic pressures and state the 022.02.01.01.01 022.02.01.01.01
relationship between them.

78 Define impact pressure as total pressure minus static pressure 022.02.01.01.02


and discuss the conditions when dynamic pressure equals
impact pressure.

79 Pitot/static system: design and errors 022.02.01.02 022.02.01.02


80 Describe the design and the operating principle of a: - static 022.02.01.02.01 022.02.01.02.01
source - pitot tube - combined pitot/static probe.
81 For each of these indicate the various locations, describe the 022.02.01.02.02 022.02.01.02.02
following associated errors: - position errors - instrument errors
- errors due to a non longitudinal axial flow (including
manoeuvre-induced errors) and the means of correction and/or
compensation.

82 Describe a typical pitot/static system and list the possible 022.02.01.02.03 022.02.01.02.03
outputs.
83 Explain the redundancy and the interconnections of typical 022.02.01.02.04 022.02.01.02.04
pitot/static systems.

84 Explain the purpose of heating and interpret the effect of 022.02.01.02.05 022.02.01.02.05
heating on sensed pressure.
85 List the affected instruments and explain the consequences for 022.02.01.02.06
the pilot in case of a malfunction including blockage and
leakage.

86 Describe alternate static sources and their effects when used. 022.02.01.02.07 022.02.01.02.06

87 Solid state sensors (to be introduced at a latter date). 022.02.01.02.08 022.02.01.02.07

88 Temperature measurement 022.02.02.00 022.02.02.00


89 Definitions 022.02.02.01 022.02.02.01
90 Define OAT, SAT, TAT and measured temperature. 022.02.02.01.01 022.02.02.01.01

91 Define ram rise and recovery factor. 022.02.02.01.02 022.02.02.01.02

92 State the relationship between the different temperatures 022.02.02.01.03 022.02.02.01.03


according to Mach number.
93 Design and operation 022.02.02.02 022.02.02.02
94 Describe the following types of air temperature probes and 022.02.02.02.01
their features: - expansion type: Bi-metallic strip, direct reading
- electrical type wire resistance, remote reading.

95 For each of these indicate the various locations, describe the 022.02.02.02.02 022.02.02.02.01
following associated errors: - position errors - instrument errors
and the means of correction and/or compensation.

96 Explain the purpose of heating and erpret the effect of heating 022.02.02.02.03 022.02.02.02.02
on sensed temperature.

97 Angle-of-attack (AoA) measurement 022.02.03.00 022.02.03.00


98 022.02.03.01

99 Describe the following two types of angle of attack sensors: - 022.02.03.00.01 022.02.03.01.01
null seeking (slotted) probe - vane detector.
100 For each type, explain the operating principles. 022.02.03.00.02 022.02.03.01.02

101 Explain how both types are protected against ice. 022.02.03.00.03 022.02.03.01.03

102 Give examples of systems that use the angle of attack as an 022.02.03.00.04 022.02.03.01.04
input, such as : - Air Data Computer - Stall Warning Systems -
Flight Envelope Protection systems.

103 Give examples of different types of Angle of Attack (AoA) 022.02.03.00.05 022.02.03.01.05
displays.

104 022.02.03.01.06

105 022.02.03.01.07

106 Altimeter 022.02.04.00 022.02.04.00


107 022.02.04.01

108 Define ISA. 022.02.04.00.01

109 List the following two units used for altimeters: - feet - meters 022.02.04.00.02 022.02.04.01.01
and state the relationship between them.
110 Define the following terms: - height, altitude - indicated 022.02.04.00.03 022.02.04.01.02
altitude, true altitude - pressure altitude, density altitude.

111 Define the following barometric references: QNH, QFE, 1013,25. 022.02.04.00.04 022.02.04.01.03

112 Explain the operating principles of an altimeter. 022.02.04.00.05 022.02.04.01.04

113 Describe and compare the following three types of altimeters: - 022.02.04.00.06 022.02.04.01.05
simple altimeter (single capsule) - sensitive altimeter (multi
capsule) - servo-assisted altimeter.

114 Give examples of associated displays: pointer, multi pointer, 022.02.04.00.07 022.02.04.01.06
drum, vertical straight scale.
115 Describe the following errors: - pitot/static system errors - 022.02.04.00.08 022.02.04.01.07
temperature error (air column not at ISA conditions) - time lag
(altimeter response to change of height) and the means of
correction.

116 Give examples of altimeter corrections table from an Aircraft 022.02.04.00.09 022.02.04.01.08
Operations Manual (AOM).

117 Describe the effects of a blockage or a leakage on the static 022.02.04.00.10 022.02.04.01.09
pressure line.
118 022.02.04.01.10

119 Vertical speed indicator (VSI) 022.02.05.00 022.02.05.00


120 022.02.05.01
121 List the two units used for VSI: - meters per second - feet per 022.02.05.00.01 022.02.05.01.01
minute and state the relationship between them.

122 Explain the operating principles of a VSI. 022.02.05.00.02 022.02.05.01.02

123 Describe and compare the following two types of vertical speed 022.02.05.00.03 022.02.05.01.03
indicators: - barometric type - inertial type (inertial information
provided by an Inertial Reference Unit).

124 Describe the following VSI errors: - pitot/static system errors - 022.02.05.00.04 022.02.05.01.04
time lag and the means of correction.
125 Describe the effects on a VSI of a blockage or a leakage on the 022.02.05.00.05 022.02.05.01.05
static pressure line.
126 Give examples of VSI display. 022.02.05.00.06 022.02.05.01.06

127 022.02.05.01.07

128 Airspeed indicator (ASI) 022.02.06.00 022.02.06.00


129 022.02.06.01

130 List the following three units used for airspeed: - Nautical 022.02.06.00.01 022.02.06.01.01
miles/hour (knots) - Statute miles/hour - Kilometers/hour and
state the relationship between them.

131 Define IAS, CAS, EAS, TAS and state and explain the relationship 022.02.06.00.02
between these speeds.
132 Describe the following ASI errors and state when they must be 022.02.06.00.03 022.02.06.01.02
considered: - pitot/static system errors - compressibility error -
density error.

133 Explain the operating principles of an ASI (as appropriate to 022.02.06.00.04 022.02.06.01.03
aeroplanes or helicopters).
134 Give examples of ASI display: pointer, vertical straight scale. 022.02.06.00.05 022.02.06.01.04

135 Interpret ASI corrections tables as used in an Aircraft Operations 022.02.06.00.06 022.02.06.01.05
Manual (AOM).
136 Define and explain the following colour codings that can be 022.02.06.00.07 022.02.06.01.06
used on an ASI: - White arc (flap operating speed range) - Green
arc (normal operating speed range) - Yellow arc (caution speed
range) - Red line (VNE) - Blue line (best rate of climb speed, one
engine out for multi-engine piston light aeroplanes).

137 022.02.06.01.07

138 Describe the effects on an ASI of a blockage or leak in the static 022.02.06.00.08 022.02.06.01.08
and/or total pressure line(s).
139 022.02.06.01.09

140 022.02.06.01.10

141 Machmeter 022.02.07.00 022.02.07.00


142 022.02.07.01

143 Define Mach number, and local speed of sound (LSS) and 022.02.07.00.01 022.02.07.01.01
perform simple calculations that include these terms.
144 Describe the operating principle of a Machmeter. 022.02.07.00.02 022.02.07.01.02

145 Explain why a Machmeter suffers only from pitot/static system 022.02.07.00.03 022.02.07.01.03
errors.
146 Give examples of Machmeter display: pointer, drum, vertical 022.02.07.00.04 022.02.07.01.04
straight scale, digital.
147 Describe the effects on a Machmeter of a blockage or a leakage 022.02.07.00.05 022.02.07.01.05
in the static and/or total pressure line(s).
148 State the relationship between Mach number, CAS and TAS and 022.02.07.00.06 022.02.07.01.06
interpret their variations according to FL and temperature
changes.

149 State the existence of MMO. 022.02.07.00.07 022.02.07.01.07

150 022.02.07.01.08

151 022.02.07.01.09
152 022.02.07.01.10

153 Air-data computer (ADC) 022.02.08.00 022.02.08.00


154 022.02.08.01

155 Explain the operating principle of an ADC. 022.02.08.00.01 022.02.08.01.01

156 List the following possible input data: - TAT - static pressure - 022.02.08.00.02 022.02.08.01.02
total pressure - measured temperature - angle of attack - flaps
and landing gear position - stored aircraft data.

157 List the following possible output data: - IAS - TAS - SAT - TAT - 022.02.08.00.03 022.02.08.01.03
Mach number - Angle of attack - Altitude - Vertical speed -
VMO/MMO pointer.

158 For each output, list the datum/data sensed and explain the 022.02.08.00.04
principle of calculation.
159 Explain how position, instrument, compressibility and density 022.02.08.00.05 022.02.08.01.04
errors can be compensated/corrected to achieve a TAS
calculation.

160 Explain why accuracy is improved for each output datum when 022.02.08.00.06
compared to raw data.
161 Give examples of instruments and/or systems which may use 022.02.08.00.07 022.02.08.01.05
ADC output data.
162 022.02.08.01.06

163 State that an ADC can be a stand alone system or integrated 022.02.08.00.08
with the Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU).
164 Explain the ADC architecture for air data measurement 022.02.08.00.09 022.02.08.01.07
including sensors, processing units, and displays as opposed to
stand alone air data measurement instruments.

165 022.02.08.01.08

166 Explain the advantage of an ADC for air data information 022.02.08.00.10
management compared to raw data.
167 MAGNETISM - DIRECT-READING COMPASS AND FLUX VALVE 022.03.00.00 022.03.00.00

168 Earth’s magnetic field 022.03.01.00 022.03.01.00


169 022.03.01.01
170 Describe the magnetic field of the earth. 022.03.01.00.01 022.03.01.01.01
171 Direct reading compass (DRC) 061.02.01.01.01 022.03.01.01.01
(Moved and merged into 022.03.01.01.01)
172 Explain the properties of a magnet. 022.03.01.00.02 022.03.01.01.02

173 Define the following terms: - magnetic variation - magnetic dip 022.03.01.00.03 022.03.01.01.03
(inclination),
174 Define magnetic dip or inclination. The angle between the 061.01.04.02.04 022.03.01.01.03
horizontal and the total component of the magnetic field.
(Moved and merged into 022.03.01.01.03)

175 022.03.01.01.04

176 State that a freely suspended compass needle will turn to the 061.01.04.02.01 022.03.01.01.04
direction of the local magnetic field. The direction of the
horizontal component of this field is the direction of magnetic
north (MN).
(Moved to 022.03.01.01.04)

177 State that the angle of inclination at the magnetic poles is 90°. 061.01.04.02.05 022.03.01.01.04
(Moved and merged into 022.03.01.01.04)

178 022.03.01.01.05

179 Interpret the indications on a DRC, given an indication on the 061.02.01.01.02 022.03.01.01.05
compass, deviation or deviation table and variation.
(Moved and merged into 022.03.01.01.05)

180 Aircraf magnetic field 022.03.02.00 022.03.02.00


181 022.03.02.01
182 Define and explain the following terms: - magnetic and non- 022.03.02.00.01 022.03.02.01.01
magnetic material - hard and soft iron - permanent magnetism
and electro-magnetism.

183 Explain the principles and the reasons for: - compass swinging 022.03.02.00.02 022.03.02.01.02
(determination of initial deviations) - compass compensation
(correction of deviations found) - compass calibration
(determination of residual deviations).

184 State that Deviation is kept to a minimum by compass swinging. 061.01.04.03.04 022.03.02.01.02
(Moved and merged into 022.03.02.01.02)
185 State occurrences when a compass swing may be required: if 061.02.01.03.01 022.03.02.01.02
transferred to another base involving a large change in latitude.
major changes in aircraft equipment. aircraft hit by lightning.
aircraft parked in same direction for long period of time. when a
new compass is fitted. at any time when the compass or
recorded deviation is suspect. when specified in the aircraft
maintenance schedule.
(Moved and merged into 022.03.02.01.02)

186 List the causes of the aircraft's magnetic field and explain how it 022.03.02.00.03 022.03.02.01.03
affects the accuracy of the compass indications.

187 State that the effect of the aircraft magnetism on the compass 061.01.04.03.02 022.03.02.01.03
changes with different headings, as well as different latitudes.
(Moved and merged into 022.03.02.01.03)

188 Describe the purpose and the use of a deviation correction 022.03.02.00.04 022.03.02.01.04
card.
189 022.03.02.01.05

190 Direct-reading magnetic compass 022.03.03.00 022.03.03.00


191 022.03.03.01
192 Define the role of a direct reading magnetic compass. 022.03.03.00.01 022.03.03.01.01

193 Describe and explain the design of a vertical card type compass. 022.03.03.00.02

194 Describe the deviation compensation. 022.03.03.00.03 022.03.03.01.02

195 Describe and interpret the effects of the following errors: - 022.03.03.00.04 022.03.03.01.03
acceleration - turning - attitude - deviation.

196 Explain how to use and interpret the direct reading compass 022.03.03.00.05 022.03.03.01.03
indications during a turn.
(Merged with 022.03.03.01.03)

197 State the pre-flight serviceability check of the DRC, such as: 061.02.01.02.01 022.03.03.01.04
general condition check indication is within limits.
(Moved and merged into 022.03.03.01.04)
198 State that the serviceability test consists of comparing the DRC 061.02.01.02.02 022.03.03.01.04
indication to another reference (e.g. other compass system or
runway direction).
(Moved and merged into 022.03.03.01.04)

199 Flux valve 022.03.04.00 022.03.04.00


200 022.03.04.01
201 Explain the purpose of a flux valve. 022.03.04.00.01 022.03.04.01.01

202 Explain the operating principle. 022.03.04.00.02 022.03.04.01.02

203 Indicate various locations and precautions needed. 022.03.04.00.03 022.03.04.01.03

204 Give the remote reading compass system as example of 022.03.04.00.04 022.03.04.01.04
application.
205 State that because of the electromagnetic deviation correction, 022.03.04.00.05 022.03.04.01.05
the flux valve output itself does not have a deviation correction
card.

206 Describe and interpret the effects of the following errors: - 022.03.04.00.06 022.03.04.01.06
acceleration - turning - attitude - deviation.

207 GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS 022.04.00.00 022.04.00.00


208 Gyroscope: basic principles 022.04.01.00 022.04.01.00
209 022.04.01.01

210 Define a gyro. 022.04.01.00.01 022.04.01.01.01

211 Explain the fundamentals of the theory of gyroscopic forces. 022.04.01.00.02 022.04.01.01.02

212 Define the degrees of freedom of a gyro. Remark: As a 022.04.01.00.03 022.04.01.01.03


convention, the degrees of freedom of a gyroscope do not
include its own axis of rotation (the spin axis).

213 Explain the following terms: - rigidity, - precession, - wander 022.04.01.00.04 022.04.01.01.04
(drift/topple).
214 Distinguish between: - real wander and apparent wander - 022.04.01.00.05 022.04.01.01.05
apparent wander due to the rotation of the Earth and transport
wander.

215 Describe a free (space) gyro and a tied gyro. 022.04.01.00.06

216 Describe and compare electrically and pneumatically driven 022.04.01.00.07 022.04.01.01.06
gyroscopes.
217 Explain the construction and operating principles of a: - rate 022.04.01.00.08
gyro - rate integrating gyro.
218 Rate-of-turn indicator - Turn co-ordinator - Balance (slip) 022.04.02.00 022.04.02.00
indicator
219 022.04.02.01
220 Explain the purpose of a rate of turn and balance (slip) 022.04.02.00.01 022.04.02.01.01
indicator.
221 Define a rate-one turn. 022.04.02.00.02 022.04.02.01.02

222 Describe the construction and principles of operation of a rate 022.04.02.00.03 022.04.02.01.03
of turn indicator.
223 State the degrees of freedom of a rate of turn indicator. 022.04.02.00.04

224 Explain the relation between bank angle, rate of turn and TAS. 022.04.02.00.05 022.04.02.01.04

225 Explain why the indication of a rate of turn indicator is only 022.04.02.00.06
correct for one TAS and when turn is co-ordinated.
226 Describe the construction and principles of operation of a 022.04.02.00.07 022.04.02.01.05
balance (slip) indicator.
227 Explain the purpose of a balance (slip) indicator. 022.04.02.00.08 022.04.02.01.05

228 Describe the indications of a rate of turn and balance (slip) 022.04.02.00.09 022.04.02.01.06
indicator during a balanced, slip or skid turn.
229 Describe the construction and principles of operation of a Turn 022.04.02.00.10 022.04.02.01.07
Co-ordinator (or Turn and Bank Indicator).
230 Compare the rate of turn indicator and the turn co-ordinator. 022.04.02.00.11 022.04.02.01.08

231 Attitude indicator (artificial horizon) 022.04.03.00 022.04.03.00


232 022.04.03.01
233 Explain the purpose of the attitude indicator. 022.04.03.00.01 022.04.03.01.01

234 Describe the different designs and principles of operation of 022.04.03.00.02 022.04.03.01.02
attitude indicators (air driven, electric).
235 State the degrees of freedom. 022.04.03.00.03 022.04.03.01.03

236 Describe the gimbal system. 022.04.03.00.04

237 Describe the effects, on the instrument indications, of aircraft 022.04.03.00.05 022.04.03.01.04
acceleration and turns.
238 Describe the attitude display and instrument markings. 022.04.03.00.06 022.04.03.01.05

239 Explain the purpose of a vertical gyro unit. 022.04.03.00.07

240 List and describe the following components of a vertical gyro 022.04.03.00.08
unit: - inputs: pitch and roll sensors - transmission and
amplification (synchros and amplifiers) - outputs: display units
such as Attitude Direction Indicator (ADI), Auto Flight Control
Systems.
241 State the advantages and disadvantages of a vertical gyro unit 022.04.03.00.09
compared to an attitude indicator with regard to: - design
(power source, weight and volume) - accuracy of the
information displayed, - availability of the information for
several systems (ADI, AFCS).

242 Directional gyroscope 022.04.04.00 022.04.04.00


243 022.04.04.01
244 Explain the purpose of the directional gyroscope. 022.04.04.00.01 022.04.04.01.01

245 Describe the following two types of directional gyroscopes: - Air 022.04.04.00.02 022.04.04.01.02
driven directional gyro - Electric directional gyro.

246 State the degrees of freedom. 022.04.04.00.03

247 Describe the gimbal system. 022.04.04.00.04

248 Define the following different errors: - design and 022.04.04.00.05 022.04.04.01.03
manufacturing imperfections (random wander) - apparent
wander (rotation of the earth) - transport wander (movement
relative to the earth’s surface) and explain their effects.

249 Calculate the apparent wander (apparent drift rate in degrees 022.04.04.00.06 022.04.04.01.04
per hour) of an uncompensated gyro according to latitude.

250 Remote-reading compass systems 022.04.05.00 022.04.05.00


251 022.04.05.01

252 Describe the principles of operation of a remote reading 022.04.05.00.01 022.04.05.01.01


compass system.
253 Using a block diagram, list and explain the function of the 022.04.05.00.02 022.04.05.01.02
following components of a remote reading compass system: -
flux detection unit, - gyro unit, - transducers, precession
amplifiers, annunciator - display unit (compass card,
synchronising and set heading knob, DG/compass switch).

254 State the advantages and disadvantages of a remote reading 022.04.05.00.03 022.04.05.01.03
compass system compared to a direct reading magnetic
compass with regard to: - design (power source, weight and
volume) - deviation due to aircraft magnetism - turning and
acceleration errors - attitude errors - accuracy and stability of
the information displayed, - availability of the information for
several systems (Compass card, RMI, AFCS).

255 Solid-state systems - attitude and heading reference system 022.04.06.00 022.04.06.00
(AHRS)
256 022.04.06.01
257 State that the Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS) 022.04.06.00.01 022.04.06.01.01
technology can be used to make: - solid-state accelerometers, -
solid-state rate sensor gyroscopes, - solid-state magnetometers
(measurement of the earth magnetic field).

258 Describe the basic principle of a solid-state Attitude and 022.04.06.00.02 022.04.06.01.02
Heading Reference System system (AHRS) using a solid state 3-
axis rate sensor, 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis
magnetometer.

259 Compare the solid state AHRS with the mechanical gyroscope 022.04.06.00.03
and flux gate sytem with regard to: - size and weight, -
accuracy, - reliability - cost.

260 INERTIAL NAVIGATION AND REFERENCE SYSTEMS (INS and IRS) 022.05.00.00 022.05.00.00

261 INS: Inertial Navigation Systems (stabilised inertial platform) 022.05.01.00 022.05.01.00

262 Basic principles 022.05.01.01 022.05.01.01


263 Explain the basic principles of inertial navigation. 022.05.01.01.01 022.05.01.01.04
(Moved to 022.05.01.01.04)

264 022.05.01.01.01

265 022.05.01.01.02

266 022.05.01.01.03

267 Explain the basic principles of inertial navigation. 022.05.01.01.04


(Moved to 022.05.01.01.04) 022.05.01.01.01

268 Explain the different corrections made to stabilise the platform. 022.05.01.02.02 022.05.01.01.05
(Moved to 022.05.01.01.05)

269 List the following two effects that must be compensated for: - 022.05.01.02.03 022.05.01.01.05
Coriolis - centrifugal.
(Moved to 022.05.01.01.05)
270 022.05.01.01.06

271 List the outputs given by an INS. 022.05.01.04.03 022.05.01.01.07


(Moved from 022.05.01.04.03)
272 022.05.01.01.08

273 List and describe the following main components of an IRS: - 022.05.02.02.01 022.05.01.01.09
rate sensors (laser gyros) - inertial accelerometers - high
performance processors - display unit.
(Moved from 022.05.02.02.01)

274 Design 022.05.01.02 022.05.01.02


275 List and describe the main components of a stabilised inertial 022.05.01.02.01
platform.
276 Explain the different corrections made to stabilise the platform. 022.05.01.02.02 022.05.01.01.05
(Moved to 022.05.01.01.05)

277 List the following two effects that must be compensated for: - 022.05.01.02.03 022.05.01.01.05
Coriolis - centrifugal.
(Moved and merged into 022.05.01.01.05)

278 Explain the alignment of the system, the different phases 022.05.01.02.04 022.05.02.01.02
associated and the conditions required.
(Moved and merged into 022.05.02.01.02)

279 Explain the Schuler condition and give the value of the Schuler 022.05.01.02.05
period.
280 Errors, accuracy 022.05.01.03 022.05.01.03
281 State that there are three different types of errors: - bounded 022.05.01.03.01
errors - unbounded errors - other errors.
282 Give average values for bounded and unbounded errors 022.05.01.03.02
according to time.
283 State that an average value for the position error of the INS 022.05.01.03.03 022.05.02.01.06
according to time is 1,5 Nm/hour or more.
(Moved and merged into 022.05.02.01.06)

284 Operation 022.05.01.04 022.05.01.04


285 Give examples of INS control and display panels. 022.05.01.04.01

286 Describe and explain the consequences concerning the loss of 022.05.01.04.04
alignment by an Inertial Navigation System in flight.

287 Give an average value of alignment time, at mid-latitudes. 022.05.01.04.02 022.05.02.01.02


(Moved and merged into 022.05.02.01.02)
288 List the outputs given by an INS. 022.05.01.04.03 022.05.01.01.07
(Moved and merged into 022.05.01.01.07)
289 IRS: Inertial Reference Systems (Strapped-down) 022.05.02.00 022.05.02.00
290 Basic principles 022.05.02.01 022.05.02.01

291 Describe the operating principle of a strapped-down inertial 022.05.02.01.01


reference system.
292 State the differences between a strapped-down inertial system 022.05.02.01.02
(IRS) and a stabilised inertial platform (INS).
293 Explain the alignment of the system, the different phases 022.05.02.02.04 022.05.02.01.01
associated and the conditions required.
(Moved from 022.05.02.02.04)

294 Explain the alignment of the system, the different phases 022.05.01.02.04 022.05.02.01.02
associated and the conditions required.
(Moved from 022.05.02.02.04)

295 Give an average value of alignment time, at mid-latitudes. 022.05.01.04.02 022.05.02.01.02


(Moved from 022.05.01.04.02)

296 022.05.02.01.03

297 022.05.02.01.04

298 022.05.02.01.05

299 State that an average value for the position error of the INS 022.05.01.03.03 022.05.02.01.06
according to time is 1,5 Nm/hour or more.
(Moved from 022.05.01.03.03)

300 State that an IRS can be a stand alone system or integrated with 022.05.02.02.07 022.05.02.01.07
an ADC (ADIRU).
(Moved from 022.05.02.02.07)

301 Compare IRS and INS, give recent examples of control panels. 022.05.02.04.01 022.05.02.01.08
(Moved from 022.05.02.04.01)

302 022.05.02.01.09

303 022.05.02.01.10
304 022.05.02.01.11

305 Design 022.05.02.02 022.05.02.02


306 List and describe the following main components of an IRS: - 022.05.02.02.01 022.05.01.01.09
rate sensors (laser gyros) - inertial accelerometers - high
performance processors - display unit.

(Moved and merged into 022.05.01.01.09)


307 Explain the construction and operating principles of a Ring 022.05.02.02.02
Laser Gyroscope (RLG).
308 Explain the different computations and corrections to be made 022.05.02.02.03
to achieve data processing.
309 Explain the alignment of the system, the different phases 022.05.02.02.04 022.05.02.01.01,
associated and the conditions required. 022.05.02.01.02
(Moved and merged into 022.05.02.01.01 and
022.05.02.01.02)

310 Explain why the Schuler condition is still required. 022.05.02.02.05

311 Describe the “lock in” (laser lock) phenomena and the means of 022.05.02.02.06
overcoming it.
312 State that an IRS can be a stand alone system or integrated with 022.05.02.02.07 022.05.02.01.07
an ADC (ADIRU).
(Moved and merged into 022.05.02.01.07)

313 Errors, accuracy 022.05.02.03 022.05.02.03


314 Compare IRS and INS for errors and accuracy. 022.05.02.03.01

315 Operation 022.05.02.04 022.05.02.04


316 Compare IRS and INS, give recent examples of control panels. 022.05.02.04.01 022.05.02.01.08
(Moved to 022.05.02.01.08)

317 List the outputs given by an IRS. 022.05.02.04.02

318 Give the advantages and disadvantages of an IRS compared to 022.05.02.04.03


an INS.
319 AEROPLANE: AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS 022.06.00.00 022.06.00.00
320 General 022.06.01.00 022.06.01.00
321 022.06.01.01
322 State the following purposes of an Automatic Flight Control 022.06.01.00.01 022.06.01.01.01
System (AFCS): - enhancement of flight controls - reduction of
pilot workload.

323 Define and explain the following two functions of an AFCS: - 022.06.01.00.02 022.06.01.01.02
aircraft control: control of aeroplane movement about its CG -
aircraft guidance: guidance of aeroplane CG (flight path).
324 Define and explain: closed loop, open loop. 022.06.01.00.03 022.06.01.01.03

325 Explain that the inner loop is for aircraft control and outer loop 022.06.01.00.04
is for aircraft guidance.
326 List the following different elements of a closed loop control 022.06.01.00.05 022.06.01.01.04
system and explain their function: - Input signal - Error detector
- Signal processing (computation of output signal according to
control laws) - Output signal - Control element - Feedback
signal.

327 022.06.01.01.05

328 022.06.01.01.06

329 Autopilot system 022.06.02.00 022.06.02.00


330 022.06.02.01
331 Define the three basic control channels. 022.06.02.00.01 022.06.02.01.01

332 List the following different types of autopilot systems : 1 axis, 2 022.06.02.00.02 022.06.02.01.02
axis and 3 axis.

333 List and describe the main components of an autopilot system. 022.06.02.00.03 022.06.02.01.03

334 Explain and describe the following lateral modes : Roll, Heading, 022.06.02.00.04 022.06.02.01.04
VOR/LOC, NAV or LNAV.

335 Describe the purpose of control laws for pitch and roll modes. 022.06.02.00.05 022.06.02.01.05

336 Explain and describe the following longitudinal (or vertical) 022.06.02.00.06 022.06.02.01.06
modes : Pitch, Vertical speed, Level Change, Altitude hold (ALT),
Profile or VNAV, G/S.

337 Give basic examples for pitch and roll channels of inner loops 022.06.02.00.07
and outer loops with the help of a schematic diagram.
338 Explain the influence of gain variation on precision and stability. 022.06.02.00.08

339 Explain gain adaptation, with regard to speed, configuration or 022.06.02.00.09


flight phase.
340 022.06.02.01.07

341 Explain and describe the following common (or mixed) modes : 022.06.02.00.10 022.06.02.01.08
Take off, Go around and Approach. Remark: The landing
sequence is studied in 022 06 04 00.

342 List the different types of actuation configuration and compare 022.06.02.00.11 022.06.02.01.09
their advantages/disadvantages.

343 List the inputs and the outputs of a three-axis autopilot system. 022.06.02.00.12 022.06.02.01.10

344 Describe and explain the synchronisation function. 022.06.02.00.13 022.06.02.01.11

345 Give examples of engagement and disengagement systems and 022.06.02.00.14


conditions.
346 Define the Control Wheel Steering mode (CWS) according to CS 022.06.02.00.15 022.06.02.01.12
25 (see AMC 25.1329 § 4.3).

347 Describe the Control Wheel Steering (CWS) mode operation. 022.06.02.00.16 022.06.02.01.13

348 022.06.02.01.14

349 022.06.02.01.15
350 022.06.02.01.16

351 022.06.02.01.17

352 022.06.02.01.18

353 022.06.02.01.19

354 022.06.02.01.20

355 022.06.02.01.21
356 022.06.02.01.22

357 Describe with the help of a control panel of an autopilot system 022.06.02.00.17
and a flight mode annunciator/indicator the actions and the
checks performed by a pilot through a complete sequence: -
from Heading selection (HDG) to VOR/LOC guidance
(arm/capture/track) - from Altitude selection (LVL Change) to
Altitude hold (ALT), (arm/intercept/hold).

358 Describe and explain the different phases and the associated 022.06.02.00.18
annunciations/indications from level change to altitude capture
and from heading mode to VOR/LOC capture.

359 Describe and explain the existence of operational limits for 022.06.02.00.19
lateral modes (LOC capture) with regard to speed/angle of
interception/distance to threshold as for longitudinal modes
(ALT or G/S capture) with regard to V/S.

360 Flight director: design and operation 022.06.03.00 022.06.03.00


361 022.06.03.01
362 State the purpose of a Flight Director (FD) system. 022.06.03.00.01 022.06.03.01.01

363 List and describe the main components of an FD system. 022.06.03.00.02

364 List the different types of display. 022.06.03.00.03 022.06.03.01.02

365 Explain the differences between a FD system and an Autopilot 022.06.03.00.04 022.06.03.01.03
system.

366 Explain how an FD and an AP can be used together, separately 022.06.03.00.05 022.06.03.01.03
(AP with no FD or FD with no AP) or none of them.
(Merged into 022.06.03.01.03)

367 Give examples of different situations with the respective 022.06.03.00.06


indications of the command bars.
368 022.06.03.01.04

369 022.06.03.01.05

370 022.06.03.01.06

371 022.06.03.01.07

372 022.06.03.01.08

373 Aeroplane: flight mode annunciator (FMA) 022.06.04.00 022.06.04.00


374 022.06.04.01
375 Explain the purpose and the importance of the FMA. 022.06.04.00.01 022.06.04.01.01

376 State that the FMA provides: - AFCS lateral and vertical modes - 022.06.04.00.02 022.06.04.01.02
Auto-throttle modes - FD selection, AP engagement and
automatic landing capacity - Failure and alert messages.

377 022.06.04.01.03

378 022.06.04.01.04

379 022.06.04.01.05

380 022.06.04.01.06

381 Autoland 022.06.05.00 022.06.05.00


382 022.06.05.01
383 Explain the purpose of an autoland system. 022.06.05.00.01 022.06.05.01.01

384 List and describe the main components of an autoland system. 022.06.05.00.02 022.06.05.01.02

385 Define the following terms: - "fail passive" - "fail operational" 022.06.05.00.03 022.06.05.01.03
(fail active) systems - alert height according to CS-AWO.

386 Describe and explain the autoland sequence and the associated 022.06.05.00.04 022.06.05.01.04
annunciations/indications from initial approach to roll-out (AP
disengagement) or go-around.

387 List and explain the operational limitations to perform an 022.06.05.00.05 022.06.05.01.05
autoland.

388 022.06.05.01.06

389 022.06.05.01.07

390 022.06.05.01.08

391 022.06.05.01.09

392 HELICOPTER: AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS 022.07.00.00 022.07.00.00


393 General principles 022.07.01.00 022.07.01.00
394 Stabilisation 022.07.01.01 022.07.01.01
395 Explain the similarities and differences between SAS and AFCS 022.07.01.01.01 022.07.01.01.01
the latter can actually fly the helicopter to perform certain
functions selected by the pilot. Some AFCS’s just have altitude
and heading hold whilst others, include a vertical speed or IAS
hold mode, where a constant rate of climb/decent or IAS is
maintained by the AFCS.

396 Reduction of pilot workload 022.07.01.02 022.07.01.02


397 Appreciate how effective the AFCS is in reducing pilot work load 022.07.01.02.01 022.07.01.02.01
by improving basic aircraft control harmony and decreasing
disturbances.

398 Enhancement of helicopter capability 022.07.01.03 022.07.01.03


399 Explain how an AFCS improves helicopter flight safety during: - 022.07.01.03.01 022.07.01.03.01
search and rescue because of increased capabilities - flight by
sole reference to instruments - under slung load operations -
white out conditions in snow covered landscapes - an approach
to land with lack of visual cues.

400 Explain that the Search and Rescue (SAR) modes of AFCS 022.07.01.03.02 022.07.01.03.02
include the following functions: - ability to auto hover, -
automatically transition down from cruise to a predetermined
point or over-flown point - ability for the rear crew to move the
helicopter around in the hover, - the ability to automatically
transition back from the hover to cruise flight - the ability to fly
various search patterns.

401 Explain that the earlier auto-hover systems use doppler velocity 022.07.01.03.03 022.07.01.03.03
sensors and the later systems use inertial sensors plus GPS and
normally include a 2-dimensional hover velocity indicator for
the pilots.

402 Explain why some SAR helicopters have both radio-altimeter 022.07.01.03.04 022.07.01.03.04
height hold as well as barometric altitude hold.

403 Failures 022.07.01.04 022.07.01.04


404 Explain the various redundancies and independent systems that 022.07.01.04.01 022.07.01.04.01
are built into the AFCS’s.
405 Appreciate that the pilot can override the system in the event of 022.07.01.04.02 022.07.01.04.02
a failure.
406 Explain a series actuator ‘hard over’ which equals aircraft 022.07.01.04.03 022.07.01.04.03
attitude runaway.
407 Explain the consequences of a saturation of the series 022.07.01.04.04 022.07.01.04.04
actuators.
408 Components: operation 022.07.02.00 022.07.02.00
409 Basic sensors 022.07.02.01 022.07.02.01
410 Explain the basic sensors in the system and their functions. 022.07.02.01.01 022.07.02.01.01

411 Explain that the number of sensors will be dependant on how 022.07.02.01.02 022.07.02.01.02
many couple modes are in the system.
412 Specific sensors 022.07.02.02 022.07.02.02
413 Explain the function of the micro switches and strain gauges in 022.07.02.02.01 022.07.02.02.01
the system which sense pilot input to prevent excessive feed
back forces from the system.

414 Actuators 022.07.02.03 022.07.02.03


415 Explain the principles of operation of the series and parallel 022.07.02.03.01 022.07.02.03.01
actuators, spring box clutches and the auto trim system.

416 Explain the principle of operation of the electronic hydraulic 022.07.02.03.02 022.07.02.03.02
actuators in the system.
417 Pilot–system interface: control panels, system indications, 022.07.02.04 022.07.02.04
warnings
418 Describe the typical layout of the AFCS control panel. 022.07.02.04.01 022.07.02.04.01

419 Describe the system indications and warnings. 022.07.02.04.02 022.07.02.04.02

420 Operation 022.07.02.05 022.07.02.05


421 Explain the functions of the redundant sensors simplex and 022.07.02.05.01 022.07.02.05.01
duplex channels (single/dual channel).
422 Stability augmentation system (SAS) 022.07.03.00 022.07.03.00
423 General principles and operation 022.07.03.01 022.07.03.01
424 Explain the general principles and operation of a Stability 022.07.03.01.01 022.07.03.01.01
Augmentation System related to: - Rate damping - Short term
attitude hold - Effect on Static stability - Effect on Dynamic
stability - Aerodynamic Cross coupling - Effect on
Manoeuvrability - Control response -
Engagement/disengagement - Authority.

425 Explain the principle of stability augmentation systems. 082.07.02.04.02 022.07.03.01.01


(Moved to 022.07.03.01.01)
426 Explain and describe the general working principles and 022.07.03.01.02 022.07.03.01.02
primary use of SAS by damping pitch, roll and yaw motions.

427 Describe a simple SAS with forced trim system, which uses 022.07.03.01.03 022.07.03.01.03
magnetic clutch and springs to hold cyclic control in the
position where it was last released.

428 Explain the interaction of trim with SAS/SCAS (Stability and 022.07.03.01.04 022.07.03.01.04
Control Augmentation System).
429 Appreciate that the system can be overridden by the pilot and 022.07.03.01.05 022.07.03.01.05
individual channels deselected.
430 Describe the operational limits of the system. 022.07.03.01.06 022.07.03.01.06

431 Explain why the system should be turned off in severe 022.07.03.01.07 022.07.03.01.07
turbulence or when extreme flight attitudes are reached.

432 Explain the safety design features built into some SAS’s to limit 022.07.03.01.08 022.07.03.01.08
the authority of the actuators to 10% to 20% of full control
throw, to allow the pilot to override if actuators demand an
unsafe control input.
433 Explain how cross coupling produces an adverse affect roll to 022.07.03.01.09 022.07.03.01.09
yaw coupling, when the helicopter is subject to gusts.

434 Explain the collective to pitch coupling, side slip to pitch 022.07.03.01.10 022.07.03.01.10
coupling and inter axis coupling.
435 Autopilot - automatic stability equipment 022.07.04.00 022.07.04.00
436 General principles 022.07.04.01 022.07.04.01
437 Explain the general auto-pilot principles related to: - long term 022.07.04.01.01 022.07.04.01.01
attitude hold - fly through - changing the reference (beep trim,
trim release).

438 Basic modes (three axes/four axes) 022.07.04.02 022.07.04.02


439 Explain the AFCS operation on cyclic axes (pitch/roll), yaw axis, 022.07.04.02.01 022.07.04.02.01
collective (fourth axis).
440 Automatic guidance (upper modes of AFCS) 022.07.04.03 022.07.04.03
441 Explain the function of the attitude hold system in an AFCS. 022.07.04.03.01 022.07.04.03.01

442 Explain the function of the heading hold system in an AFCS. 022.07.04.03.02 022.07.04.03.02

443 Explain the function of the vertical speed hold system in an 022.07.04.03.03 022.07.04.03.03
AFCS.
444 Explain the function of the navigation coupling system in an 022.07.04.03.04 022.07.04.03.04
AFCS.
445 Explain the function of the VOR/ILS coupling system in an AFCS. 022.07.04.03.05 022.07.04.03.05

446 Explain the function of the hover mode system in an AFCS 022.07.04.03.06 022.07.04.03.06
(including Doppler and radio altimeter systems).
447 Explain the function of the SAR mode (Automatic transition to 022.07.04.03.07 022.07.04.03.07
hover and back to cruise) in an AFCS.
448 Flight director: design and operation 022.07.04.04 022.07.04.04
449 Explain the purpose of a flight director (FD) system. 022.07.04.04.01 022.07.04.04.01

450 List the different types of display. 022.07.04.04.02 022.07.04.04.02

451 State the difference between the FD system and the Autopilot 022.07.04.04.03 022.07.04.04.03
system. Explain how each can be used independently.

452 List and describe the main components of a FD system. 022.07.04.04.04 022.07.04.04.04

453 Give examples of different situations with the respective 022.07.04.04.05 022.07.04.04.05
indications of the command bars.
454 Explain the architecture of the different FD’s fitted to 022.07.04.04.06 022.07.04.04.06
helicopters and the importance to monitor other instruments as
well as the Flight Director, because on some helicopter types
which have the collective setting on the FD, there is no
protection against a collective transmission overtorque.
455 022.07.04.04.07

456 Describe the collective setting and yaw depiction on FD for 022.07.04.04.07 022.07.04.04.08
some helicopters.
457 Automatic flight control panel (AFCP) 022.07.04.05 022.07.04.05
458 Explain the purpose and the importance of the AFCP. 022.07.04.05.01 022.07.04.05.01

459 State that the AFCP provides: - AFCS basic and upper modes - 022.07.04.05.02 022.07.04.05.02
FD selection, SAS and AP engagement - Failure and alert
messages.

460 TRIMS - YAW DAMPER - FLIGHT-ENVELOPE PROTECTION 022.08.00.00 022.08.00.00


461 Trim systems 022.08.01.00 022.08.01.00
462 022.08.01.01
463 Explain the purpose of the trim system. 022.08.01.00.01 022.08.01.01.01

464 State the existence of a trim system for each of the three axis. 022.08.01.00.02 022.08.01.01.01
(Merged into 022.08.01.01.01)

465 Give example of trim indicators and their function. 022.08.01.00.03 022.08.01.01.02

466 Describe and explain an automatic pitch trim system for a 022.08.01.00.04 022.08.01.01.03
conventional aeroplane.
467 Describe and explain an automatic pitch trim system for a fly- 022.08.01.00.05 022.08.01.01.04
by-wire aeroplane.

468 State that for a fly-by-wire aeroplane the automatic pitch trim 022.08.01.00.06
system operates also during manual flight.
469 Describe the consequences of manual operation of the trim 022.08.01.00.07 022.08.01.01.05
wheel when the automatic pitch trim system is engaged.

470 Describe and explain engagement and disengagement 022.08.01.00.08 022.08.01.01.06


conditions of the autopilot according to trim controls.

471 Define Mach trim and state that the Mach trim system can be 022.08.01.00.09 022.08.01.01.07
an independent system.
472 022.08.01.01.08

473 State that for a fly-by-wire aeroplane an auto-trim system can 022.08.01.00.10
be available for each of the three axis. Remark: For Fly-by-wire
LOs, refer to reference 21.5.4.0.

474 Yaw damper 022.08.02.00 022.08.02.00


475 022.08.02.01
476 Explain the purpose of the Yaw Damper system. 022.08.02.00.01 022.08.02.01.01

477 List and describe the main components of a yaw damper 022.08.02.00.02
system.
478 Explain the purpose of the Dutch roll filter (filtering of the yaw 022.08.02.00.03 022.08.02.01.02
input signal).
479 Explain the the operation of a yaw damper system and state the 022.08.02.00.04 022.08.02.01.03
difference between a 3-axis autopilot operation on the rudder
channel.

480 Flight-envelope protection (FEP) 022.08.03.00 022.08.03.00


481 022.08.03.01
482 Explain the purpose of the FEP. 022.08.03.00.01 022.08.03.01.01

483 List the input parameters of the FEP. 022.08.03.00.02 022.08.03.01.02

484 Explain the following functions of the FEP: - stall protection - 022.08.03.00.03 022.08.03.01.03
overspeed protection.
485 State that the stall protection function and the overspeed 022.08.03.00.04 022.08.03.01.04
protection function apply to both mechanical/conventionnal
and fly-by-wire control systems but other functions (e.g. pitch
or bank limitation) can only apply to fly-by-wire control systems.

486 AUTOTHRUST - AUTOMATIC THRUST CONTROL SYSTEM 022.09.00.00 022.09.00.00


487 022.09.01.00
488 022.09.01.01
489 State the purpose of the auto-throttle (AT) system. 022.09.00.00.01 022.09.01.01.01

490 Explain the operation of an AT system for the following modes: - 022.09.00.00.02 022.09.01.01.02
Take off/Go around - Climb or Maximum Continuous Thrust
(MCT): N1 or EPR targeted - Speed - Idle thrust - Landing
(“Flare” or “Retard”).

491 Describe the control loop of an AT system, with regard to: - 022.09.00.00.03
Inputs: mode selection unit and switches (disengagement and
engagement: TO-GA switches), radio altitude, air/ground logic
switches. - Error detection: comparison between reference
values (N1 or EPR, speed) and actual values. - Signal processing
(control laws of the thrust lever displacement according to error
signal) - Ouputs: AT servo actuator - Feedback: Thrust Lever
Angle (TLA), data from ADC (TAS, Mach number), engine
parameters (N1 or EPR).
492 State the existence of AT systems where thrust modes are 022.09.00.00.04 022.09.01.01.03
determined by the lever position (no thrust mode panel or
thrust rating panel, no TOGA switches).

493 Explain the limitations of an AT system in case of turbulence. 022.09.00.00.05 022.09.01.01.04

494 022.09.01.01.05

495 022.09.01.01.06

496 022.09.01.01.07

497 022.09.01.01.08

498 022.09.01.01.09

499 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 022.10.00.00 022.10.00.00


500 Voice communication, data-link transmission 022.10.01.00 022.10.01.00
501 Definitions and transmission modes 022.10.01.01 022.10.01.01
502 State the purpose of a datalink transmission system. 022.10.01.01.01 022.10.01.01.01

503 Compare voice communication versus datalink transmission 022.10.01.01.02 022.10.01.01.02


systems.
504 State that VHF, HF and SATCOM devices can be used for voice 022.10.01.01.03 022.10.01.01.03
communication and datalink transmission.
505 State the advantages and disadvantages of each transmission 022.10.01.01.04 022.10.01.01.04
mode with regard to: - range, - line of sight limitations, - quality
of the signal received, - interference due to ionospheric
conditions - data transmission speed.

506 State that the satellite communication networks do not cover 022.10.01.01.05
extreme polar regions.
507 Define downlink and uplink communications. 022.10.01.01.06 022.10.01.01.05

508 State that a D-ATIS is an ATIS message received by datalink. 022.10.01.01.07

509 Name the two following datalink service providers: - SITA - 022.10.01.02.01
ARINC and state their function.
510 Systems: architecture, design and operation 022.10.01.02 022.10.01.02
511 Describe the ACARS network. 022.10.01.02.02 022.10.01.02.01

512 Describe the two following systems using the VHF/HF/Satcom 022.10.01.02.03 022.10.01.02.02
datalink transmission: - ACARS (Aircraft Communication
Addressing and Reporting System, - ATSU (Air Traffic Service
Unit).

513 List and describe the following possible on-board components 022.10.01.02.04 022.10.01.02.03
of an ATSU: - Communications Management Unit
(VHF/HF/SATCOM) - Data Communication Display Unit (DCDU) -
Multi Control Display Unit (MCDU) for AOC, ATC and messages
from the crew (downlink communication) - ATC message visual
warning - Printer.

514 Give examples of Airline Operations Communications (AOC) 022.10.01.02.05 022.10.01.02.04


datalink messages such as: - OOOI (Out of the gate, Off the
ground, On the ground, Into the gate) - Load-sheet - Passenger
information (connecting flights) - Weather reports (METAR, TAF)
- Maintenance reports (engine exceedances) - Free text
messages.

515 Give examples of Air Traffic Communications (ATC) datalink 022.10.01.02.06 022.10.01.02.05
messages such as: - Departure clearance - Oceanic clearance.

516 Future air navigation systems (FANSs) 022.10.02.00 022.10.02.00


517 022.10.02.01
518 State the existence of the ICAO CNS/ATM concept 022.10.02.00.01 022.10.02.01.01
(Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/ Air Traffic
Management).

519 Define and explain the FANS concept (including FANS A and 022.10.02.00.02 022.10.02.01.02
FANS B).

520 State that FANS A uses the ACARS network. 022.10.02.00.03


521 List and explain the following FANS A applications: - AFN (ATS 022.10.02.00.04 022.10.02.01.03
Facility Notification) - ADS (Automatic Dependant Surveillance),
- CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications).

522 Compare the ADS application with the Secondary Surveillance 022.10.02.00.05 022.10.02.01.04
Radar function and the CPDLC application with VHF
communication systems.

523 State that an ATC Centre can use the ADS application only, or 022.10.02.00.06 022.10.02.01.05
the CPDLC application only or both of them (not including AFN).

524 Describe a notification phase (LOG ON) and state its purpose. 022.10.02.00.07 022.10.02.01.06

525 List the different types of messages of the CPDLC function and 022.10.02.00.08 022.10.02.01.07
give examples of CPDLC datalink messages.

526 List the different types of ADS contracts: - periodic - on demand 022.10.02.00.09 022.10.02.01.08
- on event. - emergency mode.

527 State that the controller can modify the ‘periodic’, ‘on demand’ 022.10.02.00.10
and ‘on event’ contracts or the parameters of these contracts
(optional data groups) and that these modifications do not
require crew notification.

528 Describe the ‘emergency mode’. 022.10.02.00.11 022.10.02.01.09

529 Remark: The use of a FMS as a navigation system is detailed in Remark 022.11.00.00
Radio Navigation (062), reference 062 05 04 00.

530 Design 022.11.01.00 022.11.01.00


531 022.11.01.01
532 State the purpose of a Flight Management System (FMS). 022.11.01.00.01 022.11.01.01.01

533 Explain that a flight management system has the ability to 062.05.04.01.02 022.11.01.01.01
monitor and direct both navigation and performance of the
flight.
(Moved and merged into 022.11.01.01.01)

534 State that the centre of the flight management system is the 062.05.04.02.01 022.11.01.01.02
FMC with its stored navigation and performance data.
(Moved and merged into 022.11.01.01.02)

535 Describe a typical dual FMS architecture. 022.11.01.00.02 022.11.01.01.02


536 State that the centre of the flight management system is the 062.05.04.02.01 022.11.01.01.02
FMC with its stored navigation and performance data.
(Moved and merged into 022.11.01.01.02)

537 Describe the different possible configuration of this architecture 022.11.01.00.03 022.11.01.01.03
during degraded modes of operation.

538 List the possible inputs and outputs of an FMS. Remark: No 022.11.01.00.04 022.11.01.01.04
standard of FMS can be given, because the FMS is type related
to an aircraft manufacturer and the FMS standard is defined by
the airline customer.

539 Describe the interfaces of the FMS with AFCS. 022.11.01.00.05 022.11.01.01.04
(Merged into 022.11.01.01.04)

540 Describe the interfaces of the FMS with the AT system. 022.11.01.00.06 022.11.01.01.04
(Merged into 022.11.01.01.04)

541 Explain the two functions common to all FMS systems: - 062 05 04 01 03 022.11.01.01.05
Automatic navigation LNAV (lateral navigation) - Flight path
management VNAV (vertical navigation).
(Moved and merged into 022.11.01.01.05)

542 Navigation data base, aircraf data base 022.11.02.00 022.11.02.00


543 022.11.02.01
544 Describe the contents and the main features of the navigation 022.11.02.00.01 022.11.02.01.01
database and of the aircraft data base : read only information,
updating cycle.

545 Define and explain the performance factor. 022.11.02.00.02 022.11.02.02.04


(Moved to 022.11.02.02.04)
546 Define and explain the Cost Index (CI). 022.11.02.00.03 022.11.02.02.05
(Moved to 022.11.02.02.05)
547 State that the navigation database of the FMC may contain the 062.05.04.03.01 022.11.02.01.01
following data: - Reference data for airports (four letter ICAO
identifier) - VOR/DME station data (three letter ICAO identifier) -
Waypoint data (five letter ICAO identifier) - STAR data - SID data
- Holding patterns - Airport runway data - NDB stations
(alphabetic ICAO identifier) - Company flight plan routes.
(Moved and merged into 022.11.02.01.01)
548 State that the navigation database is updated every 28 days. 062.05.04.03.02 022.11.02.01.02
(Moved from 062.05.04.03.02)

549 022.11.02.01.03

550 State that the navigational database is write protected, but 062.05.04.03.03 022.11.02.01.04
additional space exists so that crew created navigational data
may be saved in the computer memory. Such additional data
will also be deleted at the 28 days navigational update of the
database.
(Moved from the subject 062.05.04.03.03)

551 022.11.02.01.05

552 022.11.02.02
553 Explain that a flight management system has the ability to 062.05.04.01.02 022.11.02.02.01
monitor and direct both navigation and performance of the
flight.
(Moved from the subject 062.05.04.01.02)

554 022.11.02.02.02

555 022.11.02.02.03

556 Define and explain the performance factor. 022.11.02.00.02 022.11.02.02.04


(Moved from the subject 022.11.02.00.02)
557 Define and explain the Cost Index (CI). 022.11.02.00.03 022.11.02.02.05
(Moved from the subject 022.11.02.00.03)
558 Operations, limitations 022.11.03.00 022.11.03.00
559 022.11.03.01
560 List and describe data computation and functions including 022.11.03.00.01 022.11.03.01.01
position computations (multi-sensors), flight management,
lateral/vertical navigation and guidance.

561 State that the following are typical output data from the FMC: - 062.05.04.05.02 022.11.03.01.01
Command signals to the flight directors and autopilot -
Command signals to the auto-throttle - Information to the EFIS
displays through the symbol generator - Data to the CDU and
various annunciators.
(Moved and merged into 022.11.03.01.01)

562 State the difference between computations based on measured 022.11.03.00.02 022.11.03.01.02
data (use of sensors) and computations based on database
information and give examples.
563 State the following are typical input data to the FMC: - Time - 062.05.04.05.01 022.11.03.01.02
Fuel flow - Total fuel - TAS, altitude, vertical speed, Mach
number and outside air temperature from the air data
computer (ADC) - DME and radial information from the VHF
NAV receivers - Air/ground position - Flap/slat position - IRS and
GPS positions - CDU (control and display unit) entries.
(Moved and merged into 022.11.03.01.02)

564 Define and explain the Cost Index (CI). 022.11.03.00.03

565 Describe navigation accuracy computations and approach 022.11.03.00.04 022.11.03.01.03


capability, degraded modes of operation : back up navigation,
use of raw data to confirm position/RAIM function for RNAV
procedures.

566 Describe fuel computations with standard and non-standard 022.11.03.00.05 022.11.03.01.04
configurations including one-engine out, landing gear down,
flaps, spoilers, use of the anti-ice system, increase of
consumption due to a MEL/CDL item, etc.

567 022.11.03.01.05

568 Describe automatic radio navigation and tuning (Comm, Nav). 022.11.03.00.06 022.11.03.01.06

569 State that modern FMS may use a range of sensors for 062.05.04.06.01 022.11.03.01.07
calculating the position of the aircraft including VOR, DME, GPS,
IRS and ILS.
(Moved from 062.05.04.06.01)

570 022.11.03.01.08

571 022.11.03.01.09

572 022.11.03.01.10

573 Man Machine Interface (Multi-Function Control Display Unit: 022.11.04.00 022.11.04.00
MCDU)
574 022.11.04.01
575 Give examples and describe the basic functions of the Man 022.11.04.00.01 022.11.04.01.01
Machine Interface (MCDU).
576 State that the communication link between the flight crew and 062.05.05.01.01 022.11.04.01.02
the FMC is the CDU.
(Moved and merged into 022.11.04.01.02)

577 State that the communication link between the flight crew and 062.05.05.01.01 022.11.04.01.02
the FMC is the CDU.
Moved and merged into 022.11.04.01.02)

578 Explain the main components of the CDU as follows: - CDU 062.05.05.01.02 022.11.04.01.02
display including the following terms - page title - data field -
scratchpad - Line select keys - Numeric keys - Alpha keys -
Function and mode keys used to select specific data pages on
the CDU display, to execute orders or to navigate to pages
through the data presented - Warning lights, message light and
offset light.
(Moved and merged into 022.11.04.01.02)

579 022.11.04.01.03

580 022.11.04.01.04

581 022.11.04.01.05

582 ALERTING SYSTEMS, PROXIMITY SYSTEMS 022.12.00.00 022.12.00.00


583 General 022.12.01.00 022.12.01.00
584 022.12.01.01
585 State definitions, category, criteria and alerting systems 022.12.01.00.01 022.12.01.01.01
characteristics according to CS 25/AMJ 25.1322 for aeroplanes
and CS 29 for helicopters as appropriate.

586 Flight warning systems (FWSs) 022.12.02.00 022.12.02.00


587 022.12.02.01
588 State the purpose of a FWS and list the typical sources 022.12.02.00.01 022.12.02.01.01
(abnormal situations) of a warning and/or an alert.

589 List the main components of a FWS. 022.12.02.00.02 022.12.02.01.01


(Merged into 022.12.02.01.01)
590 022.12.02.01.02

591 022.12.02.01.03

592 022.12.02.01.04

593 022.12.02.01.05

594 Stall warning systems (SWSs) 022.12.03.00 022.12.03.00


595 022.12.03.01
596 State the function of a SWS. 022.12.03.00.01 022.12.03.01.01

597 State the characteristics of a SWS according to CS 25.207 (c). 022.12.03.00.02

598 List the different types of stall warning systems. 022.12.03.00.03 022.12.03.01.02

599 List the main components of a SWS. 022.12.03.00.04 022.12.03.01.03

600 List the inputs and the outputs of a SWS. 022.12.03.00.05

601 022.12.03.01.04

602 Stall protection 022.12.04.00 022.12.04.00


603 022.12.04.01
604 State the function of a stall protection system. 022.12.04.00.01 022.12.04.01.01

605 List the different types of stall protection systems including the 022.12.04.00.02 022.12.04.01.02
difference between mechanical and fly-by-wire controls.

606 List the main components of a stall protection system. 022.12.04.00.03

607 List the inputs and the outputs of a stall protection system. 022.12.04.00.04

608 Explain the difference between a stall warning system and a 022.12.04.00.05 022.12.04.01.03
stall protection system.
609 Overspeed warning 022.12.05.00 022.12.05.00
610 022.12.05.01
611 Explain the purpose of an overspeed warning system 022.12.05.00.01 022.12.05.01.01
(VMO/MMO pointer).
612 Explain the design of a mechanical VMO/MMO pointer. 022.12.05.00.02 022.12.05.01.03
(Merged into 022.12.05.01.03)
613 State that for large aeroplanes, an aural warning must be 022.12.05.00.03 022.12.05.01.02
associated to the overspeed warning if an electronic display is
used (see AMC 25.11 § 10.b.(2) p 2-GEN-22).

614 Give examples of VMO/MMO pointer: barber pole pointer, 022.12.05.00.04 022.12.05.01.03
barber pole vertical scale.

615 Take-off warning 022.12.06.00 022.12.06.00


616 022.12.06.01
617 State the purpose of a Take-off warning system and list typical 022.12.06.00.01 022.12.06.01.01
abnormal situations generating a warning (see AMC 25.703 § 4
and § 5).

618 Altitude alert system 022.12.07.00 022.12.07.00


619 022.12.07.01
620 State the function and describe an Altitude alert system. 022.12.07.00.01 022.12.07.01.01

621 List and describe the different types of displays and possible 022.12.07.00.02 022.12.07.01.02
alerts.
622 Radio altimeter 022.12.08.00 022.12.08.00
623 022.12.08.01
624 State the function of a low altitude radio-altimeter. 022.12.08.00.01 022.12.08.01.01

625 Describe the principle of the distance (height) measurement. 022.12.08.00.02 022.12.08.01.02

626 State the bandwidth and frequency range used. 022.12.08.00.03

627 List the different components of a radio-altimeter and describe 022.12.08.00.04 022.12.08.01.03
the different types of displays.
628 List the systems using the radio-altimeter information. 022.12.08.00.05 022.12.08.01.04

629 State the range and accuracy of a radio-altimeter. 022.12.08.00.06 022.12.08.01.05

630 Describe and explain the cable length compensation. 022.12.08.00.07

631 022.12.08.01.06

632 Ground-proximity warning systems (GPWS) 022.12.09.00 022.12.09.00


633 GPWS: design, operation, indications 022.12.09.01 022.12.09.01
634 State the purpose of a ground proximity warning system 022.12.09.01.01 022.12.09.01.01
(GPWS).
635 List the components of GPWS. 022.12.09.01.02

636 List the inputs and the outputs of a GPWS. 022.12.09.01.03 022.12.09.01.02

637 List and describe the different modes of operation of a GPWS. 022.12.09.01.04 022.12.09.01.03

638 Terrain-avoidance warning system (TAWS), other name: 022.12.09.02 022.12.09.02


enhanced GPWS (EGPWS)
639 State the purpose of a Terrain Avoidance Warning System 022.12.09.02.01 022.12.09.02.01
(TAWS) for aeroplanes and HTAWS for helicopters and explain
the difference from a GPWS.

640 List the components of TAWS/HTAWS. 022.12.09.02.02

641 List the inputs and the outputs of a TAWS/HTAWS. 022.12.09.02.03 022.12.09.02.02

642 Give examples of terrain displays and list the different possible 022.12.09.02.04 022.12.09.02.03
alerts.
643 Give examples of time response left to the pilot according to 022.12.09.02.05 022.12.09.02.04
look-ahead distance, speed and aircraft performances.

644 Explain why the TAWS/HTAWS must be coupled to a precise 022.12.09.02.06 022.12.09.02.05
position sensor.
645 022.12.09.02.06

646 Runway Awareness and Advisory System (To be introduced at 022.12.09.03 022.12.09.03
a later date.)
647 Explain that a Runway Awareness and Advisory System is a 022.12.09.03.01
software upgrade of the existing TAWS (EGPWS) to reduce
runway incursions.

648 ACAS/TCAS principles and operations 022.12.10.00.09

649 ACAS/TCAS 022.12.10.00 022.12.10.00


650 022.12.10.01
651 State that ACAS II is an ICAO standard for anti collision 022.12.10.00.01 022.12.10.01.01
purposes.
652 State that TCAS II version 7 is compliant with ACAS II standard. 022.12.10.00.02

653 Explain that ACAS II is an anti-collision system and does not 022.12.10.00.03 022.12.10.01.02
guarantee any specific separation.
654 Describe the purpose of an ACAS II system as an anti-collision 022.12.10.00.04 022.12.10.01.03
system.
655 Define a Resolution Advisory (RA) and a Traffic Advisory (TA). 022.12.10.00.05 022.12.10.01.04
656 State that resolution advisories are calculated in the vertical 022.12.10.00.06 022.12.10.01.05
plane only (climb or descent).

657 Explain the difference between a corrective RA and a preventive 022.12.10.00.07 022.12.10.01.06
RA (no modification of vertical speed).

658 Explain that if two aircraft are fitted with an ACAS II, the RA will 022.12.10.00.08 022.12.10.01.07
be co-ordinated.
659 State that ACAS II equipment can take into account several 022.12.10.00.09 022.12.10.01.08
threats simultaneously.
660 State that a detected aircraft without altitude reporting can 022.12.10.00.10 022.12.10.01.09
only generate a Traffic Advisory.

661 Describe the TCAS II system in relation to: - Antenna used. - 022.12.10.00.11 022.12.10.01.10
Computer and links with radio altimeter, air data computer and
mode S transponder.

662 Identify the inputs and outputs of TCAS II. 022.12.10.00.12

663 Explain the principle of TCAS II interrogations. 022.12.10.00.13 022.12.10.01.11

664 State that standard detection range is approximately 30 NM. 022.12.10.00.14 022.12.10.01.12

665 State that the normal interrogation period is 1 second. 022.12.10.00.15

666 Explain the principle of "reduced surveillance". 022.12.10.00.16 022.12.10.01.13

667 Explain that in high density traffic areas the period can be 022.12.10.00.17 022.12.10.01.14
extended to 5 seconds and the transmission power reduction
can reduce the range detection down to 5 NM.

668 Identify the equipment, which an intruder must be fitted with 022.12.10.00.18 022.12.10.01.15
in order to be detected by TCAS II.
669 Explain the anti collision process: - that the criteria used to 022.12.10.00.19 022.12.10.01.16
trigger an alarm (TA or RA) are the time to reach the Closest
Point of Approach, called TAU, and the difference of altitude. -
that an intruder will be classified as Proximate when being less
than 6 NM and 1200 ft from the TCAS equipped aircraft - that
the limit time to CPA is different depending on aircraft altitude,
linked to a sensitivity level (SL) and state that the value to
trigger a RA is from 15 to 35 seconds. - that, in case of RA, the
intended vertical separation varies from 300 to 600 ft ( 700 ft
above FL420 ), depending on the SL - that below 1000 ft above
ground, no RA can be generated. - that below 1450 ft (radio
altimeter value) "Increase descent" RA is inhibited. - that, in
high altitude, performances of the type of aircraft are taken in
account to inhibit "Climb" and "Increase Climb" RA.

670 List and interpret the following information available from 022.12.10.00.20 022.12.10.01.17
TCAS: - the different possible status for a detected aircraft:
other, proximate, intruder. - the appropriate graphic symbols
and their position on the horizontal display. - different aural
warnings.

671 Explain that a RA is presented as a possible vertical speed, on a 022.12.10.00.21 022.12.10.01.18


TCAS indicator or on the Primary Flight Display.

672 Describe the possible presentation of a RA, on a VSI or on PFD. 022.12.10.00.22

673 Explain that the pilot must not interpret the horizontal track of 022.12.10.00.23 022.12.10.01.19
an intruder upon the display.
674 Rotor/engine overspeed alert system 022.12.11.00 022.12.11.00
675 Design, operation, displays, alarms 022.12.11.01 022.12.11.01
676 Describe the basic design principles, operation, displays and 022.12.11.01.01 022.12.11.01.01
warning/alarm systems fitted to different helicopters.

677 INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS - ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS 022.13.00.00 022.13.00.00


678 022.13.01.00
679 Design, limitations 022.13.01.01 022.13.01.01
680 List the different technologies used eg CRT and LCD and the 022.13.01.01.01 022.13.01.01.01
associated limitations: - cockpit temperature - glare.

681 Mechanical integrated instruments 022.13.02.00 022.13.02.00


682 022.13.02.01

683 Describe an Attitude and Director Indicator (ADI) and a 022.13.02.00.01 022.13.02.01.01
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI).
684 List all the information that can be displayed for either 022.13.02.00.02 022.13.02.01.02
instruments.
685 Electronic flight instrument systems (EFISs) 022.13.03.00 022.13.03.00
686 Design, operation 022.13.03.01 022.13.03.01
687 List and describe the different components of an EFIS. 022.13.03.01.01

688 List the following possible inputs and outputs of an EFIS: - 022.13.03.01.02 022.13.03.01.01
control panel - display units - symbol generator - remote light
sensor.

689 Describe the function of the symbol generator unit. 022.13.03.01.03

690 State that FMS equipped aircraft, typically has two displays on 062.05.05.02.01 022.13.03.01.02
the instrument panel in front of each pilot.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.01.02)

691 022.13.03.01.03

692 022.13.03.01.04

693 022.13.03.01.05

694 Primary flight display (PFD), electronic attitude director 022.13.03.02 022.13.03.02
indicator (EADI)
695 State that a PFD (or an EADI) presents a dynamic color display 022.13.03.02.01 022.13.03.02.01
of all the parameters necessary to control the aircraft.

696 List and describe the following information that can also be 022.13.03.02.03 022.13.03.02.01
displayed on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) unit of an
aeroplane: - Take off and landing reference speeds - minimum
airspeed - lower selectable airspeed - Mach number.

697 State that the following data are typically displayed on the 062.05.05.02.02 022.13.03.02.01
attitude display: - Attitude information - Flight director
command bars - Radio height and barometric altitude - Course
deviation indication - Glide path information (when an ILS is
tuned) - Speed information.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.02.01)
698 List and describe the following information that can be 022.13.03.02.02 022.13.03.02.02
displayed on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) unit of an aircraft:
- Flight Mode Annunciation (Moved to 022.13.03.02.07)
- basic T: (Moved to 022.13.03.02.01)
- attitude (Moved to 022.13.03.02.02)
- IAS
- altitude (Moved to 022.13.03.02.05)
- heading/track indications (Moved to 022.13.03.02.06)
- vertical speed (Moved to 022.13.03.02.07)
- maximum airspeed warning
- selected airspeed (Moved to 022.13.03.02.03)
- speed trend vector (Moved to 022.13.03.02.03)
- selected altitude (Moved to 022.13.03.02.05)
- current barometric reference
- steering indications (FD command bars) (Moved to
022.13.03.02.02)
- selected heading (Moved to 022.13.03.02.06)
- Flight Path Vector (FPV) (Moved to 022.13.03.02.07)
- Radio altitude (Moved to 022.13.03.02.07)
- Decision height
- ILS indications (Moved to 022.13.03.02.07)
- ACAS (TCAS) indications (Moved to 022.13.03.02.07)
- failure flags and messages.

699 State that the following data are typically displayed on the 062.05.05.02.02 022.13.03.02.02
attitude display: - Attitude information - Flight director
command bars - Radio height and barometric altitude - Course
deviation indication - Glide path information (when an ILS is
tuned) - Speed information.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.02.02)

700 List and describe the following information that can be 022.13.03.02.02 022.13.03.02.03
displayed on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) unit of an
aircraft: ...
- selected airspeed
- speed trend vector
...

701 State that the following data are typically displayed on the 062.05.05.02.02 022.13.03.02.03
attitude display: - Attitude information - Flight director
command bars - Radio height and barometric altitude - Course
deviation indication - Glide path information (when an ILS is
tuned) - Speed information.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.02.03)

702 State that the following data are typically displayed on the 062.05.05.02.02 022.13.03.02.04
attitude display: - Attitude information - Flight director
command bars - Radio height and barometric altitude - Course
deviation indication - Glide path information (when an ILS is
tuned) - Speed information.
(Moved from 062.05.05.02.02)
703 List and describe the following information that can be 022.13.03.02.02 022.13.03.02.05
displayed on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) unit of an
aircraft: ...
- altitude
- selected altitude
...

704 State that the following data are typically displayed on the 062.05.05.02.02 022.13.03.02.05
attitude display: - Attitude information - Flight director
command bars - Radio height and barometric altitude - Course
deviation indication - Glide path information (when an ILS is
tuned) - Speed information.
(Moved from 062.05.05.02.02)

705 List and describe the following information that can be 022.13.03.02.02 022.13.03.02.06
displayed on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) unit of an aircraft:
...
- heading/track indications
- selected heading
...

706 List and describe the following information that can be 022.13.03.02.02 022.13.03.02.07
displayed on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) unit of an aircraft:
...
- Flight Path Vector (FPV)
- Radio altitude
- ILS indications
- ACAS (TCAS) indications
...

707 State that the following data are typically displayed on the 062.05.05.02.02 022.13.03.02.07
attitude display: - Attitude information - Flight director
command bars - Radio height and barometric altitude - Course
deviation indication - Glide path information (when an ILS is
tuned) - Speed information.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.02.07)

708 Navigation display (ND), electronic horizontal situation 022.13.03.03 022.13.03.03


indicator (EHSI)
709 State that a ND (or a EHSI) provides a mode-selectable colour 022.13.03.03.01 022.13.03.03.01
flight navigation display.
710 List and describe the following four modes displayed on a 022.13.03.03.02 022.13.03.03.02
Navigation Display (ND) unit: - MAP (or ARC): - VOR (or ROSE
VOR) - APP (or ROSE LS) - PLAN.

711 State the following typical modes of the navigation display: - 062.05.05.03.01 022.13.03.03.02
Full VOR/ILS mode showing the whole compass rose - Expanded
(arc) VOR/ILS mode showing the forward 90° sector - Map
mode - Plan mode.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.02)
712 List and explain the following information that can be displayed 022.13.03.03.03 022.13.03.03.03
with the MAP (or ARC) mode on a Navigation Display (ND) unit:
- selected and current track - selected and current heading
(magnetic or true north reference) - cross track error - origin
and destination airport with runway selected - bearings To or
From the tuned and selected stations - active and/or secondary
flight plan - range marks - ground speed - TAS and Ground
Speed - wind direction and speed - next waypoint distance and
estimated time of arrival - additional navigation facilities (STA),
waypoint (WPT) and airports (ARPT) - weather radar
information - traffic information from the ACAS (TCAS) - terrain
information from the TAWS or HTAWS (EGPWS) - failure flags
and messages.

713 List and interpret the following information typically shown on a 062.05.05.04.01 022.13.03.03.03
navigation display in "Full VOR/ILS" mode: - The map display
will be in full VOR mode when a VOR frequency is selected and
full ILS mode when an ILS frequency is selected on the VHF NAV
frequency selector. - DME distance to selected DME station. - A
full 360° compass rose. At the top of the compass rose present
heading is indicated and shown as digital numbers in a heading
box. Next to the heading box is indicated if the heading is true
or magnetic. True heading is available on aircraft with IRS. A
triangle (different symbols are used on different aircraft) on the
compass rose indicates present track. Track indication is only
available when the FMC navigation computer is able to
compute aircraft position A square symbol on the outside of the
compass rose indicates the selected heading for the autopilot,
and if "heading select" mode is activated on the autopilot this is
the heading the aircraft will turn to. Within the compass rose a
CDI is shown. On the CDI the course pointer points to the
selected VOR/ILS course SET on the OBS. On the CDI the course
deviation bar will indicate angular deflection from selected
VOR/ILS track. Full scale deflection side to side in VOR mode is
20°, and 5° in ILS mode. In VOR mode a TO/FROM indication is
shown on the display. The selected ILS/VOR frequency is
shown. ILS or VOR mode is shown according to selected
frequency. If an ILS frequency is selected a glide path deviation
scale is shown.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)

714 A wind arrow indicating wind direction according to the 062.05.05.04.02 022.13.03.03.03
compass rose, and velocity in numbers next to the arrow.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)
715 Given an EFIS navigation display in full VOR/ILS mode, read off 062.05.05.04.03 022.13.03.03.03
the following information: - Heading (Magnetic/True) - Track
(Magnetic/True) - Drift - Wind correction angle - Selected
course - Actual radial - Left or right of selected track - Above or
below the glide path - Distance to the DME station - Selected
heading for the autopilot heading select bug - Determine if the
display is in VOR or ILS rose mode.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)

716 Given an EFIS navigation display in expanded VOR/ILS mode, 062.05.05.04.04 022.13.03.03.03
read off the following information: - Heading (Magnetic/True) -
Track (Magnetic/True) - Drift - Wind correction angle -
Tailwind/headwind - Wind velocity - Selected course - Actual
radial - Left or right of selected track - Above or below the glide
path - Distance to the DME station - Selected heading for the
autopilot heading select bug - State if the display is in VOR or
ILS rose mode.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)

717 Given an EFIS navigation display in map mode, read off the 062.05.05.04.05 022.13.03.03.03
following information: - Heading (Magnetic/True) - Track
(Magnetic/True) - Drift - Wind correction angle -
Tailwind/headwind - Wind velocity - Left or right of the FMS
track - Distance to active waypoint; - ETO next waypoint -
Selected heading for the autopilot heading select bug -
Determine if a depicted symbol is a VOR/DME station or an
airport - Determine if a specific waypoint is part of the FMS
route.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)

718 List and explain the following information that can be displayed 022.13.03.03.04 022.13.03.03.04
with the VOR/APP (or ROSE VOR/ROSE LS) mode on a
Navigation Display (ND) unit: - selected and current track -
selected and current heading (magnetic or true north
reference) - VOR course or ILS localizer course - VOR (VOR or
ROSE VOR mode) or LOC course deviation (APP or ROSE LS) -
Glide Slope pointer (APP or ROSE LS) - Frequency or identifier of
the tuned station - ground speed - TAS and Ground Speed -
Wind direction and speed - Failure flags and messages.
719 List and interpret the following information typically shown on a 062.05.05.04.01 022.13.03.03.04
navigation display in "Full VOR/ILS" mode: - The map display
will be in full VOR mode when a VOR frequency is selected and
full ILS mode when an ILS frequency is selected on the VHF NAV
frequency selector. - DME distance to selected DME station. - A
full 360° compass rose. At the top of the compass rose present
heading is indicated and shown as digital numbers in a heading
box. Next to the heading box is indicated if the heading is true
or magnetic. True heading is available on aircraft with IRS. A
triangle (different symbols are used on different aircraft) on the
compass rose indicates present track. Track indication is only
available when the FMC navigation computer is able to
compute aircraft position A square symbol on the outside of the
compass rose indicates the selected heading for the autopilot,
and if "heading select" mode is activated on the autopilot this is
the heading the aircraft will turn to. Within the compass rose a
CDI is shown. On the CDI the course pointer points to the
selected VOR/ILS course SET on the OBS. On the CDI the course
deviation bar will indicate angular deflection from selected
VOR/ILS track. Full scale deflection side to side in VOR mode is
20°, and 5° in ILS mode. In VOR mode a TO/FROM indication is
shown on the display. The selected ILS/VOR frequency is
shown. ILS or VOR mode is shown according to selected
frequency. If an ILS frequency is selected a glide path deviation
scale is shown.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)

720 A wind arrow indicating wind direction according to the 062.05.05.04.02 022.13.03.03.04
compass rose, and velocity in numbers next to the arrow.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)

721 Given an EFIS navigation display in full VOR/ILS mode, read off 062.05.05.04.03 022.13.03.03.04
the following information: - Heading (Magnetic/True) - Track
(Magnetic/True) - Drift - Wind correction angle - Selected
course - Actual radial - Left or right of selected track - Above or
below the glide path - Distance to the DME station - Selected
heading for the autopilot heading select bug - Determine if the
display is in VOR or ILS rose mode.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)
722 Given an EFIS navigation display in expanded VOR/ILS mode, 062.05.05.04.04 022.13.03.03.04
read off the following information: - Heading (Magnetic/True) -
Track (Magnetic/True) - Drift - Wind correction angle -
Tailwind/headwind - Wind velocity - Selected course - Actual
radial - Left or right of selected track - Above or below the glide
path - Distance to the DME station - Selected heading for the
autopilot heading select bug - State if the display is in VOR or
ILS rose mode.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)

723 Given an EFIS navigation display in map mode, read off the 062.05.05.04.05 022.13.03.03.04
following information: - Heading (Magnetic/True) - Track
(Magnetic/True) - Drift - Wind correction angle -
Tailwind/headwind - Wind velocity - Left or right of the FMS
track - Distance to active waypoint; - ETO next waypoint -
Selected heading for the autopilot heading select bug -
Determine if a depicted symbol is a VOR/DME station or an
airport - Determine if a specific waypoint is part of the FMS
route.
(Moved and merged into 022.13.03.03.03, 022.13.03.03.04)

724 List and explain the following information that can be displayed 022.13.03.03.05 022.13.03.03.05
with the PLAN mode on a Navigation Display (ND) unit: -
selected and current track - origin and destination airport with
runway selected - active and/or secondary flight plan - range
marks - ground speed - TAS and Ground Speed - wind direction
and speed - next waypoint distance and estimated time of
arrival - additional navigation facilities (STA), waypoint (WPT)
and airports (ARPT) - failure flags and messages.

725 Give examples of possible transfers between units. 022.13.03.03.06

726 Give examples of EFIS control panels. 022.13.03.03.07

727 Given an EFIS navigation display in plan mode, read off the 062.05.05.04.06 022.13.03.03.06
following information: - Heading (Magnetic/True) - Track
(Magnetic/True) - Drift - Wind correction angle - Distance to
active waypoint - ETO active waypoint - State selected heading
for the autopilot heading select bug - Measure and state true
track of specific FMS route track.
(Moved amd merged from 062.05.05.04.06)

728 022.13.03.03.07
729 022.13.03.03.08

730 Engine parameters, crew warnings, aircraf systems, procedure 022.13.04.00 022.13.04.00
and mission display systems
731 022.13.04.01
732 State the purpose of the following systems: - engine 022.13.04.00.01 022.13.04.01.01
instruments centralised display unit - crew alerting system
associated with an electronic check list display unit - aircraft
systems display unit enables the display of normal and
degraded modes of operation of the aircraft systems.

733 For each system, describe the architecture and give examples of 022.13.04.00.02 022.13.04.01.02
display.
734 Give the following different names by which engine parameters, 022.13.04.00.03 022.13.04.01.03
crew warnings,aircraft systems and procedures display systems
are known: - Multi Function Display Unit (MFDU) - Engine
Indication and Crew alerting systems (EICAS) - Engine and
Warning Display (EWD) - Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor
(ECAM).

735 Give the names of the following different display systems and 022.13.04.00.04 022.13.04.01.04
describe their main functions - Vehicle Engine Monitoring
Display (VEMD) - Integrated Instruments Display System (IIDS).

736 State the purpose of a mission display unit. 022.13.04.00.05 022.13.04.01.05

737 For each system, describe the architecture and give examples of 022.13.04.00.06 022.13.04.01.06
display.
738 022.13.04.01.07

739 022.13.04.01.08
740 022.13.04.01.09

741 Engine first limit indicator 022.13.05.00 022.13.05.00


742 022.13.05.01
743 Describe the principles of design, operation and compare the 022.13.05.00.01 022.13.05.01.01
different indications and displays available.
744 Describe what information can be displayed on the screen, 022.13.05.00.02 022.13.05.01.02
when in the limited screen composite mode.

745 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) (to be introduced at a later date) 022.13.06.00 022.13.06.00

746 022.13.06.01
747 022.13.06.01.01

748 022.13.06.01.02

749 022.13.06.01.03

750 022.13.06.01.04

751 022.13.07.00

752 022.13.07.01
753 022.13.07.01.01
754 022.13.07.01.02

755 022.13.07.01.03

756 022.13.07.01.04

757 022.13.07.01.05

758 022.13.07.01.06

759 MAINTENANCE, MONITORING AND RECORDING SYSTEMS 022.14.00.00 022.14.00.00

760 State the basic technologies used for this equipment and its 022.14.00.00.01
performances. Remark: No knowledge of the applicable
operational requirements is necessary.

761 Cockpit voice recorder (CVR) 022.14.01.00 022.14.01.00


762 022.14.01.01
763 State the purpose of a Cockpit Voice Recorder. 022.14.01.00.01 022.14.01.01.01

764 List the main components of a CVR: - a shock resistant tape 022.14.01.00.02 022.14.01.01.02
recorder associated with an underwater locating device - an
area microphone - a control unit with the following controls:
auto/on, test and erase and a headset jack.
765 List the following main parameters recorded on the CVR: - voice 022.14.01.00.03 022.14.01.01.03
communications transmitted from or received on the flight deck
- the aural environment of the flight deck - voice
communication of flight crew members using the aeroplane’s
interphone system - voice or audio signals introduced into a
headset or speaker - voice communication of flight crew
members using the public address system, when installed.

766 Flight data recorder (FDR) 022.14.02.00 022.14.02.00


767 022.14.02.01
768 State the purpose of a Flight Data Recorder. 022.14.02.00.01 022.14.02.01.01

769 List the main components of a FDR: - a data interface and 022.14.02.00.02 022.14.02.01.02
acquisition unit - a recording system (digital flight data recorder)
- two control units (start sequence, event mark setting).

770 List the following main parameters recorded on the FDR: - time 022.14.02.00.03 022.14.02.01.03
or relative time count - attitude (pitch and roll) - airspeed -
pressure altitude - heading - normal acceleration -
propulsive/thrust power on each engine and cockpit
thrust/power lever position if applicable - flaps/slats
configuration or cockpit selection - ground spoilers and/or
speed brake selection.

771 State that additional parameters can be recorded according to 022.14.02.00.04 022.14.02.01.04
FDR capacity and the applicable operational requirements.

772 Maintenance and monitoring systems 022.14.03.00 022.14.03.00


773 Helicopter operations monitoring program (HOMP): design, 022.14.03.01 022.14.03.01
operation, performance
774 Describe the Helicopter Operations Monitoring Programme 022.14.03.01.01 022.14.03.01.01
(HOMP) as a helicopter version of aeroplane Flight Data
Monitoring (FDM) programmes.

775 State that the HOMP software consists of three integrated 022.14.03.01.02 022.14.03.01.02
modules: - Flight Data Events (FDE) - Flight Data Measurements
(FDM) - Flight Data Traces (FDT).

776 Describe and explain the information flow of HOMP. 022.14.03.01.03 022.14.03.01.03

777 Describe HOMP Operation and Management Processes. 022.14.03.01.04 022.14.03.01.04

778 Integrated health and usage monitoring system (IHUMS): 022.14.03.02 022.14.03.02
design, operation, performance
779 Describe the main features of IHUMS : - Rotor System Health - 022.14.03.02.01 022.14.03.02.01
Cockpit Voice / Flight Data Recorder - Gearbox System Health -
Engine Health - Exceedance Monitoring - Usage Monitoring -
Transparent operation - Ground Station Features - Exceedance
Monitoring - Monitoring - Gearbox Health - Rotor Track &
Balance - Engine Performance Trending - Usage Monitoring -
Quality Controlled to Level 2.

780 Describe the Ground Station Features of IHUMS. 022.14.03.02.02 022.14.03.02.02

781 Summarise the benefits of IHUMS including: - Reduced risk of 022.14.03.02.03 022.14.03.02.03
catastrophic failure of rotor or gearbox - Improved rotor track &
balance giving lower vibration levels - Accurate recording of
flight exceedances - Cockpit Voice Recorder / Flight Data
Recorder allows accurate accident / incident investigation &
HOMP - Maintenance Cost Savings.

782 State the benefits of IHUMS and HOMP. 022.14.03.02.04 022.14.03.02.04

783 Aeroplane condition monitoring system (ACMS): general, 022.14.03.03 022.14.03.03


design, operation
784 State the purpose of an Aeroplane Condition Monitoring 022.14.03.03.01 022.14.03.03.01
System (ACMS).
785 Describe the structure of an ACMS including: - Inputs: aircraft 022.14.03.03.02 022.14.03.03.02
systems (such as Air cond., Auto flight, flight controls, fuel,
Landing gear, Navigation, Pneumatic, APU, Engine), MCDU -
Data Management unit - Recording unit: digital recorder -
Outputs: printer, ACARS or ATSU.

786 State that maintenance messages sent by an ACMS can be 022.14.03.03.03 022.14.03.03.03
transmitted without crew notification.
787 022.14.03.03.04

788 022.14.03.03.05

789 022.14.03.03.06

790 DIGITAL CIRCUITS AND COMPUTERS 022.15.00.00 022.15.00.00


791 Digital circuits and computers 022.15.01.00 022.15.01.00
792 022.15.01.01
793 Define a computer as a machine for manipulating data 022.15.01.00.01 022.15.01.01.01
according to a list of instructions.
794 List the following main components of a stored-programme 022.15.01.00.02
(“Von Neumann architecture”) basic computer: - Central
Processing Unit (CPU) including Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and
the control unit. - Memory - Input and output devices
(peripherals) and state their functions.

795 State the existence of the different buses and their function. 022.15.01.00.03 022.15.01.01.02

796 Define the terms ‘hardware’ and ‘software’. 022.15.01.00.04 022.15.01.01.03

797 Define and explain the terms ‘multitasking’ and 022.15.01.00.05


‘multiprocessing’.
798 With the help of the relevant 022 references, give examples of 022.15.01.00.06 022.15.01.01.04
airborne computers, such as ADC, FMS, GPWS, etc. and list the
possible peripheral equipment for each system.

799 Describe the principle of the following technologies used for 022.15.01.00.07
memories : - chip circuit - magnetic disk - optical disk.

800 Software: General, definitions and certification specifications. 022.15.02.00

801 State the difference between assembly languages, high level 022.15.02.00.01
languages and scripting languages.
802 Define the term ‘operating system’ (OS) and give different 022.15.02.00.02
examples including airborne systems such as FMS or ATSU (for
aeroplanes only).

803 State the existence of "Software Considerations in Airborne 022.15.02.00.03


Systems and Equipment Certification" (see document
referenced RTCA/DO-178B or EUROCAE ED-12B).

804 List the specific levels of safety criticality according to document 022.15.02.00.04
EUROCAE ED-12B.
Moved to/from New syllabus text

Reworded, intent the


another subject

Text unmodified
Renumbered

Deleted

same
New
AIRCRAFT GENERAL KNOWLEDGE - INSTRUMENTATION x
SENSORS AND INSTRUMENTS x
Pressure gauge x
Units for pressure, sensor types, measurements x
Define ‘pressure’, ‘absolute pressure’ and ‘differential pressure’. x x

List the following units used for pressure measurement: Pascal; x x


bar; inches of mercury (in Hg); pounds per square inch (psi).

State the relationship between the different units. x x

List and describe the following different types of sensors used x x


according to the pressure to be measured: aneroid capsules;
bellows; diaphragms; bourdon tube.

Identify pressure measurements that are applicable to an x


aircraft: liquid-pressure measurement (fuel, oil, hydraulic); air-
pressure measurement (bleed-air systems, air-conditioning
systems); engine-pressure measurement manifold pressure
(MAP), engine pressure ratio (EPR)).

Identify and read pressure measurement indications both for x


engine indications and other systems.
Explain the implications of the following pressure measurement x
errors both for engine indications and other systems: loss of
pressure sensing; incorrect pressure indications.

Temperature sensing x
Units for temperature, measurements x
Explain temperature. x x

List the following units that can be used for temperature x x


measurement: Kelvin; Celsius; Fahrenheit.
State the relationship between these units and convert x
between them.
x
x

Identify temperature measurements that are applicable to an x


aircraft: gas temperature measurement (ambient air, bleed-air
systems, air-conditioning systems, air inlet, exhaust gas, gas
turbine outlets); liquid-temperature measurement (fuel, oil,
hydraulic); component-temperature measurement (generator,
transformer rectifier unit (TRU), pumps (fuel, hydraulic), power
transfer unit (PTU).

Identify and read temperature measurement indications for x


both engine indications and other systems.
Fuel gauge x
Units for fuel, measurements, fuel gauges x
State that the quantity of fuel can be measured by volume or x x
mass.
List the following units used for fuel quantity: kilogramme; x
pound; litres; gallons (US and imperial).
Convert between the various units. x

Explain the parameters that can affect the measurement of the x


volume or mass of the fuel in a fuel tank: temperature; aircraft
accelerations and attitudes; and explain how the fuel-gauge
system design compensates for these changes.

Describe and explain the operating principles of the following x x


types of fuel gauges: float system; capacitance-type of fuel-
gauge system.ultrasound-type of fuel-gauge system: to be
introduced at a later date.

Describe and complete a typical post-refuelling procedure for a x


pilot: recording the volume that was filled; converting to the
appropriate unit used by the aircraft fuel gauge(s) to compare
the actual indicated fuel content to the calculated fuel content;
assess appropriate action if the numbers does not compare.

Fuel flowmeters x
Fuel flow, units for fuel flow, total fuel consumption x
Define ‘fuel flow’ and where it is measured. x x

State that fuel flow may be measured by volume or mass per x x


unit of time.
List the following units used for fuel flow when measured by x x
mass per hour: kilogrammes/hour; pounds/hour.
List the following units used for fuel flow when measured by x
volume per hour: litres/hour; imperial gallons/hour; US
gallons/hour.

Explain how total fuel consumption is obtained. x x

Tachometer x
Types, operating principles, units for engine speed x
List the following types of tachometers, describe their basic x
operating principle and give examples of use: mechanical
(rotating magnet); electrical (three-phase tacho-generator);
electronic (impulse measurement with speed probe and phonic
wheel); and describe the operating principle of each type.

Explain the typical units for engine speed: rpm for piston- x
engine aircraft; - percentage for turbine-engine aircraft.
Explain that some types of rpm indicators require electrical x
power to provide an indication.
Thrust measurement x
Parameters, operating principle x
List and describe the following two parameters used to x x
represent thrust: N1; - EPR.
Explain the operating principle of using an engine with EPR x
indication and explain the consequences of incorrect or missing
EPR to the operation of the engine, including reverting to N1
mode.

Give examples of display for N1 and EPR. x x

Engine torquemeter x
Torque, torquemeters x
Define ‘torque’. x x

Explain the relationship between power, torque and rpm. x x

List the following units used for torque: Newton meters; inch or x x
foot pounds.
State that engine torque can be displayed as a percentage. x x
List and describe the following different types of torquemeters, x x
and explain their operating principles: mechanical; electronic.

Compare the two systems with regard to design and weight. x x

Give examples of display. x x

Synchroscope x
Purpose, operating principle, display x
State the purpose of a synchroscope. x x

Explain the operating principle of a synchroscope. x x

Give examples of display. x x

Engine-vibration monitoring x
Purpose, operating principle of a vibration-monitoring system, x
display
State the purpose of a vibration-monitoring system for a jet x x
engine.
Describe the operating principle of a vibration-monitoring x x
system using the following two types of sensors: piezoelectric
crystal; magnet.

Explain that there is no specific unit for vibration monitoring, x


i.e. it is determined by specified numeric threshold values.

Give examples of display. x x

Time measurement x
On-board clock x
Explain that the on-board aircraft clock provides a time x
reference for several of the on-board systems including aircraft
communications addressing and reporting system (ACARS) and
engine and systems maintenance.

MEASUREMENT OF AIR-DATA PARAMETERS x


Pressure measurement x
Definitions x
Define the following pressure measurements and state the x
relationship between them: static pressure; dynamic pressure; -
total pressure.

Pitot/static system: design and errors x


Describe the design and the operating principle of a: static x
port/source; pitot tube; combined pitot/static probe.
For each of these indicate the various locations and describe
the following associated errors and how to correct, minimise
the effect of or compensate for them: position errors;
instrument errors; errors due to a non-longitudinal axial flow
(including manoeuvre-induced errors).

Describe a typical pitot/static system and list the possible x


outputs.
Explain the redundancy and the interconnections that typically
exist in complex pitot/static systems found in large aircraft.

Explain the purpose of pitot/static system heating.

Describe alternate static sources and their effects when used, x


particularly in unpressurised aircraft.
Describe a modern pitot static system using solid-state sensors x
near the pitot probe or static port converting the air data to
numerical data (electrical signals) before being sent to the air-
data computer(s).

Temperature measurement x
Definitions x
Define the following and explain the relationship between
them: outside air temperature (OAT); total air temperature
(TAT); - static air temperature (SAT).

Explain the term ‘ram rise’ and convert TAT to SAT.

Explain why TAT is often displayed and that TAT is the


temperature input to the air-data computer.
Design and operation x
x

Indicate typical locations for both direct-reading and remote- x


reading temperature probes, and describe the following errors:
position error; - instrument error.

Explain the purpose of temperature probe heating and interpret x


the effect of heating on sensed temperature unless
automatically compensated for.

Angle-of-attack (AoA) measurement x


Sensor types, operating principles, ice protection, displays, x
incorrect indications
Describe the following two types of AoA sensors: null-seeking x x
(slotted) probe; vane detector.
For each type, explain the operating principles. x x

Explain how both types are protected against ice. x x

Give examples of systems that use the AoA as an input, such as: x x
air-data computer; stall warning systems; flight-envelope
protection systems.

Give examples of and interpret different types of AoA displays: x


simple light arrays of green, amber and red lights; - gauges
showing a numerical scale.

Explain the implications for the pilot if the AoA indication x


becomes incorrect but still provides data, e.g. if the sensor is
frozen in a fixed position.

Explain how an incorrect AoA measurement can affect the x


controllability of an aircraft with flight-envelope protection.

Altimeter x
Units, terms, types, operating principles, displays, errors, x
corrections
x

List the following two units used for altimeters and state the x x
relationship between them: feet; metres.
Define the following terms: height, altitude; indicated altitude, x x
true altitude; pressure altitude, density altitude.

Define the following barometric references: ‘QNH’, ‘QFE’, x x


‘1013,25’.
Explain the operating principles of an altimeter. x x

Describe and compare the following three types of altimeters x


and reason(s) why particular designs may be required in certain
airspace: simple altimeter (single capsule); sensitive altimeter
(multi-capsule); servo-assisted altimeter.

Give examples of associated displays: pointer, multi-pointer, x x


drum, vertical straight scale.
Describe the following errors: static system error; instrument x
error; barometric error; temperature error (air column not at
ISA conditions); lag (altimeter response to change of height).

Demonstrate the use of an altimeter correction table for the x


following errors: temperature corrections; - aircraft position
errors.

Describe the effects of a blockage or a leakage on the static x x


pressure line.
Describe the use of GPS altitude as an alternative means of x
checking erroneous altimeter indications, and highlight the
limitations of the GPS altitude indication.

Vertical speed indicator (VSI) x


VSI and instantaneous vertical speed indicator (IVSI) x
List the two units used for VSIs and state the relationship x x
between them: metres per second; feet per minute.

Explain the operating principles of a VSI and an IVSI. x

Describe and compare the following types of VSIs: barometric x


type (VSI); instantaneous barometric type (IVSI); inertial type
(inertial information provided by an inertial reference unit).

Describe the following VSI errors: static system errors; x


instrument errors; time lag.
Describe the effects on a VSI of a blockage or a leakage on the x x
static pressure line.
Give examples of a VSI display. x x

Compare the indications of a VSI and an IVSI during flight in x


turbulence and appropriate pilot technique during
manoeuvring using either type.

Airspeed indicator (ASI) x


Units, errors, operating principles, displays, position errors, x
unreliable airspeed indications
List the following three units used for airspeed and state the x x
relationship between them: nautical miles/hour (kt); statute
miles/hour (mph); kilometres/hour (km/h).

Describe the following ASI errors and state when they must be x
considered: pitot/static system errors; instrument errors;
position errors; compressibility errors; density errors.

Explain the operating principles of an ASI (as appropriate to x x


aeroplanes or helicopters).
Give examples of an ASI display: pointer, vertical straight scale, x
and digital (HUD display).
Demonstrate the use of an ASI correction table for position x
error.
Define and explain the following colour codes that can be used x
on an ASI: white arc (flap operating speed range); green arc
(normal operating speed range); yellow arc (caution speed
range); red line (VNE) or barber’s pole (VMO); blue line (best
rate of climb speed, one-engine-out for multi-engine piston
light aeroplanes).

Define and explain the following colour codes that can be used x
on an ASI: green arc (normal operating speed range); red line
(VNE); - blue line (maximum airspeed during autorotation).

Describe the effects on an ASI of a blockage or a leakage in the x x


static or total pressure line(s).
Define the term ‘unreliable airspeed’ and describe the means x
by which it can be recognised such as: different airspeed
indications between ASIs; unexpected aircraft behaviour;
buffeting; aircraft systems warning; aircraft attitude.

Describe the appropriate procedures available to the pilot in x


the event of unreliable airspeed indications: combination of a
pitch attitude and power setting; ambient wind noise inside the
aircraft; use of GPS speed indications and the associated
limitations.

Machmeter x
Operating principle, display, CAS, TAS and Mach number x

Define ‘Mach number’ and ‘local speed sound’ (LSS). Calculate x


between LSS, TAS and Mach number.
Describe the operating principle of a Machmeter. x x

Explain why a Machmeter does not suffer from compressibility x


error.
Give examples of a Machmeter display: pointer, drum, vertical x x
straight scale, digital.
Describe the effects on a Machmeter of a blockage or a leakage x
in the static or total pressure line(s).
Explain the relationship between CAS, TAS and Mach number. x
Explain how CAS, TAS and Mach number vary in relation to each
other during a climb, a descent, or in level flight in different
temperature conditions.

State the existence of maximum operating limit speed (VMO) x


and maximum operating Mach number (MMO).
Describe typical indications of MMO and VMO on analogue and x
digital instruments.
Describe the relationship between MMO and VMO with change x
in altitude and the implications of climbing at constant IAS and
descending at constant Mach number with respect to the
margin to MMO and VMO.
Describe the implications of climbing or descending at constant x
Mach number or constant IAS with respect to the margin to the
stall speed or maximum speed.

Air-data computer (ADC) x


Operating principle, data, errors, air-data inertial reference x
unit
Explain the operating principle of an ADC. x x

List the following possible input data: TAT; static pressure; total x x
pressure; measured temperature; AoA; flaps position; landing
gear position; stored aircraft data.

List the following possible output data, as applicable to x x


aeroplanes or helicopters: IAS; TAS; SAT; TAT; Mach number;
AoA; altitude; vertical speed; VMO/MMO pointer.

Explain how position, instrument, compressibility and density x x


errors can be compensated/corrected to achieve a TAS
calculation.

Give examples of instruments or systems which may use ADC x x


output data.
Explain that an air-data inertial reference unit (ADIRU) is an ADC x
integrated with an inertial reference unit (IRU), that there will
be separate controls for the ADC part and inertial reference (IR)
part, and that incorrect selection during failure scenarios may
lead to unintended and potentially irreversible consequences.

Explain the ADC architecture for air-data measurement x x


including sensors, processing units and displays, as opposed to
stand-alone air-data measurement instruments.

Describe the consequences of the loss of an ADC compared to x


the failure of individual instruments.
x

MAGNETISM - DIRECT-READING COMPASS AND FLUX VALVE x

Earth’s magnetic field x


Magnetic field, variation, dip x
Describe the magnetic field of the Earth. x x
Moved from See new LO reference x
subject 061
Explain the properties of a magnet. x x

Define the following terms: magnetic variation; magnetic dip x x


(inclination).
Moved from See new LO reference above x
subject 061

Describe that a magnetic compass will align itself to both the x


horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (dip) components of the
Earth’s magnetic field, thus will not function in the vicinity of
the magnetic poles.

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 061

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 061

Demonstrate the use of variation values (given as East/West x


(E/W) or +/–) to calculate: true heading to magnetic heading; -
magnetic heading to true heading.

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 061

Aircraf magnetic field x


Permanent magnetism, electromagnetism, deviation x
Explain the following differences between permanent x
magnetism and electromagnetism: - when they are present; -
what affects their magnitude.

Explain the principles of and the reasons for: compass swinging x x


(determination of initial deviations); compass compensation
(correction of deviations found); compass calibration
(determination of residual deviations).

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 061
Moved from See new LO reference above x
subject 061

Explain how permanent magnetism within the aircraft structure x


and electromagnetism from the aircraft systems affect the
accuracy of a compass.

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 061

Describe the purpose and the use of a deviation correction x x


card.
Demonstrate the use of deviation values (either given as E/W or x
+/–) from a compass deviation card to calculate: compass
heading to magnetic heading; - magnetic heading to compass
heading.

Direct-reading magnetic compass x


Purpose, errors, timed turns, serviceability x
Explain the purpose of a direct-reading magnetic compass. x

Describe how the direct-reading magnetic compass will only x


show correct indications during straight, level and
unaccelerated flight, and that an error will occur during the
following flight manoeuvres (no numerical examples): -
acceleration and deceleration; - turning; - during pitch-up or
pitch-down manoeuvres.

Explain how the use of timed turns eliminates the problem of x


the turning errors of a direct-reading magnetic compass, and
calculate the duration of a rate-1 turn for a given change of
heading.

see new LO reference above x

Moved from Describe the serviceability check for a direct-reading magnetic x


subject 061 compass prior to flight, such as: the physical appearance of the
device; comparing the indication to another known direction
such as a different compass or runway direction.
Moved from See new LO reference above x
subject 061

Flux valve x
Purpose, operating principle, location, errors x
Explain the purpose of a flux valve. x x

Explain its operating principle. x x

Indicate typical locations of the flux valve(s). x

Give the remote-reading compass system as example of x


application for a flux valve.
Explain that deviation is compensated for and, therefore, x
eliminates the need for a deviation correction card.

Explain that a flux valve does not suffer from the same x
magnitude of errors as a direct-reading magnetic compass
when turning, accelerating or decelerating and during pitch-up
or pitch-down manoeuvres.

GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS x
Gyroscope: basic principles x
Gyroscopic forces, degrees of freedom, gyro wander, driving x
gyroscopes
Define a ‘gyro’. x x

Explain the fundamentals of the theory of gyroscopic forces. x x

Define the ‘degrees of freedom’ of a gyro. Remark: As a x x


convention, the degrees of freedom of a gyroscope do not
include its own axis of rotation (the spin axis).

Explain the following terms: rigidity; precession; wander x x


(drift/topple).
Explain the three types of gyro wander: real wander; apparent x
wander; transport wander.

Describe the two ways of driving gyroscopes and any associated x


indications: air/vacuum; electrically.
x

Rate-of-turn indicator - Turn co-ordinator - Balance (slip) x


indicator
Indications, relation between bank angle, rate of turn and TAS x
Explain the purpose of a rate-of-turn and balance (slip) x x
indicator.
Define a ‘rate-1 turn’. x x

Describe the indications given by a rate-of-turn indicator. x

Explain the relation between bank angle, rate of turn and TAS, x
and how bank angle becomes the limiting factor at high speed
(no calculations).

Explain the purpose of a balance (slip) indicator and its principle x


of operation.
Explain the purpose of a balance (slip) indicator and its principle x
of operation.
Describe the indications of a rate-of-turn and balance (slip) x x
indicator during a balanced, slip or skid turn.
Describe the indications given by a turn coordinator (or turn- x
and-bank indicator).
Compare the indications on the rate-of-turn indicator and the x x
turn coordinator.
Attitude indicator (artificial horizon) x
Purpose, types, effect of aircraf acceleration, display x
Explain the purpose of the attitude indicator. x x

Identify the two types of attitude indicators: attitude indicator; x


attitude and director indicator (ADI).
State the degrees of freedom. x x

Describe the effects of the aircraft’s acceleration and turns on x x


instrument indications.
Describe a typical attitude display and instrument markings. x

x
x

Directional gyroscope x
Purpose, types, drif, alignment to compass heading x
Explain the purpose of the directional gyroscope. x x

Identify the two types of gyro-driven direction indicators: x


direction indicator; horizontal situation indicator (HSI).

Explain how the directional gyroscope will drift over time due to x
the following: rotation of the Earth; aircraft manoeuvring;
aircraft movement over the Earth’s surface/direction of travel.

Describe the procedure for the pilot to align the directional x


gyroscope to the correct compass heading.

Remote-reading compass systems x


Operating principles, components, comparison with a direct- x
reading magnetic compass
Describe the principles of operation of a remote-reading x x
compass system.
Using a block diagram, list and explain the function of the x
following components of a remote-reading compass system:
flux detection unit; gyro unit; transducers, precession
amplifiers, annunciator; display unit (compass card,
synchronising and set-heading knob, DG/compass/slave/free
switch).

State the advantages and disadvantages of a remote-reading x x


compass system compared to a direct-reading magnetic
compass with regard to: design (power source, weight and
volume); deviation due to aircraft magnetism; turning and
acceleration errors; attitude errors; accuracy and stability of the
information displayed; availability of the information for several
systems (compass card, RMI, automatic flight control system
(AFCS)).

Solid-state systems - attitude and heading reference system x


(AHRS)
Components, indications x
Explain that the AHRS is a replacement for traditional gyros x
using solid-state technology with no moving parts and is a
single unit consisting of: solid-state accelerometers; solid-state
rate sensor gyroscopes; solid-state magnetometers
(measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field).

Explain that the AHRS senses rotation and acceleration for all x
three axes and senses the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field
where the indications are normally provided on electronic
screens (electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)).

INERTIAL NAVIGATION

Basic principles x

Systems x
See new LO reference below x x

State that inertial navigation/reference systems are the x


main source of attitude and one of the main sources of
navigational data in commercial air transport
aeroplanes.

State that inertial systems require no external input, x


except TAS, to determine aircraft attitude and
navigational data.

State that earlier gyro mechanically stabilised platforms x


are (technically incorrectly but conventionally) referred
to as inertial navigation systems (INSs) and more
modern fixed (strap down) platforms are conventionally
referred to as inertial reference systems (IRSs). INSs can
be considered to be stand-alone, whereas IRSs are
integrated with the FMS.

Explain the basic principles of inertial navigation x


(including double integration of measured acceleration
and the necessity for north–south, east–west and
vertical components to be measured/extracted).

Explain the necessity of applying correction for x


transport precession, and Earth rate precession, coriolis
and gravity.

See new LO reference above x x


State that in modern aircraft fitted with inertial x
reference system (IRS) and flight management system
(FMS), the flight management computer (FMC) position
is normally derived from a mathematical analysis of IRS,
global positioning system (GPS), and distance
measuring equipment (DME) data, VHF omnidirectional
radio range (VOR) and LOC.

List all navigational data that can be determined by a


stand-alone inertial navigation system.
State that a strap-down system is fixed to the structure x
of the aircraft and normally consists of three laser ring
gyros and three accelerometers.

State the differences between a laser ring gyro and a x


conventional mechanical gyro.

Intentionally lef blank x


x

See new LO reference above x

See new LO reference above x

see new LO reference below x

Intentionally lef blank x


x

See new LO reference below x

Intentionally lef blank x


x

See new LO reference below x x


See new LO reference above x

Alignment and operation


Alignment process, incorrect data entry, and control panels x

State that during the alignment process, the inertial platform is x


levelled (INS) or the local vertical is determined (IRS), and true
north/aircraft heading is established.

Explain that the aircraft must be stationary during alignment, x


the aircraft position is entered during the alignment phase, and
that the alignment process takes around 10 to 20 minutes at
mid latitudes (longer at high latitudes).

See new LO reference x x

State that in-flight realignment is not possible and loss of x


alignment leads to loss of navigational data although attitude
information may still be available.

Explain that the inertial navigation system (INS) platform is x


maintained level and north-aligned after alignment is complete
and the aircraft is in motion.

State that an incorrect entry of latitude may lead to a loss of x


alignment and is more critical than the incorrect entry of
longitude.

State that the positional error of a stand-alone INS varies (a x


typical value can be quoted as 1–2 NM/h) and is dependent on
the gyro drift rate, accelerometer bias, misalignment of the
platform, and computational errors.

Explain that, on a modern aircraft, there is likely to be an air- x


data inertial reference unit (ADIRU), which is an inertial
reference unit (IRU) integrated with an air-data computer
(ADC).

Identify examples of IRS control panels. x

Explain the following selections on the IRU mode selector: NAV x


(normal operation); ATT (attitude only).
State that the majority of the IRS data can be accessed through x
the FMS control and display unit (CDU)/flight management and
guidance system (FMGS) multifunction control and display unit
(MCDU).
Describe the procedure available to the pilot for assessing the x
performance of individual IRUs after a flight: reviewing the
residual indicated ground speed when the aircraft has parked;
reviewing the drift given as NM/h.

Intentionally lef blank x


See new LO reference above x

See new LO reference above x

See new LO reference above x

Intentionally lef blank x


x

Intentionally lef blank x


See new LO reference above x

AEROPLANE: AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS x


General x
Definitions and control loops x
Describe the following purposes of an automatic flight control x
system (AFCS): enhancement of flight controls; reduction of
pilot workload.

Define and explain the following two functions of an AFCS: x x


aircraft control: stabilise the aircraft around its centre of gravity
(CG); aircraft guidance: guidance of the aircraft’s flight path.
Describe the following two automatic control principles: closed x
loop, where a feedback from an action or state is compared to
the desired action or state; open loop, where there is no
feedback loop.

List the following elements of a closed-loop control system and x


explain their basic function: input signal; error detector; signal
processor providing a measured output signal according to set
criteria or laws; control element such as an actuator; feedback
signal to error detector for comparison with input signal.

Describe how a closed-loop system may enter a state of self- x


induced oscillation if the system overcompensates for
deviations from the desired state.

Explain how a state of self-induced oscillations may be detected x


and describe the effects of self-induced oscillations: aircraft
controllability; aircraft safety; timely manual intervention as a
way of mitigating loss of control; techniques that may be used
to maintain positive control of the aircraft.

Autopilot system x
Design and operation x
Define the three basic control channels. x x

Define the three different types of autopilots: single or 1 axis x


(roll); 2 axes (pith and roll); 3 axes (pitch, roll and yaw);

Describe the purpose of the following components of an x


autopilot system: flight control unit (FCU), mode control panel
(MCP) or equivalent; flight mode annunciator (FMA) (see
Subject 022 06 04 00); autopilot computer; actuator.

Explain the following lateral modes: heading (HDG)/track (TRK); x


VOR (VOR)/localiser (LOC); lateral navigation/managed
navigation (LNAV or NAV).

Describe the purpose of control laws for pitch and roll modes. x x

Explain the following vertical modes: vertical speed (V/S); flight x


path angle (FPA); level change (LVL CHG)/open climb (OP CLB)
or open descent (OP DES); speed reference system (SRS);
altitude (ALT) hold; vertical navigation (VNAV)/managed climb
(CLB) or descent (DES); glideslope (G/S).

x
x

Describe how the autopilot uses speed, aircraft configuration or x


flight phase as a measure for the magnitude of control inputs
and how this may affect precision and stability.

Explain the following mixed modes: take-off; go-around; x


approach (APP).

Describe the two types of autopilot configurations and explain x


the implications to the pilot for either and when comparing the
two principles: flight-deck controls move with the control
surface when the autopilot is engaged; flight-deck controls
remain static when the autopilot is engaged.

Describe the purpose of the following inputs and outputs for an x


autopilot system: attitude information; flight path/trajectory
information; control surface position information; airspeed
information; aircraft configuration information; FCU/MCP
selections; FMAs.

Describe the purpose of the synchronisation function when x


engaging the autopilot and explain why the autopilot should be
engaged when the aircraft is in trim.

Define the control wheel steering (CWS) mode as manual x


manoeuvring of the aircraft through the autopilot computer
and autopilot servos/actuators using the control
column/control wheel.

Describe the following elements of CWS: CWS as an autopilot x


mode; flight phases where CWS cannot be used; whether the
pilot or the autopilot is controlling the flight path; the
availability of flight path/performance protections; potential
different feel and control response compared to manual flight.

Describe touch control steering (TCS) and highlight the x


differences when compared to CWS: autopilot remains engaged
but autopilot servos/actuators are disconnected from the
control surfaces; manual control of the aircraft as long as TCS
button is depressed; autopilot servos/actuators reconnect when
TCS button is released and the autopilot returns to previously
engaged mode(s).

Explain that only one autopilot may be engaged at any time x


except for when APP is armed in order to facilitate a fail-
operational autoland.
Explain the difference between an armed and an engaged x
mode: not all modes have an armed state available; a mode will
only become armed if certain criteria are met; an armed mode
will become engaged (replacing the previously engaged mode,
if any) when certain criteria are met.

Describe the sequence of events when a mode is engaged and x


the different phases: initial phase where attitude is changed to
obtain a new trajectory in order to achieve the new parameter;
the trajectory will be based on rate of closure which is again
based on the difference between the original parameter and
the new parameter; capture phase where the aircraft will follow
a predefined rate of change of trajectory to achieve the new
parameter without overshooting/ undershooting; tracking or
hold phase where the aircraft will maintain the set parameter
until a new change has been initiated.

Explain automatic mode reversion and typical situations where x


it may occur: no suitable data for the current mode such as
flight plan discontinuity when in LNAV/managed NAV; change of
parameter during capture phase for original parameter such as
change of altitude target during ALT ACQ/ALT*;
mismanagement of a mode resulting in engagement of the
autopilot envelope protection, e.g. selecting excessive V/S
resulting in a loss of speed control.

Explain the dangers of mismanagement of the following modes: x


use of V/S and lack of speed protection, i.e. excessive V/S or FPA
may be selected with subsequent uncontrolled loss or gain of
airspeed; arming VOR/LOC or APP outside the protected area of
the localiser or ILS.

Describe how failure of other systems may influence the x


availability of the autopilot and how incorrect data from other
systems may result in an undesirable aircraft state, potentially
without any failure indications. Explain the importance of
prompt and appropriate pilot intervention during such events.

Explain an appropriate procedure for disengaging the autopilot x


and why both aural and visual warnings are used to indicate
that the autopilot is being disengaged: temporary warning for
intended disengagement using the design method; continuous
warning for unintended disengagement or using a method
other than the design method.
Explain the following regarding autopilot and aircraft with x
manual trim: the autopilot may not engage unless the aircraft
controls are in trim; the aircraft will normally be in trim when
the autopilot is disconnected; use of manual trim when the
autopilot is engaged will normally lead to autopilot
disconnection and a risk of an out-of-trim situation.

Flight director: design and operation x


Purpose, use, indications, modes, data x
Explain the purpose of a flight director system. x

Describe the different types of display: pitch and roll crossbars; x


V-bar.
Explain the differences between a flight director and an x
autopilot and how the flight director provides a means of cross-
checking the control/guidance commands sent to the autopilot.

See new LO reference above x

x
Explain why the flight director must be followed when x
engaged/shown, and describe the appropriate use of the flight
director: flight director only; autopilot only; flight director and
autopilot; typical job-share between pilots (pilot flying
(PF)/pilot monitoring (PM)) for selecting the parameters when
autopilot is engaged versus disengaged; highlight when the
flight director should not be followed or should be disengaged..

Give examples of different scenarios and the resulting flight x


director indications.
Explain that the flight director computes and indicates the x
direction and magnitude of control inputs required in order to
achieve an attitude to follow a trajectory.

Explain how the modes available for the flight director are the x
same as those available for the autopilot, and that the same
panel (FCU/MCP) is normally used for selection.

Explain the importance of checking the FMC data or selected x


autopilot modes through the FMA when using the flight
directors. If the flight directors are showing incorrect guidance,
they should not be followed and should be turned off.

Aeroplane: flight mode annunciator (FMA) x


Purpose, modes, display scenarios x
Explain the purpose of FMAs and their importance being the x
only indication of the state of a system rather than a switch
position.

Describe where the FMAs are normally shown and how the x
FMAs will be divided into sections (as applicable to aircraft
complexity): vertical modes; lateral modes; autothrust modes;
autopilot and flight director annunciators; landing capability.

Explain why FMAs for engaged or armed modes have different x


colour or different font size.
Describe the following FMA display scenarios: engagement of a x
mode; mode change from armed to becoming engaged; mode
reversion.

Explain the importance of monitoring the FMAs and x


announcing mode changes at all times (including when
selecting a new mode) and why only certain mode changes will
be accompanied by an aural notification or additional visual
cues.

Describe the consequences of not understanding what the x


FMAs imply or missing mode changes, and how it may lead to
an undesirable aircraft state.

Autoland x
Design and operation x
Explain the purpose of an autoland system. x x

Explain the significance of the following components required x


for an autoland: autopilot; autothrust; radio altimeter; ILS
receivers.

Explain the following terms (reference to CS-AWO ‘All Weather x


Operations’): fail-passive automatic landing system; fail-
operational automatic landing system; fail-operational hybrid
landing system; alert height.

Describe the autoland sequence including the following: FMAs x


regarding the landing capability of the aircraft; the significance
of monitoring the FMAs to ensure the automatic
arming/engagement of modes triggered by defined radio
altitudes or other thresholds; in the event of a go-around, that
the aircraft performs the go-around manoeuvre both by reading
the FMAs and supporting those readings by raw data; during
the landing phase, that ‘FLARE’ mode engages at the
appropriate radio altitude, including typical time frame and
actions if ‘FLARE’ does not engage; after landing, that ‘ROLL-
OUT’ mode engages and the significance of disconnecting the
autopilot prior to vacating the runway.

Explain that there are operational limitations in order to legally x


perform an autoland beyond the technical capability of the
aircraft.

Explain the purpose and significance of alert height, describe x


the indications and implications, and consider typical pilot
actions for a failure situation: above the alert height; below the
alert height.

Describe typical failures that, if occurring below the alert x


height, will trigger a warning: all autopilots disengage; loss of
ILS signal or components thereof; excessive ILS deviations;
radio-altimeter failure.

Describe how the failure of various systems, including systems x


not directly involved in the autoland process, can influence the
ability to perform an autoland or affect the minima down to
which the approach may be conducted.

Describe the fail-operational hybrid landing system as a primary x


fail-passive automatic landing system with a secondary
independent guidance system such as a head-up display (HUD)
to enable the pilot to complete a manual landing if the primary
system fails.

HELICOPTER: AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS x


General principles x
Stabilisation x
Explain the similarities and differences between SAS and AFCS x
(the latter can actually fly the helicopter to perform certain
functions selected by the pilot). Some AFCSs just have altitude
and heading hold whilst others include a vertical speed or IAS
hold mode, where a constant rate of climb/decent or IAS is
maintained by the AFCS.

Reduction of pilot workload x


Appreciate how effective the AFCS is in reducing pilot workload x
by improving basic aircraft control harmony and decreasing
disturbances.

Enhancement of helicopter capability x


Explain how an AFCS improves helicopter flight safety during: x
search and rescue (SAR) because of increased capabilities; flight
by sole reference to instruments; underslung load operations;
white-out conditions in snow-covered landscapes; an approach
to land with lack of visual cues.

Explain that the SAR modes of AFCS include the following


functions: ability to autohover; facility for mark on target (MOT)
approach to hover; automatically transition from cruise down to
a predetermined point or over-flown point; ability for the rear
crew to move the helicopter around in the hover; the ability to
automatically transition from the hover back to cruise flight; the
ability to fly various search patterns.

Explain that earlier autohover systems use Doppler velocity x


sensors and modern systems use inertial sensors plus GPS, and
normally include a two-dimensional hover-velocity indicator for
the pilots.

Explain why some SAR helicopters have both radio-altimeter x


height hold and barometric altitude hold.

Failures x
Explain the various redundancies and independent systems that x
are built into the AFCSs.
Appreciate that the pilot can override the system in the event of x
a failure.
Explain a series actuator ‘hard over’ which equals aircraft x
attitude runaway.
Explain the consequences of a saturation of the series x
actuators.
Components: operation x
Basic sensors x
Explain the basic sensors in the system and their functions. x

Explain that the number of sensors will be dependent on the x


number of coupled modes of the system.
Specific sensors x
Explain the function of the microswitches and strain gauges in x
the system which sense pilot input to prevent excessive
feedback forces from the system.

Actuators x
Explain the principles of operation of the series and parallel x
actuators, spring-box clutches and the autotrim system.

Explain the principle of operation of the electronic hydraulic x


actuators in the system.
Pilot–system interface: control panels, system indications, x
warnings
Describe the typical layout of the AFCS control panel. x

Describe the system indications and warnings. x

Operation x
Explain the functions of the redundant sensors’ simplex and x
duplex channels (single/dual channel).
Stability augmentation system (SAS) x
General principles and operation x
Explain the general principles and operation of an SAS with x
regard to: rate damping; short-term attitude hold; effect on
static stability; effect on dynamic stability; aerodynamic cross-
coupling; effect on manoeuvrability; control response;
engagement/disengagement; authority.

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 082
Explain and describe the general working principles and x
primary use of an SAS by damping pitch, roll and yaw motions.

Describe a simple SAS with force trim system which uses x


magnetic clutch and springs to hold cyclic control in the
position where it was last released.

Explain the interaction of trim with SAS/stability and control x


augmentation system (SCAS).
Appreciate that the system can be overridden by the pilot and x
that individual channels can be deselected.
Describe the operational limits of the system. x

Explain why the system should be turned off in severe x


turbulence or when extreme flight attitudes are reached.

Explain the safety design features built into some SASs to limit x
the authority of the actuators to 10–20 % of the full-control
throw in order to allow the pilot to override if actuators
demand an unsafe control input.
Explain how cross-coupling produces an adverse effect on roll- x
to-yaw coupling when the helicopter is subjected to gusts.

Explain the collective-to-pitch coupling, side-slip-to-pitch x


coupling and inter-axis coupling.
Autopilot - automatic stability equipment x
General principles x
Explain the general autopilot principles with regard to: long- x
term attitude hold; fly-through; changing the reference (beep
trim, trim release).

Basic modes (3/4 axes) x


Explain the AFCS operation on cyclic axes (pitch/roll), yaw axis, x
and on collective (fourth axis).
Automatic guidance (upper modes of AFCS) x
Explain the function of the attitude-hold system in an AFCS. x

Explain the function of the heading-hold system in an AFCS. x

Explain the function of the vertical-speed hold system in an x


AFCS.
Explain the function of the navigation-coupling system in an x
AFCS.
Explain the function of the VOR-/ILS-coupling system in an x
AFCS.
Explain the function of the hover-mode system in an AFCS x
(including Doppler and radio-altimeter systems).
Explain the function of the SAR mode (automatic transition to x
hover and back to cruise) in an AFCS.
Flight director: design and operation x
Explain the purpose of a flight director system. x

Describe the different types of display: pitch and roll crossbars;


V-bar.
State the difference between the flight director system and the x
autopilot system. Explain how each can be used independently.

List and describe the main components of the flight director x


system.
Give examples of different situations with the respective x
indications of the command bars.
Explain the architecture of the different flight directors fitted to
helicopters and the importance to monitor other instruments as
well as the flight director.
Explain how some helicopter types have the collective setting as x
a flight director command; however, the command does not
provide protection against a transmission overtorque.

Describe the collective setting and yaw depiction on flight x


director for some helicopters.
Automatic flight control panel (AFCP) x
Explain the purpose and the importance of the AFCP. x

State that the AFCP provides: AFCS basic and upper modes; x
flight director selection, SAS and AP engagement; failure and
alert messages.

TRIMS - YAW DAMPER - FLIGHT-ENVELOPE PROTECTION x


Trim systems x
Design and operation x
Explain the purpose of the trim system and describe the layout x
with one trim system for each control axis, depending on the
complexity of the aircraft.

See new LO reference above x

Give examples of trim indicators and their function, and explain x


the significance of a ‘green band/area’ for the pitch trim.

Describe and explain an automatic pitch-trim system for a x x


conventional aeroplane.
Describe and explain an automatic pitch-trim system for an
FBW aeroplane and that it is also operating during manual
flight; however, during certain phases it may be automatically
disabled to alter the handling characteristics of the aircraft.

Describe the consequences of manual operation on the trim x x


wheel when the automatic pitch-trim system is engaged.

Describe and explain the engagement and disengagement x x


conditions of the autopilot according to trim controls.

Define ‘Mach trim’ and state that the Mach-trim system can be x x
independent.
Describe the implications for the pilot in the event of a runaway x
trim or significant out-of-trim state.
x

Yaw damper x
Design and operation x
Explain the purpose of the yaw-damper system. x x

Explain the purpose of the Dutch-roll filter (filtering of the yaw x x


input signal).
Explain the operation of a yaw-damper system and state the x x
difference between a yaw-damper system and a 3-axis autopilot
operation on the rudder channel.

Flight-envelope protection (FEP) x


Purpose, input parameters, functions x
Explain the purpose of the FEP. x x

Explain typical input parameters to the FEP: AoA; aircraft


configuration; airspeed information.
Explain the following functions of the FEP: stall protection; x x
overspeed protection.
Explain how the stall-protection function and the overspeed- x
protection function apply to both mechanical/conventional and
FBW control systems, but other functions (e.g. pitch or bank
limitation) can only apply to FBW control systems.

AUTOTHRUST - AUTOMATIC THRUST CONTROL SYSTEM x


Autothrust system x
Purpose, operation, overcompensation, speed control x
Describe the purpose of the autothrust system and explain how x
the FMAs will be the only indication on active autothrust
modes.

Explain the operation of an autothrust system with regard to x


the following modes: take-off/go-around (TOGA); climb or
maximum continuous thrust (MCT), N1 or EPR targeted (THR
CLB, THR MCT, N1, THR HOLD, EPR); speed (SPEED, MCP SPD);
idle thrust (THR IDLE, RETARD/ARM); landing (RETARD, THR
IDLE).

x
Describe the two main variants of autothrust systems: mode x
selections available on the FCU/MCP and thrust levers move
with autothrust commands; mode selections made using the
thrust levers which remain static during autothrust operation.

Explain how flight in turbulence/wind shear giving fluctuating x


airspeed indications may lead to the autothrust
overcompensating in an oscillating manner and that manual
thrust may be required to settle the airspeed. Airspeed
indications/trend vectors may give an indication of appropriate
thrust adjustments but any reaction should not be too
aggressive.

Explain the threats associated with the use of autothrust x


resulting in the pilot losing the sense of energy awareness (e.g.
speed, thrust).

Explain the relationship between autopilot pitch modes and x


autothrust modes, and how the autopilot and autothrust will
interact upon selecting modes for one of the systems.

Explain the principles of speed control and how speed can be x


controlled: by varying the engine thrust; by varying the aircraft
pitch.

Explain the potential implications on speed control when the x


autothrust controls speed and the autopilot pitch channel has a
fixed pitch target for the following mode combinations: MCP
SPD/SPEED and ALT HOLD/ALT; MCP SPD/SPEED and VSP
(climb); MCP SPD/SPEED and VSP (descent).

Explain the potential implications on speed control when the x


autothrust has a fixed thrust target and the autopilot pitch
channel controls speed for the following mode combinations:
N1/THR CLB and LVL CHG/OP CLB; ARM/THR IDLE and LVL
CHG/OP DES.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS x
Voice communication, data-link transmission x
Definitions and transmission modes x
Describe the purpose of a data-link transmission system.

Compare voice communication versus data-link transmission x


systems.
Describe the communication links that are used in aircraft: high-
frequency (HF) communications; very high-frequency (VHF)
communications; satellite communications (SATCOM).
Consider the properties of the communication links with regard
to: signal quality; range/area coverage; range; line-of-sight
limitations; quality of the signal received; interference due to
ionospheric conditions; data transmission speed.

Define and explain the following terms in relation to aircraft x


data-link communications: message/data uplink; message/data
downlink.

Systems: architecture, design and operation x


Describe the purpose of the ACARS network. x

Describe the systems using the ACARS network through the air x
traffic service unit (ATSU) suite: aeronautical/airline operational
control (AOC); air traffic control (ATC).

Explain the purpose of the following parts of the on-board x


equipment: ATSU communications computer; control and
display unit (CDU)/multifunction control and display unit
(MCDU); data communication display unit (DCDU); ATC message
visual annunciator; printer.

Give examples of airline operations communications (AOC) x x


data-link messages such as: out of the gate, off the ground, on
the ground, into the gate (OOOI); load sheet; passenger
information (connecting flights); weather reports (METAR, TAF);
maintenance reports (engine exceedances); aircraft technical
data; free-text messages.

Give examples of ATC data-link messages such as: departure x


clearance; oceanic clearance; digital ATIS (D-ATIS); controller–
pilot data-link communications (CPDLC).

Future air navigation systems (FANSs) x


Versions, applications, CPDLC messages, ADS contracts x
Describe the existence of the ICAO communication, navigation, x
surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) concept.

Explain the two versions of FANSs: FANS A/FANS 1 using the x


ACARS network; FANS B/FANS 2 using the ACARS network and
the aeronautical telecommunication network (ATN).

x
List and explain the following FANS A/FANS 1 applications: ATS x x
facility notification (AFN); automatic dependent surveillance
(ADS); CPDLC.

Compare the ADS application with the secondary surveillance x x


radar function, and the CPDLC application with VHF
communication systems.

State that an ATCU can use the ADS application only, or the x x
CPDLC application only, or both of them (not including AFN).

Describe the AFN process for logging on with an ATCU and x


typical data that will be included in the message.
Describe typical types of CPDLC messages and the typical pilot x
work practices when requesting or accepting a CPDLC
clearance.

List and describe the different types of ADS contracts that are x
controlled by the ATCU and beyond the control of the pilot:
periodic: data sent at set time intervals; on demand: data sent
when requested; on event: data sent when an event occurs
(e.g. heading change, climb initiated, etc.); emergency mode.

Describe the purpose of the ADS emergency mode contract and x


highlight the difference to the ATCU controlled contracts.

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FMS)/ FLIGHT MANAGEMENT x


AND GUIDANCE SYSTEM (FMGS)

Design x
Purpose, architecture, failures, functions x
Explain the purpose of an FMS. x

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 062

Moved from See new LO reference below x


subject 062

Describe a typical dual FMS architecture including the following x


components: flight management computer (FMC); CDU/MCDU;
cross-talk bus.
Moved from See new LO reference above x
subject 062

Describe the following failures of a dual FMS architecture and x


explain the potential implications to the pilots: failure of one
FMC; failure of one CDU/MCDU; failure of the cross-talk bus.

Describe how the FMS integrates with other systems and x


gathers data in order to provide outputs depending on its level
of complexity.

See new LO reference above x

See new LO reference above x

Moved from Explain how the FMS may provide the following x
subject 062 functions:
— navigation;
— lateral and vertical flight planning;
— performance parameters.

FMC databases x
Navigation database x
Explain the purpose of, and describe typical content of, the x
navigation database.

See new LO reference below x

See new LO reference below x

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 062
Moved from Describe the 28-day aeronautical information regulation and x
subject 062 control (AIRAC) update cycle of the navigation database and
explain the reason for having two navigation databases (one
active, one standby) and the implication this has to the pilot.

Explain the purpose of typical user-defined waypoints such as: x


latitude/longitude coordinates; place/bearing/distance (PBD);
place/bearing place/bearing (PBX); place/distance (PD).

Moved from Explain that the pilot cannot change or overwrite any of the x
subject 062 data in the navigation database and that any user-defined
waypoints, routes and inputted data will be erased when a
different database is activated.

Explain the threats and implications to the pilot of changing the x


database by error either on the ground or while flying.

Aircraf performance database x


Moved from Explain the purpose of, and describe the typical content of, the x
subject 062 aircraft performance database.

Explain the importance of verifying that the aircraft x


performance database is based on the correct data, such as
engine type and aircraft variant.

Explain that the contents of the aircraft performance database x


cannot be modified by the pilot.
Explain the purpose of performance factor and how it x
influences the calculations.
Explain the purpose of cost index (CI) and how it influences the x
calculations.
Operations, limitations x
Data, calculations, position inputs, raw data x
Describe typical data that may be provided by the FMS: lateral x
and vertical navigation guidance; present position; time
predictions; fuel predictions; altitude/flight level predictions.

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 062

Explain how the FMS will use a combination of x


inputted/database and measured data in order to calculate
projections and provide output data.
Moved from See new LO reference above x x
subject 062

Explain the issues and threats using inputted/database data and x


give examples of consequences of inputting data
incorrectly/using incorrect data.

Describe fuel consumption calculations during standard x


operations and explain typical data that will have an influence
on the accuracy of the calculations.

Explain the implications on the accuracy of the calculations x


during flight in abnormal configurations (such as engine out,
gear down, flaps extended, spoilers extended, etc.) if the FMS is
unable to detect the failure.

Describe and explain the purpose of an FMS having dedicated x


radio-navigation receivers that it will tune automatically.

Moved from Explain typical position inputs to an FMS: GPS; IRS; DME; VOR; x
subject 062 LOC; runway threshold (RWY THR).

Explain how the FMS will create its own FMS position fix and x
that the FMS calculations will be based on the FMS position.
Depending on the type of system, the FMS position may be
calculated from: a single source of position data where the
most accurate data available at a given time will be used;
multiple sources from which a position will be derived using the
combined inputs.

Explain the implications of a reduction in available position x


inputs to the FMS, especially GPS in relation to the capability of
performing RNP/PBN approaches.

Explain the difference between following the FMS data x


compared to following raw data from radio-navigation receivers
and describe how there may be limitations for using FMS data
as primary source to follow an instrument approach procedure
(IAP) such as LOC, VOR or NDB.

Human–machine interface (control and display unit (CDU)/ x


multifunction control and display unit (MCDU))
Purpose, scratchpad, data input, set-up process x
Describe the purpose of a CDU/MCDU. x

Moved from See new LO reference below x


subject 062

Moved from Describe the typical layout of a CDU/MCDU and the general x x
subject 062 purpose of the following: screen; line select keys; menu select
keys; alphanumerical keys.

Moved from See new LO reference above x x


subject 062

Explain the function of the ‘scratchpad’ part of the screen. x

Describe how input of some data is compulsory for the function x


of the FMS and other data is optional, and that different
symbology is used to highlight this: rectangular boxes =
compulsory information; dashed line = optional information.

Describe a typical FMS pre-flight set-up process through the x


CDU/MCDU to cover the most basic information (with the aim
to create awareness of required information as this is
irrespective of aircraft type and FMS/FMGS make): ident page
(who am I = aircraft type/variant, engine type/rating and
appropriate navigation database); position initialisation (where
am I = position for aligning the IRS and FMS position); route
initialisation (where am I going to = place of
departure/destination and alternate(s)); route programming
(how will I get there = SIDs, STARS, route (company or
otherwise)); performance initialisation (when will I arrive =
weights, flap setting, FLEX/assumed temperature/derate, take-
off speeds).

ALERTING SYSTEMS, PROXIMITY SYSTEMS x


General x
Alerting systems according to CS-25 and CS-29 x
State definitions, category, criteria and characteristics of x x
alerting systems according to CS-25/AMC 25.1322 for
aeroplanes and CS-29 for helicopters as appropriate.

Flight warning systems (FWSs) x


Annunciations, master warning, master caution, advisory x
State the annunciations given by the FWS and typical x
location for the annunciator(s):
— master warning;
— master caution;
— advisory.

See new LO reference above x

Explain master warning: colour of annunciator: red; nature of x


aural alerts: continuous; typical failure scenarios triggering the
alert.

Explain master caution: colour of the annunciator: amber or x


yellow; nature of aural alerts: attention-getter; typical failure
scenarios triggering the alert.

Describe a typical procedure following a master warning or x


master caution alert: acknowledging the failure; silencing the
aural warning; initiating the appropriate response/procedure.

Explain advisory: colour of the annunciator: any other than red, x


amber, yellow or green; absence of aural alert; typical scenarios
triggering the advisory.

Stall warning systems (SWSs) x


Function, types, components x
Describe the function of an SWS and explain why the warning x
must be unique.
x

Describe the different types of SWSs. x

List the main components of an SWS. x x

Explain the difference between the stall warning speed and the x
actual stalling speed of the aeroplane.
Stall protection x
Function, types x
Describe the function of a stall protection system. x

Describe the different types of stall protection systems including x


the difference between mechanical and FBW controls.

Explain the difference between an SWS and a stall protection x x


system.
Overspeed warning x
Purpose, aural warning, VMO/MMO pointer x
Explain the purpose of an overspeed warning system x x
(VMO/MMO pointer).
See new LO reference below x

State that for large aeroplanes, an aural warning must be x x


associated to the overspeed warning if an electronic display is
used (see AMC 25.11, paragraph 10.b(2), p. 2-GEN-22).

Describe and give examples of VMO/MMO pointer: x


barber’s/barber pole pointer, barber’s/barber pole vertical
scale.

Take-off warning x
Purpose x
Explain the purpose of a take-off warning system and list the x
typical abnormal situations which generate a warning (see AMC
25.703, paragraphs 4 and 5).

Altitude alert system x


Function, displays, alerts x
Describe the function of an altitude alert system. x

Describe different types of displays and possible alerts. x x

Radio altimeter x
Purpose, range, displays, incorrect indications x
Explain the purpose of a low-altitude radio altimeter. x

Describe the principle of the distance (height) measurement. x x

Describe the different types of radio-altimeter displays. x

Describe how the radio altimeter provides input to other x


systems and how a radio-altimeter failure may impact on the
functioning of these systems.

State the range of a radio altimeter. x

Explain the potential implications of a faulty radio-altimeter and x


how this in particular may affect the following systems:
autothrust (flare/retard); ground-proximity warning systems
(GPWSs).

Ground-proximity warning systems (GPWSs) x


GPWSs: design, operation, indications x
Explain the purpose of GPWSs.
x

Explain inputs and outputs of a GPWS and describe its x


operating principle.
List and describe the different modes of operation of a GPWS. x x

Terrain-avoidance warning system (TAWS); other name: x


enhanced GPWS (EGPWS)
Explain the purpose of a TAWS for aeroplanes and of a HTAWS
for helicopters, and explain the difference from a GPWS.

Explain inputs and outputs of a TAWS/HTAWS and describe its x


working principle.
Give examples of terrain displays and list the different possible x x
alerts.
Give examples of time response left to the pilot according to x x
look-ahead distance, speed and aircraft performances.

Explain why the TAWS/HTAWS must be coupled to a precise- x x


position sensor.
Explain the possibility of triggering spurious TAWS/HTAWS x
warnings as a result of mismanaging the flight path in the
proximity to obstacles: high rate of descent; high airspeed; a
combination of high rate of descent and high airspeed.

Intentionally lef blank x

ACAS/TCAS x
Principles and operations x
State that ACAS II is an ICAO standard for anti-collision x x
purposes.
x

Explain that ACAS II is an anti-collision system and does not x x


guarantee any specific separation.
Describe the purpose of an ACAS II system as an anti-collision x x
system.
Describe the following outputs from a TCAS: other intruders; x
proximate intruders; traffic advisory (TA); resolution advisory
(RA).
State that ACAS II will issue commands in the vertical plane only x
(climb, descent or maintain), and that the commands are
complied with as a manual manoeuvre.

Explain that an RA may or may not require any active control x


input and the implications of reacting instinctively without
awareness of actual control inputs required to comply with the
RA.

Explain that if two aircraft are fitted with ACAS II, the RA will be x x
coordinated.
State that ACAS II equipment can take into account several x x
threats simultaneously.
State that a detected aircraft without altitude-reporting can x
only generate a TA; describe typical type of traffic and how this
can create distractions during flight in certain areas of
significant air traffic activity.

Describe the interaction between the TCAS II system and the x


transponder, radio altimeter and the air-data computer:
antenna used; computer and links with radio altimeter, air-data
computer and mode-S transponder.

Explain the principle of TCAS II interrogations. x x

State the typical standard detection range for TCAS II: 35–40 x
NM horizontally; approximately 2 000 ft above and below (any
setting); extension to approximately 10 000 ft above (ABV
selected) or approximately 10 000 ft below (BLW selected).

Explain the principle of ‘reduced surveillance’. x x

Explain that in high-density traffic areas the range may x


automatically be decreased in order to enable detection of the
threats in the proximity of the aircraft due to a limitation of the
maximum number of possible intruders the system is able to
process.

Identify the equipment which an intruder must be fitted with in x x


order to be detected by TCAS II.
Explain in the anti-collision process: the criteria used to trigger x x
an alarm (TA or RA) are the time to reach the closest point of
approach (CPA) (called TAU) and the difference of altitude; an
intruder will be classified as ‘proximate’ when being less than 6
NM and 1 200 ft from the TCAS-equipped aircraft; the time limit
to CPA is different depending on aircraft altitude, is linked to a
sensitivity level (SL), and state that the value to trigger an RA is
from 15 to 35 seconds; in case of an RA, the intended vertical
separation varies from 300 to 600 ft (700 ft above FL420),
depending on the SL; below 1 000 ft above ground, no RA can
be generated; below 1 450 ft (radio-altimeter value) ‘increase
descent’ RA is inhibited; at high altitude, performances of the
type of aircraft are taken into account to inhibit ‘climb’ and
‘increase climb’ RA.

List and interpret the following information available from x x


TCAS: the different possible statuses of a detected aircraft:
‘other’, ‘proximate’, ‘intruder’; the appropriate graphic symbols
and their position on the horizontal display; different aural
warnings.

Explain the indications of a TA and an RA and how an RA will x


generate a red area on the VSI. Some variants will also include a
green area. To manoeuvre the aircraft to comply with the RA,
the pilot should ‘avoid the red’ or ‘fly the green’.

Explain that the pilot must not interpret the horizontal track of x x
an intruder upon the display.
Rotor/engine overspeed alert system x
Design, operation, displays, alarms x
Describe the basic design principles, operation, displays and x
warning/alarm systems fitted to different helicopters.

INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTS - ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS x


Electronic display units x
Design, limitations x
List the different technologies used, e.g. CRT and LCD, and the
associated limitations: cockpit temperature; glare; resolution.

Mechanical integrated instruments x


Attitude and director indicator (ADI)/ horizontal situation x
indicator (HSI)
Describe an ADI and an HSI. x x

List all the information that can be displayed on either x x


instrument.
Electronic flight instrument systems (EFISs) x
Design, operation x
x

List the following parts of an EFIS: control panel; display units; x


symbol generator; remote light sensor.

Moved from Describe the typical layout of the EFIS display units and how x
subject 062 there may be a facility to transfer the information from one
display unit on to another if a display unit fails.

Explain the need for standby instruments to supplement the x


EFIS in the event of all the display units failing and the challenge
of using these standby instruments, namely their size and
position on the flight deck.

Explain the difference between a symbol generator failing and a x


display unit failing, and the implications if there are redundant
symbol generators available.

Describe the purpose of an EFIS control panel and typical x


selections that may be available: altimeter pressure setting;
navigation display (ND) mode selector; ND range selector; ND
data selector (waypoints, facilities, constraints, data, etc.);
radio-navigation aids selector (VOR 1/2 or ADF 1/2); decision
altitude (DA)/decision height (DH) selection.

Primary flight display (PFD), electronic attitude director x


indicator (EADI)
Describe that a PFD (or an EADI) presents a dynamic colour
display of all the parameters necessary to control the aircraft,
and that the main layout conforms with the ‘basic T’ principle:
attitude information in the centre; airspeed information on the
left; altitude information on the right; heading/track indication
lower centre; flight mode annunciation; basic T; take-off and
landing reference speeds; minimum airspeed; lower selectable
airspeed; Mach number.

See new LO reference above x

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 062
Describe the typical design of the attitude information: artificial
horizon with aircraft symbol; superimposed flight director
command bars.

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 062

Describe the typical design of the speed tape: rolling speed x


scale with numerical read-out of current speed; limiting
airspeeds according to configuration; speed trend vector;
bug/indication for selected airspeed.

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 062

Moved from Explain the Mach number indications and how a selected Mach x
subject 062 number is presented with the speed bug on a corresponding
IAS on the speed tape with the Mach number shown as a
numerical indication outside the speed tape.
Describe the typical design of the altitude information: rolling x
altitude scale with numerical read-out of current altitude;
altimeter pressure setting; bug/indication for selected altitude;
means of highlighting the altitude if certain criteria are met.

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 062

Describe the typical design of the heading/track information: x


rolling compass scale/rose with numerical read-out of current
heading/track; bug/indication for selected heading/track.

Describe the typical design and location of the following x


information: flight mode annunciators (FMAs); vertical speed
indicator including TCAS RA command indications; radio
altitude; ILS localiser/glideslope and RNP/PBN, GBAS or SBAS
horizontal/vertical flight path deviation indicator; decision
altitude/height (DA/H).

Moved from See new LO reference above x


subject 062

Navigation display (ND), electronic horizontal situation x


indicator (EHSI)
Describe that an ND (or an EHSI) provides a mode-selectable
colour flight ND.
List the following four modes typically available to be displayed
on an ND unit: MAP (or ARC); VOR (or ROSE VOR); APP (or ROSE
LS); PLAN.

Moved from See new LO reference x


subject 062
List and explain the following information that can be displayed
with the MAP (or ARC) mode selected on an ND unit: aircraft
symbol, compass scale and range markers; current heading and
track (either one may be ‘up’ depending on selection), true or
magnetic; selected heading and track; TAS/GS; wind direction
and speed (W/V); raw data radio magnetic indicator (RMI)
needles/pointers for VOR/automatic direction-finding
equipment (ADF), if selected, including the frequency or ident
of the selected navigation facility; route/flight plan data from
the FMS; TO/next waypoint data from the FMS; data from the
navigation database such as airports, waypoints or navigation
facilities as selected; weather radar information; TCA