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Untuk Memenuhi Salah Satu Tugas Mata Kuliah Bahasa Inggris

Disusun oleh :

Nenden sri wahyuni

NPM 1219069
S1 Keperawatan Non Reguler
kelas E


TAHUN 2019


Highlights : Prevention of falls

Sub Subject : How to Prevent Fall

Day / date : Fri, at, 29 oktober 2019

Meeting time : 35 minutes

Place : Home Mrs. Y and Mr. T's family

Target : Mrs. Y and Mr. T's family\

A. Background
Fall is a physical problem that is often experienced by the elderly.
Many factors affect the occurrence of falls, for example intrinsic factors
such as gait disturbance, weakness of the lower limb muscles, short
strokes, joint stiffness, feet not tread strongly, and slowness in moving, as
well as extrinsic factors such as uneven flooring and poor vision. because
the light is not bright enough. These factors are due to bodily imbalances,
especially when positioning while moving, which increases the risk of
falling in the elderly (Nugroho, 2008)

B. Purpose
1. General Purpose
After attending health education for 35 minutes, it is expected to be
able to understand how to avoid the risk of falling and prevent falling.
2. Special Purpose
After attending health education for 1 x 35 minutes, it is expected that
fishermen will be able to:
a. Explain the meaning of falling.
b. Mention the risk factors for falling.
c. Mention due to falls.
d. Mention ways to prevent falls.
e. Doing a fall prevention.
C. Material Grid
1. Definition of falling.
2. Risk factors for falls.
3. As a result of falling
4. Ways to prevent falls. (Attached)

D. Method
1. Lecture
2. Question and answer
3. Discussion

E. Media

F. Counseling Activities

No Extension Worker Time Respon

1 preliminary 5
minute Answering greetings
Give apperception questions Listening
Communicate the subject

Communicate objectives
2 Core activities 25
minute Listening
Provide an explanation of falling
Pay attention
Give family opportunities to ask

Answering family questions

3 Closing 5
minute Pay attention
Summing up counseling material with
the family

Give an oral evaluation

Give a closing greeting

G. Place Settings
1. Mr. sitting.
2. Panyaji stands in front of him.

H. Evaluation
1. Evaluate the Structure
a. Beneficiary Preparation has been carried out well in the form of a
contract of time, topic, and place
b. Preparation of assistive devices and media used for health
2. Process evaluation
a. Beneficiaries are able to follow the Health Penalty well to
b. Beneficiaries are cooperative in participating in the Penkes
c. Beneficiaries can work together with nurses
d. Media and tools can be used well
e. Supporting environment in the implementation of Penkes
3. Evaluate results
a. Cognitive evaluation
Ask the Beneficiary
1. Try to explain the meaning of falling!
2. Mention the risk factors for falling!
3. Mention the effects of falling!
4. Mention how to prevent falls!
b. Beneficiary Evaluation of Beneficiary states willingness to prevent
c. Psychomotor Evaluation of Beneficiaries able to prevent falls.

Anonymous. 2012. Easy Fall on the Elderly.http: // http: //
Accessed on 28 March 2019.

Turana, Yuda. 2009. Avoiding Risk of Falling in the Elderly. Http:

// Accessed on 28 March 201

A. Definition of falling
Fall is an event reported by a patient or eyewitness, who sees an
incident resulting in a person suddenly lying / sitting on the floor / lower
place with or without loss of consciousness or injury (Rouben, 1996).

B. Risk Factors for Fall

In short, risk factors for falls in the elderly can be classified into
two, namely intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors.
1. Instinsic Factors, for example:
a. Heart and / or blood circulation disorders: A sudden decrease in
blood circulation to the brain, sudden loss of consciousness, heart
problems that cause shortness of breath so they cannot tolerate
activity and hypertension.
b. Nervous system disorders: CNS will provide motor responses to
anticipate sensory input. CNS diseases such as stroke,
parkinsonism, normal pressure hodrosealus, often suffered by the
elderly and cause CNS dysfunction so that it responds poorly to
sensory input. Headache and / or vertigo, dizziness.
c. Limb system disorders and gait disorders such as joint pain,
paralysis, incomplete limbs, abnormal leg shape, decreased muscle
strength, connective tissue stiffness, reduced muscle mass, edema
of the legs.
d. Impaired vision and hearing
e. Psychological disorders: stress, lack of concentration, forget about
2. Extrinsic Factors, for example:
a. Room light is not bright enough
b. An unfamiliar environment for the elderly
c. Slippery floor
d. Drugs taken (diuretics, antidepressants, sedatives, anti-psychotics,
alcohol and hypoglycemic drugs)
e. Road aids that are not the right size, weight, or how to use them.
C. Complications or Effects of Falling
Falls in the elderly cause complications such as the following:
1. Injury (Injury): damage to soft tissue, fractures, subdural hematomas
2. Hospital Treatment: immobilization, risk of disease
3. Disability: decreased mobility associated with physical injury,
decreased mobility due to falls, decreased self-confidence and barrier
to mobility
4. Risks for inclusion in nursing homes
5. Die

D. How to prevent falls

Prevention is based on what risk factors can cause falls such as
neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, current disease, medication underway,
balance and gait disorders, visual disturbances, or environmental factors.
below will be described several methods to prevent falls in the elderly:
1. Physical exercise
Physical exercise is expected to reduce the risk of falls by increasing
the strength of the limbs and hands, improving balance,coordination,
and increasing reactions to environmental hazards, physical exercise
can also reduce the need for sedative medicines. The recommended
physical exercise that exercises leg strength, is not too strenuous and as
much as it can, one of which is walking.
2. Drug management
a. Use the smallest dose that is effective and specific.
b. Pay attention to side effects and drug interactions.
c. Use walking aids if needed during treatment.
d. Reduce administration of drugs that are for a long time, especially
sedatives and tranquilisers.
e. Avoid multiple drugs (more than four types) except on strong
clinical indications.
f. Stopping unnecessary drugs.
3. Environmental modification
a. Adjust the temperature of the room so it is not too hot or cold to
avoid dizziness due to temperature.
b. Put items that are indeed often needed are within reach without
having to walk first.
c. Use antislip rugs in the bathroom.
d. Pay attention to the quality of lighting at home.
e. There must be no electrical wires on the floor that are used to pass.
f. Put handrails on the stairs, if necessary install additional lights for
the staircase area.
g. Get rid of items that can make slip from the usual road to pass.
h. Use a non-slippery floor.
i. Arrange the furniture so that the road for easy crossing, avoiding
j. Put handrails where needed such as in the bathroom.
k. Avoid using wheeled furniture.
4. Improve the habits of elderly patients for example:
a. Stand up from a sitting position or stance not too fast.
b. Don't lift heavy things at once.
c. Take items in the right way from the floor.
d. Avoid excessive exercise.
5. Footwear
a. Avoid high heels, wear wide heels.
b. Don't walk with only socks because it's hard to maintain balance.
c. Wear antislip shoes.
6. Check the function of vision and hearing.
Use glasses if you have vision impairment and hearing aids if you have
hearing loss.
7. Hip protector: proven to reduce the risk of pelvic fracture.
8. Maintain bone strength
a. Nutritional supplements especially calcium and vitamin D have
been shown to increase bone density and reduce the risk of fracture
due to falls on parents.
b. Stop smoking
c. Avoid alcohol consumption
d. Physical exercise
e. Anti-resorption such as biophosphonates and estrogen receptor
f. Estrogen hormone supplementation / hormone replacement