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142 Ansichten23 SeitenPOWER FACTOR

Oct 28, 2019

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POWER FACTOR

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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142 Ansichten23 SeitenPOWER FACTOR

© All Rights Reserved

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This paper discusses the concepts behind what power factor is, what it is measuring, and comparing the

power factors of several different types of circuits. We also discuss how power factor is affected by

harmonic currents. We then review how the power factor can be improved. Finally, we review the

typical power factors seen with AC drives in various configurations. Definitions of various terms are

included to help the reader understand the subject.

1. Resistor Load

2. Inductor Load

3. Motor Load

4. How do power factor correction caps work?

5. What affect do harmonics have on power factor?

6. Can power factor correction caps improve the power factor caused by harmonics?

7. What can an active filter do?

8. Power factors associated with AC Drives

a. Displacement Power Factor

b. Distortion Power Factor

c. Total Power Factor

d. Current in and out of a drive

9. A note about conventions and definitions

a. RSS

b. P

c. Q

d. S

e. S1

f. D

g. N

h. PF

i. PF1

j. PFD

10. The Power Cube

11. A key to understanding the diagrams

a. The circuit diagram

b. The waveform diagram

c. The vector diagram

d. The power diagram

Rick Hoadley

Apr 2005

2

Power factor is simply a way to determine what percentage of the current drawn by a piece of equipment

is being used to provide active power (Watts) to the equipment. The ideal power factor is 1.00, where

all of the current is used to transfer energy to the load at every instant of time. Power factor is

something that is unique to AC circuits due to the phase differences that can exist between the line-to-

neutral voltage and the line current. DC circuits don’t have anything like it. To better understand power

factor, let’s look at a few different examples. Check Section 11 to help understand the diagrams.

1. Resistor Load

It

Suppose we have an AC voltage source, like a

Ir

transformer, feeding a resistor as in Fig 1. Let’s

look at the voltages and currents. With respect to V

time, the voltage would look like a sine wave, and

the current in the resistor would also look like a sine Fig 1. Circuit with a resistor load on an AC

voltage source

wave as seen in Fig 3. The important thing is that

the current in the resistor crosses zero at the same

time as the voltage. Showing the same thing using

vectors in Fig 2, the voltage would be along the Ir V

positive x-axis, and the current in the resistor would

Fig 2. Vector diagram of the voltage and current

also be along the positive x-axis. The length of the

vector is the peak value of the sine wave.

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

What does the power look like? With respect to 200.0 200.0

100.0 100.0

but at twice the frequency as seen in Fig 4. It

0 0

touches zero when the voltage is at zero. So, the -100.0 -100.0

always above zero. The average of this waveform -200.0 -200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

Fig 3. Waveform of the voltage and current –

What is the power factor for this circuit? It would blue is V, green is Ir

be the ratio of the current in phase with the voltage

to the total current. For this resistor load since the 10.000k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

10.000k

ratio is Ir/It = 50.0/50.0 = 1.00. It can also be 7.500k 7.500k

total current and the voltage. For this resistor load, 5.000k 5.000k

This is saying that all of the current is being used to 2.500k 2.500k

The average power is PF*It*V = W, or 1.00 * 50.0 -0.200k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

-0.200k

watts is 5000

3

2. Inductor Load

It

If the load on the transformer were just an inductor,

Im

what would be happening? See Fig5. With respect

to time, the voltage and current would be as shown V

in Fig 7. The difference is that the current in the

inductor is lagging the voltage by 90 degrees. Fig 5. Circuit with an inductor load on an AC

Showing the same thing using vectors in Fig 6, the voltage source

voltage would be along the positive x-axis, and the

current in the inductor would be along the negative

y-axis.

Multiplying the inductor current by the voltage Im

gives us the instantaneous power. Again, we see

that it fluctuates above and below zero. However, Fig 6. Vector diagram of the voltage and current

notice that this time, it reaches a peak a little later

than when the voltage is at its peak, it is at zero

whenever the voltage or the current is at zero, and it

dips down below zero with peaks of the same

magnitude as those above zero! This is saying that 200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

of the cycle, and is returned during another part of 100.0 100.0

flowing, but zero average power is being supplied. 0 0

What is the power factor for this circuit? It would -100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

to the total current. For this inductor load, the ratio 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

is 0/It = 0/30.0 = 0.0. It can also be determined by Fig 7. Waveform of the voltage and current –

the cosine of the angle between the total current and blue is V, brown is Im

the voltage. For this inductor load, the angle is -90

degrees. So, the cosine (-90) = 0.0. This is saying

that 0% of the total current is being used to provide 4.000k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

4.000k

0.00 * 30.0 * 100.0 = 0.0W. 2.000k 2.000k

0 0

-2.000k -2.000k

-4.000k -4.000k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

watts is 0

4

3. Motor Load

gives us a simple model of an induction motor. See Im Ir

Fig 9. Now, there are two branch currents – the

V

resistor current and the inductor current. The

voltage source simply sees the sum of the two Fig 9. Circuit with a resistor and inductor load in

currents. parallel on an AC voltage source

shown in Fig 11. The resistor current looks the

same as it did before, perfectly in phase with the

voltage. The inductor current, though, is seen to lag Ir V

the voltage by 90 degrees. The total current, then, Im

is the sum of the resistor current and the inductor

current, and is also a sine wave, but it lags the It

Fig 10. Vector diagram of the voltage and

voltage somewhere between 0 and 90 degrees. currents

see the voltage and the resistor current along the

positive x-axis. The inductor current is along the 200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

shown. The magnitude of the total current is simply 100.0 100.0

currents. For example, if the resistor current is 50A, 0 0

current is sqrt(502 + 302) = 58.3A. If you were to -100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

from the transformer, you would measure 58.3A. 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

But this total current is actually made up of 50A in Fig 11. Waveform of the voltage and currents –

phase with the voltage, and 30A lagging the voltage. blue is V, green is Ir, brown is Im, pink is It

The magnitude of 58.3A by itself does not tell us

the whole story.

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

12.00k 12.00k

What does the power look like? See Fig 12. 10.00k 10.00k

the instantaneous power. We see that it fluctuates

7.50k 7.50k

above and below zero. However, notice that this 5.00k 5.00k

2.50k 2.50k

This is saying that some of the power is going back 0 0

-1.00k -1.00k

to the source. If we find the average of the power, it 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

will be positive due to the power being used by the Fig 12. Waveform of watts – red is It*V, average

resistor. watts is 5000

be the ratio of the current in phase with the voltage

to the total current. For this motor load, the ratio is

5

by the cosine of the angle between the total current

and the voltage. For this motor load, the angle is 31 It

degrees. So, the cosine (31) = 0.86. This is saying Im Ir

that 86% of the total current is being used to

V

provide power, or watts, to the resistor load. 86%

of 58.3A is 50.0A. So the average power is 0.86 * Fig 13. Circuit with a resistor and inductor load in

58.3A * 100.0V = 5000W. parallel on an AC voltage source, the resistance

value has increased 10 times its value in Fig 9

Why is this like a motor? The inductor is the part of

the motor that creates the rotating magnetic field.

The strength of the rotating magnetic field is

determined by how much current flows into the Ir

V

inductor. This can easily be figured out. For

example, if the motor is being fed by 100V at 60Hz, Im It

and the inductor has a value of 8.84mH, then the

Fig 14. Vector diagram of the voltage and

impedance, Z, of the inductor is 2*pi*f*L = 3.33 currents

Ohms. The current that would flow then is I = V/Z

= V/(2*pi*f*L) = 100/3.33 = 30.0A. We see from

this, since 2*pi*L is a constant, that I is

proportional to V/f which is V/Hz. So, if we were 200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

in order to change its speed, we would also have to 100.0 100.0

keep the strength of the rotating magnetic field 0 0

constant V/Hz ratio – in order to maintain a -100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

What we described is a motor running at full load. blue is V, green is Ir, brown is Im, pink is It

When the motor is running at no load, the current in

the resistor decreases to a very small amount as

shown in Fig 13. Now, the total current is made of 4.000k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

4.000k

total of sqrt(52 + 302) = 30.4A. This is why you 2.000k 2.000k

the motor even when there is no load on the motor. 0 0

magnetizing current. See Fig 14 and 15. What has -2.000k -2.000k

-4.000k -4.000k

has now gone to 5/30.4 = 0.16. For this motor at no 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

load, the angle is -80.5 degrees. So, the cosine (- Fig 16. Waveform of watts – red is It*V, average

80.5) = 0.16. This is saying that only 16% of the watts is 500

total current is being used to provide power, or

watts, to the motor. 16% of 30.4A is 5.0A. So the

average power is 0.16 * 30.4A * 100.0V = 500W.

See Fig 16.

6

It

How can capacitors help with the power factor?

Ic

Let’s look at the voltage and current of a capacitor

load on a transformer. See Fig 17. V

With respect to time, the voltage and current would Fig 17. Circuit with a capacitor load on an AC

be as shown in Fig 19. The big difference now is voltage source

that the current in the capacitor is leading the

voltage by 90 degrees. Showing the same thing

using vectors in Fig 18, the voltage would be along

the positive x-axis, and the current in the capacitor Ic

would be along the positive y-axis.

Fig 18. Vector diagram of the voltage and

Multiplying the capacitor current by the voltage current

gives us the instantaneous power. Again, we see

that power is above and below zero. Notice that

this time, it reaches a peak a little before the voltage

is at its peak, it is at zero whenever the voltage or

the current is at zero, and it dips down below zero 200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

zero! This is saying that some power is absorbed 100.0 100.0

returned during another part of the cycle. The 0 0

average power is being supplied. -100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

What is the power factor for this circuit? It would 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

be the ratio of the current in phase with the voltage Fig 19. Waveform of the voltage and current –

to the total current. For this capacitor load, the ratio blue is V, light blue is Ic

is 0/It = 0/20.0 = 0.0. It can also be determined by

the cosine of the angle between the total current and

the voltage. For this capacitor load, the angle is 2.500k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

2.500k

saying that 0% of the total current is being used to 1.250k 1.250k

0 0

seen with motors? What if we were to add a -1.250k -1.250k

-2.500k -2.500k

have three branch currents – current in the resistor, 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

current in the inductor, and current in the capacitor. Fig 20. Waveform of watts – red is Ic*V,

See Fig 21. The total current is the sum of these average watts is 0

three individual currents. When we put them all

together, something is immediately obvious. With

respect to time, the current in the inductor lags by

90 degrees, but the current in the capacitor leads by

7

are added together, they practically cancel each It

other out! If Ic = 20.0A, and Im = 30.0A, then Ic Im Ir

Ic+Im = Iq = 10.0A lagging.

V

What is this like using vectors? See Fig 22. Im is

along the negative y-axis, Ic is along the positive y- Fig 21. Circuit with a resistor, inductor and

axis, and Ir is along the positive x-axis. Adding Ic capacitor load in parallel on an AC voltage

source

to Im gives us a result that is 10.0 along the

negative y-axis. When we add this to Ir, we get a

total current that has a magnitude of sqrt(502 + 102) Ic

= 51.0A. If you were to take a clamp-on ammeter Ir

and measure the current from the transformer, you

would now measure 51.0A. But, this total current is Iq V

actually made up of 50A in phase with the voltage, It

and 30A lagging the voltage, and 20A leading the Im

voltage. The magnitude of 51.0A by itself does not Fig 22. Vector diagram of the voltage and

tell us the whole story. What does the power look currents

like?

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

power is above and below zero. However, notice 100.0 100.0

when the voltage is at its peak, and it barely dips 0 0

of the power is going back to the source. Power is -100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

power being absorbed by the inductor or by the 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

capacitor. You can think of current simply flowing Fig 23. Waveform of the voltage and currents –

back and forth between the capacitor and the blue is V, green is Ir, brown is Im, light blue is Ic,

inductor. pink is It

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

12.00k

be the ratio of the current in phase with the voltage 10.00k 10.00k

ratio is Ir/It = 50.0/51.0 = 0.98. It can also be 7.50k 7.50k

load, the angle is 11 degrees. So, the cosine (11) = 2.50k 2.50k

-0.50k -0.50k

being used to provide power, or watts, to the 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

resistor load. 98% of 51.0A is 50.0A. So the Fig 24. Waveform of watts – red is It*V, average

average power is 0.98 * 51.0A * 100.0V = 5000W. watts is 5000

only has to provide 51.0A of current. Without the

power factor correction cap, the transformer had to

8

the same!

we will have 20.0A of capacitor current leading the

voltage, 30.0A of inductor current lagging the

voltage, and 5.0A of resistor current in phase with

the voltage. Summing these currents, we get 5.0A

in phase with the voltage and 10.0A lagging the

voltage. The total current will now be sqrt(52 + 102)

= 11.1A.

motor? It would be the ratio of the current in phase

with the voltage to the total current. For this motor

at no-load, the ratio is Ir/It = 5.0/11.1 = 0.45. It can

also be determined by the cosine of the angle

between the total current and the voltage. For this

combined load, the angle is 63 degrees. So, the

cosine (63) = 0.45. This is saying that 45% of the

total current is being used to provide power, or

watts, to the resistor load. 45% of 11.1A is 5.0A.

So the average power is 0.45 * 11.1A * 100.0V =

500W. What changed? This time, even though the

wattage is the same whether or not the capacitor is

in the circuit, the total current changed from 30.4A

to only 11.1A! This means better transformer

utilization.

correction capacitors to a motor should not cause

the resulting power factor to exceed 0.90, otherwise

self-excitation of the motor may occur during run-

down. This would cause an extreme overvoltage on

the motor terminals. As a rule of thumb, the added

kVAR should not exceed 0.35 of the kW of the

motor.

9

factor?

It

Ih

Power converters, such as AC and DC motor drives,

create harmonic currents since they are converting V

3-phase AC power into DC using a diode bridge.

Line current only flows whenever the line-to-line Fig 25. Circuit with an harmonic load on an AC

voltage between the phases exceeds the voltage voltage source

across the DC bus. This results in a line current that

no longer appears sinusoidal. Instead, upon

analysis, the current waveform now contains 5th

harmonic currents along with higher orders. What

does this do to the power factor? As you might

suspect, it reduces the power factor. V

Ih

If the load on the transformer were just harmonic

Fig 26. Vector diagram of the voltage and

currents, as shown in Fig 25, what would be current

happening? With respect to time, the voltage and

current would be as shown in Fig 27. The

difference you see is that the harmonic current

oscillates 5 times faster than the voltage since it is a 200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

the voltage would be along the positive x-axis, but 100.0 100.0

in the y-axis because this is only for 60Hz currents. 0 0

three-dimensional diagram. The harmonic current -100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

What does the power look like? See Fig 28. Fig 27. Waveform of the voltage and current –

Multiplying the harmonic current by the voltage blue is V, olive green is Ih

gives us the instantaneous power. We see power

fluctuates above and below zero. This is saying that

some power is absorbed from the source during 3.000k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

3.000k

parts of the cycle, and is returned during other parts 1.667k 1.667k

will be right at 0! Current is flowing, but zero 0 0

-1.667k -1.667k

be the ratio of the current in phase with the voltage, -3.333k -3.333k

-4.000k -4.000k

to the total current. For this harmonic load, the ratio 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

is 0/It = 0/15.0 = 0.0. It can not be determined by Fig 28. Waveform of watts – red is Ih*V,

the cosine of the angle between the total current and average watts is 0

the voltage because they are at different frequencies.

But because the ratio of the currents is 0.0, the

average power is 0.00 * 15.0 * 100.0 = 0.0W.

10

the resistor gives us a simple model of an AC motor

drive. See Fig 29. There are two branch currents – It

the resistor current and the harmonic current. The Ir Ih

voltage source simply sees the sum of the two

V

currents.

Fig 29. Circuit with a resistor and harmonic load

With respect to time, the voltage and currents are as in parallel on an AC voltage source

shown in Fig 31. The resistor current looks the

same as it did before, perfectly in phase with the

voltage, at 50.0A. The 5th harmonic current has an

amplitude of 15.0A. The total current, then, is the

sum of the resistor current and the harmonic current. Ir V

Ih It

This looks like a sine wave with wiggles. Showing

the same thing using vectors in Fig 30, we see the Fig 30. Vector diagram of the voltage and

voltage and the resistor current along the positive x- currents

axis. The harmonic current is along the positive z-

axis. The sum of the two currents is also shown.

The magnitude of the total current is sqrt(502 + 152)

= 52.2A. If you were to take a clamp-on ammeter

and measure the current from the transformer, you 200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

made up of 50A in phase with the voltage, and 15A 100.0 100.0

0 0

Multiplying the total current by the voltage gives us -100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

peaks above zero and valleys just slightly below 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

zero. This is saying that a small amount of the Fig 31. Waveform of the voltage and currents –

power is going back to the source. If we find the blue is V, green is Ir, olive green is Ih, pink is It

average of the power, though, it will be above zero

due to the power being used by the resistor.

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

12.00k 12.00k

What is the power factor for this circuit? It would 10.00k 10.00k

to the total current. For this load, the ratio is Ir/It = 7.50k 7.50k

voltage. For this motor load, the angle is 16.7 2.50k 2.50k

-0.50k -0.50k

saying that 96% of the total current is being used to 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

provide power, or watts, to the resistor load. 96% Fig 32. Waveform of watts – red is It*V, average

of 52.2A is 50.0A. So the average power is 0.96 * watts is 5000

52.2A * 100.0V = 5000W. The harmonics do not

add to the real power.

11

power factor caused by harmonics? It

Ic Ir Ih

Let’s try this. We will add a capacitor to our circuit

with the resistor and the harmonic load. See Fig 33. V

The voltage and currents are as shown in Fig 35. Fig 33. Circuit with a resistor, capacitor and

We now have three branch currents – current in the harmonic load in parallel on an AC voltage

source

resistor, current in the harmonic load, and current in

the capacitor. The total current is the sum of these

three individual currents. When we put them all

together, we have an interesting mix of currents. Ic

The capacitor current does not cancel out the It

harmonic current, does it? What is this like using

vectors? See Fig 34. Ir = 50.0A and is along the Ih Ir V

positive x-axis. Ic = 20.0A and is along the positive Fig 34. Vector diagram of the voltage and

y-axis. Ih = 15.0A and is along the positive z-axis. currents

When we add these together, we get a total current

that has a magnitude of sqrt(502 + 202 + 152) =

55.9A. If you were to take a clamp-on ammeter and

measure the total current from the transformer, you 200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

actually made up of 50A in phase with the voltage, 100.0 100.0

harmonic. The magnitude of 55.9A by itself does 0 0

-100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

Multiplying the total current by the voltage gives us 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

the instantaneous power. We see a strange Fig 35. Waveform of the voltage and currents –

waveform. Notice that the power is both above and blue is V, green is Ir, light blue is Ic, olive green

below zero. Power is being drawn from and is Ih, pink is It

returned to the source throughout each cycle. The

average power will be positive due to the power 12.00k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

12.00k

You can think of those currents as flowing back and 6.67k 6.67k

between the harmonic load and the source. 3.33k 3.33k

0 0

-2.00k -2.00k

be the ratio of the current in phase with the voltage 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

to the total current. For this load, the ratio is Ir/It = Fig 36. Waveform of watts – red is It*V, average

50.0/55.9 = 0.89. It can also be determined by the watts is 5000

cosine of the angle between the total current and the

voltage. For this combined load, the angle is 26.6

degrees. So, the cosine (26.6) = 0.89. This is

saying that 89% of the total current is being used to

12

of 55.9A is 50.0A. So the average power is 0.89 *

55.9A * 100.0V = 5000W. The result is that the

capacitor did not help reduce the total current, in

fact, it actually made it worse by going from 52.2A

total to 55.9A total, with the power factor going

from 0.96 down to 0.89. Not good!

correction caps not help improve the power factor

of a drive, but they can actually cause voltage

instabilities due to system resonances, and can

cause failures of diode bridges and DC bus caps due

to large peak currents through the diodes into the

caps within drives. We do not recommend the use

of power factor correction caps on the same AC bus

as drives. If needed for other inductive loads on the

same AC bus where the drives are located, the

drives should be connected to the bus through a line

reactor or an isolation transformer.

harmonic loads? Two ways. The first way is to

reduce the harmonics themselves. For example, use

a different front end that has less harmonic current

to begin with, like an 18-Pulse system. In our

example, an 18-Pulse drive would create only 2.5A

of harmonics. You can see how the power factor is

improved. What is the other way? We need

something that can cancel the harmonic current,

similar to the way capacitor current can cancel

inductor current. This would be an active filter.

13

It

An active filter is able to supply the harmonic Ir Ih

currents needed by the harmonic load. It does this If

by producing the same harmonic current as the load, V

but 180 degrees out of phase. This is also how

active noise reduction techniques work. Fig 37. Circuit with a resistor, active filter and

harmonic load in parallel on an AC voltage

source

If we were to add an active filter to our circuit that

already contains the resistor and the harmonic load,

as shown in Fig 37, the currents with respect to time

would be as shown in Fig 39. When the currents If

are summed, you can see that the active filter

current cancels the harmonic load current. What is Ir V

left is just the resistor current. Using vectors, the Ih

resistor current is along the positive x-axis, the Fig 38. Vector diagram of the voltage and

harmonic load is along the positive z-axis, and the currents

active filter is along the negative z-axis. See Fig 38.

The total current is equal to the resistor current.

What does the power look like? See Fig 40. It is 200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

200.0

only in Fig 4. 100.0 100.0

to the total current. For this load, the ratio is Ir/Ir = -100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

cosine of the angle between the total current and the 0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

voltage. For this total load, the angle is 0 degrees. Fig 39. Waveform of the voltage and currents –

So, the cosine (0) = 1.00. This is saying that all of blue is V, green is Ir, olive green is Ih, purple is

the current is now being used to provide power, or If. Note: It = Ir since If cancels Ih

watts, to the resistor load. The average power is

1.00 * 50.0 * 100.0 = 5000W. 12.00k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

12.00k

10.00k 10.00k

power to cancel the reactive inductor currents in 7.50k 7.50k

2.50k 2.50k

-0.50k -0.50k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

watts is 5000

14

0.00

1.80

0.20

Leading

1.60

What kind of power factor can we expect to see for 0.40

0.60

1.40

an AC drive when operating between no load and

0.80

1.20

full load? The total current drawn by an AC drive

1.00

is made up of the real current Ir, fundamental 0.80

reactive current Iq, and harmonic current Ih. So we 0.60

Lagging

can actually examine three types of power factor. 0.40 6-Pulse

18-Pulse

Passive Filter

Ir/I1 where I1 is the RSS of Ir and Iq. The distortion 0.00

power factor is the product of the two, Ir/It. For a Fig 41. Displacement Power Factor, PF1, for a

typical, buffered AC drive (one that has a DC link 6-pulse drive, 18-pulse drive, and 6-pulse drive

choke between the diode bridge rectifier and the DC with a passive filter vs % Load

bus caps), we will plot the three power factors for a 2.00

0.00

6-Pulse drive, an 18-Pulse drive, and a 6-Pulse drive 1.80

0.20

with a passive filter.

Leading

1.60

0.40

1.40

0.60

1.20

very close to 1.00 all the way from no load to full 0.80

Lagging

0.40 6-Pulse

the circuit, and the fundamental of the line current is 18-Pulse

0.20

phased very close to the line voltage. The 6-Pulse Passive Filter

0.00

drive with a passive filter, though, has a large 0 25 50 75 100

amount of leading power factor due to the line Fig 42. Distortion Power Factor, PFD, for a 6-

connected capacitors that are part of the filter. pulse drive, 18-pulse drive, and 6-pulse drive

with a passive filter vs % Load

b) Regarding distortion power factor, the 18-Pulse

drive and the 6-Pulse drive with a passive filter 2.00

0.00

have power factors very close to 1.00 all the way 1.80

0.20

from about no load to full load, since the total

Leading

1.60

0.40

0.60

and 10% throughout that range. See Fig 42. The 6- 1.20

0.80

0.60

40% at full load and 105% at no load.

Lagging

0.40 6-Pulse

18-Pulse

0.20

c) The total power factor, which is the product of Passive Filter

0.00

the displacement power factor and the distortion 0 25 50 75 100

power factor, gives a more complete picture. See Fig 43. Total Power Factor, PF, for a 6-pulse

Fig 43. The 18-Pulse drive is closest to unity drive, 18-pulse drive, and 6-pulse drive with a

throughout the load range. The 6-Pulse drive drops passive filter vs % Load

off as the load decreases, reaching 0.75 at about

25% load. The 6-Pulse drive with the passive filter

shows a large leading power factor, again due to the

line connected capacitors that are part of the filter

design.

15

the power grid system to which it is connected.

Another method to achieve similar results to an 18-

Pulse drive is to add an active filter to the drive

system as we discussed earlier.

is going into it? This question often comes up when

making current measurements on an AC drive. We

might see that there is 100A on the output of the

drive going to the motor, but only 45A on the input

to the drive. How can this be? Where is the extra

power coming from?

at the input and the power at the output of the drive.

There is more to power than simply the amount of

amps flowing in the wires. Power factor has a big

effect, too.

some harmonics. It has a total power factor of

about 0.93. The motor connected to the output of

the drive looks like a resistor load in parallel with

an inductor load. It has a power factor of about

0.85. Using these numbers, let’s look at each

section of the drive as power flows from the input to

the drive, to the DC link in the drive, and out to the

motor. See Fig 44, 45.

load is located. Let us say we are operating at half

speed, full torque. This would mean that the output

frequency is at 30Hz, the output voltage is at

230Vac, and the output current is at 100Arms as an

example. Let’s keep track of the watts. The watts

going into the motor would be:

Imotor = 100 amps

pf = 0.85

Wmotor = V*I*pf*sqrt(3) = 33,861 watts

33,861 = 31,829 watts is being converted into

horsepower at its shaft.

16

efficiency of 97.5%. That means the watts into the 35000

25000

in the inverter would then be 34,729 – 33,861 = 868

20000

watts. 15000

10000

If the DC bus voltage is 648Vdc, then the average 5000

Input Converter Bus Inverter Output Motor Shaft

Amazing, but you see that the average amps is Power Losses Power Losses Power Losses Power

voltage is so much higher. Summarizing the watts Fig 44. Power and power losses at each section

of an AC Drive. Note that the power out is the

in the DC bus:

same as the power in minus the losses.

Ibus = 53.6 amps 700 648

480

500

What about the input to the drive? The diode bridge 400

300

converter has a typical efficiency of 99%. This 230

200

means the watts into the converter is 34,729/0.99 = 100

100 45.4 53.6

35,080 watts. The losses in the converter would 0.93 0.85

0

then be 35,080 – 34,729 = 351 watts. Line Line Line pf Bus Bus Motor Motor Motor pf

Volts Amps Volts Amps Volts Amps

The input power to the converter is 35,080 watts. If Fig 45. Chart of V and I at each section of an AC

the line voltage is 480Vac, and the input power Drive. Note that the watts is about the same in

factor is 0.93, then the input current is each section. Remember that the line and motor

W/(V*pf*sqrt(3)) = 45.4Aac. Summarizing: are 3-phase power, the bus is DC power.

Iline = 45.4 amps

pf = 0.93

Wline = 35,080 watts

Voltage 480 Vrms 648 Vdc 230 Vrms

Power Factor 0.93 pf 0.85 pf

Current 45.4 Arms 53.6 Adc 100.0 Arms

KW 35.1 KW 0.4 34.7 KW 0.9 33.9 KW 2.0 31.8 KW

KVA 37.7 KVA 39.8 KVA

531 Max Vrms

Efficiency 0.990 0.975 0.940

Horsepower 45.4 hp 42.7 hp

Speed 889 rpm

Torque 252.0 ft-lb

Fig 46. Chart of V, I, pf, kW at each section of an AC Drive system. The drive itself is the Converter (CONV), DC

Bus, and the Inverter (INU). The AC Line In is the feed to the drive. The AC Motor Out is the feed from the drive

to the motor. Motor is the motor itself. Shaft is the power out of the motor shaft. Operation is at half speed, full

load.

17

(Watts) going into the drive than coming out of the

drive to the motor. We have 3-phase power coming

in at a certain power factor, and 3-phase power

going out to the motor at a different power factor.

Also, there are losses along the way. Power is

based on the type and magnitude of voltage,

magnitude of current and the power factor. Power

is not simply proportional to the magnitude of

current.

the power out would equal the power in. Taking the

power factor into account, the output current would

again be higher than the input current.

into play as is shown in Fig 47 below.

Voltage 480 Vrms 648 Vdc 460 Vrms

Power Factor 0.93 pf 0.87 pf

Current 92.9 Arms 109.7 Adc 100.0 Arms

KW 71.8 KW 0.7 71.1 KW 1.8 69.3 KW 4.2 65.2 KW

KVA 77.2 KVA 79.7 KVA

531 Max Vrms

Efficiency 0.990 0.975 0.940

Horsepower 92.9 hp 87.3 hp

Speed 1778 rpm

Torque 257.9 ft-lb

Fig 47. Chart of V, I, pf, kW at each section of an AC Drive. Operation is at full speed, full load.

full speed, half load. See Fig 48.

Voltage 480 Vrms 648 Vdc 460 Vrms

Power Factor 0.93 pf 0.60 pf

Current 45.5 Arms 53.7 Adc 71.0 Arms

KW 35.2 KW 0.4 34.8 KW 0.9 33.9 KW 2.0 31.9 KW

KVA 37.8 KVA 56.6 KVA

531 Max Vrms

Efficiency 0.990 0.975 0.940

Horsepower 45.5 hp 42.8 hp

Speed 1790 rpm

Torque 125.4 ft-lb

Fig 48. Chart of V, I, pf, kW at each section of an AC Drive. Operation is at full speed, half load.

various parameters change. In summary, the

current isn’t the whole story. You also need the

voltage and power factor to determine power.

18

When reading literature about the physics involved with power and power factor, the following

conventions are typically used.

a. RSS is the square Root of the Sum of the Squares of identified numbers.

For example, the RSS(3,4) would be the sqrt(32 + 42) = 5. This is used to

add the magnitudes of vectors that are orthogonal to each other (meaning

that the vectors are along different axes in the xyz plane).

b. P is often used to signify active power, real power, and is the current in

phase with the voltage times the voltage. This would be Ir*V in the above

examples. The letter P was selected because it stands for Power. The

units are Watts (W) or kilowatts (kW). The average value of P is usually

positive, signifying a net transfer of energy from the source to the load.

The average value of P can also be negative, signifying a net transfer of

energy from the load to the source (for example, during stopping and

braking operations, overhauling loads, lowering a hoist, etc).

50/60Hz current due to inductors and capacitors (the current along the y-

axis) times the voltage. In the above examples, where the sum of Ic and

Im gives us Iq, this would be Iq*V. This has also been called Px. The

letter Q was selected because it follows P in the alphabet. The units are in

volt-amp reactive (VAR) or kilovolt-amp reactive (kVAR). The average

value of Q is zero, so the net transfer of energy to the load is nil.

Capacitor banks that are used to help correct for lagging power factor are

rated in kVAR. The conversion from kVAR to uF for a 480V, 60Hz

power grid system, is 1kVAR = 3.8uF for each of the three caps connected

in delta, or 11.5uF for each of the three caps connected in wye.

times the voltage. In the above examples, this would be It*V, where It

included Ir, Im, Ic and Ih. It has also been called Pa. The letter S was

selected because R followed Q in the alphabet, but R was already selected

to stand for resistance so they went to the next letter, S. The units are in

volt-amps, or VA. S = sqrt(P2 + Q2 + D2).

harmonic currents are not included. The current would be called I1 and

would only include Ir and Iq.

times the voltage. So this would be Ih*V in the examples. It has also

been called PH. D was selected because harmonic loads cause distortion in

the voltage waveform. The units are in volt-amp reactive, VAR and

19

kVAR. The average value of D is zero, so the net transfer of energy to the

load is nil.

g. N has been used to signify nonactive power. This is the RSS of the reactive power

and the harmonic power, so N = sqrt(Q2 + D2). The currents involved are Iq and Ih. The

units are in volt-amp reactive, VAR and kVAR. This used to be called “fictitious power”.

The average value of N is zero, so the net transfer of energy to the load is nil.

h. PF, total power factor, is the ratio between active power and apparent power, or P/S.

Since P = Ir*V, and S = It*V, then PF = P/S = Ir*V/It*V = Ir/It. Its value can range from

0.0 leading to 1.00 to 0.0 lagging. These are the values of cosine (x) where x can range

from +90 degrees (90 degrees leading) to -90 degrees (90 degrees lagging). We often

break power factor into two portions: displacement power factor and distortion power

factor.

i. PF1, displacement power factor, is the ratio of P/S1. In other words, this

only refers to fundamental (50 or 60Hz) current and power. This is the

Ir/I1 ratio. This would be the only power factor seen when circuits only

include resistors, inductors and capacitors. If there is no harmonic current,

then I1 = It. If there is no fundamental reactive current, then I1 = Ir and PF1

= 1.00.

j. PFD, distortion power factor, is the ratio of S1/S. In other words, this is

the I1/It ratio where It includes the total fundamental current, I1, and the

harmonic current, Ih. The Total Harmonic Current Distortion (THID or

Ithd) of a system is the ratio of the harmonic current to the total

fundamental current. If there is no harmonic current, then I1 = It, Ithd = 0,

and PFD = 1.00.

0.990

0.980

using the chart shown, if Ithd = 35%, 0.970

0.950

0.940

0.930

0.920

0.910

0.900

0.890

0.880

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50

k. Total power factor is then PF = PF1 * PFD . Or, using the currents only,

this would be Ir/It = Ir/I1 * I1/It.

l. Typically, lagging power factor has a positive value, and leading power

factor has a negative value. However, some power monitors reverse this

convention so that lagging power factor is negative and leading power

factor is positive. You will need to check the instrument to determine

20

what conventions are being used to report leading and lagging power

factor.

“IEEE Standard Definitions for the Measurement of Electric Power

Quantities Under Sinusoidal, Nonsinusoidal, Balanced, or Unbalanced

Conditions”.

21

The Power Cube puts all of this together into a single diagram. The equations that define all of the

different vectors are listed below.

REACTIVE

Current

y-axis

Ih

D

Iq

It

Q

In

S N

I1

S1

Ir

P x-axis

REAL

Current

z-axis

(in phase with line voltage, V)

HARMONIC

Current

For 3-Phase, Non-Sinusoidal, Balanced Systems

(approximations, where Vthd < 5%)

Reactive Power = Q = V*Iq (kVAR)

Apparent Power = S = V*It (kVA)

Fundamental Apparent Power = S1 = V*I1 (kVA)

Harmonic Power = D = V*Ih (kVAR)

Nonactive Power = N = V*In (kVAR)

Displacement Power Factor = PF1 = P/S1 = Ir/I1 = cos (angle between Ir and I1)

Distortion Power Factor = PFD = S1/S = I1/It = cos (angle between I1 and It)

22

The following example and description will help you understand the waveforms and the diagrams used

in this paper.

This is a simple, single-phase AC circuit. It shows an AC voltage source on the left, a capacitor load

with current Ic, a resistor load with current Ir, and an harmonic current load with current Ih. The total

current from the voltage source is It. It is the vector sum of the three currents.

It

Ic Ir Ih

This shows what the voltage and the individual currents look like with respect to time.

The blue sinewave is the voltage V, 100Vrms, with a peak of 141V. It is running at 60Hz (three full

cycles within 50ms).

The green sinewave is the resistor current Ir, 50Arms. Notice that it is in phase with the voltage V.

The light blue sinewave is the capacitor current Ic, 20Arms. Notice that it leads the voltage by 90

degrees.

The yellow sinewave is the harmonic current Ih, 15Arms. Its frequency is 5*60Hz which is 300Hz.

The bright pink waveform is the total current It. It is a sum of Ir, Ic and Ih.

200.0 200.0

V

It

100.0 Ir 100.0

0 0

Ih Ic

-100.0 -100.0

-200.0 -200.0

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m

23

This shows the same voltage and currents above, but with their vectors.

The blue voltage is along the positive x-axis.

The green Ir is along the positive x-axis.

The light blue Ic is along the positive y-axis.

The yellow Ih is along the positive z-axis.

The bright pink It is the vector sum of the other currents, and is the diagonal of the cube defined by the

other currents.

Ic

It

Ih Ir V

This shows the instantaneous power of the circuit.

The red waveform is the product of It*V.

The average value of this waveform is the watts, the real power, dissipated by the circuit, and is shown

here with a dashed dark red line. The area within the waveform above this line is equal to the area

within the waveform below this line. Due to the scale, the other waveforms are much smaller.

12.00k 12.00k

10.00k 10.00k

6.67k 6.67k

Average Power

3.33k 3.33k

0 0

-2.00k -2.00k

0 12.50m 25.00m 37.50m 50.00m