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Del Rosario, Alyssa Brendant G.

October 24, 2019

Experimental Psychology (PSY1203) Ms. Jedda M. Punzalan
7:00- 11:00 Section 1 M&Th Within- Subjects Design: Small N

Title: Inclusion of Students With an Intellectual Disability in the General Education

Classroom With the Use of Response Cards
Author: Laura S. Clarke, Todd Haydon, Anne Bauer and Anna C. Epperly

 To know the effects of response cards for students with an Intellectual Disability.
 To increase functional inclusion of people with Intellectual Disability in accessing
general education classroom.
Statement of the Problem: The purpose of this study was to extend the research on
response cards to include students with an intellectual disability in the general education
classroom, and to increase the functional inclusion of students with an intellectual
disability in accessing the general education. The public elementary school where the
study takes place was in the rural Midwestern United States, and it earned a “needs
improvement” rating from the state, indicating that they were below the 70th percentile in
their performance on statewide assessments. The research was conducted because the
classroom teacher requested support to address low rates of academic engagement
during core instruction for students with an intellectual disability.
Hypothesis: What are the effects of a response card strategy on student response rates
and on- task behavior for students identified as having an intellectual disability during
science and social studies instruction in an inclusive general education classroom.
Discussion of the Variable:
Independent Variable: Inclusion of Students With an Intellectual Disability
Dependent Variable: With the use of Response Cards
Research Design: ABAB single subject reversal design
Participants of the Study: Five third- grade students with an individualized program
(three boys, two girls) between ages of 8 and 9 years old.
Procedure: The study was conducted in a third grade general education classroom
during science and social studies instruction, which was scheduled for 45 minutes per
afternoon. The classroom had 23 students, including the students in this study. Instruction
was conducted in the front of the classroom, and the teacher used a SmartBoard and
digital projector or overheard to display materials or show content videos. The class was
set up in a horseshoe shape, with all students facing the front of the room.
Statistical Analysis: (No stat analysis) But data were gathered using Likert-type rating
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that picture response cards increase
students’ with ab intellectual disability active engagement and on- task behavior in
science and social studies content in the inclusive, general education classroom. It has
practical implications for teachers and students because it provides evidence that
students with an intellectual disability can participate and demonstrate their learning in
the general education classroom with minimal supports and no additional staffing. These
findings lend support for the use of response cards during general education instruction.
Recommendations: Future research could investigate comparing individual responding
using response cards with the use of response cards in a classroom (group) setting.
Future research should determine if picture response cards increase accuracy, and if
students would use the picture response cards in other settings as an accommodation
(i.e., using them to help recall key vocabulary needed to answer open response
questions). Research should also consider if card use is best limited to when teachers
instruct students to use the cards for response purposes (Christle & Schuster, 2003).
Future research should address if the use of picture response cards could be used to help
students answer questions in the higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy, as the questions
asked and answered during this study focused on questions in the Knowledge domain.
Limitations and Biases of the Study:
 This research limited the use of picture response cards to science and social
studies content in Grade three. Replication of this research should occur across
other grades and content areas.
 A second limitation is the amount of teacher preparation time needed for the
number of response cards needed for the entire unit of study, as well as the
organization needed to maintain picture response cards for each student. Future
research could investigate ways to increase the efficiency of using the response
 A third limitation is that it is difficult to tell how much of the increase in active student
response was due to the use of the response cards or due to the fact that other
students were visually responding, thus encouraging the students in the study to
respond in kind.
 first author as the primary scorer with scorer reliability checked on a minority of
events. This allowed possible biased scoring based on the observer not being blind
to the hypothesis of the study.