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First step (Pre-environmental Impact Assessment)

The first step is to determine the types of processes to be chosen and the different potential sites

to be studied. Following the financial and technical thinking throughout, the EIA becomes more

precise at each phase, in order to propose the best processes and sites according to local resources

and sensitivities.

Once the project is almost defined the EIA analyzes a small range of solutions which compares a

few process variations and a few pre-selected sites. Sometimes there is only one site and only one

process left.

Second step (detailed Environmental Impact Assessment)

The second step of the EIA begins by scoping and screening the main impacts to be studied. It is

important to implement the “scoping” with local authorities and representatives of affected groups

to avoid omitting potentially important impact. It is now appropriate to have the terms of reference

of the EIA drawn up by a steering committee, in order to pinpoint the exact contents of the EIA

and the best way to conduct it.

Pre-environmental Impact Assessment

This part constitutes the first step of the EIA. It leads from the pre-feasibility study to a well defined

project that can be shown to authorities and local representatives. This first step towards the project

must be the result of a financial, technical and environmental analysis leading to the final project

bringing together the best available technologies and the least sensitive sites. The environmental

survey during this phase must analyze:

1. potential sites,

2. raw material production and exploitation,

3. industrial processes,

4. transportation.

Site selection

Due to the various negative repercussions of pulp and paper industries on man and the

environment, it is not possible to set up such facilities anywhere. To be economically viable, the

pre-selected sites must combine:

1. abundant resources, available all year long and the possibility of sustainable production,

2. existing water supply all year long in acceptable quantity and quality,

3. existing transportation facilities or possibilities to create them at a reasonable cost,

4. existing energy supply.

The pre-selection of the potential sites from an environmental point of view should be focused as

shown in check-list 1. Both proposed sites for the plant and for raw material production must be


It is important to note here that the EIA is implemented before project construction. This implies

that data will not be available on site. The EIA team must at this stage include a process specialist

to predict the various emissions and performances of the proposed processes and procedures.

Generally, the choice between the main types of industrial processes tends to be made according

to the paper quality to be produced rather than on environmental or financial considerations.

Nevertheless once a main type of process is chosen (i.e., mechanical or chemical), many

technologies are available to improve the performance of the process or to limit environmental

issues. The role of the expert in charge of EIA, with the help of the process specialist(s), is more

to input environmental considerations in the project definition than to propose technologies which

are generally very sophisticated and hard to master for an environmental generalist.

Environmental issues are too complicated and interconnected to be solved one at a time. The limits

of the “end of pipe” approach, commonly used during decades, are well-known and it is now

necessary to use systematic approaches in order to introduce a more global conception of the

environment and to address the source of the problems directly.

For the person conducting an EIA, this logical framework means that the sooner causes for concern

are well understood, the better environmental issues are resolved. It is thus very important to put

a strong emphasis on assessment before project implementation. This will prove not only more

environmentally friendly but also more cost effective.

It is very important to note that technology is always evolving and, in the EIA team, it is the process

specialist's role to propose the best available solution to any problem related to environmental

considerations and human well-being. This chapter is mainly constructed to allow EIA authors to

classify the project in comparison with international standards. The different tables given below

provide simple data to help the EIA author.

Figure 8 : Simplified diagram of a typical pulp and paper process

Source: Environment Canada

The pulp and paper industry has made great progress in recent years. For example, a modern paper

mill uses about 85% less water than it did 3 decades ago, reductions in Total Suspended Solids

(TSS) and in five-days Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) have also been considerable. Table 1

shows process evolution and performances.

The locational factors of the wood-paper industry may be summarized as follows:

1. Raw Material:


Wood is the primary raw material for this industry. Pulp mills must be located near the forests

because this minimizes the difficulty of transporting the bulk logs as well as cost also. A river-side

site is ideal because logs can be floated directly to the mill.

The forest in the area must be extensive and capable of supplying large quantities of suitable

timber. In paper industry soft woods like Spruce, Cedar, Hemlock, Deodar, Eucalyptus, etc., are

used. Several pulp manufacturing units are located near the forest to get abundant supply of wood.

2. Water:

Paper industry requires a large quantity of water. To make 1 ton of newsprint, about 100 tons of

water is needed, and since, it is essential to maintain a copious production, vast quantities of clear

chemical free, fresh water must be available.

These conditions are usually available in thinly populated, forested areas rather than in major

industrial complexes.

3. Power:

A ton of newsprint may require about 2,000 kilowatt hours of electricity and thus, vast power

sources are essential. Paper plants show an affinity towards cheap hydel-power sources. Canadian

rivers have been tapped to provide power to the pulp mills.

Similarly, the use of power supplied from rivers in southern U SA, has led to the establishment of

some of the largest pulp mills in the world in the southern states. In the absence of hydel-power,

these mills grow near power plants.

4. Transport:

Transport is one of the most important determinants of paper plant location. The transport cost of

newsprint and paper is slightly higher than the transport cost of its raw material. But, on the other

hand, raw material reduces its weight considerably during the processing. Whatever may be the

cause, for steady supply of raw material, a good network of transport and communication is a

prime requisite.

Paper mills are usually situated near the coast, where the rivers on which the log are floated reach

the sea, and where paper or pulp can be loaded on ships for export. Most of the mills in Sweden

are positioned in this way. In Britain, most of the paper industry is largely dependent on imported

pulp; therefore, paper mills are having a coastal position.

5. Capital:

Paper industry is a capital-intensive industry; therefore, large capital is required for sophisticated

machinery and other works. The larger the mill the greater is the initial costs. The large paper mills

are also associated with the printing and publishing business and often own their own forests.

6. Labour:

Nowadays paper mills are highly mechanized, thus, require lesser manpower. They can be located

in remote regions having labour shortage.

The paper industry in Nigeria has become more promising as the domestic demand is on the rise.

Increasing population and literacy rate, growth in GDP, improvement in manufacturing sector and

lifestyle of individuals are expected to account for the growth in the paper industry of India. Many

of the existing players are increasing their capacity to meet the growing demand. The focus of

paper industry is now shifting towards more eco-friendly products and technology.

India holds 15th rank among paper producing countries in the world. The per capita consumption

of paper is around 11 kgs against the global average of 56 kgs and the Asian average of 40 kgs.

India’s share in world paper production is about 2.6%. The industry is fragmented with over 750

paper mills, of which only 50 millls have a capacity of 50,000 TPA or more. The industry is

working at 89 per cent capacity

Projected demand for paper

The nigeria paper industry can be broadly classified into three segments:

Printing & writing (P&W): Printing and writing segment caters to office stationary, textbooks,

copier papers, notebooks etc. This segment forms ~31% of domestic paper industry.

Packaging & paper board: Packaging paper & board segment caters to tertiary and flexible

packaging purposes in industries such as FMCG, food, pharma, textiles etc. This segment forms

~47% of the domestic paper industry. This is currently fastest growing segment owing to factors

such as rising urbanization, increasing penetration of organized retail, higher growth in FMCG,


i. It Will Show You How Realistic Your Proposal Is

Every groundbreaking proposal or development has started with an idea, and while some

have defied the odds set against them, those ideas rarely went to work without first being

evaluated. When we say realistic, we don’t mean that your idea has to be normal. We just

want to make sure that you aren’t doing something that you can’t handle financially.

ii. It Will Help You Define Your Goals

Ideas are great, but they are only as great as their execution. One common attribute of

startup facilities and companies is disorganization. There are great ideas being put forth

but no real plan for how they will be enacted. A feasibility study will help you see what

goals you need to put in place to be successful. Goals are the lifeblood of a proposal and

help you get from point A to point B. Without well-defined goals, your facility will tread


iii. It Will Help You Develop A Plan

Like ideas, goals are only useful when they are put to work. As you define your goals, they

will give you a better understanding of what steps you need to take. You can then take

those steps and develop a plan for the development of your facility. A feasibility study will

help you develop that plan and when in place, you will start to become more organized and

have a better ability to meet your goals.

iv. It Will Help Execute That Plan

Arguably the greatest benefit of a feasibility study is that they give you more black and

white information. Ideas exist in a more abstract context. They sound good, but nobody

really knows how to put them into action. Black and white information give you rigid

standards you can apply to your facility. A feasibility study will clearly define what you

need to do to make your facility successful. As you will find, executing a plan is much

easier when the steps are clearly outlined.

v. It Will Give You An Identity

Every company or idea is unique, but uniqueness isn’t the same as identity. When you

begin to figure out your identity, you will be able to identify who you are targeting and

why you are targeting them. An identity gives you greater purpose, and a feasibility will

help you solidify your identity as an organization.


i. High exchange rate

ii. Cheap imported products

iii. Copyright issues

iv. Lack of electricity

v. Lack of Capital


Some suppliers decided not to participate in this arrangement, deciding that sufficient business
remained available in other paper companies without discounting their products. But eventually a
number of other large paper companies adopted similar buying arrangements. And over time, the
number of smaller suppliers began to diminish, having lost their ability to compete
Today, purchasing is but one part of a broader and mostly centralized procurement system used
by many paper mills. Procurement has evolved through a system of integrating people systems,
structures and practices into one process based on the insights of all the linked departments. The
goal has been to optimize project results, reduce waste, increase value, and maximize efficiency.
Of course, specific responsibilities remain, such as who makes the actual purchases and who

coordinates the overall planning. Mill purchasing still places orders, maintains inventories, and
ensures pricing meets contract terms. And, project managers must make proper use of the goods
and services purchased, identifying any needs for changes. Agreement also has to be reached on
the bidding process, with decisions on whether bids are one-time and sealed, or left open to
negotiation. items to be considered include:

• Selection of vendors, including the number in the bidding process, and delivery capability
• Identification of key contact personnel within the overall process
• Emergency purchases
• Payment terms

Let's examine some of the driving forces leading to a change from the basic Purchasing systems
used in the past.

The corporate management structure became more "top down" in style. It was recognized that
there were too many inconsistencies when individual managers or superintendents were allowed
to make their own purchases.
There was an increasing need to reduce costs. This led to more centralized buying at the
corporate purchasing level, particularly when it was documented that up to 20% savings could be
realized in many instances.
Greater opportunities for corruption were identified within the decentralized structures. This led
to the need for more control of the overall procurement process.
With advancements in technology, projects became more complex and increasingly difficult to
coordinate. The time involved for efficient completion of these projects sometimes exceeded the
manpower/capability of purchasing department staffs at the mill level.
• There was an increasing trend toward operating with tighter schedules and meeting deadlines,
particularly involving new projects, installations, and rebuilds. Many situations also required
coordination of high volumes of materials. This could be monitored and controlled better through
procurement on a more centralized basis.
• There were too many suppliers, particularly in specific industries. The growth of new paper
mill installations declined, creating more intense competition for the amount of business

remaining to suppliers. Mills were better able to leverage their purchase pricing by offering
specific volumes of business, if supplied at discount prices.
• The need to establish business relationships which met both the mill and supplier objectives
began to be realized.
All procurement functions need to be evaluated routinely for performance. Non-conformity
reports should be required to pinpoint excesses of materials, incomplete deliveries, shortages,
and damaged goods/equipment. There is a need to evaluate also whether adequate contact is
made with suppliers to review any problems occurring within a contract agreement. In the final
analysis, any procurement function must result fully in ample benefits to the company and be
totally reliable.
Machinery N12.5 Million
Tax N1.2 Million (Not all Applicable
Miscellanous Not applicable
Land and Pre-production charge N 12.78M