Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

# APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL CONCEPTS IN THE

SAMPLES

## J.P. AMBATA1 and L. A. DE GRANO1

1INSTITUE OF BIOLOGY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY 1101, PHILIPPINES
DATE SUBMITTED: 2 FEBRUARY 2016
DATE PERFORMED: 29 JANUARY 2016

## Confidence intervals is a tool to evaluate the

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS probability of the data gathered, based on a
1. Give the significance of Grubbs test. certain range. It is significant since it
increases the reliability of the data in
The significance of Grubbs test is based on determining its margin of error.
the data that was gathered, and to calculate and
use Grubbs test would mean the identification of 4. How do the statistics calculated from
possible outliers. It is important to identify these data set 1 differ from those obtained from
outliers, because if these outliers are not data set 2?
identified, it could yield an irrelevant result, since
it does not truly represent the population The statistics in set 2 are more reliable than
parameters that we want to observe and set 1 because set 2 has a larger number in
experiment on. population. And the increase of population
increases the reliability aspect of data. Because
2. Give the significance of the mean and the rapid improvement in the reliability of s
standard deviation. increases as the population increases. The range
of set 2 is also wider, therefore, a new and more
The significance of the mean can best be accurate representation of data can then be
stated, where we want to calculate data based on calculated, which will then be used for
the best estimate of calculations gathered. It gives evaluation.
the center of distribution of the data and is the
most representative value of the set of data REFERENCES
gathered.
Standard deviation on the other hand [1] Stone, D. (n.d.). Stats Tutorial - Instrumental
measures the width of distribution of data. It Analysis and Calibration. Retrieved February
shows how variated the numbers are from 02, 2016, from
another. It also shows how close the data are from http://www.chem.utoronto.ca/coursenotes/anals
the mean, which can then show how reliable the ci/stats/Outliers.html#section3-8-3
data is, since the smaller the standard deviation,
the more reliable it is.
[2] Zumdahl, S.S., & Zumdahl S.A. (2012).
3. Give the significance of the confidence Chemistry. (A10-A11). Belmont, CA: Brooks
interval. Cole, A Part of Cengage Learning. 77-78
[3] Skoog, West, Holler, Crouch, 2004.
Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry 8th
Edition. Belmont: Thomson Learning Inc. 92-93,
123, 143

## [4] Harris, D., 2007. Quantitative Chemical

Analysis 7th Edition. Houndmills: W.H. Freeman
and Company. 54, 57, 59
APPENDIX A

SET 1

1 3.5834
2 3.5921
3 3.5964
4 3.6013
5 3.6153
6 3. 6208

## 𝑥1+𝑋2 +𝑋3 …+𝑋6 21.6093

Mean: 𝑋̅ = = = 3.60155
𝑛 6

## (𝑋1 −𝑋̅)2 +(𝑋2 −𝑋̅)2 …+(𝑋𝑛 −𝑋̅)2

Standard Deviation: 𝑠 = √ 𝑛−1
=0.014176988 𝑜𝑟 1.4177 × 10−2

## Relative Standard Deviation (RSD)

𝑠
𝑅𝑆𝐷 = × 1000𝑝𝑝𝑡 = 3.93635751 𝑝𝑝𝑡 𝑜𝑟 3.9364 𝑝𝑝𝑡
𝑋̅

Range (R)
𝑅 = 𝑋ℎ𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑠𝑡 − 𝑋𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑠𝑡 = 0.0374

## Relative Range (RR)

𝑅
𝑅𝑅 = × 1000𝑝𝑝𝑡 = 10.384
𝑋̅
SET 2:

1 3.5834
2 3.5921
3 3.5932
4 3.5964
5 3.6013
6 3.6042
7 3.6098
8 3.6150
9 3.6208
10 3.6425

Mean: 𝑋̅ = 𝑛
= 10
= 3.6059

## (𝑋1 −𝑋̅)2 +(𝑋2 −𝑋̅)2 …+(𝑋𝑛 −𝑋̅)2

Standard Deviation: 𝑠 = √ = 0.017118605 or 1.7119× 10−2
𝑛−1

## Relative Standard Deviation (RSD)

𝑠
𝑅𝑆𝐷 = × 1000𝑝𝑝𝑡 = 4.74738754𝑝𝑝𝑡 𝑜𝑟 4.7474𝑝𝑝𝑡
𝑋̅

Range (R)
𝑅 = 𝑋ℎ𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑠𝑡 − 𝑋𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑠𝑡 = 0.0591

## Relative Range (RR)

𝑅
𝑅𝑅 = × 1000𝑝𝑝𝑡 = 16.390
𝑋̅

## Data Set Confidence limits (95% confidence level)

1 3.616424469 3.586675531
2 3.618134235 3.593665765

## Data Set Suspected Values Gtab Gexp Conclusion

H: 3.6208 1.8871 1.357834221 Not rejected
1
L: 3.5834 1.8871 1.280243694 Not rejected
H: 3.6425 2.29 2.138024574 Not rejected
2
L: 3.5834 2.29 1.314359369 Not rejected