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Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra

Instituto Superior de Contabilidade


e Administração de Coimbra

Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets


Manjunath Shankar Bere

Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision


Targets

Manjunath Shankar Bere


ISCAC | 2017

Coimbra, October 2017


Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra
Instituto Superior de Contabilidade
e Administração de Coimbra

Manjunath Shankar Bere

Logistic Operators- Operational Planning


Performance & Decision Targets

Relatório de estágio submetido ao Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração


de Coimbra para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre
em Management Information Systems, realizado sob a orientação da Professora
Doutora Ana Cristina Santos Amaro e supervisão de Dr.ª Cristina Maria Falcão.

Coimbra, outubro de 2017


TERMO DE RESPONSABILIDADE
Declaro ser o autor deste relatório de estágio, que constitui um trabalho original e inédito,
que nunca foi submetido a outra Instituição de ensino superior para obtenção de um
grau académico ou outra habilitação. Atesto ainda que todas as citações estão
devidamente identificadas e que tenho consciência de que o plágio constitui uma grave
falta de ética, que poderá resultar na anulação do presente relatório de estágio.

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The completion of this internship report would not have been possible without the
steadfast support of several people.

First of all, I would like to express my most profound appreciation and sincere gratitude
to Professora Doutora Ana Cristina Santos Amaro, my Academic Supervisor, for her
invaluable guidance, technical know-how, wisdom and professionalism throughout my
work. I am also deeply grateful to Dr.ª Cristina Maria Falcão, my Company Supervisor,
who always gave insights, expertise on the subject, comments and a valuable supervision
of my internship. They are both excellent mentors and have provided support throughout
my work. I would like to extend my heartiest thanks to them for their patience and kind
involvement in this study.

I would like to thank Luís Simões group for providing me with an opportunity to work on
this project. The successful completion of which, would not have been possible without
the involvement of the employees working at Luís Simões. Namely, I would like to thank
Elsa, Ângela, Joana, Susana, Patrícia, Ana and Cátia for their cooperation, insights, as
well as for the organisational teachings and procedures.

I am indebted to the ISCAC | Coimbra Business School for the opportunity given to me
in pursuing this Master’s program. My gratitude also goes to all the faculty members and
the administration from the Coimbra Business School who provided me personal
attention, academic support and primary material for the report.

At last, but not least, my acknowledgement goes to the people in my life who supported
me throughout this process. A special and sincere thanks to my parents and all family
members who provided their encouragement in my research.

My love and gratitude also go to the people dearest to me, who have been extraordinarily
supportive and believed in me.

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RESUMO

Este relatório apresenta uma perspetiva global sobre o estágio realizado no grupo Luís
Simões, S.A., registando as atividades planeadas e as desenvolvidas.

O impacto alcançado pela logística, nesta "Nova Era" de dimensões mundiais, de


tecnologias e de mercados inovadores, induziu uma progressiva motivação para esta área.
Investigadores e profissionais reconheceram essas oportunidades e os novos paradigmas
sociais associados, apresentando-os em diferentes artigos científicos e trabalhos técnicos.
Desses destacam-se as contribuições com impacto no planeamento e escalonamento
associado aos operadores logísticos. Estes registos foram importantes incentivos para o
desafio proporcionado pela Luís Simões, S.A.

As principais atividades desenvolvidas durante o estágio centram-se no funcionamento


regular de um operador logístico, como sejam: planeamento e agendamento de frotas,
controlo de armazém, monitorização, programação de clientes e de pedidos. Além disso,
faz ainda parte dos objetivos definidos o desenvolvimento de alguns indicadores-chave
de desempenho (KPIs). Posteriormente, pretende-se que esses indicadores sejam
integrados no novo sistema de informação, Sistema de Gestão de Transportes (TMS), cuja
implantação foi iniciada na Luís Simões, S.A. Neste âmbito, conclui-se ser possível
alcançar algumas melhorias relativamente a parametrizações, medições e monitorizações.
Globalmente, trata-se de requisitos de personalização do TMS para as práticas diárias
adequadas ao grupo na região de Coimbra.

Palavras-chave: Logística, Planeamento, Escalonamento, Otimização, Indicadores-


chave de Desempenho (KPIs).

v
ABSTRACT
This report presents a global perspective on the internship carried out in Luís Simões, S.A
group and it also registers the planned and the enrolled activities.

The impact reached by logistics, in this “New Era” of worldwide dimensions,


technologies and novel markets, introduced a progressive motivation to this area.
Researchers and practitioners have recognised these opportunities and the new related
social paradigms, presenting them in different scientific and technical papers. A special
focus is devoted to the contributions emphasising the impact of planning and scheduling
of logistic operators. These contributions were important incentives to the challenge
provided by Luís Simões, S.A.

The core activities developed during the internship concerned the regular operation of a
logistic operator namely, fleet planning and scheduling, warehouse control, monitoring
and programming of clients and orders. Besides that, the development of some Key
Performance Indicators (KPI) was also part of the objectives. Moreover, these desirably
would be integrated within the new information system, Transportation Management
System (TMS), implemented in Luís Simões, S.A. Herein, some improvement can be
achieved concerning parameterisations, measurements and monitoring being reportable.
These can be considered as TMS customisation for the practices of the group in Coimbra
region.

Keywords: Logistics, Planning, Scheduling, Optimisation, Key Performance Indicators


(KPIs).

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Problem Statement ............................................................................................. 1

1.2 Objectives and Methodology ............................................................................. 3

1.3 Report Structure ................................................................................................. 4

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................................... 5

2.1 Logistic Operators .............................................................................................. 5

2.2 Transportation Planning and Vehicle Scheduling .............................................. 6

2.3 Performance Management ................................................................................. 9

2.3.1 Performance Measurement ....................................................................... 10

2.3.2 Key Performance Indicators (KPI) ........................................................... 12

2.4 Management Information Systems .................................................................. 13

2.4.1 Transportation Management Systems (TMS) ........................................... 13

2.4.2 Warehouse Management Systems (WMS) ............................................... 15

3 CASE STUDY ........................................................................................................ 17

3.1 Organisation Description ................................................................................. 17

3.2 Mission, Vision, Values & Policies ................................................................. 18

3.3 PEST Analysis ................................................................................................. 22

3.4 SWOT Analysis ............................................................................................... 27

3.5 Organisational Operations................................................................................ 29

4 CORE CONCEPTS & FACILITY TOOLS ........................................................... 33

4.1 Functionalities of TMS .................................................................................... 33

4.2 Information Systems in the Case Company ..................................................... 40

4.3 Visual Mapping of Routes ............................................................................... 47

5 INTERNSHIP ACTIVITIES .................................................................................. 50

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5.1 Logistic Operators – Characterisation of Performance Metrics ....................... 50

5.2 Definition and settings of the operational planning problem ........................... 57

5.3 Scheduling Proposal ......................................................................................... 62

5.4 Decision framework to help and support daily management ........................... 63

6 CONCLUSION & FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS ................................................. 66

6.1 Conclusions ...................................................................................................... 66

6.2 Further Developments ...................................................................................... 67

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 69

APPENDICES ................................................................................................................ 77

APPENDIX 1 – ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF LUÍS SIMÕES ................... 77

APPENDIX 2 - INTERVIEW QUESTIONS TO THE LOGISTICS MANAGER ... 78

APPENDIX 3 - WHAT LS GROUP AT COIMBRA ARE MEASURING .............. 79

APPENDIX 4 – FEATURES & ADVANTAGES OF WTRANSNET PORTAL..... 80

APPENDIX 5 – CLIENT PARAMETERISATION .................................................. 81

APPENDIX 6 - MACRO STRUCTURE OF e-TMS PLATFORM .......................... 82

APPENDIX 7 – TMS OPTIMISER ........................................................................... 83

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INDEX OF FIGURES
Figure 1 - Iberian Network of Luís Simões Group ......................................................... 17

Figure 2 - Organisational Structure of Iberian Transportation of Luís Simões .............. 29

Figure 3 - Transport types in Luís Simões ...................................................................... 30

Figure 4 - Exemplification of the plant and other centres .............................................. 30

Figure 5 - General Functions of Planning Process ......................................................... 31

Figure 6 - Freight Management module of ERP............................................................. 44

Figure 7 - ERP Sales Control integration with ERP Freight Management .................... 45

INDEX OF TABLES

Table 1 - Luís Simões Logística Integrada S.A. details.................................................. 18

Table 2 - Policies of LS Group ....................................................................................... 20

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List of abbreviations
1PL First-party Logistics

2PL Second-party Logistics

3PL Third-party Logistics

4PL Fourth-party Logistics

5PL Fifth-party Logistics

APD Absolute Percentage Difference

BCM Business Control Model

CSF Critical Success Factor

DC Distribution Centre

DEA Data Envelopment Analysis

DISC Distribution Scheduling

EDI Electronic Data Interchange

ERP Enterprise Resource Planning

FSP Fleet Scheduling Problem

FTL Full Truckload

GDP Gross Domestic Product

GIS Geo-Information Service

GPS Global Positioning System

GSM Global Systems for Mobile

JIT Just-in Time

KPI Key Performance Indicator

LS Luís Simões

LSP Logistics Service Provider

LTL Less than Truck Load

MIS Management Information Systems

MRP Material Resource Planning

x
OR Operations Research

PI Performance Indicator

PM Performance Measurement

POS Process Operational Structure

QMS Quality Management System

RFID Radio Frequency Identification

SCM Supply Chain Management

SKU Stock Keeping Unit

TM Transportation Management

TMS Transportation Management System

TQM Total Quality Management

VRP Vehicle Routing Problem

VSP Vehicle Scheduling Problem

WMS Warehouse Management System

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

1 INTRODUCTION
This internship report is part of the Master program in Management Information Systems
(MIS) carried out at ISCAC | Coimbra Business School. The internship has to fulfil the
non-lecturing component of the Master, and it has the objective of providing students
with valuable first-hand work experience in the field of studies of their masters’ branch
and in this case, the logistics’ branch.

The internship was accepted in the group Luís Simões, Logística Integrada, S.A., at their
office of Taveiro, Coimbra region and it lasted between November 2016 and June 2017.
This period was held under the supervision of Dra. Cristina Maria Falcão, Manager of
Luís Simões for Coimbra Region and with the academic guidance of Doutora Ana
Cristina Amaro from the Master in MIS, of ISCAC | Coimbra Business School.

The internship took place for six months with a weekly workload of 40 hours, within a
total of 960 hours, in accordance with the regulation stated for the second cycle courses
of ISCAC | Coimbra Business School (e.g. article 21, paragraph 4).

The title adopted for the internship is Logistic Operators- Operational Planning
Performance & Decision Targets, accordingly with the desired core subject. So, to fulfil
the theme and the Master course requirements, a Logistics and Transportation company,
was required to overlook the operational activities and challenges involved in the daily
decision management.

Therefore, a proposal was submitted to the group Luís Simões, Logística Integrada S.A.,
for the theme. The Group recognised the interest of the subject, accepted the internship
proposal and accordingly, the collaboration was established between the Coimbra
Business School and the company.

So, the internship as a practical first-hand approach started in a broad reputed Logistics
and Transportation Company in the Iberian Peninsula, the group Luís Simões. S.A.

1.1 Problem Statement


In last few decades, business globalisation and the new worldwide trade opportunities
introduced significant challenges to companies. Under this scenario, managers had to
fight against price pressure, product quality, variability and availability within strongly
competitive markets. Globally, new management paradigms arrived from the new and
emerging business perspectives. In here, the assurance of service levels to worldwide

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

customers represents a competitive advantage that strongly impacts companies’


performance. Logistic operators emerged in this context as essential chain links to ensure
the commitment of customer requirements within feasible target levels. These are
important motivations focused especially on the role of logistic operators. In the following
paragraphs, the remaining key-words defined for this internship subject are also justified.

Therefore, concerning the operational planning of logistic activities through an integrated


Supply Chain Management (SCM), it is a recognised research topic in both perspectives,
technically and scientifically. Thus, the detailed optimisation of logistic operators’
activities is essential not only to enhance their business consolidation but also to achieve
resource savings and improve the entire chain operation. In practice, great expectations
are placed on planning.

In literature, several contributions cover planning problems subject. Typically, in supply


chain management, decisions cover three planning levels (Bertrand, 2003; Manzini,
Gamberi, Gebennini, & Regattieri, 2008), namely, i.) Strategic; ii.) Tactical and iii.)
Operational. The significant differences amongst these planning levels are related to the
planning horizon or time frame and with the details included in the problem description
to management goals.

Moreover, the measuring and control of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) assume an
important role in companies’ managing strategies. This is due namely to the possibility
of separate valuable information from unimportant, simplify complex subject matters and
create transparency. KPIs are the basis for analysing and improving processes as well as
benchmarking. The most commonly recognised functions of KPI are: i) support planning
in various areas (e.g. strategy and budget); ii) requirement to set goals and to control the
implementation; iii) basis for decision making within a company; iv) incentives especially
for the top management, but for employees as well.

Also, the Information Systems (IS) play an important role to integrate the whole supply
chain operations and give a competitive edge to enhance the efficiency and create higher
client satisfaction. It is also possible to have a real-time monitoring of the logistic
operators through the integrated information systems which provide agility, flexibility,
and reliability in the operative functions of the firm.

In due course, various tools and planning/ scheduling applications were studied during
the internship which was helpful for: i.) Logistic Operators – Characterisation of their

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

operational problems, metrics and available planning tools, decision support applications
and information systems practices; ii.) Developing Key Performance Indicators for the
operational activities; iii.) The exploration of scheduling proposal and iv.) The decision
framework that supports Logistic Operators’ managing and daily work decisions.

Globally, the operational planning of logistic activities is an important research subject


for the integrated Supply Chain Management (SCM), recognised in the literature review
and also known as a key topic in the organisational and technical fields.

1.2 Objectives and Methodology


The main objectives set for this internship project can be defined as follows:

• Logistic Operator – global characterisation covering the identification of:


operational problems, available metrics, existing planning tools, current
information systems, decision support applications and practices;
• Operational Planning Problem – Definition, settings and involved data (e.g.
activities or tasks in the defined problem);
• Scheduling Tools – Study to support Logistic Operator decision processes;
• Decision Framework –Analysis concerning the daily management of logistic
operator.

Concerning the methodology used to achieve the research objectives, the process
followed during the internship consisted of three key steps. First, at the initial stage, the
problems were identified from the preliminary state of art literature review. This process
involved study in determining the gaps that were identified within the interest of research
area. Several key research questions were generated from the research problems. The
literature was thoroughly studied to determine whether those research questions had been
answered. The research aim was recognised based on the final selection of research
questions, and the research objectives were derived from the main aim of the study.

As a result of the earlier step, it was necessary to study the information systems in the
industrial environment. The Management Information System was explored, and the
study resulted in the identification of the planning and scheduling problem involved in
the transportation and logistics industry. Also, an exhaustive literature review was done
to the information system employed in the case company. Hereinafter, Luís Simões, S.A.
company will be referred to as “case company”.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Finally, during the last step of the research, the scheduling tools were explored. The data
collection exercise involved a qualitative approach using interview and meetings with the
logistic operators’ employees as a primary data gathering method. In this study,
qualitative data and participative observation are primarily accommodated to ascertain
the issues pertaining to transportation planning and scheduling in the case company.
Besides that, some research design methodology was also explored.

1.3 Report Structure


This report is organised into six chapters that reflect the course of the work carried out in
achieving the defined objectives.

In this chapter, as previously stated, the problem statement, the objectives and the
methodologies implemented to achieve them were presented. Chapter 2, Literature
Review, is composed of a review and analysis of the state of art literature concerning the
theme of the internship.
Chapter 3, titled Case Study, describes the case company and examines the competition,
resources and capabilities. Also, a detailed analysis is presented concerning the
organisation and the involved operations.
Following the company presentation, Chapter 4 introduces the Core Concepts & Facility
Tools. In here, the concepts of transportation scheduling in relation to the objectives as
well as the tools employed in the case company are explained. In Chapter 5, named
Internship Activities, the development of the key performance indicators carried out in
the case company is presented, and the subsequent objectives are explained.
Finally, in Chapter 6, the conclusions are presented, and the final considerations are
summarised, as well as the expectations and the achievement of the objectives.
Furthermore, some future developments are also proposed.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

2 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter describes the literature within the research area involved in the internship
objectives. The main aim is to provide the foundations and to introduce the scientific and
the technical contributions proposed so far in these fields. The first section of the chapter
presents the literature concerning logistic operators and the planning parameters for the
operational transportation planning. After that, the Performance Measurements (PMs)
and decision support tools for the enterprise managers are presented.

2.1 Logistic Operators


According to the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals1, logistic operators
can be defined as, “Logistic operators own trucks to move goods or pick up freights, rail
cars and the locomotives to move the freight across long distances on the land. They
possess and operate ships or aircrafts to move bulk cargoes across the ocean and also
via the air, and also to other continents. Some logistic operators do not possess a fleet of
vehicles but act as an intermediary to provide transportation to clients. All are essential
links in the global supply chain that moves the good and freight to provide services to
clients.”

Morgan Stanley’s report2 (2010) explains the concept of logistics and defines logistics as
an integral of the supply chain process. The supply chain processes plans, implements,
controls, and executes the effective and efficient flow of materials, storage of items, and
the associated information from the point of source to the point of consumption to meet
clients’ necessities.

The Morgan Stanley report extensively elucidates the logistic operators systematically in
five considered categories namely- First-party Logistics (1PL), Second-party Logistics
(2PL), Third-party Logistics (3PL), Fourth-party Logistics (4PL), and Fifth-party
Logistics (5PL). The progressive augmentation of a numeric issue in PL designation is
mostly related to the continuous trial of enlargement and integration of logistics service
providers.

1
Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals- https://cscmp.org/
2
Adapted from - https://www.morganstanley.com/views/perspectives/China_Economy_2020.pdf

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

2.2 Transportation Planning and Vehicle Scheduling


Along a supply chain, several key decisions have to be made and coordinated according
to the clients’ demand. These decisions are of different importance in different stages.
They may comprise the rather simple question “Which vehicle has to be scheduled next
on a respective route?” as well as a grim task whether to open or close a distribution centre
(DC). The important decisions to be made is akin to being prepared beforehand. The
preparation involves the job of planning. The planning process in the logistics and
transportation industry consists of different recurrent tasks traditionally maintained
subsequently. This planning process starts at the strategic level with collecting or
forecasting data of client demand (Bunte & Kliewer, 2009). The planning supports
decision-making by identification of alternatives to the future activities and selecting the
optimal, or at least, the best possibility in the absence of optimal modelling (Domschke
& Scholl, 2005).
Domschke & Scholl, (2005) further classify the planning process in different phases,
namely: i) The identification and analysis of a decision problem; ii) The characterisation
of the organisational objectives; iii) The future developments forecasting; iv) The
identification and evaluation of feasible activities (solutions); v) Also, the selection of
alternative solutions for informed decision-making.
Supply chains are very sophisticated in nature. Not every detail has to be agreed upon,
but it should be respected in a plan and during the planning process. Therefore, it is
perpetually essential to obscure from reality and to use an uncomplicated model of the
realm, a so-called model, as a basis for building a plan. The art of “model building” is to
characterise the real-world problem without merely ignoring the constraints of the real-
world (R. E. Hall & Lieberman, 2012).
Forecasting and simulation models attempt to make an effort to anticipate potential
developments and to describe associations between input and output of complex systems.
However, they do not support the selection of one or a few solutions that are good
regarding predefined criteria from a broad set of feasible activities (Nahmias & Olsen,
2015). These are the purposes for optimisation models, recognised a long time ago
(Bertrand, 2003). Based on the length of planning boundaries and the significance of the
decisions to be made, planning tasks are generally categorised into three different
planning levels (Manzini et al., 2008).

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Therefore, planning levels go from Long-term to Mid-term and from there to Short-term.
Following this of all levels, the main characteristics of planning and sequencing are the
reduced planning horizon (e.g., feasible time frame) and the increased operational details,
the time required to accurately describe the operational policies (e.g., measuring
frequency, monitoring, etc.) (Kreipl & Pinedo, 2004).
On the other hand, transportation arises to ensure physical flows and the interaction
between different SC clusters, namely from suppliers to manufacturers and from them to
final customers, while accounting for other intermediate chain partners (e.g. distribution
centres, retailers, etc.). Usually, manufacturers require transportation services to transport
raw materials and other products to geographically dispersed location, and also to
distribute finished products in order to achieve client demands (Amaro & Barbosa-Póvoa,
2008a). The demand for final products with its regional and sequential distribution is
exogenously defined as for the multitude of transportation planning process (Chopra &
Meindl, 2015). However, the recognition for protecting the environment and the societal
awareness towards the carbon emission levels, the researchers and practitioners have
placed importance on the planning and scheduling of the transportation activities (Crainic,
2003).
The operational transportation planning focuses on lean operational decisions
determining the mode and the carrier choice (Stank & Goldsby, 2000). The execution of
shipment schedules and their modification are also part of the operational transportation
planning process (Crainic, 2000). The transport planning task is also characterised as
operational. It is also one of the major misunderstandings in operational transportation
planning that vehicle schedule is only accomplished if the vehicles are solely used for the
supply chain under consideration (Fleischmann, 2010).
As Crainic (2003), asserts while road transportation concerning the planning and
scheduling perspective, a more interesting and practical classification differentiates them:
i.) Long-haul transportation and vehicle routing distribution, VRP problems; ii.) The
multi-modal transportation system of a region, irrespective of its dimensions; iii.)
Consolidated transportation wherein vehicle or fleet of vehicles serve different clients
with different starting point and destinations, also door-to-door deliveries to a particular
client in case of customisation of services.
The strategic and tactical ends of the planning level can draw up guide operatives to
handle the business, but the operational planning capabilities ultimately define the
performance of the logistics and transportation industry.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Different issues are addressed at the operational planning levels in order to ensure the
client demand is satisfied by optimising the efficient utilisation of available resources.
Most importantly, time plays a crucial factor in the operational planning (R. Hall, 2012).
Thus, in the real-time situation, the conformity to the time restrictions, integrating and
optimising decision-making with the possible impact on the performances emphasises the
critical aspect of the operational planning in the transportation industry.

Traditionally, the models in the transportation planning often use known static data called
as input. The formulations for tactical plan consider aggregated forecast demand as
“known.” Consequently, in the real-world problems, these models are subjected to
constant changes and optimal solutions cannot be implemented as planned (Crainic,
2003). The set of uncertainties in the model are characterised by the real-world problems
as these uncertainties are reflected in the operational planning models such as- vehicle
scheduling problem, vehicle and crew scheduling problem, empty vehicle distribution
and repositioning, terminal and linehaul operations, and dynamic allocation of resources
(Amaro & Barbosa-Póvoa, 2009).

Vehicle Scheduling

The vehicle scheduling problem arises when the logistic operators or logistics service
providers (LSPs) of transportation network must manage a fleet of vehicles to serve the
clients in the present prospects of client demands. The capacities of the fleet are directly
associated with the number of availability of vehicles. Thus, the optimal size of the fleet
for a transportation network requires certain trade-offs to garner benefits for achieving
the targeted demands, the fixed costs of vehicles or fleet of vehicles and the penalty that
will cost for not meeting the demands. However, for serving demands, the assignment of
vehicles and each reallocation (i.e. vehicle is in a different location) has to account for
the fulfilment requirements, using the vehicle in a particular location. This assignment of
vehicles or fleet of vehicles is part of the so-called vehicle scheduling in transportation
perspective (Amaro & Barbosa-Póvoa, 2008b).

Generically, vehicle scheduling problems are commonly classified into three groups that
is vehicle routing, fleet sizing, and fleet assignment. In the recent past, many types of
research have been carried out on vehicle route optimisation, especially focusing on
vehicle routing problem (VRP) with soft window (Hou, Jia, Tian, & Wei, 2013). Larsen,
Madsen, & Solomon (2008) proposed an exact algorithm based on set partition to balance

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

the minimum number of vehicles required and the client demand satisfaction. Authors as
Luo & Wu (2015) assert the integrated problem of vehicle scheduling and allocation.

Besides that, fleet sizing is one of the problems existing in the real-world scenario and
requires important decisions for significant investments as is the case in any business
entities. Many researchers have conducted researches on fleet sizing problem (FSP). Żak,
Redmer, & Sawicki (2011) studied the fleet sizing problem in a transportation and
logistics firm with a heterogeneous fleet. Rahimi-Vahed, Gabriel Crainic, Gendreau, &
Rei (2015) discussed the problem of the most desirable optimal fleet sizing for the vehicle
routing problem, i.e., periodic VRP, multi-depot VRP, and multi-depot periodic VRP.

Moreover, some research papers are focused on the fleet assignment or vehicle scheduling
problems addressing from the perspective of optimisation of transportation model and the
solutions. Xia, Li, Ma, & Xu (2015) addressed a comprehensive model that provides a
solution for optimal fleet deployment, optimisation of speed and vehicle allocation is
proposed while accounting for profit maximisation. Simão et al. (2009) proposed a model
for large-scale dynamic fleet management and presented a dynamic programming to solve
dynamic problems in the real-world. Also, Topaloglu & Powell (2007) introduced the
concept of how to coordinate decisions to solve the issues related to pricing and vehicle
scheduling of a carrier.

2.3 Performance Management


By its nature, the term “performance” is a diverse subject. Any business enterprise
whether private or public has to remain within the boundaries of financial constraints
and deliver the perceived value or money to its stakeholders. The term “performance
management” is a continuous process of identifying, measuring and developing the
performance of personnel, business teams and aligning overall performance with the
strategic goals and objectives of the organisation (Lydenberg, Rogers, & Wood, 2010).

In performance management, the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are in focus for
estimating the efficiency of the organisation. The role of KPIs can be described in a
performance management process (also called performance measurement process).

These can be summarised as i.) KPI definition; ii.) Monitoring and Compliance; iii.)
Data analysis; iv.) Improve business processes; v.) KPI Refine.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

The KPIs should be evaluated any time when the Critical Success Factors (CSF) are
reviewed. KPI also should be flexible in terms of any relevant changes in environment,
processes, and conditions (Parmenter, 2015).

2.3.1 Performance Measurement

Performance measurement characterises the method of quantifying the efficiency and


effectiveness of various processes and operations. The effectiveness signifies how the
client requirements meet and the efficiencies signify how effectively the organisation
resources and assets utilised to ensure the service level (Neely, Gregory, & Platts, 1995).
For a brief understanding of performance, there is always a better way to start with a
definition. According to Dwight (1999), “the performance is a degree to which the goals
attain.” Authors like Meier, Lagemann, Morlock, & Rathmann (2013) states, “the
performance is an ability of the firm to attain goals and objectives.” In pursuit of
realisation and evaluation of goals, performance measurements must quantify the
effectiveness and efficiencies. On the other hand, Samsonowa (2011) assumes that the
effectiveness signifies the level of goal fulfilment and the efficiency indicates how well
the corresponding processes perform to meet those goals.

The performance indicators of the specific process remain the same irrespective of how
an organisation measures their performance and which system they may use (Parmenter,
2015). According to Jordan & Messner (2012), the basic function of performance
indicator is to facilitate the management for necessary action and provide means of
control and enhance to meet the strategic objectives. Waal (2003) states that the
measurement influences the action plan which generates a behaviour pattern to align the
business environment, culture, and strategic objectives of an organisation. It is extremely
important that performance indicators require strong association with the business
strategy to ensure efficiency of an organisation and create a positive environment which
aligns the corporate culture.

The concept of performance measurement originated in the early 1980’s in Manufacturing


industries. The conceptualisation and development of PMs through varieties of
innovations such as Just in Time (JIT), and total quality management (TQM) took place
(Wong & Fung, 1999). Supply Chain Management is an integrated structure with a
primary goal to link business operations with business functions and therein to provide a
platform for performing cohesively and building a high-performance business model.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

There is one crucial aspect which deems necessary for an organisation to benefice from
PMs is to have a strong connection to the organisation strategy to ensure the applicability
(Neely et al., 1995). The organisation requires correlating its mission, vision, and
objectives to align PMs with company strategy successfully. The step an organisation
must consider is to identify its critical success factors (CSFs) and appropriate PMs and
derive those measurements into company’s vision, mission, objectives, and core values.
One of the difficult task for managers is to derive these measurements into strategic form
and making those measurements as tangible as possible (Franceschini, Galetto, &
Maisano, 2007). Choosing a right indicator is a daunting task and as authors Franceschini
et al., (2007) further asserts, “A strategy without indicators are useless; and indicators
without a strategy are meaningless.”

The indicators form a foundation of PMs in the evaluation of how well the organisation
is adhering to its strategic goals and objectives. The metric, unit, type of PM varies in the
literature of PMs, and there are various definitions found in the literature which describes
measurements that evaluates the degree to which the goal fulfils. There are several
measurements commonly identified in the literature are: “performance metrics”, “critical
success factors”, “key result indicators”, “key performance indicators”, “key success
indicators”, “success measures”, “strategic measures”, “performance criteria”, and
“indexes" (Samsonowa, 2011). Furthermore, the terms which are relevant and are of
interest in recent years among academicians and practitioners are, “performance
indicators”, “key performance indicators”, “performance metrics”, and “performance
measures” (Stadtler, Fleischmann, Grunow, Meyr, & Surie, 2014).

Although the term performance indicators differ between academia and the practitioners,
this is mainly due to the existence of priority where academicians concern with definition,
evaluation, validation, and generalisation of the process of measurement and evaluation
of performance. Whereas, practitioners deal with the applicability and usefulness of the
specific business arena. In actual practice, a combination of a technical reference and
what is practically feasible is relevant in the industrial world. It is therefore extremely
essential to analyse the theory suggested and understand the practical relevance. The non-
parametric practices existing for performance measurement such as Data Envelopment
Analysis (DEA) would be challenging to adapt and make the high applicability of it.
According to Franceschini et al., (2007) states that the indicators as a tool for performance
measurement are of great interest both to the academicians and the practitioners.

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2.3.2 Key Performance Indicators (KPI)

In any business enterprise, it is indeed crucial to establish and gauge the efficiency to find
out that whether the enterprise is operating according to the established standards and
operating procedures while identifying the actions required to enhance the performance
levels to meet those expectations within an organisation. Key Performance Indicators are
often termed to be an essential instrument for measuring the business activities, as they
are quantifiable and required to achieve business goals and objectives.

The success of an organisation in the fast-growing businesses, it is required that corporate


management must understand their strength and weaknesses. Key Performance Indicators
(KPIs) are the quantifying parameters that reflect the success factors of the business
environment. For effective supply chain integration, the KPIs are vital tools for
monitoring and improving the efficiency to gain competitiveness in the global market
(Taylor, 2010). Also, Chae (2009), addresses that a well-built performance indicator (PI)
is an essential factor for competitiveness in the global market. There are quite a many
measures in the literature discussing the means to improve SCM system (Folan &
Browne, 2005), while few of them in the literature discuss having a clear view and avoid
ambiguity. Also, many SCM performance indicators are static and on many occasions lag
behind in the distinctive working contexts of the supply chains (Neto & Pires, 2012).

There can be many types of indicators that can be employed in an organisation. However,
Folan & Browne (2005) are critical in terms of viewing the maximum number of
indicators as fallacious and asserted that there are a minimal number of indicators that
improve the efficiency of an organisation and they named it as key performance indicators
(KPI). Van der Vorst (2000), categorises the performance indicators into three levels,
namely: i.) The supply chain level; ii.) the logistics level; and iii.) the process level. Also,
Pettersen (2009) asserted that in order to have an effective and efficient supply chain
management, it is necessary to measure the performance indicators with four levels-
profit, time, delivery promptness, and waste elimination.

Authors as Wong & Wong (2008) made a critical analysis of the literature and indicated
that the performance measurements are not viewed as a whole supply chain entity and
further indicating the fact that performance measurement is difficult with multiple inputs
and outputs. The supply chain performance indicators that are measured in the form of
output-input ratios provide robustness, reliability, and flexibility in the supply chain
(Asadi, 2012).

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

2.4 Management Information Systems


The information system in logistics presents an integral part of any logistical system,
providing the functional area of logistical management. The objective of the information
logistics are the information flows, reflecting the material movement, finance, and many
other operations related to the logistics.

A necessary condition for the coordination of all units of the logistics system, turns out
to be the existence of information system, which should be capable, to process, to provide
quickly and economically the right signal directed to the right point at the right moment
(Bowersox, Closs, & Cooper, 2011).

Management Information Systems (MIS) are composed of computing and


communication hardware, operating systems, and applications to support business
processes (i.e. wide array of business functions) which aid to accomplish the goals and
objectives of an organisation (Surwade, 2016). In Portugal, the use of computerised
planning systems in the industrial environment is nonetheless limited (Azevedo, Romão,
& Rebelo, 2012).With the increased complexity and global demand for large varieties of
products, dynamic supply chains need to be coordinated without comprising the
flexibility of the networked organisation (Verwijmeren, 2004).

The concept of a supply chain is in fact based on the value-chain network comprising of
the functions directed towards providing available resources and the information to
achieve objectives of an efficient supervision and management of the suppliers as well as
the flow of supplies (Lau & Lee, 2000).
Global supply chain networks cannot entirely rely on a particular technology or the
platform. The literature review classifies functional technologies in the supply chain into
sections that specify issues associated with the characteristics of collaborations are
evaluated. The challenges of implementing new technologies in these groups to existing
platforms are analysed and exploited.

2.4.1 Transportation Management Systems (TMS)

The commercial software suites applied to operate an enterprise’s transport services are
designed primarily to satisfy the requirements of standardised and dynamic carrier
communication. They are mentioned as “transportation management systems” (TMS).
Nevertheless, these systems are designed to manage the manufacturers’ interfaces to the

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

logistics service providers (LSPs) and are therefore largely transaction-based (Caputo,
Pelagagge, Scacchia, Caputo, & Scacchia, 2003).

In recent years, transportation management systems (TMS) have earned significant


recognition across all industries (House & Jackson, 1995). They are characterised as
“software applications that expedite the procurement of transportation systems, the short-
term planning process and optimisation of shipping activities, and the implementation of
consignment plans with continuous analysis and collaboration” (Helo & Szekely, 2005).
Transportation Management processes are determined by a transportation demand, which
in turn is deducted from goods demand (Hall, 2012). Also, while in the past, the
information availability has been a significant obstacle in many cases to performing high-
quality transportation planning (Stank & Goldsby, 2000), with the implementation of
TMS, this information does become accessible at high-quality standards. In the consumer
goods sector, the industries have been aware of the importance of transport challenges for
quite long time, and as such has been the first to implement the TMS application for
greater ease in the operations.

The TMS application suites are well integrated and have extended functionalities to cover
the transportation management problems from planning to real-time tracking and tracing,
and from payment services to freight tendering (De Muynck, 2015). Nowadays, the cases
in which Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software vendors develop some extended
TMS functionalities, these have been acquired through mergers and acquisitions. Most
probably, the main being the G-log by Oracle and the most recent one being the
acquisition of i2 by JDA.
De Muynck (2015) explicitly differentiates between exact TMS solutions, fleet-based
routing and scheduling software. On the other hand, McLaughlin, Motwani, Madan, &
Gunasekaran (2003) present a case study on the implementation of a TMS application,
although they do not use the term TMS but refer to the implemented system as a “business
process tool for freight management”, which further implies that today's TMS suites are
transaction-based order management tools.
In the past, demand for TMS services was mainly triggered by managers of extensive
transportation networks but now, due to the innovation focus has shifted from strategic
planning processes (e.g., total cost sourcing decisions) toward improving the effective
operational planning and scheduling features, are largely available (Capgemini, 2011).
However, the number of TMS merchants that operate favourably on a worldwide scale is

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

very confined (Connaughton, 2008). The leading global vendors of TMS are currently i2
and Oracle (G-Log), closely followed by JDA (Manugistics) and Manhattan Associates
(Connaughton, 2008; De Muynck, 2015). Lauterbach & Metzger (2015) indicate that SAP
introduced the first release of its TM (Transportation Management) module (release 6.0).
However, Connaughton (2008) states that the consumer base is still minimal and business
feedback from consumers is limited. However, there are also a substantial number of
small TMS vendors that claim these software companies are successful in their home
markets. Since the regional TMS markets have been controlled by a large number of local
players who are best at understanding the specifics that concern to the transportation
markets in their home regions (Capgemini, 2011).

2.4.2 Warehouse Management Systems (WMS)

Warehousing is known as an essential competitive component of a supply chain.


Consequently, Warehouse Management Systems (WMS) have, in most applications,
become necessary to efficiently achieve the increasing levels of warehouse performance
required (Faber, Koster, & Velde, 2002). WMS have frequently not kept up with changes
inside and outside the warehouse, nor reflected relevant developments in Operations
Research (OR) (Lahmar, 2008).

A WMS is a software package that gathers, scrutinises, and communicates the


information necessary to move goods or items through a warehouse or distribution centre
(DC). From this information, a WMS can guide employees on the best ways in which to
perform warehouse activities (e.g., where to put or where to find an item), and, as such,
governs the flow and storage of products through the facility.

Like ERP systems, WMS software is provided as a set of modules from which the
organisation in question must choose. Common to all modules is the ability to review and
communicate activity information, such as product activity, facility performance, and
inbound and outbound movements. The overall role of WMS has also extended, with
some systems offering capabilities related to import-export, coordination of multiple
warehouses, full accounting systems, labour planning, the ability to connect with the
advanced planning tools, returned-goods management amongst others (Richards, 2017).

Potential benefits of WMS implementation have been reported by authors such as Min &
Zhou (2002) and Faber, Koster, & Velde (2002). Piasecki (2007), however, notes that the
size of this reduction in comparison to total inventory often is minimal because ‘‘the

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dominant factors that control inventory levels are lot sizing, lead times, and demand
variability. It is improbable that a WMS will have a significant impact on any of these
factors.’’

A WMS application is distinguished as a ‘‘logistics execution system.’’ Moreover, it is


designed for day-to-day operational planning activities. A WMS plans at a reasonably
low level, typically not extending beyond the facility walls. The primary function of a
WMS is not an optimisation of the process; instead, it performs a supervisory function
concerned with the activities within the warehouse with the goal of making the best use
of the resources (capital and labour) (Ballard, 1996).

Planning at a level higher than that of the WMS needs a software that is not confined to
the analysis of one particular area. For example, the Advanced Planning and Scheduling
Systems (APS) make available the Operations Research (OR) competencies in the
optimisation package that are required in WMS and other planning systems (Green,
2001).

A WMS has developed autonomously, and hence have a unique association with,
enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. As Frazelle (2001) explains, in ERP systems,
the warehousing module ‘‘is typically an afterthought application for these software
providers and the full-suite provider.’’ As a consequence, most ERP systems require the
functionality to aid the warehousing and transportation activities adequately (Frazelle,
2002; Handfield & Nichols, 2002; Spiegel, 2003). Lacefield, (2005) states that several
ERP vendors now claim their systems to be capable of handling supply-chain processes.

The market for WMS and many other logistics execution systems is mature; it is hard to
differentiate warehouse software based only on processes ‘‘inside’’ the facility. This
situation has led the WMS developers to focus on the issue of product flow. Applications
have been added to better coordinate warehousing with other activities in the supply chain
(Poirier, 2016).

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3 CASE STUDY
In this chapter, the case company "Luís Simões Logística Integrada, S.A." is presented.
The company’s mission, vision, values and policies along with the SWOT analysis and
the competition in the Iberian Peninsula are presented. Also, the organisational operations
are explained below in detail.

3.1 Organisation Description


The Luís Simões Logística Integrada S.A. is a subsidiary company in the transport and
logistics industry of Luís Simões group. It is business entity founded in 1948 in Portugal,
and 100% of its capital belongs to Luís Simões family. The organisational structure of
Luís Simões is presented in Appendix 1. The core business of LS is transport and logistics,
but the company has been expanding its business to other areas such as Rent a Cargo and
Technical Services (RETA), Corporate Management, and Real Estate Businesses. The
market of Portugal and Spain are the focus of company’s operations. Moreover, having
founded in 1990, the LS spread across Iberian Peninsula which can be seen on the map
below-

Figure 1 - Iberian Network of Luís Simões Group

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

The details of group are enumerated in the table1 below-

Table 1 - Luís Simões Logística Integrada S.A. details

Administrator/Manager Cristina Maria Falcão

Address Mercado Abastecedor da região de


Coimbra, modulo 8
3045 Coimbra- Taveiro

Portugal

Coordinates 40.18901839999999, -8.5129455

Specialisation Logistics & Transportation

Business Turnover 2014 219M €

Business Turnover 2015 220M €

Business Turnover 2016 222M €

Number of Employees 1578

3.2 Mission, Vision, Values & Policies


It is essential to know the Mission, Vision, Values and Policies that guide the company
and all its employees because they are part of the organisation's purpose.

i. Mission

The purpose of the mission is to explain to its employees and stakeholders the purpose
and rationale of the organisation in a transparent way (Johnson, Scholes, & Whittington,
2008). For Luís Simões, its mission is to “Ensure efficient and competitive transport,
Logistics and supporting service solutions, promoting the client satisfaction and that of
society in general, from the economic, social and environmental point of view.”3

3
Extracted from Luís Simões Website - http://www.Luís-simoes.com/uploads/Relatorio08EN.pdf

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

ii. Vision

A vision is something that organisation aspires to be in the future (Johnson et al., 2008).
LS has the following vision: “To be the Iberian company of reference in terms of quality
of service for Transport and Logistics sector.”

iii. Values

The values are the “principles” that guide the organisation’s strategy (Johnson, Scholes,
& Whittington, 2008). The organisational values of Luís Simões presented below, are in
line with the Mission and Vision, thus serving a guide for all its collaborators-

• Client Orientation: To exceed client expectations by providing value-added


services supported by flexible, innovative and technologically advanced
solutions;
• Respect for people: To guarantee the continued qualification of all employees,
developing their skills for different and challenging performances of their activity,
with quality and security;
• Sustainability: To support the organisation’s sustained development through
transparent and socially and ethically responsible conduct;
• Trust: To instil group and employee performance with respect towards
colleagues, clients, and suppliers, believing in each other’s working skills and the
advocacy of LS values;
• Loyalty: To base day-to-day practice upon the professionalism, operational rigour
and transparent relationships, placing LS interests above personal interests, in
order to protect institutional credibility and positive image;
• Innovation: To focus management on structured processes, supported by modern
technological systems, contributing to the development of competitive advantages
in relation to the market;
• Environment: To implement sound environmental practices, reducing the
adverse effects resulting from our activity and protecting the surrounding
environment;
• Concern for safety: To guarantee the best working conditions through preventive
measures, in order to eliminate risks inherent to the activity and preserve the
employees’ well-being.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

iv. Policies

The Luís Simões organisation makes some commitments based on its values (table 2)-

Table 2 - Policies of LS Group

• Comply with appropriate statutory and regulatory requirements, as well as other


subscribed requirements whether the environment, food safety, other plans of
their responsibility to society.
• Promote awareness among company’s employees in the implementation of LS
policies actively involving them in this process and ensuring the dissemination
of its primary results to all the agents involved.
• To develop the competence and motivation of employees concerning the
business goals, concerning quality, safety, hygiene, and health at work,
environment, and food safety.

Quality and Food Safety • Provide relevant resources to increase


business quality and continuous
improvement;
• Privilege the efficiency gains and the
efficiency of processes, as a competitive
advantage of the companies and added value
to the customers, with view of loyalty;
• Ensure compliance with customer
requirements by assessing their satisfaction
and managing their expectations;
• Preserve the quality and safety of food
products, in the operations and services
provided, ensuring communication with all
parties involved in the food chain: suppliers,
employees, customers and competent
authorities.

Environment • Define and implement measures to minimise


the environmental impacts resulting from
the activity in line with the objectives and

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

targets defined and revised on a regular basis


taking into account the most significant
environmental aspects, measuring and
evaluating the results obtained to ensure
their effectiveness continuously;
• Continuously improve the environmental
performance of the company to prevent
pollution, reduce waste, atmospheric
emissions, and energy consumption, using
natural resources rationally.

Health and Safety at Work • Provide the necessary resources to prevent


occupational hazards, improve safety
conditions in the performance of the
activities and to monitor the health of the
employees, to develop their skills and to
raise awareness on occupational safety and
health.

Social Responsibility • Promote a transparent relationship with


stakeholders and society in general, whether
through the commitments expressed above
or through the development of targeted
actions, to promote personal, professional,
family valuation, information, raising
awareness and of solidarity directed towards
external entities.

Source: http://www.luis-simoes.com/uploads/Relatorio08EN.pdf

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3.3 PEST Analysis


i. Political/Legal4

In Portugal, the evolution of the legislative framework for road transportation activity
took place in the following stages:

a) In the first half of the 1980s, total liberalisation of transport within a 50-km radius
granted the fleet to work for others, and also to operate in the long haul led to the
concentration of transport operators in this type of traffic;
b) In the second half of the 1980s, there was no increase in the range of distribution
(i.e.,> 50km), which meant that the transport in private fleets was carried without
restrictions. Even though being the case of lower returns, these legislative
developments led to the decrease in the rate of global fleet usage;

In 1986, Portugal joined the European Economic Community (EEC).

c) During the 1990s, national and international licenses were granted based on the
experience and/or size of the fleet. While the national market was accessible to
the majority of transporters, who were asked for more than three years of
experience in the local market and the possession of a minimum Social Capital
equivalent to the value of two lightweight trucks. While access to the international
market to the companies with more than three years of experience at national level
and a fleet of summation of the gross vehicle weight with more than 22 tons
totalled and less than 220 tons;

This internationalisation took place in 1995 with the Schengen agreement which ends
control of Europe's internal borders.

d) In 1999, private transport and carriage were not subject to any legislation. For
transport on behalf of others in heavy vehicles, the legal framework was embodied
in Dec. Law no. 38/99, with national and international licenses being granted by
compliance with three requirements, designated by conditions of access to the
profession: Suitability, Professional Capacity, and Financial Capacity. Upon
verification of these conditions, the licenses were granted to access the market

4 The Information for Political/Legal analysis was adapted from Associação Nacional de
Transportes Públicos Rodoviários de Mercadorias (ANTRAM) documents

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

through vehicles that were identified correctly and licensed for the public
transport, after registration with the competent authority Directorate-General for
Land Transport (DGTT)5.

Currently, market access is regulated by Decree-Law no. 257/2007 of 16th July, which
established the legal framework governing the issuance of licenses and access to freight
road transportation on a contractual and initial fee basis and is regulated by the Institute
of Mobility and Land Transport, (IMT). The digital tachograph became compulsory on
vehicles weighing more than 3500 kg and with registration after May 1, 2006, is a
fundamental tool in the control of driver schedules.

Specific labour laws for professional drivers are increasingly demanding (EC Regulation
561/2006) and its increasingly heavy penalties (Law no. 27/2010).

This situation among the highly competitive market and the fuel prices in recent years
(e.g., since 2005, the fuel price was increased by 50%, and it peaked in 2015, 1.52€ and
also in 2016 by 1.50€) led to cause of obstruction in this sector. Also, the maximum
paralysis caused by the financial crisis of 2008 and during the rise of fuel prices in 2011.

ANTRAM6, the National Association of Road Transport is the most significant employer
association in this sector. The association has successively called for a reduction of
petroleum products, something that the government has not yet conceded.

With regard to incentives, there are several programs that the sector can take advantage
of, such as SIMIAT, PRIME, SIME, and SIPIE.

ii. Economical7

Europe

Eurozone Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will have grown by 1.7% year-on-year in the
first quarter of the year, Eurostat said on 3 May in its first estimate of the economic
performance at the start of 2017. The figure was in line with expectations and reinforces
the continuation scenario of the Eurozone's slow recovery this year.

5
Information extracted from - Direcção-Geral de Transportes Terrestres (DGTT)
6
ANTRAM - http://www.antram.pt/
7
All data for economic analysis were adapted from Banco de Portugal- https://www.bportugal.pt/

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

The EU as a whole will have grown by 1.9%. If these figures are confirmed, Portugal
should have grown more than the average of the monetary union. INE released the first
estimate on 15 May.

"Compared to the same quarter last year, seasonally adjusted GDP grew by 1.7% in the
Eurozone and by 1.9% in the EU to 28 in the first quarter of 2017, after 1.8% and 1.9%
in the quarter ", the Eurostat (2017) statement said.

"Seasonally adjusted GDP increased by 0.5% in the Eurozone and by 0.4% in the EU-28
during the first quarter of 2017 when compared to the previous quarter, according to the
rapid estimate published by Eurostat, the statistics office of the EU ", reads the press
release.
The figures are in line with forecasts of a slow recovery in the Eurozone. The European
Central Bank (ECB), which updated forecasts in March, expects Eurozone GDP growth
of 1.8% this year and 1.7% in 2018, after 1.7% in 2016. The European Commission,
which will update forecasts this year (December 2017), pointed in February to a growth
of 1.6% this year.
Portugal
In the Stability Program, presented at the end of April, the Government revised the
economic growth forecast upwards for 2017 from 1.5% to 1.8%, aligning its estimate
with that of the Bank of Portugal. In February, however, the European Commission,
pointed to 1.6%.

iii. Socio-Cultural8

At the socio-cultural level, in order to demographically characterise the country, the


Portuguese population at the end of 2011 totalled 10,561,614 people, of which 48% are
male and 52% female.
Region wise, the Alentejo has misplaced populace in the remaining of last decade (-
2.5%), and the Central region also confirms a slight reduction of population (-1%). The
Algarve and the Autonomous Region of Madeira have very significant increases in
population, compared to 2001, respectively + 14.1% and + 9.3%. In the North, the

8 Data from the socio-cultural analysis were taken from Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE)
documents

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

population steadied, and Autonomous Region of the Azores shows a small upsurge of
2%.
The country strengthened the pattern of growth and development of the previous decade
and further expanded the concentration of the populace in the large urban zones of Lisbon
and Porto. The most of the municipalities of the interior lost population. In 2011, 198
municipalities registered decreases in population compared to 171 municipalities in 2001
(INE, 2011).
When analysing the behaviours and lifestyles of the national population, taking into
account which may influence the road transport sector, it is national road haulage that is
well above the average European Union, as well as the development of the consumer
society it uses with commercial areas to meet their needs.
There are high rates of accidents mainly due to the low level of safety measures adopted
by national drivers who do not practice defensive driving. On the other hand, the alcohol
consumption in Portuguese society, many drivers exceed the statutory value (0.5 g / l)
when driving. It is, therefore, necessary to implement a set of measures into the dangers
of their actions, as well as more stringent legal and enforcement measures.

iv. Technological

In a business world where R&D is increasingly decisive and consequently technologically


innovative for cost reduction and productivity of road haulage is no exception. With
regard to technological innovation, it is relevant to mention four critical vectors of
development: security, communication, logistics, and Environment. Of these four vectors,
we highlight transport vehicles - where the significant advances are seeking to investigate
and develop economic resistance with respect to complying the strict anti-noise and low
pollution standards imposed by the European Union.

Security

Being considered the most important vector for road transport companies, since it is
ultimately about the integrity and well-being of its members. Employees, notably drivers,
necessary measures have been taken in order to ensure the standardised manufacture of
vehicles on the road and to ensure the safety of crew as well as the safety of third-party
drivers. Thus, it is exemplified that the installation of automatic control devices and
onboard devices such as the black box (allowing, as in other transport, in case of accident

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

establish the reasons and causes of a road accident, facilitating the investigation process
and seeking to avoid similar future situations).
Two other examples are- the approval by the European Commission in 2001, and other
being the imposition of the installation of speed limiters in all vehicles of more than 3.5
tons or having more than nine seats. However, the introduction of an electronic driving
license which exchanges information enables the authorities for identifying the offenders
more quickly.
Regarding innovation, an agreement is being programmed to design to ensure the
presence of active safety system installed in all vehicles. These safety systems may
include- vehicle distance control, vehicle collisions avoidance, the physical state of
drivers, progress related to the type of composition of tires, less water projection, factors
determining the adhesion of tires to the ground, and alerts for pressure loss in tires.
Communication
Advances in communications are equally important in this sector, not only in enabling
remote monitoring of the fleet and their recovery in case of theft but also in the control of
consumption and distances. One example is the installation of GPS systems in the
vehicles, thus strategic analysis of a Transportation Company with better management of
routes and vehicle traffic, also trying to avoid potential congestion, minimising the danger
of accidents, and allowing the reduction of fuel consumption. Another case is the use of
GSM mobile phones, the features offered by this type of portable device are- permanent
contact between the base/seat and the vehicles and avoidance of unnecessary routes.
Wherein this portable device permits better assistance and control of the service provided
as well as minimising the potential delays in deliveries.
Logistics
Associated with transportation, is the logistics through which the goods pass, from the
place of manufacturing, through loading, transport, unloading, and to the point of sale.
The Internet and other means of support are increasingly being used, with the aim of
integrating the communication systems between the companies responsible for
transport/logistics and the final customer, thereby being an existence of a permanent
monitoring and control of stocks, eliminating the surpluses of warehouses of distribution
companies.
It becomes more frequent in transport sector that to overcome the competition in an
attempt to the inclusion of services provided in the logistics component for a vertical
integration of a supply chain process, elimination of one of the intermediaries of the

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

freight transport becomes necessary. This elimination might facilitate an integration of


transport and distribution of goods functioning as a competitive advantage.
It should also be noted that there are currently robotic solutions at the logistics level,
allowing the transport of goods, for example from the interior of the semi-trailers to the
warehouse, and the optimum allocation method for reducing the space utilised.

3.4 SWOT Analysis


Times are uncertain for business around the world. If a reflection has ever been necessary,
then there are several factors that that has become essential to any business. The increase
in the customers and their lack of loyalty, as well as the climate of economic deceleration,
are just a few examples. Close attention to the analysis of an organisation in its
environment is mandatory.
The SWOT analysis was developed by two professors from Harvard Business School.
The term SWOT results from the combination of initials of the Anglo-Saxon words-
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (Christensen & Andrews, 1982).
Thus, the SWOT analysis corresponds to the identification by an organisation and the
main features of its strategic position in a specific time, both internally and externally
(how it is related to its surroundings), the synthesis of the external and internal position
analysis.
Therefore, we point out the SWOT9 analysis of Luís Simões group below-

Strength

Communication and reputation in the Iberian market;


Training and talent retaining;
Investment in transportation with fewer greenhouse gas emissions;
Innovation and internationalisation;
Client satisfaction;
Financial health;
Road Safety;
Environmental management.

9
The SWOT analysis of the Luís Simões Group was extracted from the website- http://www.Luís-
simoes.com/uploads/Relatorio08EN.pdf

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Weakness

Environmental impacts of the activity – fossil fuels consumption;


Community impacts – noise, traffic, and parking on the roads;
Labour stress (driving profession);
Access to the facilities by public transport;
Internal communication;
Variations in driver conduct – LS fleet versus third parties’ fleets;
Lack of strategic communication with the clients in Spain.

Opportunities

Development of Information and Communication Technologies for the business


support;
Extension of the Quality Management System (QMS) to the occupational safety
and environment fields;
Intermodal, break-bulk cargo and the urban delivery;
Environmental performance and effectiveness as a way of making a difference in
a society with a growing environmental awareness;
Development of technologies for renewable energies;
Implementation of driver support systems;
Standardisation of arrangements in Spain;
Strengthening of relationships with the universities.

Threats

Supply surplus on the market;


Current crisis;
Financial liquidity of outsourced transport companies;
Fuel price fluctuation;
Low availability of qualified labour in the market (mechanical engineering
technicians and drivers);
Inflexible labour laws;
Peripheral position (Iberian Peninsula) regarding the legislation concerning
driving times;
Pressure from legislation and society.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

3.5 Organisational Operations


The Centre for Logistics and Transportation in the national region fulfils various
operations which are briefly explained below-

The main activities of Luís Simões are the freight transportation, the logistics,
warehousing, and the maintenance and commercialisation of vehicles. The case study
concerns only the transport sector, whose objective is substantially the transport of goods
by road. It is made up of three companies operating in Portugal and Spain (Luís Simões
Logística Integrada SA, Transportes Reunidos Lda., and Transportes Luís Simões SA).
Moreover, it is responsible for managing about 900 daily trips. For some years now, these
have been leading the flow of goods by road transport in the Iberian Peninsula, and despite
an extensive group of 1471 customers, 7.2% of these accounts for 80% of sales (Luís
Simoes, 2017).
The organisational structure of the company in the Iberian Transportation sector is
presented in Figure 2, in order to represent the organisation that supports the 'Operations'
department where fleet and cargo planning is done.

Figure 2 - Organisational Structure of Iberian Transportation of Luís Simões

There are three types of transport: Own Fleet (FP), Transport Partners (TP) and External
Transport Partners (TE). These have to respond to the existing demands and try to
compensate the imbalance of flows. The distributions within the types of transport and
services are roughly represented in Figure 3 below-

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Figure 3 - Transport types in Luís Simões

The own fleet, which was once the most significant component of the company's
transport, has been reducing in favour of balance with permissible transport. These are
seen as advantageous and economical because of the minor concerns implicit in their
process. There is a contract that guarantees them a minimum level of service and a similar
treatment by the 'Operations' department. On the other hand, occasional transport will
help resume services, whenever necessary, in order to compensate for possible
imbalances.
The type of service is mainly the transport of full loads over Iberian Peninsula; thus, it
can be said that the imbalance of flows becomes one of the most challenging difficulties.
In order to facilitate the management of resources in this sector, planning is divided
between the Local, Regional, National and Iberian Peninsula service with direct flows to
the other centres (routes between distribution centres), as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 - Exemplification of the plant and other centres

In all, there are twenty-six operational centres; eight are situated in Portugal and eighteen
are situated in Spain. The largest national service centre is situated in Carregado, as
mentioned above, and it is distinguished by its volatility, given the need for rapid
response. This characteristic also motivates a greater need for permanent contact with the
commercial department to enable immediate solutions. The latter is the one who

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

introduces the orders, with the inherent constraints, into the system, so that they are
available in the ERP to process at the planning level.

Planning Model in Luís Simões


The main responsibility of an assistant working in ‘Operations’ department is to allocate
the right trucks/drivers for services, taking into account the hourly restrictions, schedule
of the deliveries, and client demands in order to minimise the empty running of the
vehicles and to balance the driving schedule of the driver. Despite this, the separation
between the centre of transportation and the national service, during the planning phase,
there is a communication between those responsible for combining possible
compensations. The process in question may be described in a way abbreviated, Figure
5.

Allocation of
Registering
Reception of Client demand to
client data in
orders contact other
the system
department

Preview of Viewing the Confirmation


Allocation of
orders in location of with the
trucks
BaaN trucks drivers

Management
Confirmation Register
Distribution of conflicts
of trips deliveries
& exceptions

Figure 5 - General Functions of Planning Process

The assistants from the ‘Operations’ department who support the performance of a
planning of fleets should mainly meet the three most significant constraints: driving times,
location and loading/unloading times.

Within the first limitation, it is necessary to consider the driving schedule of a driver in
the performance of both the service in question and the possible achievements. At present,
it is possible to access a chart of the register, made by the driver in his on-board computer,

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

and elaborated by the on-board computer system (XTraN), and to make the planning
trying to reconcile the availabilities of the drivers.

Then, for the location problem, it is necessary to consider the zone of the last stop of the
truck and the location of loading and unloading. These factors are essential to enable
overall minimisation of the number of empty kilometres, but they have implications for
the remaining restrictions.
Finally, the loading and unloading times, despite being devalued, are known by the
experience acquired by those responsible and are also of high relevance in the process.
The reason is that they are accounted for the driver’s working time and the schedule. The
truck loading process is almost non-limiting since they are full load services where the
customer is responsible for this execution.
The planning scale then results from manual assignment by the assistants, based on
information supported in the ERP system. Route Planning is performed by an application
whenever there is a new point in the system. The set of shorter paths is defined between
the possible points, so that in the insertion of a new order- the size, cost and specific route
of the connection are already established.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

4 CORE CONCEPTS & FACILITY TOOLS


This chapter contextualises the functionalities and concepts in the scope of internship
objectives related to transportation management system (TMS). Furthermore, the facility
tools are described to get acquainted with the objectives.

4.1 Functionalities of TMS


The transportation operations are quite often complex dynamic processes. Typically,
large freight carriers must manage multiple fleets of heterogeneous resources to serve
client demands. However, even relatively small transportation service providers face
challenges managing the resources. The focus of this internship is identifying the
operational planning problems in the transportation industry. The fleet management
problems might take varieties of form, and the term “fleet” might represent several types
of companies’ resources. For example, truckload companies manage the fleet of vehicles,
and trailers to serve point-to-point full truckload (FTL), point-to-point less than truckload
(LTL) demand for customers. However, less than truckload (LTL) may face additional
complexity since at times goods which are required to transfer between different locations
based on client requirements are served through cross-docking methods. Cross-docking
operations require planning tool to ensure the delivery at the right time to the clients. The
alliance carriers and the associated carriers, such as the express parcel services, and less-
than-truckload (LTL) trucking companies usually manage multiple fleets for different
transportation roles. For example, an LTL company will use a fleet of vehicles and drivers
for long-haul services between terminals, as well as for local pickups and delivery
services from terminals.

Transportation management processes are determined by a transportation demand, which


in turn is deducted from goods demand (R. Hall, 2012). The demand for final products
with its regional and sequential distribution is exogenously defined as for the multitude
of transportation planning processes (Chopra & Meindl, 2015). The shortening of the
planning horizon will usually increase the number of exogenously defined planning
parameters. As for transportation control processes, decision freedom is usually minimal,
and these processes are subject to effective communication and exceptional handling.
From the viewpoint of a clients’ goods manufacturer, the involvement in transportation
execution is minor and unusually restrained to loading and unloading operations.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

The operational planning in the transportation industry mainly focuses on the short-term
decisions based on the freight orders. A plan is no longer performed based on constant
material flows but on shipping orders that quantify source, destination, quantity, and date
of a transportation task. The availability of this information defines the planning horizon,
which ranges typically from a few hours to a couple of days. Operational transportation
planning focuses on lean operation decisions determining the mode and the carrier choice
(Stank & Goldsby, 2000). The execution of shipment schedules and their modification
are also part of the operational transportation planning process (Crainic, 2000).

As for the described case study, the transport planning task will have to be characterised
as operational. It is possibly one of the major misunderstandings in operational
transportation planning that vehicle scheduling should only be accomplished if the
vehicles are solely used for the supply chain under consideration (Fleischmann, 2010).
This usually is the case if the transportation services are carried out by own fleet.
However, the LSPs can use a vehicle for multiple clients outside the considered supply
chain, and this might be a significant contribution to the performance of the transport
process, scheduling objectives from the shipper side and also increase the overall
efficiency of the supply chain.

The most critical decisions in the operational planning of transportation include- the
vehicle repositioning, scheduling of vehicles, crew assignment, allocation of resources.
These issues are similar in comparison with those at the tactical level. Moreover, the
tactical planning is concerned with "where" and "how" issues (mainly the selection of
LSPs, the route determination), the operational planning is more concerned with "when"
issues (particularly when to start a service, when the vehicle arrives at port or distribution
centre or intermediary terminals) (Crainic & Laporte, 1997).

The problem of planning the carrier from source to destination is a complex task. The
transport planning aims to build plans for the trucks, such that all client needs are met on
time. In Portugal, several companies plan their log shipping by various means; some let
the drivers decide their schedules, while others try to propose the whole schedule at an
extraordinary level in the organisation. The most popular means is traditional manual
planning prepared by experienced transport managers. Manual preparation is however
very exhaustive and unproductive, and transport managers usually work under pressure.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

The practice of computer-aided systems to aid planning problems in international


locations such as Finland and Chile have demonstrated numerous benefits (Weintraub,
Epstein, Morales, Seron, & Traverso, 1996). These involve shorter trips, fewer carbon
emissions, a high percentage of fulfilled consumers, and better-operating environments
for the motorists. Besides that, a computer-aided planning system provides the higher
capability for dealing with the data and helps to visualise the problem, and therefore it
helps the managers to a better understanding of the problem. However, new possibilities
are feasible by the newly built Transportation Management Systems (TMS) which
includes information about client demands, available time-frame, transportation
providers, and enhanced reporting of delivery means. This is however the case in Luís
Simões nowadays, and efforts are made to improve the TMS system in the company
environment.

There are two methods for dealing with everyday planning, particularly dispatching and
scheduling. Dispatching is the generation of a plan in real time, while scheduling deals
with the planning problem sometime in advance, for example, one day ahead or week
ahead. In the case company, the dispatching involved planning a vehicle for loading at
least a day beforehand (sometimes a week ahead).

Basics of TMS-

The TMS process can be described as a six-step process, as follows:

1. Based on the material movement triggered in ERP system, a transportation order


is generated. It includes the material movement origin, destination location, the
planned dispatching and receiving time are consolidated. In addition to this, a
specification can be added to the material (e.g., hazardous material, temperature
restrictions, etc.). While the transport order coming from the ERP system, a great
deal of information is discarded as the transport order may contain (in many cases)
some goods information which will only be considered if they are relevant to the
business process (McLaughlin et al., 2003). Therefore, the TMS need not require
all the details in most cases.
2. Mode and carrier selection is performed once the order is entered in TMS. Modes
and carrier selection are based on costs, delivery timeframe, service (transit time)
and other criterion specified in the order (lead time, equipment details).

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

3. The information which is entered in the system creates a load building process for
a defined lead time- once the carrier provider receives the order and with
timeframe mentioned above, the carrier provider has to release the confirm or
reject orders.
4. This step includes a physical execution of the order. This step may also include
process deviations due to production delays, product damage, and waiting times.
This information can be used to add the surcharges or discounts at the dispatching
or receiving ends. Moreover, these reasons may provide necessary information for
the cause analysis of the transport order irregularities (Thonemann et al., 2013).
5. When the actual transportation is concluded, the billing process generates the
freight rates, discounts, rebates (based on reasons) as well as further company
terms and conditions (based on terms of payment or modes of payment). The TMS
application incorporates several billing processes. However, the standard ranges
from freight bill auditing (carrier invoice) to self-billing. The former is time-
consuming and error-prone if conducted manually (Sheffi, 1990), TMS
implementation can increase not only process efficiency but also error-free
invoices.
6. The final step includes the freight invoices through payment. This step involves
the second major break because the settlement of payments usually takes place
within the company-wide system (Helo & Szekely, 2005). Therefore, all the
payment information is transferred from TMS.

Key Functions of TMS-

1. Order Management & Tracking-


The vital function of TMS in Order Management & tracking are order input, order
specification, and carrier selection (House & Jackson, 1995). Order input and
generation takes place in an interface of ERP system. Order specifications are
based on products (e.g., chilled products, hazardous materials, client location that
can be served only with small trucks) and may contain information regarding
transportation equipment and delivery timeframes. Order management includes
transportation planning, freight rates, carrier communications, loading, and
unloading times (Stank & Goldsby, 2000). Since status tracking requires a wide
range of frequently updated information, interfaces to IT surroundings are of vital
importance for consistent and valid status reports (Helo & Szekely, 2005). Order

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

management also refers to shipping documentation and may be forwarded towards


carrier provider for handling units.
2. Freight Rate Management, Cost Management & Billing-
The freight rates are usually different for different carrier providers or LSPs
depending upon the contract structures. This function enables to perform for long-
term and short-term carriers or LSP contracts. Short-term contracts or spot
sourcing focuses on the limited time frame for transportation planning and is
different from the long-term contracts and considered to be a core functionality
(Stank & Goldsby, 2000). So, this interface allows the case company to manage
the carrier for load in a short timeframe. The extended functionality of TMS
allows non-assets based LSPs to bill their clients with the opportunity of splitting
costs between different clients and carrier providers.
3. Performance Measurement-
The TMS function primarily clusters around transportation controlling and
focuses on costs and budget alignment. TMS provides an opportunity for
assessing service provider and location-based performance measurement. This
may include carrier performance focusing on On-Time performance, damage
evaluations. Also, the network controlling may provide vital information on KPI
such as carbon footprint.
TMS solutions in many cases are enriched with unique add-ons such as, for
instance, strategic network planning capabilities, or packaging monitors
organising the inventory management and distribution of empty containers. Still,
TMS can be recognised as a transaction-based tool for order management that
lacks features for transportation planning.

Extended Functionality of TMS-

The key functions of TMS focus on the order management throughout their lifespan,
however, some TMS add-ons feature extended functionality in the organisation. The form
and degree of these add-ons vary from their vendors. In many cases, useful extensions are
software products supplied as an add-on by vendors other than the TMS vendors.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Geo-Information Services (GIS)-

A prevalent form of an extension for TMS implementation is Geo-Information Services


(GIS). These are built around geographical representation and can be further dissected
into three sub-parts:

• Geo-Encoding Services: Based on the geo-data such as country, city, zip code,
and street name, the coordinates are determined. Geo-coordinates are the primary
source to display the correct location on the map and extend common location
master data (House & Jackson, 1995).
• Vehicle Routing Services: Geographical information of locations can determine
transportation routes between two cities. This feature provides different routing
parameters such as transit time, distances, avoidance of toll sections, and so on.
Distance information is particularly relevant as transportation costs are the
distance-dependent component. This particular feature provides different route
parameters such as distance, travel time, and avoidance of toll. The distance
parameter is hugely significant for this feature as the cost of any transportation is
a distance-dependent component. The routing information provides driving
instruction for delivery execution.
• Mapping Services: This feature allows the presentation of locations, transport
information, and relevant routes on maps. This further enables to provide
decision-making for carrier and route selection.

Planning & Controlling Function-

The current focus of TMS is on transport order management and LSP management.
However, they lack transportation planning approach. Although, such functionality can
be enabled by software add-ons supplied by other vendors. The functionality may include-

• Advanced Transportation Controlling: The essential functionalities may


include the extensive standardised controlling features and reporting tools. These
may be the same ones as in ERP system and are following the company’s
reporting standard. This functionality is beneficial for measuring transportation
performance and also serves as an indicator for network design.
• Network Design: Based on the available information, network design measures
may be investigated and implemented. The client or Distribution Centre (DC) may
be assigned, for instance, due to the capacity shortage in DC, a client can be

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

assigned. In contrary, some clients may be reassigned to other DCs. The


parameters can be changed or adjusted in TMS (also in ERP, if required).
• Tactical Transportation Planning: In case of continuous material flow with
little uncertainty, tactical transportation planning add-on can be implemented for
measures like transportation mode, routes, or a number of trips required. Since
planning, tasks are very specific in nature, and their implementation is usually not
subjected to substantial standardisation but individual system adaptation. As for
non-continuous material flow, these features lack applicability.
• Transportation Tendering: Tendering add-ons are subjected to support large
transportation tenders (e.g., annual tenders).

Track & Trace Function-

In the transportation industry, status tracking data plays an invaluable role for all the
involved parties in the shipments. The timely knowledge of the potential delays may
allow the low-level managers to early countermeasure, such as for instance, production.
Furthermore, the detailed status report helps to monitor the On-time performance of
carrier or service providers (LSPs). Moreover, such data can be valuable information to
avoid penalty charges or in the calculation of penalty charges. In TMS implementations,
status tracking can be divided into two parts-

• Integration of Service Provider Service Tracking: Many shipping companies


offer shipping status information via their website. The information is obtained
from identification process that takes place where the shipment or load is handled.
This information may not be accessible at shipping company's website, but it may
be accessible from the proprietary interfaces and for that reason can be made
available without delay into the TMS application. This information may further
add value by providing details about vehicle speed and vehicle location. This data
can be obtained using telematics’ information systems.
• Implementation of Independent Tracking Technology: The shipper can further
tag a Geo-RFID system into the shipment to be independent of flawed carrier
information. If a transmitter is added is added to the shipment, it will display its
location using mobile-communication networks at pre-defined intervals. By
providing these details, the TMS applications increases shipment visibility
independent of the assigned carrier.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

4.2 Information Systems in the Case Company


The Luís Simões currently employs the ERP system in the organisation to facilitate the
order management system to take into account the client requirements and subsequent
deliveries. Also, due to the high competition in the market and the need to integrate the
whole supply chain, ERP system bridges the gap between the manufacturers and the final
customers and delivers final consumer satisfaction.

Supply Chain Management (SCM) requires continuous and mutual interaction between all
the players; therefore, there is a requirement for dependency on the information and
communication systems to connect geographically dispersed and often located all over the
world actors in the supply chain. It means the evolution of the SCM concept requires the
development of the productive supply chain information system solutions.

The global nature of the modern market demands active players to internationalise their
operations. In the past, the companies were competing based on the few relative
objectives such as- price and quality. However, currently, the market demands both price
and quality in addition to flexibility, reliability, and transparency in the whole supply
chain. Thus, all enterprises compete based on these objectives. In order to perform on
such simultaneous objectives, the organisations worldwide have outsourced activities by
decentralising the operations. This puts enormous challenges to the organisations to
coordinate and integrate the whole supply chain. The emergence of technologies such as-
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), ERP systems and world-wide-web have facilitated the
need for integrated supply chain management to become responsive and agile in the
operational activities of the organisation. Also, in particular, the Material Resource
Planning (MRP), as well as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), have gained importance
in the organisations to facilitate the necessary support for agile and integrated supply
chain management.

The logistics and transportation industries started implementing ERP systems in the
1990s to have uniformity in the information systems in their organisations and enhance
their business process activities. The ERP system comes as a packaged software solution
which has many advantages of cost reduction, rapid implementation, and higher quality
in the business operations. These ERP systems have wide-ranging benefits over the
custom-designed software, but the packaged software have the tendencies of problems
arising from the uncertainties in the acquisition and the hidden costs involved in the
implementation of the whole package. The ERP system implementation requires a

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

specific initiative rather than a just a mundane installation effort. Some efforts must be
taken to project a clear objective for installation of such systems in the organisation. With
the ERP systems in the organisations, the management requires changing the
organisations’ socio-economic system, which is resistance to such software installation.
So, the efforts required for installation and also the resistance to change in the industrial
environment plays a critical success factor in the more extended run.
There are numerous ERP systems accessible in the market, and the main features are
given below-
• The automation of the enterprise operations and activities;
• Easy and timely access to the management information;
• Effectiveness and efficiency in the supply chain by the usage of e-
communications and e-commerce.
In the case company “Luís Simões,” the current ERP system employed is developed by
the Dutch company “BaaN” and acquired by Infor Global Solutions. Although there are
many vendors for ERP system in the market, there were five major ERP vendors and offer
ERP solutions to the companies worldwide. The players in this field are: 1. SAP; 2.
Oracle; 3. Sage; 4. Infor Global Solutions (BaaN); and 5. Microsoft.
The scope of this chapter is to focus on the ERP system “BaaN” since the case company
“Luís Simões” has employed BaaN in their organisational environment. The ERP model
is built intuitively by the BaaN10.
In this, the managerial model can be designed on the map. The user can select a widget
to represent the business unit from the library. The further step in the modelling process
involves identifying the relations of the business units.
The user can model the relations concerning: a.) Order flow; b.) Cash flow; c.) Material
flow; and d.) Information flow.
Moreover, the user can model various types of flow for each view of the business unit
model. For each business unit, the user must define some data types such as: Name and
description of the company; Financial company; Transportation and Logistics company;
Reference model for the company; and Quantitative data such as business volume and
the frequencies.

10
Extracted from ERP BaaN- www.baansupport.com/docs/erpln/P3496F%20US.pdf

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

When the enterprise units are entirely determined and characterised, it will be up for
assessment which is saved in the repository of the ERP enterprise modeller. The decision
made in the enterprise structure model will interpret into consequences for the interfaces
within the enterprise units. These consequences may include-
• Parameterisation of processes
• Selection of processes
• Configuration of the involved settings
After the identifying and defining the Enterprise structure model, ERP application
architecture is carried out.
Business Control Model
A Business Control Model (BCM) can be defined on a conceptual level, wherein it is
determined the order flow, and material flow within an enterprise unit is managed and
controlled effectively and efficiently. A BCM characterises a business unit in terms of-
• Processes (routing)
• Customer order decoupling point
• Management and control of manufacturing unit
• Management and control of logistics level (material flows)
• Management and control on accumulated level (objectives and goals defined)
Business Function Model
The business function model is a functional decomposition of the company to the primary
levels of the functions. This model covers the implementation parameters that schedules
the following-
• Best practices and the business knowledge by the experts or consultants.
• Guide to support the dialogues between the management and the consultants.
• Finally, the process selection and the resulting configuration.

Link to Business functions/process model


Before the actual design process proceeds, the best practices, alternative solutions, and
the alternative methods that are available to exploit the ERP software are built-in as the
main processes. A client decides on which alternative option is best for the appropriate
situation.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

The main process is outlined in the functional model as the main function. Also, the
alternative methods and solutions are assigned as main functions in the implementation
decisions.
The implementation decisions for each process cycle are decided in the functional model.
Business Process Model
The business process model serves the following purposes-
• Classification of business processes to capture the process control cycle.
• To document each process from the starting point for each activity, roles,
authorisations, and the instructions to perform the job.
Business Organisation Model
The Business Organisation Model defines the structure of the organisation concerning
business units, and departments. A fundamental concept in this is the identification of
roles in the company. A role defines which activities/tasks in the process execution are
usually assigned to one person or group. Besides, the hierarchical and functional
relationships can be described between the departments.
Business Data Model
The graphical data model editor permits the user to edit an Entity Relationship logical
data model to create a new conceptual database design or document in an existing one. It
contains the following-
• One-to-One relationship
• One-to-many relationship
• Many-to-Many relationship
• And the optional. It usually signifies that the relationship does not always exist.
In relation to the transportation and logistics industry, the following features of the BaaN
are explained below-
The ERP BaaN Freight Management uses general master data, such as countries, business
partners, addresses, items, departments, distances, and so on. In addition, the necessary
transport-specific master data can be set up, such as types of transport, routes, fleet data,
and so on.
The core of the package is formed by the functionality for freight order management, load
building, and planning, supported by a graphical planning board with drag-and-drop
possibilities.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Finally, functionality is available for estimating freight-related costs and revenues, and a
link to the ERP Central Invoicing for handling invoices from carriers or to charge
transport services to clients is illustrated in Figure 6.

Figure 6 - Freight Management module of ERP

Warehousing
The integration of Freight Management in the ERP enables the user to copy warehouse
orders, which can be inbound, outbound, transfer orders, loading data, in order to
efficiently handle the movement of the materials involved. The transportation order can
go through a load consolidation and planning process, of which the warehouse personnel
can recover the results to serve as the instructions to prepare the issue or receipt of goods.

Enterprise Planning

The Enterprise Planning model delivers the freight orders by planned item transfers
between warehouses (planned distribution orders). This enables the users to perform a
thorough transport planning, even before the warehouses are actually involved.

Purchase Control

If an enterprise is in the business of transporting goods from the firm’s suppliers to the
warehouses, a link between ERP Order Management (Purchase) is available in the
module. This link generates freight orders by purchase orders, which enables the users to
perform load consolidation, planning, and shipping items to the appropriate warehouses
for the planned deliveries.
Sales Control
This functionality enables a shipper to create freight orders on the basis of sales orders.
For generating freight orders straight from sales orders, before the warehouse is involved,
allows for a more thorough (and time-consuming) transport planning process.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

The following figure illustrates the business process with the configuration of ERP sales
control with ERP Freight Management, including a connection to the ERP Warehouse
Management module:

Figure 7 - ERP Sales Control integration with ERP Freight Management

The functions and the features of the module are further illustrated below-

Freight Master Data

Freight Master Data must be defined before Freight Management can be applied. The
majority of the basic data is defined in the module, but also some master data from other
modules will be included such as-

✓ General Freight Master data


✓ Addresses and items
✓ Transportation master data
✓ Freight order master data
✓ Load building master data
✓ Freight order control
✓ Subcontracted Freight order data
✓ Freight order history
✓ Freight Invoicing control

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Load Building

In this module, if a shipper goes further than freight order control, but also wants to be
involved in the planning process and perhaps even execution of the transport activities,
the load building of the ERP Freight Management must be applied. By running this
planning module in the Freight Management, for example for a range of transport orders
in a particular period, will result in a transport plan containing loads and shipments.
Freight Management loads can best be summed up as truckloads or trips, while a shipment
is usually the delivery made at a particular address visited during a trip.
Plans, Load, and Shipments
The procedure starts by generating the transport plan. This generates an application run
for each shipping office or planning group combination and also for a period or a range
of orders. Working with simulations and alternative transport plans is possible until the
user selects a plan to be executed.
Freight or a transport plan consists of loads and shipments. In order to generate these
loads and shipments, the system takes into account, the information such as delivery
dates, transport types, combination codes, service levels, routes (depending on the
algorithm), Incoterms (points of title passage), transport means groups, capacity, and so
on.
Price Control
The freight rate scales determine the cost and possible revenues that can be achieved for
transport-related activities. The user is not required to have the system calculate freight
costs, however, nowadays for most shippers keeping track of the costs of transporting
goods is essential and enables an enterprise to stay competitive in market. In Freight
Management, costs are based on the carrier freight rates, and revenues are calculated
using customer freight rates.
The freight rates are calculated based on following parameters-
• Distances or zones
• Quantities and weights
• Carrier involved.
• Service level
• Items
• Business partners
• Delivery terms

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Freight invoicing control


If a transportation company chooses to charge customers or other business partners for
which the carrier arranges transportation, the user must set up the required rate scales and
release freight orders for invoicing. The latter action enables the ERP Central Invoicing
module to handle the invoicing procedure further
The user can easily access freight invoicing data from the freight orders lines to gain
insight into the status of the invoice, the amounts, currencies, terms of payment, the
invoice address, the open balance, and so on.
The ERP Central Invoicing also handles processing the invoices received from carriers
for services rendered.

4.3 Visual Mapping of Routes


The case company “Luís Simões,” utilises the Visual mapping of routes for transportation
through the Microsoft AutoRoute Mapping Software and also through Google Maps11.
The Microsoft AutoRoute12 application allows the users to visualise the routes available
for shipments.

One of the benefits of having a mapping software like Microsoft AutoRoute is that the
users can customise to the suit the needs for transport planning and visualise the alternate
routes in order to optimise the total distance travelled. So, for example, if a transportation
and logistics company is planning a week before for fleet planning in the national or
international region and also a return trip, then it is possible to create a map for each trip,
and it is easy to customise the trip tailored to the requirement of the transport fleets.

The trip planning tools in AutoRoute enables to determine the most optimal routes for
vehicle trip and deliveries, calculate the distances between source and destinations, and
provide driving instructions for the drivers.

Several key features of AutoRoute include:

• Turn-by-turn directions;
• Routes that can be manually selected by moving the direction to new destinations;

11
Google Maps - https://www.google.com/maps
12
Microsoft AutoRoute was discontinued in 2014- https://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/autoroute/home.aspx

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

• Prioritising travel over highways, allowing for quicker routing over long
distances;
• Creating a direction report for the drivers;
• Support for nationwide trip planning to several destinations for efficient
deliveries;
• Visualisation of multiple routes in a single map

When a trip involves several stops or waypoints, AutoRoute enables the users to choose
the best optimal order in which the vehicle can visit them. Most importantly, AutoRoute
lets the user choose what type of route the user requires:

• The shortest route;


• The quickest or fastest route;
• The planned route (when visits or deliveries must be conducted sequentially);
• The route that returns to the source (convenient in fleet management);
• The route that user interactively adapt

Often the best route means that the one is the quickest, while others prefer the path that
is smallest in terms of distance or a tour that exploits the use of highways, or avoids
inhabited regions:

• A planned transportation might consider to set up an agenda for less driving time
and more time with clients.
• If a chemically hazardous transportation is to be carried, then the user may plan
the transport using the road where there is less concentration of population.

AutoRoute uses an authentic and up-to-date street database and checks one-way streets,
and helps display of these on the map. The users can quickly start scheduling the route by
just clicking on a map of all the locations to visit. Also, the user traces stop or waypoints
by typing an address and zip codes, or automatically by using locations in an Excel
spreadsheet or any other database. If the users have a point layer of the clients, then the
user can select the clients that can be visited and then have AutoRoute determine the
optimal route to visit them.

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There are also additional tools for finding optimal routes in AutoRoute that enables: i.)
To create rings (radius) to display driving time or the distance from one or more locations;
ii.) To create terrains on streets using travel time to serve the clients.

Also, these optimal routes and the alternative routes can be exported in Office Suite and
shared with the transportation companies and clients.

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5 INTERNSHIP ACTIVITIES
In this chapter, the internship activities are explained along with their own objectives.
The host company, Luís Simões- Logística Integrada, SA, is presented and shortly
characterised in terms of the core issues embedded within the internship plan. Some
analysis is done in order to understand how the organisation is structured, what
measurements are required, which metrics are being used and how the scheduling
approach is conducted in the fleet management.
The presentation of this chapter will follow the four primary objectives defined as
internship goals. These are organised as follows:

5.1 Logistic Operators – Characterisation of Performance Metrics

One of the defined objectives is related with the characterisation of the operational
problem embedded in the Logistic Operator (e.g. Luís Simões, SA) and the involved
metrics, in order to capture the practices implemented to support the operational planning
activities. In this sense and as a primary key issue, the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
were identified and classified accordingly with the impact they had in company
concerning the capacity to measure and verify the established goals and objectives.
Besides that, the monitored values have to be also checked and compared with the defined
target performances.

An initial evaluation of the implemented KPIs in Coimbra region was done through a set
of semi-structured interviews (see Appendix 2). These interviews were done with the
logistics manager of Coimbra Region, Dra. Cristina Falcão, as well as with the employees.
The observations indeed clear that the formulated KPIs were more of economic-centric
than concentrated towards the holistic approach of the overall organisation.

Those observations were compared with the set of KPIs formulated by LS group to the
Coimbra region. Globally, the performance indicators required to the regional
administration, a continuous management and a mutual feedback from the employees of
the region is necessary in order to be aligned with the company’s goals and objectives
(Appendix 3 presents the set of KPIs formulated by the LS group at Coimbra region).

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In order to accommodate the links that can facilitate LS group to align the company’s
objectives, a set of novel KPIs were developed and integrated as a proposal of the current
internship.

Those developments were done based on an exhaustive literature review. A special focus
was placed on the contribution of Frazelle (2002), due to the advised integrative
perspective. Accordingly, with the author, the KPIs can be classified into four main
categories: i.) Cost, ii.) Quality, iii.) Responsiveness and iv.) Productivity. Concerning
this categorisation, while accounting for an integrative standpoint, the new KPIs were
developed. This involves the performance indicator definition, the development and
structuring of the formula of calculus with the identification of the necessary
measurements and evaluations. Below, these developments are detailed for each KPI
category previously considered, as follows:

i.) Cost-Based KPIs -

Freight Cost

Description

A cargo or a freight can be divided based on volume or weight to cover the transportation
cost. The basic idea is to divide transportation costs into the maximum volumetric
capacity of the truck, or into its maximum weight capacity. Assume the truck has the
volume capacity of 𝑉 [m3] and a weight capacity of 𝑀 [kg]. If the cost of a given
transportation assignment is 𝐾, the unit price based on volume and on weight can be
calculated:

𝐾 𝐾
volume-dependent unit price 𝑃𝑉 = weight-dependent unit price 𝑃𝑀 = 𝑀
𝑉

Therefore, the cost of freight (PF) per truck based on:

Volume is 𝑃𝐹𝑉 = 𝑣 𝑃𝑉 Weight yields:𝑃𝐹𝑀 = 𝑚 P𝑀

Formula of Calculus:

The volume and the weight are normally combined, and so, the total income or freight
cost can be expressed as: 𝑃𝐹 = 𝑃𝐹𝑉 + 𝑃𝐹𝑀 = 𝑣𝑃𝑉 + 𝑚 𝑃𝑀

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By finding the suitable combinations of volume and weight loads, paying freight can be
maximised, and it is what transport companies are striving to gain a situation that freight
cost (PF) is higher than the transportation cost (𝐾) which consequently implies that the
transport company would be profitable.

Turn over per Km

Description

This indicator gives a precise detail of the turnover per km that illustrates explicitly a
truck that makes a trip from origin to destination to serve client(s). It becomes essential
for managers to know if a particular route for the trip is profitable or not and also it gives
indications of how much each truck makes per trip.

Formula of Calculus

The Turnover per km can be calculated by determining the operating cost for a given trip
and dividing it by a number of kilometres travelled for that trip.

∑ 𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝


𝑇𝑢𝑟𝑛 𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑘𝑚 =
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑘𝑖𝑙𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝

The turnover per trip determines how much revenue a company is generating for the
services it provides.

This indicator categorically gives an idea about the price rate to be fixed for each client(s).
It may further ensure the stratification of the clients based on the business volume they
provide annually.

Profit per Client

Description
This indicator is crucial to determine the profitable client(s) from a pool of clients. It is
required to assess the current policies towards those clients which brings profits to the
company.

The profit per client can be determined from the total revenue generated and comparing
it with total revenue generated without the individual client(s).

Formula of Calculus

𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡


= = ∑[𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑅𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑢𝑒 𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 − 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑅𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑢𝑒 𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑑𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝐶𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡(𝑠)]

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

This indicator provides an insight to the managers to provide best services to the clients
and prioritise the services to those clients.

Total Warehousing Cost

Description
The total warehousing costs account for all costs associated with the warehousing
parameters such as the labour costs, warehouse lease or rent, monthly utility bills,
equipment, and material & information handling systems. It also includes costs related to
supplies and other material required in warehousing. This indicator is usually measured
annually.

This indicator is calculated as the total cost of warehousing per piece/SKU/product/line


by dividing the total cost by the quantities of stocked items in cubic meters (m3), per
storage area (m2).

Formula of Calculus

𝑊𝑎𝑟𝑒ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠
= 𝑆𝑢𝑚 (𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑟, 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒, 𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑠, 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙, 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡, 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑠, 𝑒𝑡𝑐)

𝑊𝑎𝑟𝑒ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑊𝑎𝑟𝑒ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 =
𝑄𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑒𝑑 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑚2 𝑜𝑟 𝑚3

Using this indicator, the administration can monitor the costs of supplies and equipment
in a warehouse, as well as compare costs that with the different facilities. It can help
identify the most cost-effective warehouses, and can also lead to an analysis of best
practices.

Dividing warehousing costs by units or area can also indicate storage usage, cost-
effectiveness, etc. By dividing the warehousing costs per SKU, it determines the excellent
details of cost visibility of the warehousing to the management team.

ii.) Quality based KPIs

On-Time Arrivals
Description
This indicator provides the percentage of consignments, deliveries, and shipments
arriving on-time for a set delivery date during a defined period.

Formula of Calculus

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑆ℎ𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑜𝑤


𝑂𝑛 − 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐴𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑠 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑆ℎ𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠

Late deliveries can cause stock outs, not only at the receiving facility but throughout the
supply chain network. This indicator can also provide insights such as- the condition of
vehicles, steep terrain- indicating the need to adjust schedules accordingly or driver
performance issues. It can be applied to the facilities, products, routes, or the depots.

Order Compliance

Description
This indicator provides the percentage of orders (POs) that meet the set criteria (e.g., right
products received at set amounts, at the right time, in the right packaging; undamaged,
shelf life of product intact; quantity transported equals quantity received, etc.) out of all
orders fulfilled during a set timeframe.

Formula of Calculus

𝑂𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑚𝑒𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑢𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡
=
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑

This indicator is beneficial for the procurement and warehouse staffs to hold their
suppliers responsible for not meeting the requirements specification in the POs or
contract. Through the monetarisation of this indicator, managers can access the supplier
performance and take necessary action required to address the lack of order compliance.
The logistics managers can have a decision criterion to choose the most critical measures
to evaluate whether the supplier is complying with set standards.

Shipping Accuracy

Description
This indicator measures the percentage of lines or stock-keeping units (SKU) that were
distributed error-free from the SKUs or all the lines shipped during a defined period.

Formula of Calculus

𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝑆𝐾𝑈𝑠 𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑑 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟


𝑆ℎ𝑖𝑝𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑦 = ∗ 100
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝑆𝐾𝑈𝑠 𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑑

This indicator measures the accuracy of shipments concerning the products and quantities
shipped. This is another measure that procurement staffs and warehouse managers can

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

use to monitor supplier performance and shipper performance if the shipment is


contracted separately.

iii.) Responsiveness based KPIs

The Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) based on responsiveness factors which are
explained below-

On-Time Delivery

Description
This indicator estimates and provides the percentage of all orders transported by the
requested distribution date, as indicated in the PO or agreement contract during a distinct
period.

Formula of Calculus

𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑒


𝑂𝑛 − 𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐷𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑦 = ∗ 100
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑

This is particularly important for logistics managers to monitor supplier responsive


performance over shipments in a defined period.

Supplier Lead Time Variability

Description
This indicator is the average of the absolute percentage differences (APD) between the
suppliers’ forecasted lead time and the actual lead time for each order placed with the
supplier. This indicator is calculated as for any supplier that supplies product to the
requesting client(s) facility. It can be measured over any period, but one year is typical
and measured in days.

Formula of Calculus

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 − 𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒


𝐴𝑃𝐷 = ∗ 100
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒

During the quantifying process in the management, it is crucial for evaluation of the
expected lead time to find when the next procurement cycle should commence. If the
forecasted lead time fluctuates significantly from the actual lead time, client service may
be delayed, stock excesses or shortages may occur.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

In actual practice, this indicator only measures suppliers’ lead time, and it does not
measure the total PO or contracted agreement cycle time, which is defined as the time
from the quantifying process of the PO commences until the warehouse facility receives
the consignments. It includes time on the front-end to put together the PO and time on the
back-end to the get the consignment from the port to the warehouse.

iv.) Productivity based KPIs

The performance indicators developed based on productivity factors are presented below:

Container Capacity Utilisation

Description
This indicator provides measures of the percentage of vehicle/container capacity utilised
out of the available volumetric capacity (m3) or weight of vehicle/container.

Formula of Calculus
Container Capacity Utilisation, CCU:

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑘𝑔𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝑚3 𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑑


𝐶𝐶𝑈 = ∗ 100
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝑡𝑦𝑝𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑒ℎ𝑖𝑐𝑙𝑒

From this indicator, managers can identify the container capacity utilisation for given
route, clients, region, or district to ensure the efficient use of vehicles and available
resources in general. Therefore, managers can strive to increase capacity utilisation to
eliminate waste and improve service level to clients.

Vehicle Availability

Description
This indicator measures the amount of time vehicle was available for use during a defined
period because it was out of service.

Formula of Calculus

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑 − 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 𝑢𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒


𝑉𝐴 = ∗ 100
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑

The availability of vehicles in the fleet is an indicator of the condition of the overall fleet
and reflects how the vehicles are maintained and utilised. The low availability implies
that it can impact the delivery performance. However, it is a most significant factor to

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

note that the maintenance of the vehicle is a critical issue, a target for such indicator can
be between 80-95% availability.

Fleet Yield

Description
This indicator estimates the average quantity of products by Kgs delivered per personnel-
hour (part-time or full-time) during a defined period.

Formula of Calculus

𝑆𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝐾𝑔𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑


𝐹𝑙𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑌𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 =
𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑙 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 (𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡 − 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑙 − 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒)

In order to improve efficiencies in the use of personnel’s and vehicles, this indicator can
be measured on a trimester basis.

Average Number of stops per route

Description
This indicator makes available the measure for the average number of stops for delivering
shipments per route in a given region or district during a defined period.

Formula of Calculus

𝑆𝑢𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠


𝐴𝑣𝑔 𝑛𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒 =
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠

It is required to ensure the resourcefulness of the fleet and the efficient utilisation of
resources; the managers have to monitor the average stops per route in the trips made to
serve the clients. Moreover, the managers can optimise the transit time on the given trip
to reduce the costs and the time involved in the distribution of products.

5.2 Definition and settings of the operational planning problem


In accordance with the objective of this internship, the operational planning problem in
the logistics and transportation, operator should be characterised.

A) Definition of the planning problem:

Giving:

The Planning Horizon (Timeframe);

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Partners’ Geographical Mapping (Locations Network) (e.g. logistic operator warehouse,


clients’ location, etc.)

Logistic/ Transportation (Process Operational Structure):

Resources: Equipment, facilities and tools; human operators (e.g. drivers,


pickers, etc.)

- Owner and/or Contract (e.g. 3PL)


- Capacities, types, number and other pre-conditions;
- Operational policies (e.g. truck return to the warehouse or stay as is).

Clients (Markets) - general characterisation in terms of:

- Order regularity (e.g. how frequently orders are placed to the Logistic
Operator)
- Orders amounts’ (e.g. number of pallets, boxes, etc.)
- Order due date, if any;
- Economic evaluation of clients (e.g. yearly returned value);
- Prioritisation of clients, if any.

Determine in a coherent time frame

- The operational details for orders’ fulfilment (e.g. capacities, number of items,
timetables, etc.);
- The assignment of resources (e.g. trucks, warehouse equipment’s and facilities,
operators, etc.);
- Materials’ existences, availability, capacity and measurement.

In order to:

Satisfy clients’ orders in the due date time, with the required amounts while accounting
for clients’ prioritisation within the considered feasibility limits and to improve the
economic return for the Logistic Operator.

B) Global settings and operational planning problem characterisation:

The Process Operational Structure (POS) of the logistic operator, Luís Simões, S.A., in
the region of Coimbra, comprises three types of fleet, namely: i.) Own fleet; ii.)
Franchised fleet and iii.) Subcontracted vehicles (or Logistics Service Providers).

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Concerning the own fleet, at Luís Simões it comprises different capacity vehicles ranging
from Normal, Tautliners to Gigaliner vehicles. Those included in the Normal category
usually have a capacity of 24 tons within a vehicle length of 13.60 metres. On the other
hand, the Tautliner trucks have a whole capacity of 40 tons and a standard length of 15
metres. Finally, Gigaliner usually has a whole capacity of 60 tons (40 tons for cargo), and
the vehicle length is about 25.25 metres.

Whereas the Franchised fleet provides service to clients and acts as an external partner
on the basis of agreed upon contract with Luís Simões, SA. These are logistics service
providers (LSPs) which operate explicitly for Luís Simões. Also, the subcontracted
vehicles are arranged to serve the clients based on the business volume they provide to
the case company. These subcontracted vehicles can be a simple van or truck.

These subcontracted vehicles are arranged to serve the clients mostly through Wtransnet
Portal13. Through this portal, the transporters are auctioned and based on the previous
delivery performance, the logistic operator “Luís Simões” assigns the logistics service
providers (LSPs) to serve the clients.

The main advantage of the Wtransnet Intranet Transport service is that the transport
operator of a company through the introduction of cargo or truck needs in the portal, in a
matter of seconds, can assign the trucks, in real time, a decision depending on the
availability of the company, the group's branches and the market (Wtransnet, 2007). The
advantages and features of Wtransnet are explained in Appendix 4.

The clients of Luís Simões are stratified based on the business volume they provide (see
appendix 5). In Luís Simões, the clients are classified as- Client types (Premium, A, B,
C, D, E, F). Based on the contractual obligations and the business volume that the client
provides, Luís Simões provides fleet accordingly. For example, the client type- Premium
and type A requires a large number of fleets, so in accordance with the fleet demand, the
logistic operator is required to provide own fleet and the franchised fleet in order to satisfy
the demand as well as higher profitability.

Operational planning in transportation & logistics industry has quite a lot of challenges
amongst which vehicle scheduling poses a significant challenge for the managers to tackle

13
Wtransnet Portal for Freight and Truck Exchange in South Europe- http://www.wtransnet.com/en/

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to stay competitive in the market. The logistic operators “Luís Simões” faces a daunting
task for scheduling vehicles to serve the clients.

In the operational planning process, the clients' demand is forecasted on a weekly basis.
This data which is gathered from the client demand is responsible for modelling the
vehicle scheduling process in the company.

Based on the demand matrices, the transportation networks are defined. This plan
establishes routes and stops for client deliveries. In the further level of the planning
process, particular trips are defined for a given route. For each given trip to service the
clients, the schedule specifies a departure time and arrival time as well as the starting
location and the destination location. Moreover, further, the planning process focuses on
efficient use of available resources. It especially assures that the vehicles or trucks and
the crew serve all the client sites. However, it is also important to consider that the optimal
use of resources is a hard problem in combinatorial optimisation and hence has been the
subject of research in the field of Operations Research (OR).

Relatively, the Vehicle Scheduling Problem (VSP) has been extensively researched in
last few decades. The logistic operator must undergo many plans to overcome these
challenges. In particular, through the course of the internship, it was identified that the
logistic operator Luís Simões and its managers’ face the challenge of scheduling vehicles
to serve the clients.

Before the optimisation of the scheduling problem, it is necessary to identify the data that
is important to solve this problem. The pre-requisite to understanding the problem is to
analyse the data for a given problem. The vehicle scheduling problem (VSP) requires
namely:

• Data on the problem as: a.) Vehicles availability (N); b.) Starting time of the trip
(STt); c.) End time of the trip (ETt); d.) Starting point of the trip (L1); e.) The
endpoint of the trip (L2); f.) Set of timetabled trips (T); g.) Travel time from
starting point (L1) to endpoint (L2).
• Compatibility relations (e.g. specifying for all, whether trip (i) can be served after
the trip (j) by the same vehicle).

For the most cases, the above data was found minimally in the logistic operator (LS-
group) database. As for the Coimbra region, the fleet managed for serving the clients is
through Logistics Service Providers (LSPs). Moreover, concerning the own fleet of Luís

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Simões, the fleet size is 38 vehicles. Also, these vehicles are explicitly assigned to the
higher level of clients having higher annual business volume. However, still, the vehicle
scheduling problem exists in the fleet management to serve the clients.

The logistic operator, Luís Simões in Coimbra, operates explicitly more of the
subcontracted vehicles to serve the clients. The reason for managing fleet through
logistics service providers (LSPs) to serve the clients is to have the economic trade-offs
in the functioning of organisations’ logistical activities. This trade-off implies that the
logistic operator Luís Simões for the Coimbra region is still analysing the investment in
own fleet and, so far, is dependent on the resources of other LSPs.

Moreover, concluding the fact that the substantial investment in the transport equipment
and machinery were not possible while handling clients’ requirements and increasing the
overall efficiency of the supply chain. The last one is of paramount importance to the case
company.

Furthermore, the identification of the scheduling problem for the logistic operator plays
a critical role to stay competitive in the global market. The logistic operator through their
fleet manages to serve the clients, and for the economic trade-off. This logistic operator
relies heavily on the other logistics service providers (LSPs). The primary concern for the
problem is to increase the client service level through the LSPs. Other concerns are
namely, vehicles availability, timely delivery, delivery documentation, security, the
safety of goods, and timely delivery of the documents. In order to analyse such problem,
it is essential to focus on the service level.

During the internship, it was noticed that a vehicle schedule takes into account the
sequence of tasks to perform, and for which a vehicle should start from the depot and
terminate at the same depot. Each task is defined by a starting and a destination location,
among other issues related to the flow of materials that ensures the connectivity of
vehicles for serving the clients taken into account the start and end locations. Moreover,
in vehicle scheduling, other parameters such as- loading, unloading, and transit times, as
well as the idle time spent during loading and unloading activities, should be considered.
The cost structure of the problem is separable by vehicles and depends upon vehicle fixed
costs, total distance covered, travel times, and waiting times in between successive tasks.
In a real-world scenario, the transit time or waiting time costs significantly when the time
windows are vast. Thus, the logistic operator faces this challenge of scheduling the

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vehicles and efficiently manage the available resources and also, optimise the whole
supply chain network.

5.3 Scheduling Proposal


In this objective of the internship, after identifying the problem in terms of scheduling
approach (e.g. short-term or operational planning), the modelling and implementation of
the characterised problem were designed for the next stage. Based on the literature review
done for this planning level (chapter 2), different contributions were analysed, and small
tests were done. Independently of having an economic or operational criterion, the
problem has a considerable number of constraints commonly. So, in optimisation
approaches, these planning proposals result typically into large problem dimensions

In terms of operational criteria, when companies face significant problems or challenges,


it is mandatory to analyse how effectively, robustly and efficiently the resources are
utilised. This requires the evaluation of the implemented fleet management using
appropriate processes, policies, and procedures to serve clients. To improve efficiency,
some trade-offs in due-dates, vehicle load capacities, amongst other, should desirably be
decided optimally.

In Coimbra region, Luís Simões serves the clients using a combined solution that involves
other logistics service providers (LSPs). This implies that LSPs can serve the clients in
those regions without the case company investing in the infrastructure, resources, fleet,
and the crew. The economic analysis by the logistic operator in Coimbra found out the
client delivery frequency was low. Thus, it was necessary to explore the logistics service
providers (LSPs) for the economic trade-offs.

While analysing the algorithms concerning the Vehicle Scheduling, for developing the
model to optimise the solution, the logistic operator invested in the total transportation
management solution. This application also called Transportation Management System
(TMS) already has an optimiser to solve the various transportation problem. The Macro-
Structure of eTMS platform previously presented and detailed in Appendix 6.

The TMS solution provides planning solutions for transportation concerning the vehicle
routing and driver schedules on a real-time and forward-planning basis. The forward
scheduling involves the scheduling of trucks for the next day or week (or more extended
period) and can be optimised using vehicle routing and distribution scheduling systems
in the TMS. Moreover, the daily assignment, forecast or actual orders to drivers and

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vehicles can be solved in order to maximise resource utilisation or balance driver


workloads.

The Luxemburg based TMS vendor AndSoft14 developed this TMS solution. Also, the
TMS application consists of a Distribution Scheduling (DISC) package specifically
designed to solve the problems of scheduling and to optimise large complex logistics
operations. The application comprises: 1. Multi-depot logistics; 2. Delivery Scheduling;
3. Driver/Vehicle Scheduling; 4. Integrated Distribution Logistics Optimisation; 5. Load
Planning and, in the last module, 6. Strategic Logistics Optimisation. The detailed content
is presented in Appendix 7.

After carefully analysing the TMS solution, the revision of the objective was made to
accommodate the study of TMS software for vehicle scheduling problem.

5.4 Decision framework to help and support daily management


In the initial proposal, the development of a dashboard for the logistics managers was
considered. The dashboard parametrisation was thought and formally structured during
the internship, in accordance with the performance indicators previously identified and
accepted by the company as the KPI relevant for the operational goals and objectives.
Besides that, in the ongoing study, the operational strategies should be visible to managers
and to the involved employees, due to transparency reasons.

Therefore, a dashboard framework based on Microsoft Excel spreadsheet was considered


as a primary solution. The decision was supported by costless, accessibility and
availability reasons. Different templates 15 were experienced, diverse charts and data
analysis were also tested and incorporated into KPI managing.

Afterwards, the previous dashboard experiments have been reset in accordance with a
company decision related to their strategy and operational management policies. In fact,
Luís Simões, SA decided to invest in a Transportation Management System (TMS). This
TMS solution, as described in chapter 4, provides an integrated dashboard which offers
access to high-level data in a real-time. The new system represented a stay up-to-date
with the organisations’ goals and objectives.

14
Information extracted from TMS vendor “AndSoft”- http://www.andsoft.com/
15
https://www.smartsheet.com/free-excel-dashboard-templates
https://exceldashboardschool.com/cat/free-templates/

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Besides that, the TMS dashboard is a centralised management tool that also allows a
snapshot of the data, permitting managers to make crucial decisions easily and accurately.

Based on the TMS solution implemented by the company and considering the feasibility
and availability of the incorporated dashboard, the ongoing internship study was turned
to the TMS facilities in this field.

Moreover, the integrated dashboard is user configurable. The users can select from a
portfolio of the available widgets. The screen is built to suit the needs of logistics and
transportation industry, and it is quite intuitive concerning user access to reports and
graphs, customarily used in daily and quick demanding decisions.

Below, some core benefits of the TMS dashboard are pointed out. These are presented in
four dimensions, as follows:

Data Visualisation

Easy to read graphs and reports, users can easily see and analyse team's data. Quickly
drill down to additional data when necessary. Also, the eTMS dashboard offers a portfolio
of Mobile solutions designed to work with the organisations’ requirements and
infrastructure. These can be perceived namely, in the incorporated ease-to-use data
conversion tool which allows the user to import asset data, operations’ information, order
data and other important evidence into the corresponding screen or codes into the
platform. These procedures analysis the data as often as required.

Performance Monitoring

The dashboard monitors not only the team’s performance (e.g., warehouse, operations
and commercial department’s team performance) but also key asset performance (e.g.,
the fleet of vehicles, infrastructure, equipment and machinery, and other materials
available in the organisation). In case of theft or accident of vehicles, the real-time
monitoring of vehicles allows for the management to track the driver and vehicle in
extreme conditions. Similarly, the real-time monitoring of the trucks can be enhanced
through this platform, and immediate corrections can be made when required using the
eTMS platform.

Improvement in Decision Making

The capacity to make critical decisions at the right time requires an ability to access and
analyse key metrics efficiently. With the centralised TMS solution, the application

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

provides an effective management that supports multiple departments and depots. Also,
it emphasises data synchronisation and enhances centralisation of data, which further
results in better communication among all departments. Particularly, the databases allow
users to structure and report the data easier. Wherein the application permits the
manipulator to use the common segments of the data to share codes across the
departments.

Find Relevant Data

The dashboard is highly personalised and user-friendly concerning the access to relevant
data visualisation. Besides that, some data filtering is accounted to eliminate unnecessary
data (e.g., trip code, supplier code, etc.) and emphasise significant data. This way, an
improvement is reached in what concerns the decision-making (e.g., trip cost, consumer
requirements, loading/unloading times, etc.).

In Luís Simões, the eTMS platform is still in a starting stage of implementation, and the
extraction of dashboard snapshots was not allowed due to confidentiality reasons.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

6 CONCLUSION & FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS


In this chapter, a summary of conclusions about the internship realised are presented and
analysed against the objectives considered. Furthermore, after those appreciations, in the
second part of this chapter, some recommendations are considered, as a result of the
developed internship study. These will be, expectantly, useful for future advances in the
company.

6.1 Conclusions
This internship report explains the main activities carried out in the Luís Simões,
Logística Integrada, S.A. This internship was carried out as the non-lecturing component
of the Master’s degree in Management Information Systems.

Concerning the objectives that had been proposed for the internship theme, some of them
were fully achieved, while the other objectives needed to be reworked as a consequence
of the company’s situation and the involvement in the Information Systems
implementation (TMS).

One of the objectives of the internship was to develop the key performance indicators for
the logistic operator. In this way, the first step towards measuring transportation activities
is to fully understand what factors that influence the performance of a transportation and
logistics industry as a whole. In accordance with present research, one of the crucial
factors is the capability to view the organisation goals and objectives with a holistic
approach. When all actors in the chain interact together with common goals and
objectives, the opportunity for the achievement raises. The recommendation for KPIs is
based on a thorough evaluation of all the metrics that are currently measured within the
Luís Simões organisation. This evaluation is included in chapter 5 and is based on the
following perspective: quality, responsiveness, cost, and productivity.

The suggested recommendations might be further associated with other measurements in


the future with additional metrics. Nevertheless, this can require work improvement to
enhance the quality of possible measures. Some work over measuring inconsistency can
be implemented to ensure the quality of measurements. So, it is advised to work on further
development of the measures to calibrate the quality of metrics before they can be
considered reliable enough to be displayed on the dashboard.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

Later during the internship, while observing the operational activities and information
systems, the idea of developing the dashboard was not a really unique and interesting tool
for the company, at least regarding dynamics of the dashboard as is the case in the
Transportation Management System (TMS) application.

Besides that, in the operational planning and scheduling model, the decision was to
explore the scheduling optimiser that was turned available by the TMS solution in the
company. This was done in order to check the robustness, effectiveness, efficiency and
flexibility of the commercial system available on the market. The solution being
implemented in Luís Simões, S.A. already accounted for a block called optimiser.
Therefore, the former tests exploring planning algorithms implementation were left to
explore the scheduling optimiser and see which kind of problems can be solved using the
optimiser. In this way, we can identify which are the issues that are not yet covered or
accounted by the optimiser and afterwards, we can propose to improve the efficiency or
to turn the solutions most robust than the one that is considered for the current solution.

Also concerning the operational planning and scheduling approach for the transportation
and logistical activities changes were justified by the introduction of TMS solution which
comes with the package of the optimiser that further allows efficient analysis for the
whole supply chain. It was interesting to notice the optimiser during the internship that it
covered broad aspects of the transportation problems, namely: crew scheduling, vehicle
scheduling, vehicle routing and so on. Through this objective, it was noticed that how
Luís Simões prioritised the client stratification or classification in terms of the business
volume, they bring about to the organisation and this is explicitly introduced in the
modelling proposal to a scale where all client parameterised. Also, the clients are
prioritised through this TMS application.

6.2 Further Developments


In order to look at the results critically, it is recommended to implement the KPIs in the
organisation to have a deeper understanding of the organisational performance. The depth
of this internship objective would be increased if an additional enrolment in the
implementation and evaluations of TMS were feasible.

It is recommended to include the KPIs and the measurements in the further stages of the
implementation process through TMS application. Also, some measures may also require,
in addition, an improvement to increase the quality of the metrics before they can be

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

regarded as reliable, and beneficial to be acknowledged for the evaluation of the


organisational performance of the operational activities.

The TMS dashboard does not allow the transporter performance evaluation of efficiency
considering the Logistics Service Providers (LSPs). Therefore, some improvements could
complement the management to make effective decision-making in order to increase the
service level to the clients.

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Logistic Operators- Operational Planning Performance & Decision Targets

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APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 – ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF LUÍS SIMÕES

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APPENDIX 2 - INTERVIEW QUESTIONS TO THE LOGISTICS


MANAGER

What?

What key performance indicators (KPIs) are currently measured?

Do you categorise the measurement?

What happens if the target is not achieved?

What are the measurements used for?

What is the information system used for measurements?

How?

How do you measure the internal logistics performance?

How are the measurements determined?

How are they calculated?

How are the measurements compiled and presented to the management?

How are the measurements evaluated and validated?

Why?

Why these measurements?

Who?

Who is responsible for these measurements?

Who develops and updates these measurements?

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APPENDIX 3 - WHAT LS GROUP AT COIMBRA ARE


MEASURING

Measurements Period Unit of Measurement

Increase in Sales Monthly % (Million Euros)

Profitability in Operations Monthly % (Value)


department

Net Operating Revenue Monthly Value (%)

Average Period of Receipts Monthly Fixed Value

Client Loads Monthly Value

Gross Total Margin/ Margin Monthly %


of Distribution

On-Time Service Level Monthly %

Percentage of Corrected Non- Monthly %


conformities

Compliance with food Monthly %


security prerequisites

Energy Consumption Factor Monthly Fixed Value

Kaizen Efficiency of Internal Daily % and Fixed Value


Operations

Frequency of Accidents Quarterly Fixed Value

Responsible – Head of Logistics

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APPENDIX 4 – FEATURES & ADVANTAGES OF WTRANSNET


PORTAL
The Wtransnet Portal has following features:

• It is an intranet service for companies that want to share information in real time with
their branches.
• The Wtransnet transport intranet goes beyond a private freight exchange; also, it is
an application where all the information is centralised and shared according to the
requirements of the user.
• It is an innovative service that applies the concept of freight exchange to optimise the
management of the company’s transport department, recording all the information
that enters the company’s daily activities and shares it:

1. within the same traffic department


2. with the other branches of the group
3. to act in the light of market supply and demand, in real time.

The advantages of Wtransnet portal are-

• A system of recording the needs of its clients, the offers of freight and truck
availability of its employees and the availability of its vehicles.
• Handling all this information and looking for real-time correspondence to
optimise the management of the transport activities in the traffic department of a
branch.
• Alliance of the working methods of all branches.
• A communication in real time, taking into account the business opportunities of
transport services of all the group's branches both at the national and international
level.
• Enables faster communication in real time and corresponding response with the
business opportunities available in the market.
• An increased competitiveness and responsiveness through faster processing of all
the information registered in company’s office, in all branches, and in the market.
• Improvement of the quality of the service to its clients and optimisation in the
management of its fleet.

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APPENDIX 5 – CLIENT PARAMETERISATION

Type Initial (€) Final (€)

Premium 3,000,000 1,000,000

A 1,000,000 2,999,999

B 500,000 999,999

C 250,000 499,999

D 100,000 249,999

E 50,000 99,999

F 0 49,999

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APPENDIX 6 - MACRO STRUCTURE OF e-TMS PLATFORM

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APPENDIX 7 – TMS OPTIMISER


The Luxemburg based TMS vendor “AndSoft” developed this TMS solution. Also, the
TMS application consists of a Distribution Scheduling (DISC) package specifically
designed to solve the problems of scheduling and to optimise large complex logistics
operations:

1. Multi-depot Logistics

In this module of the software package, the software is designed to schedule the whole
multi-depot logistics operations namely- primary distribution involving inter-depot cross-
docking and pickup from suppliers. Secondary distribution involves transportation from
distribution centres to the merchandising outlets, consumers or other divisions. Also, it is
capable of solving the problems of reverse logistics of waste, equipment & product
returns, backhauls, and backloading from third-party client sites to maximise fleet
operation and the overall minimisation of costs.

Distribution Scheduling (DISC) offers optimisation tools for complex operational


distribution planning problems. Those tools have following features: i.) Freight
Optimisation; ii.) Vehicle Optimisation; iii.) Retail Distribution; iv.) Express Parcel
Delivery Networks; v.) Home delivery Scheduling; vi.) Road Haulage Scheduling; vii.)
Bulk Haulage Planning and viii.) Delivery Planning.

2. Delivery Scheduling

This module of the software optimises the allocation of tasks to the crew and trucks to
maximise productivity and efficient resource utilisation. The distribution and vehicle
route planning system take into account, the constraints such as time windows, vehicle
type & capacities, driving hours and access restrictions, load consolidation, and
temperature restrictions.

3. Driver/Vehicle Scheduling

Distribution Scheduling (DISC) offers crew planning tools for monitoring the real-time
scheduling of crew for the vehicles to accommodate strategically optimising rosters and
the shift structures for the crew. All the vehicle schedules consider constraints, for
example, minimum driving hour instructions, contractual obligations, ideal starting times,
crew skills, and training, etc.

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Complexities such as changeovers, night-away, tramping, driver swaps, etc. are modelled.
Integration of DISC with the roster creation tools enabled planning of driver rotations
based on anticipated demand and required working patterns. The transport scheduling
software plans vehicle operation and incorporates constituted guidelines for driving the
vehicle crew to optimise the usage of own-fleet and other resources or 3PL (third-party
logistics) crew and vehicles.

4. Integrated Distribution Logistics Optimisation

In this module, Distribution Scheduling (DISC) provides transportation and warehousing


activities schedule that builds an integrated logistics solution. Through this module, the
application assures all the aspects of operational distribution are planned, coordinated,
and an approach that aids to maximise efficiency and flexibility in the business
operations. The vehicles, crews, trailers, loaders, warehouse staff, docks, lanes, bays, etc.
are included in the module if required.

Accurate Logistics Planning Model

In order to fulfil this, all transportation and warehouse variables and constraints are
modelled including: i.) Volumes & Orders: Forecasting of order cycle by clients, delivery
points, product types and capacities. ii.) Transport constraints: Trucking Size/type,
accommodation size for products, temperature restraints, and compatibility of the
products. iii.) Delivery routing constraints: Docking restrictions, prioritisation of
deliveries, Sequencing constraints, and time windows for deliveries. iv.) Vehicle
Tracking: Delivery tracking through Global Positioning System (GPS), and automated
response for order updates, the position of trucks, and potential delays through in
cab/smartphone. v.) Manufacturing/Production: the availability of stocks, repositioning,
the shelf-life of products, production planning, and the supply chain. vi.) Warehouse
Constraints: loading and unloading capacities, pickup capacities, docking capacities,
holding vessel limitations, and the floor space to accommodate pallets. vii.) Consolidation
of Loads: Cross-docking situations, trans border shipments, groupage deliveries, hub-
and-spoke, trunk moves, and the line haul and viii.) Resource Constraints: Trucks,
tractors, crew, tankers, cranes, loading & unloading locations.

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Warehouse Load Planning

Distribution Scheduling (DISC) offers an integrated distribution schedule and the load
plan which covers: i.) The loading, unloading, and distribution for each warehouse and
the shipping location; ii.) The staff schedules of warehouse, assembly line or pickup, and
the reports of loading; iii.) Shifting movements and the schedule for trailer docking which
involves inbound and outbound logistics activities; iv.) The vehicle scheduling for the
trailers and tractors with appropriate load contents and the structured plan and v.) The
crew schedule for vehicles, the employee shift scheduling, and the overtime surcharges.

5. Load Planning

Distribution Scheduling (DISC) offers a load planning algorithm that enhances the
process of optimal load building process. The application determines the pallet load and
the subsequent vehicle assignment, with the due consideration of constraints like
compatibility of products, packing constraints, weight balancing, dispatch sizes, loading
sequences, loading schedules, drop-trailer operations, etc.

In this module, the load building rules are configured to ensure that the optimal load is
the part of overall planning and delivery operations. So, that the resulting vehicle
movements and warehousing schedules are feasible for the vehicle loading.
Consequently, the load plans involve manifestation and job sheets, and the optimiser
ensures the systematic integration of WMS and TMS for real-time monitoring of the
operational activities.

6. Strategic Logistics Optimisation

Distribution Scheduling (DISC) also utilised by the distribution and logistics managers to
monitor "what if" situations for the strategic planning levels. In this situation, the users
can simulate the future operations or derive a contingency plan to mitigate the bottlenecks
in the planned operational activities.

Furthermore, the DISC allows users to answer questions like: i.) What if the company
centralise the transport & logistics planning? ii.) What if the logistic operator utilises the
logistics service providers (LSPs)? iii.) What if the vehicle scheduling changes occur
daily? iv.) What if the fleet of the vehicles is reduced by 30%? v.) What if the operating
staff costs vary?

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