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Ch.

0 – General and Lab Concepts Review DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 0: General and Lab Concepts Review


Lesson 0.1 – Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

• Atom – smallest unit of an element


• Molecule – atom bonded to at least one other atom
• Ion – atom that has lost or gained an electron

Lesson 0.2 – Naming Ionic Compounds


• Diatomic elements
o H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2
• Allotropes – Elemental molecules with different formulas. i.e. O2 and O3
• Ionic compounds – metal and nonmetal (can be polyatomic too)
• Molecular compounds – two or more nonmetals
• Naming ionic compounds
o 1. Name the metal.
o 2. Write the metal’s oxidation state as a Roman numeral in parenthesis.
o 3. Name the nonmetal using an “ide” ending
Ex. Iron (II) Chloride, FeCl2

Lesson 0.3 – Naming Molecular Compounds and Acids


• Naming molecular compounds
o 1. Give the appropriate numerical prefix to the first element
o 2. Name the first element using its regular name on the periodic table
o 3. Give the appropriate numerical prefix to the second element
o 4. Name the nonmetal using an “ide” ending
Ex. dinitrogen monoxide, N2O
• Naming binary acids
o 1. Hydro-
o 2. Insert the name of element 2, replacing “-ine” with “-ic acid”
Ex. hydrochloric acid, HCl
• Naming oxyacids
o HClO – hypochlorous acid
o HClO2 – chlorous acid
o HClO3 – chloric acid
o HClO4 – perchloric acid

Lesson 0.4 – Metric Units and Dimensional Analysis

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Ch. 0 – General and Lab Concepts Review DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 0.5 – Significant Figures and Percent Error

Significant Figures
1. Zeroes between nonzero digits are always significant:
a. 1005 kg (four sig-figs); 7.03 cm (three sig-figs).
2. Zeroes at the start of a number are never significant:
a. 0.02 g (one sig-fig); 0.0026 cm (two sig-figs).
3. Zeroes at the end of a number are significant only if the zeroes are AFTER a decimal point:
a. 0.0200 g (three sig-figs); 3.0 cm (two sig-figs)

Precision vs. Accuracy

Percent Error Calculations

Lesson 0.6 – Lab Safety


https://datbootcamp.com/general-chemistry-strategy/general-chemistry-lab-techniques/

Lesson 0.7 – Weights, Measures, and pH


https://datbootcamp.com/general-chemistry-strategy/general-chemistry-lab-techniques/

Lesson 0.8 – Beer-Lambert Law

Absorbance = εcl

• ε = molar extinction coefficient (molar absorptivity)


• Note: Things that are brightly-colored have higher ε values
• c = sample’s concentration
• l = path length (distance between the light source and the detector in a spectrophotometer)
• DAT Tip: If you know the absorbance of a solution, you can calculate its concentration

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Ch. 1 – Stoichiometry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 1: Stoichiometry
Lesson 1.1 – The Mole and Molecular Weights

1 mol = 6.022 x 1023

If you have a 150-gram sample of CrO3:


ps2 613148
• How many moles of CrO3 do you have?

lsogcroz.MYg03

• i.smolcr03l.smdcrg
How many oxygen atoms do you have?

atoms
3mdoTmocrg.b
2.71024atoms
molo
• How many grams of oxygen do you have?

1smelorg 3mi
macro
Hoyo 72
go
Moio

Lesson 1.2 – Balancing Reactions 1 c 1 c


4 H 4 H
____
Z CO + ____ O2 → ____
2 CO2 g c 8 a

____ CH4 + ____


4 Cl2 → ____
2 CCl4 + ____ HCl

NthNo
z
Nz Oz tho
4 42 2 3
Alloa Hasa
6
Aksoy t Hao

n 24 N 2 At Al 2
H2 4 8 4 718
Hy g 0,3
H 3 2 12 o 12 1 1318
o 36 02 4 6 H 12
SES s3

© DAT Bootcamp 3 of 61|Page


2
GH t 9 Oz 6 coz t 6 H2O

6 c 6
HER k 212 combustion
o2 0 618

NHLNO 7 NO t 2 H2O

N2 N2
H4 H214 decomposition

O3 it 2 3

Pbc PBO coz

Pb 1 Pb's decomposition
1 1
C
03 O 3

1.3Examples Empirical 12.11C 16.2 0,717 9

421 formulas Cotto B


11406empirical
121
1 90 711591
Cock
1composition of c
a CathNo cu 63.5gland

zYTymi4co
n.ci 2oY 6tt
a 346
b 463.5 80
b Css
HyschNgou Tsg
c 63.1 66.1
h
so 956
skip75474351 9447 24461 1317 d244
e 63 got
79s
Molecularformula

a CHzmm8491mm

144241 14
8414 6 Cohn 1.9479 soy
b HozMm 90orgmol
1411444161 45
9 s z HzCz04
1 4Examples

How good44.0191mA
many fromcombustion
produced of0.25mabutanecato ssdna
combustion 2 CyHo t 1302 8 coz to tho

mabut
0.25 I 329
44gcoz

manygMg zyglmel neededtoreactwHa36sglmoltoobtain0.90


How Ima ifrxnhasgotyield
motMgazCas2g

Mg t 2 Ha Mgaz t Hz

0.9 0.9x
x ImotMgaz

ImotM944 111 LYING 24gMg

I6
I S Examples
ozmolfe theme3 Mmff 16gFeds 0.64x
2 Hz t Q 2 tho
Gma 4mot x 25.0gFeig
3mot02 HElimiting
moth
f zmm
o z zmo c H z
8mm mot02 16L02 0.2x
16
6motth zmottho 6mottho
q2 x 80Lair
Nzt 3 Ht 2Nth Imd
F 19g

oOSmotQ
Os motNa e I motNti 3.8gF 7 4mom

ImoI
6.15g 430g Xe
f4mom 0.2 401yield oosmol
Ch. 1 – Stoichiometry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 1.3 – Molecular Formulas and Percent Composition

Empirical vs. Molecular Formulas


What is the empirical formula for glucose, C6H12O6 ?

ctho

Percent Composition
What is the percentage of carbon in C6H12O6 ?
6424
11 46
6 12 40
to
What is the percent composition of nitrogen in morphine, whose molecular formula is C17H19NO3?

14 o049 4.9 N
17 19114141 346
What is the empirical formula of a compound that is 17.3% H and 82.7% C?

17.3gH t82.7gc
1 173 681 as a I c xz cuts
12 6.89 6.89
If your compound’s actual molecular weight is 58.123 amu, then what is its molecular formula?

cuts 412 s l 29 2x cats c4to


Mw ss123 g
2 f
a

Lesson 1.4 – Product and Reactant Amounts

How many moles of C2H6 are needed to react with excess O2 to form 22 moles of CO2 in the following reaction?

____
z C2H6 + ____
7 O2 → ____
4 CO2 + ____
6 H2O
2mo o
22mo co f 4motco HmotColo

How many grams of C2H6 does this represent?

HmotColo 412M 449 330gcuts

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Ch. 1 – Stoichiometry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 1.5 – Limiting Reactants

If you react 6 grams of C2H6 (M.W. = 30 g/mol) with 9.6 grams of O2 (M.W. = 32 g/mol), which reactant will run out first?
6g 9.6g
Hot 7oz
2 Cz 7 4 coz 6 H2o
6gcuts o2ndcuts 9 0.3moiOz o2molatls 7zmm 0.7molo notenough
Togimo
Under these conditions, how many grams of H2O will this reaction produce?
Ozlimiting

6mottho
0.3mgoz 181
7molo mottho 4.6gtho

Lesson 1.6 – Theoretical and Percent Yields

Suppose you react 81 grams of Al (atomic mass = 27 g/mol) with 213 grams of Cl2 (M.W. = 71 g/mol), and you obtain
133.5 grams of AlCl3, according to the following equation:

____
2 Al + ____
3 Cl2 → ____
2 AlCl3
9 3mot
Please calculate:
39 mo 133.5g

1. The limiting reactant?


3
3motAl 14 4.5mold2X limiting

2. The theoretical yield?

smack
2M 43 2ndAlek
3much

3. The percent yield?


m
bg
133.5g 27 3135
ImotAKEactual
2ndtheoretical soy
4. How many grams of the excess reagent are left over, once the reaction is completed?

3much 2M zmolalused
smack
3mot 2nd ImotAl YS
27g Al

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Ch. 2 – Atomic and Electronic Structure DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 2: Atomic and Electronic Structure


Lesson 2.1 – Atomic Structure and the Bohr Model

Atomic Structure

• Mass Number = (Protons) + (Neutrons)

• Neutrons = (Mass Number) – (Protons)

Bohr Model of the Atom

• Electrons distance from their nuclei are quantized

The distance between each energy shell and the next shell above it gets smaller as you get further away from the nucleus.

1.6Examples
I a 2o
neutrons
425496 24,2821 D
42 22neutrons 96Mo
soca 42
ca23neutrons 1516 31 B
44 31ps
zocairyneutrons is
ios
Yoca 7185 47Ag

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Ch. 2 – Atomic and Electronic Structure DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 2.2 – Atomic Orbitals

S-orbitals
Forbitals 7diffshapes
I sorbitalpershell

P-orbitals 3 porbitalspershell

D-orbitals
5 dorbitals

Lesson 2.3 – Quantum Numbers

# Name What Range


n principal Shell (distance from nucleus) [1…infinity]
l azimuthal subshell (type of orbital) [0…(n-1)]
l = 0 (s)
l = 1 (p)
l = 2 (d)
l = 3 (f)
ml magnetic specific orbital (orientation in space) [-l…+l]
ms spin Up or down +1/2 or -1/2

2.4Examples
a in 3,1 1 me l ms s D A
P15254635313
a 1 3
bme lz 2
c 1 2or3
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Ch. 2 – Atomic and Electronic Structure DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 2.4 – Electron Configuration

• What is the electron configuration of oxygen?

4
O is2252p

• Cool video on stacking of orbitals and how atoms really look: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sMt5Dcex0kg

Lesson 2.5 – Condensed Electron Configuration, Valence, and Energy Diagrams

Condensed Electron Configuration

• What is the condensed electron configuration of bromine?

Ar453d4ps
Valence Electrons
• What are bromine’s valence electrons?

4s 4ps 7valencee

• How many valence electrons does titanium have?

453d2 4valencee

• When does the d-block count toward an atom’s number of valence electrons?

ForelementsintheDblock

Continue to next page…

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Ch. 2 – Atomic and Electronic Structure DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 2.5 – Condensed Electron Configuration, Valence, and Energy Diagrams (Continued)

Energy Diagrams

111 I
11

Example
o 152521.4
11

• Aufbau Principle – Electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first

• Hund’s Rule – Don’t pair up electrons until you have to.

• Pauli Exclusion Principle – no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers. In other
words, no two electrons in the same atom can have the exact same address.

Lesson 2.6 – Electron Configuration Exceptions (Cr and Cu)

• What are the 5 exceptions you need to know, and what are their electron configurations?

or Ar 4s3ds 2.7examples
Mo kiss4ds E y t a o iszs2zp
b K lszszzpbsbpo.us
Cu Ar 4s3d co Ar4s23d7 zzz c As15252106353106453d4p3
e Impairede D dMn152563564 as
Ag kiss4d alive e on iszszp63s3p64s3d
Au xeT6s'sd bF
c Mo a Fr rifts
d se bBr Ar4sr3d4ps
a 1525215 c ca Artus
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b Ar454ps d zn Ar453d
c Car4s3d3
Ch. 2 – Atomic and Electronic Structure DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 2.7 – Excited Electron Configurations


• Electrons can absorb a photon and be promoted to a higher-energy shell or orbital.

Lesson 2.8 – Paramagnetic vs. Diamagnetic

When I hear . . . I think . . . I then think . . .

Attracted to magnets because it has


Paramagnetic “Unpaired”-a-magnetic
unpaired electrons.

The other one Slightly repelled by magnets because


Diamagnetic
(all paired) it has all paired electrons.

• If an element has an ODD number of electrons, then it’s paramagnetic.


• If it has an EVEN number of electrons, then it can be either paramagnetic or diamagnetic; you have to fill out the
electron configuration energy diagram to find out.
• Hint: Liquid oxygen is paramagnetic, liquid nitrogen is diamagnetic.

Lesson 2.9 – Emission Spectra, Heisenberg Uncertainty, Photoelectric Effect 2.8Examples


ℎ𝑐 Mnt4s23ds us13dL
𝐸𝑝ℎ𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑛 = ℎ𝑓 =
𝜆 E
a a 353ps
b PtGsiSds III II
Energy frequency c or't its3ds EEL
d Br i 453do
4ps I I x
f = the photon’s frequency (this can be different for different photons)
e or
c = speed of light, which is 3.0 × 108 m/s
AB c E
h = Planck’s constant, which is 6.63 × 10–34 J · s
λ = the photon’s wavelength

Heinsenberg Uncertainty
• It is impossible to determine a subatomic particle’s position and its momentum with perfect accuracy.

Photoelectric Effect

Kinetic Energyelectron = Ephoton – Φ

Φ = work function (the minimum amount of energy required to ionize the electron)
• In order to expel an energized electron, the Kinetic Energy must be greater than zero.

2 aexamples

B
KE cphoton
10 3er
KE I no
Cphotonzev
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Ch. 3 – Molecular Structure and Geometry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 3: Molecular Structure and Geometry


Lesson 3.1 – Types of Bonds and Compounds

Types of Bonds
• Ionic bonds – transfer electrons between elements with large difference in electronegativity (usually metal with
nonmetal, although polyatomic ions can be made of all nonmetals)
metalnonmetal
• Covalent bonds – sharing of electrons between two elements with similar electronegativity (between two
nonmetals).
nonmetal nonmetal
Table of Bonds

2ormorenonmetalscovalentlybonded

Polyatomic Ions ions


polyatomic
• https://datbootcamp.com/blog/common-ions-you-need-to-know
eg NHyt a
Octet Rules
• Every atom wants to feel like it has 8 electrons
• Exceptions: Hydrogen only wants 2 e-, Beryllium only wants 4 e-, Boron and Aluminum want 6 e- usually
• Third row and lower can have more than 8 electrons if needed

bondsmolecular
covalent
polar compoundswuneven ofchargeduetodiffelectronegativity
sharing

nonpolarcovalent similarEN

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Ch. 3 – Molecular Structure and Geometry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 3.2 – Lattice Energy


latticeenergy lchargeanionjxcchar
gecation
What is Lattice Energy? bonddistancesize
• Lattice energy is the energy required to completely separate an ionic compound’s cations from its anions.
• NaCl(s) → Na+(g) + Cl–(g)
• Larger charges = larger lattice energy
• Shorter bond distance (smaller ions) = larger lattice energy

Lesson 3.3 – Lewis Structures

Octet Rules
• Every atom wants to feel like it has 8 electrons
• Exceptions: Hydrogen only wants 2 e-, Beryllium only wants 4 e-, Boron and Aluminum usually want 6 e-
• Third row and lower can have more than 8 electrons if needed

How to Draw Lewis Structures


1. Count up the valence electrons for every atom in your formula. Add one electron to your count for each negative
charge. Subtract one electron from your count for each positive charge.
2. Write down the symbols for all the atoms in your molecule. Usually, the least electronegative atom goes in the
center. Connect each atom with a single bond, remembering that each single bond represents two electrons.
3. Use your remaining electrons to complete everyone’s octet by adding lone-pair electrons (also called nonbonding
pairs) around each atom, leaving the central atom for last.
4. Place any leftover electrons on the central atom, even if doing so violates the octet rule.
5. If there are not enough electrons to give the central atom an octet, form multiple bonds (like double or triple
bonds) to complete the central atom’s octet.
tooctet
Exceptions HHBeasBEACH
Try it on your own! (Answer in Solution Video 3.3)
1. Which of the following molecules contains a triple bond? Examples
I. N2 sts.io Acity 44 8 BNH 5 3 8 c Neo 10 6 16
II. CH3CN 4 3 4 5 16 in N H
III. C2H2 stz.io H d H H
nii in N
A. I only tbc c Ni l
H I
B. I and III only H cH H
C. II and III only
D. III only Dsay 62834 E No 18 1 26
O E. I, II, and III ici I
I N o
c c
g
c

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Ch. 3 – Molecular Structure and Geometry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 3.4 – Formal Charge and Resonance Contributor

How to Count Bonds


• Each single bond in a molecule is one σ (sigma) bond. in c
• All double bonds contain one σ and one π (pi) bond. Formal
charge 4 23 1
• Triple bonds contain one σ and two π bonds N s23 0
Formula Charges

Formal Charge = (valence electrons) – (dots) – (bonds)

• Major resonance contributor usually the one with the least amount of formal charges.

Lesson 3.5 – Bond Order

• Bond order is the average length of each bond, when multiple contributors are possible.
• Count up each individual bond and divide by the total number of ‘things’ around the central atom.

Lesson 3.6 – Hybridization and Molecular Geometry

Electron Hybridization Bond Electron Domain Non-bonding Molecular


Domains Angles Geometry Pairs of e- Geometry
(‘things’)
atom 2 sp 180° Linear 0 Linear
lonepair 3 sp 2
120° Trigonal planar 0 Trigonal planar
1 Bent
4 sp3 109.5° Tetrahedral 0 Tetrahedral
1 Trigonal pyramidal

2 Bent
5 sp d
3
90°, Trigonal 0 Trigonal bipyramidal
120° bipyramidal
1 See-saw
2 T-shaped
3 Linear
6 sp3d2 90° Octahedral 0 Octahedral
1 Square pyramidal
2 Square planar

1 2
f j 31 1.33

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Ch. 3 – Molecular Structure and Geometry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 3.7 – Polarity


OHpolar
CHnonpolar
How to Determine Polarity
1. Draw your molecule’s Lewis structure flat on your paper and then spread out all of its groups (including its lone
pairs) as far as possible, around its central atom.

2. Draw arrows between every atom in the molecule, going from the less electronegative atom (A) to the more
electronegative atom (B) in each bond.

3.
less B more
Amud being pulled in the directions
Answer the following question: “If my central atom were a truck stuck in the
indicated by the arrows, would the truck move?” If so, then your molecule is polar. If not, then it’s nonpolar.

Try it on your own! (Answer in Solution Video 3.7)

1. Which of the following molecules would be most soluble in toluene? Which one would be the least?
A. CH3CH2CH2OH
B. CH3CH2OH Tnp
C. CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
D. CH3OH leastsoluble
polar
most

2. Predict whether each of the following molecules is polar or nonpolar:


a) CCl4
i
4
IF Np
125 6 2 8
It H
b) NH3 cIf
542 6 2171 20
N
itIf I I E
polar
c) SF4
6TH if
polar

d) XeF4 F

F Xl F F D F
I
Tel
F F
F

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Ch. 4 – Periodic Trends DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 4: Periodic Trends


Lesson 4.1 – Periodic Table and Descriptive Chemistry

Periodic Table tow toremovee


energy easier
ionization
• Periods are rows on the periodic table
• Groups are vertical columns on the periodic table
• Elements in the same group tend to have similar chemical properties

Important Groups to Know


• Alkali metals – low ionization energies, react explosively with water, form ionic compounds
Groupl
• Alkaline earth metals – low ionization energies, don’t react as violently with water
Group2
• Halogens – highly electronegative, high electron affinities, highly reactive with metals, good oxidizing agents (they
want to be reduced)
Group7 H

• Noble gases – inert (unreactive) gases 8A


Group

• Transition metals – form colorful compounds due to the way their d-orbitals behave
canhavemultipleoxidationstates
• Oxygen group – O2 is a good oxidizing agent, but O3 is even better oxidizing agent. chalcogens
o Likes to react with metals to form metal oxides.
Group6A

p distancebetwnucleioftwoatoms
Lesson 4.2 – Atomic Size (Radius) and Bond Lengths
atomicradius I radius2
atomic

mostelectronshell
fromnucleustoouter
distance
Atomic Size (Radius)
• Atoms get LARGER as you go DOWN and to the LEFT (Francium is largest element)

• Why do atoms get larger as you go DOWN a group?


o Higher energy “n” shell = larger size

• Why do atoms get smaller as you go ACROSS a period, from left to right?
o ↑ Effective nuclear charge (Zeff) = ↓ size

tightly
moreprotons attracte more
Bond Length
• The distance between the nuclei of two atoms

Bond length = (atomic radius1 + atomic radius2)

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Ch. 4 – Periodic Trends DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 4.3 – Isoelectronic Series Sizes

Ion Sizes
• More electrons (anions) = ↑ size
• Less electrons (cations) = ↓ size

Which of the following atoms would be the largest? Which one would be the smallest?
A. O
B. O–
C. O2– largest
D. O+ smallest

Isoelectronic Series
• Group of elements that all have the same number of electrons
• More protons = more attraction to electrons (Zeff) = smaller size atom

In the following isoelectronic series, which one would be the largest? The smallest?
A. O2– to largest
B. F1–
to
C. Ne
D. Na1+
E. Mg2+
to smallest

Lesson 4.4 – Ionization Energy

Ionization Energy
• Definition – Energy required to remove an electron from an atom
• Trend – Increases as you go UP and to the RIGHT on periodic table (Helium has highest I.E.)

Exceptions
• Beryllium has a full 2s2 subshell, and Nitrogen has half full 2p3 subshell. Takes more energy to strip these electrons
since they are relatively stable.

• Therefore, Beryllium has a higher ionization energy than Boron, and Nitrogen has a higher ionization energy than
Oxygen.
Be B N o
Successive Ionization Energies
• Once you remove all the valence electrons, ionization energy increases a lot

Mg → Mg+ + e- I.E. 1 = 738


Mg+ → Mg2+ + e- I.E. 2 = 1451
Mg2+ → Mg3+ + e- I.E. 3 = 7733 (!)

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Ch. 4 – Periodic Trends DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 4.5 – Electronegativity and Electron Affinity

Electronegativity
• Definition – How ‘thirsty’ an atom is for electrons
• Trend – Increases as you go UP and to the RIGHT (Fluorine is most electronegative)
o Note: Noble gases are excluded from this trend, they have a full octet already

Electron Affinity
• Definition – the energy given off when an atom gains an electron
o Tip: Electron affinity is an exothermic reaction
• Trend – Increases as you go UP and to the RIGHT (Chlorine has highest electron affinity)

Summary of Periodic Trends

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Ch. 5 – Gases DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 5: Gases
Lesson 5.1 – Temperature, Volume, and Pressure (Gases)

Temperature
K = °C + 273

Volume
Liters, 1cm3 = 1mL = 1cc

Pressure
Pressure is caused by gas molecules hitting the side of a container
P = F/A
1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mmHg

Lesson 5.2 – How to Measure Gas Pressure in a Lab

Mercury Manometer

The unknown gas pushes down the tube of


mercury by 40mm. What is the pressure of
the gas, assuming we are at sea level?

Iatm760mmHg
76040 soo
mmHg
hf
mmHg latin
800 iosatm
760mmHg

© DAT Bootcamp 18 of 61|Page


Ch. 5 – Gases DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 5.3 – Kinetic Molecular Theory and Ideal Gas Assumptions

Ideal Gas Assumptions


1. The volume or size of each individual gas molecule is insignificant.
o Most accurate at low pressures
2. Gas molecules’ collisions with each other are perfectly elastic. No intermolecular forces.
o Most accurate at high temperatures, and low IM forces
3. The average kinetic energy of a gas depends only on the system’s temperature.

• Gases behave most ideally under LOW pressures and HIGH temperatures.

Lesson 5.4 – Combined Gas Law, Ideal Gas Law

Gas Laws

1 1 mol of gas = 22.4 L at STP


Boyle’s Law V∝
P R = 0.0821 L•atm/mol•K
STP = 1 atm and 273K
Charles’ Law V∝T

Avogadro’s Law V∝n


𝑃1 𝑉1 𝑃2 𝑉2
Combined Gas Law =
𝑛1 𝑇1 𝑛2 𝑇2

Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT


1. A flask contains 2.0 mol of He gas at 25°C and 1.00 atm. How much He gas, in grams, must be added to increase the
pressure to 2.00 atm at constant temperature and volume?

mgam 4molHe 2molHe 2molHex4mag


2ooatmx2 8gHe
Pv
ni n iz
2. A 0.02 mol sample of an ideal gas in a sealed 1.0 L container was heated from 27 °C to 227°C. What is the pressure of
the gas at this new temperature?
Pv pv nRT
q
nP2
z
pz.o.am 082ik o82 atm
ior
3. Consider the gaseous reaction:
A(g) + B(g) → AB(g)
A mixture of 0.04 mole of gas A and 0.1 mole of gas B was allowed to react at 300 K in a 1 L sealed container. At the end
of the reaction, what is the total pressure of the mixture? (The temperature and volume remain constant during the
reaction.)

PV nRT
molABtooo
0.04 moB olmolgasn
p olmol oosut.ammol.k3ook
2satm
1ol
© DAT Bootcamp 19 of 61|Page
Ch. 5 – Gases DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 5.5 – Gas Density, Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, Graham’s Law of Effusion

Gas Density
𝑃(𝑀𝑀) 𝑚
𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = MM = Molar mass
usetoidentifyunknowngasbymolarmass
𝑅𝑇 𝑣

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃𝐵 + … 𝑃𝐴 = 𝜒𝐴 𝑃𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝜒𝐴 = mol fraction A

Graham’s Law of Effusion

𝑟1
=√
𝑀2 fY sr
𝑟2 𝑀1

Lesson 5.6 – Real Gas Equation

𝑎𝑛2 𝑎𝑛2
corrects for intermolecular forces
(𝑃 + 2 ) (𝑉 − 𝑛𝑏) = 𝑛𝑅𝑇 𝑉2
𝑉
−𝑛𝑏 corrects for volume
VanderWaalsrealgasequation
too
closer moreideal

0.6 1s

D
Mff 2ssglto.oatgzm
m.gg
fYzook mM 7o9344gmol

unknown Pm 2
PvnRT
In MM o.smolxyto.zmoly
n

imolgastotaip
imollo.co
8 2111300k jsmatdmf.tt
I
8atmvX
n
IL
3atmlz.si latmPz n 22mol s.s l6
t.sL smolPz

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Ch. 6 – Liquids and Solids DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 6: Liquids and Solids

Lesson 6.1 – Types of Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces
Ion-dipole – Intermolecular force between ions and polar substances (NaCl in water)

Hydrogen Bonding – N-H, F-H, O-H bond in a pure substance.

Dipole-dipole – Intermolecular force between polar molecules nonionic non


meta nottunnel
London Dispersion Forces (Van der Waals) – Intermolecular force between all molecules
– Temporary dipole, includes polar and nonpolar molecules
– The greater the weight, the greater the London dispersion forces.

Lesson 6.2 – Effects of Intermolecular Forces

Higher Intermolecular Forces Leads to:


Higher Boiling Point
Higher Heat of Vaporization
Higher Viscosity
Higher Surface Tension
LOWER Vapor Pressure

Lesson 6.3 – Structures of Solids

Types of Solids

Lesson 6.3 – Structures of Solids (Continued)


© DAT Bootcamp 21 of 61|Page
Ch. 6 – Liquids and Solids DAT General Chemistry Outline

Cubic Unit Cells


1. Simple Cubic – 1 atom per unit cell. Atoms at corners of unit cell.

2. Body-Centered Cubic – 2 atoms per unit cell. Atoms at corners and body center of unit cell.

3. Face-Centered Cubic – 4 atoms per unit cell. Atoms at corners and face centers of unit cell.

Lesson 6.4 – Phase Changes

Lesson 6.5 – Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point

Boiling Point – When the vapor pressure = external pressure

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Ch. 6 – Liquids and Solids DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 6.6 – Phase Diagrams

Identify:
-Lines of equilibrium
-Triple point
-Critical point
-Normal melting point and boiling point

areindistinguishable
liquidsgases

all3phasesinequilibrium

Lesson 6.7 – Phase Diagram of Water thanasasai


waterismore
denseasaliquid

• Water has a negative solid-liquid line of equilibrium slope

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Ch. 7 – Chemical Solutions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 7: Chemical Solutions


Lesson 7.1 – Solubility in Polar and Nonpolar Compounds

How to Determine Polarity


1. Draw your molecule’s Lewis structure flat on your paper and then spread out all of its groups (including its lone
pairs) as far as possible, around its central atom.
2. Draw arrows between every atom in the molecule, going from the less electronegative atom (A) to the more
electronegative atom (B) in each bond, like this:
3. Answer the following question: “If my central atom were a truck stuck in the mud being pulled in the directions
indicated by the arrows, would the truck move?”

“Like Dissolves Like”

Examples
Which of the following, when added to carbon tetrachloride, will form a miscible solution?
I. hexane
II. water
cuts city
polar
III. propane nonpolar
IV. ethyl acetate polar

Arrange the following alcohols in order of INCREASING solubility in water.


I. methanol, CH3OH
II. ethanol, CH3CH2OH I 117111
III. n-propanol, CH3CH2CH2OH

Lesson 7.2 – How to Calculate Concentration

Vocabulary
Solution – a uniform mixture of two or more substances

Solvent – the substance in a solution that is present in a larger amount

Solute – the substance in a solution that is present in a smaller amount

Unsaturated – less than the maximum amount of a solute is dissolved in a solvent

Saturated – the maximum amount of a solute is dissolved in a solvent

Concentration

𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒
𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦 (𝑀) = 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 (𝑚) =
𝐿𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑘𝑔𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡

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Ch. 7 – Chemical Solutions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 7.2 – How to Calculate Concentration (Continued)

Examples
You have 2.0 L of 0.5 M NaCl. How many grams of NaCl do you have?

osmNau motNa motNa tomotx I mm


Iac Nf ImolNaux 2331 ssg
mo

What mass (in grams) of MnSO4 (150 g/mol) is required to prepare a 5.0 m manganese sulfate solution with 500 g of
water?
sa
som motMn 2smotMns
04 Smf 375gMn
Figo soy

Lesson 7.3 – Solubility Rules

Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water


1. Most Group 1 metal cations, NO3-, ClO4-, C2H3O2-, and NH4+ salts are soluble.
2. Most Ag+, Pb2+, S2-, OH-, Hg22+, CO32-, and PO43- salts are insoluble.
3. The solubles generally trump the insolubles.

Predict if the following are soluble or insoluble in water:

a. AgNO3 b. AgCl

c. PbI2 d. Na2CO3

e. (NH4)2CO3

g. HgCl2 h. AlPO4

i. MgS j. Zn(CH3COO)2

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Ch. 7 – Chemical Solutions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 7.4 – Net Ionic Equations

To generate a net ionic equation:


1. Balance the chemical equation.
2. Use your solubility-rule knowledge to label everything as (s), (l), (g) or (aq).
3. Cut all the (aq)’s “in half,” separating their cations from their anions.
4. Cancel out all the species that are exactly the same on both sides. The canceled-out species are called spectator
ions.

Example

NH4I + Pb(NO3)2 →

-Predict the products


1 I Pbt
info PbIfs Nyt NOSY
-Total ionic equation 2NthI Pbnos 72NthNos t pbIz
-Net ionic equation
-Spectator ions Jantat 2I aq PbCag q taq Waqt PbIz s
Pb ag 2I aq PbIz s

Lesson 7.5 – Solubility of Gases and Solids, Henry’s Law

Solubility of Solids and Gases


1. Solids are more soluble at higher temperatures (melting sugar in hot coffee)
2. Gases are less soluble at higher temperatures (more energy helps them escape the liquid)
3. Gases are more soluble at higher pressures (more pressure forces gas into the liquid)

Henry’s Law
solubility
PA = kHf[A]
molarity
Example
Nitrogen gas’ solubility at ambient temperature and 1 atm of pressure is 6.8 × 10 -4 mol/L. If the pressure of nitrogen gas
in the air is reduced to 0.5 atm, then what is its new concentration?

bPs KmNa t
6.8104
3.410 M
2

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Ch. 7 – Chemical Solutions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 7.6 – Colligative Properties

Freezing point depression

∆𝑇𝐹 = −𝑖𝐾𝐹 𝑚

Boiling point elevation

∆𝑇𝐵 = 𝑖𝐾𝐵 𝑚

Examples
Which of the following solutes would decrease water’s freezing point by the greatest amount, per mole of solute added?
A. NaCl
B. NH4NO3
C. NH4Cl iKem
OD. Na2SO4
E. Sucrose

Which of the following solutes would change water’s boiling point by the greatest amount, per mole of solute added?
A. 1.2 m C6H12O6
i2
B. 0.8 m Ca(NO3)2 0.8131
OC. 1.0 m KCl
2.4
2.0

If you have a 1.0 m aqueous solution of NaCl, by how much will it increase the water’s boiling point, if KB = 0.512 ⁰C/m? In
other words, what is the boiling point elevation (increase)?

DTB iKBm z o.si204ns tom to24C

Lesson 7.7 – Raoult’s Law

Vapor pressure depression


o I 751 0.2121 its 42 11
0.3
𝑃𝐴 = 𝜒𝐴 𝑃𝑝𝑢𝑟𝑒

PA solution'snewvaporpressure
Xp ofsolventinsolution
pressureoforiginal
Ppurevapor solvent

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Ch. 7 – Chemical Solutions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 7.8 – Osmosis

Π = 𝑖𝑀𝑅𝑇

IT osmoticpressure
volume
solution

n ofsolute
moles
R gasconstant
1 tempK
TIV nRT
IT ngRT
i vanHofftfactor

Example
Arrange the following aqueous solutions in order of decreasing osmotic pressure.
I. 0.20 M KCl x 2 o4
II. 0.30 M urea 0.2 3 0.6
III. 0.50 M sucrose x 0.3 1 0.3
I os o4 2 o8

3g 3g 30ga
Tomi I

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Ch. 8 – Chemical Kinetics DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 8: Chemical Kinetics


Lesson 8.1 – Relative Rate Expressions

Chemical Kinetics – is the study of how fast reactions occur, or reaction rate
Thermodynamics – tells us if a reaction will even happen, but not how fast it’ll happen

Rate Expressions

∆[𝑂2 ] ∆[𝑁𝑂2 ] −∆[𝑁2 𝑂5 ]


2N2O5 → 4NO2 + O2 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 = = =
∆𝑡 4∆𝑡 2∆𝑡

If O2 is being produced at a rate of 2 M/s, how fast is NO 2 being produced?

0 DE j T2Y DfN
TDCNoD 8M

ssM
If O2 is being produced at a rate of 2 M/s, what is the rate of change of N 2O5?

DCNzos7zTtDCNzosT 4Ms

Lesson 8.2 – Rate Laws and Constants

Rate Laws
Overall reaction: A + B → C + D rate = k[A]m[B]n

• Products do not appear in the rate law


• k is the rate constant
• ‘m’ and ‘n’ have to be determined experimentally. They are not the coefficients in the balanced rxn.
• ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the reaction orders. A reaction’s overall reaction order is m+n.

Rate Constant
0 order units of k = M1•s-1
1st order units of k = s-1
2nd order units of k = M-1•s-1
3rd order units of k = M-2•s-1

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Ch. 8 – Chemical Kinetics DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 8.2 – Rate Laws and Constants (Continued)

Overall Reaction: 2A + B → C

[A]initial (M) [B]initial (M) Initial rate (M/s)


Trial 1 0.10 0.3 0.01
Trial 2 0.20 0.3 0.04
Trial 3 0.10 0.6 0.02

What is the rate law for this reaction?


r KCA4B
rate KLAIMBI 2m 4 m 2 1 3.33 rate3.33474137
0.6 2 n 0.01 140.11403
01 2 OI 2 2 0.0110131.03 k
oil n i
02 z 003
0.04 4
0.01 g
What is the overall reaction order?

order 3
overall

What is the reaction’s rate constant (units)?

k M's

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Ch. 8 – Chemical Kinetics DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 8.3 – Integrated Rate Laws

Units for y-axis of integrated rate law


zero-order = [concentration]
first-order = ln [concentration]
second order = 1 / [concentration]

Integrated rate law graphs

Concentration [X] vs. time graphs

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Ch. 8 – Chemical Kinetics DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 8.4 – Reaction Coordinate Diagrams

Identify in each: C
DHetproducts reactants
1. ΔH (exothermic or endothermic) exothermic
2. Ea DH
3. Transition states (activated complex) DHendothermic
4. Intermediates DH sisothermic
5. Rate-determining step (slow step)

state
transition Ts
Ts
exothermic endothermic

O O
RDS

Lesson 8.5 – Catalysts

1. Speed up a reaction without being consumed in the process


2. Works by lowering the activation energy
3. Provides an alternate pathway (different mechanism) between reactants and products
4. Does NOT shift equilibrium, you just reach equilibrium faster.

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Ch. 8 – Chemical Kinetics DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 8.6 – Collision Theory and Arrhenius Equation

Collision Theory
1. Both molecules must collide*
2. Both must collide with enough energy*
3. Both must collide in the correct 3D orientation

*Increasing the temperature increases collision frequency and percentage of high-energy collisions.

Arrhenius Equation

k = Ae-
Ea/RT

↑ T = ↑ k = ↑ rate
↓ Ea = ↑ k = ↑ rate

Lesson 8.7 – Reaction Mechanisms


Intermediates – are produced in the middle of the reaction and get used up before the end.
Rate law – rate = k×(concentration of each reactant in the slow step, multiplied by each other).
Overall reaction – add up the elementary steps and cancel out intermediates.

A certain chemical reaction has the following elementary steps:


A + B → B2 (slow step)
B2 + C → D (fast step)

1. What is the intermediate?

Bz
2. What is the overall rate law?

rateKIACB
3. What is the overall reaction?

AB ctD

1. What are the elementary steps?

A 7Btc
Btc D
2. What is/are the intermediate(s)?

C
3. What is the overall rate law?

rate k A B
4. What is the overall reaction?

ATB D
2AtB73C 2h no
13 D 41 met
it A
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off 0.90
33 of 61|Page

210023 0.004 r KCAYB


Ch. 9 – Chemical Equilbria DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 9: Chemical Equilibria


Lesson 9.1 – Dynamic Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constants

Dynamic equilibrium: Forward Rate = Reverse Rate

Equilibrium Constant

[𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑠] 𝑃𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑠 𝑘𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑


𝐾𝑐 = 𝐾𝑝 = 𝐾𝑒𝑞 =
[𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑠] 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑘𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒

• Only aqueous or gaseous are included in equilibrium expression


• Only a change in TEMPERATURE can change equilibrium constant k

Keq Meaning
K more than 1 Products favored at eq.
K less than 1 Reactants favored at eq.

N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ⇌ 2NH3(g)

1. What is the rate constant expression in terms of concentration, KC?

Kc CN
2.
Nick3
What is the rate constant expression in terms of pressure, KP?

Kp Pn 3
Pulp
3. If KC = 10, then what is KC for the reverse reaction, 2NH3 ⇌ N2 + 3 H2?

KcCNi of 0.1
Mgp
Lesson 9.2 – Reaction Quotient (Q vs. K)

2 SO2 + O2 ⇌ 2 SO3 KC = 2.8 × 102 Q Result


Q is less than K shift right (products)
Which side of the reaction is favored? Q is greater than K shift left (reactants)
Q=K at equilibrium
Right
Is the following mixture at equilibrium?
[SO3] = 230 M; [O2] = 6 M, [SO2] = 3 M

Q MI 529 4 9.79102 No
16MGuys
Which direction does it need to move to achieve equilibrium?

Left

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Ch. 9 – Chemical Equilbria DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 9.3 – Le Chatelier’s Principle


Le Chatelier’s Principle – If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, then it will shift in whichever direction it has to, to restore
equilibrium.

Changing Concentrations (Only gaseous/aqueous compounds!)


N2O4 (g) ⇌ 2 NO2 (g)
In which direction will the reaction shift to restore equilibrium if:

• N2O4 is removed?
L
• NO2 is removed?
R
N2O4 is added?

R
• NO2 is added?
L
Changing Temperature (Exothermic/Endothermic)
H2 (g) + F2 (g) ⇌ 2 HF (g) ∆H = –573.2 kJ
In which direction will the reaction shift to restore equilibrium, if we remove or add heat?

TT L IT R
Changing Volume and/or Pressure
H2C=O (g) + HCl (g) ⇌ H3C-O-Cl (g) ∆H = +256 kJ
In which direction will the equilibrium shift when:

• If we remove or add heat?


R
• The pressure is increased by adding N2 (g)?
Noeffect
• The volume is increased?

• The volume is decreased?


R
• The pressure is decreased?
L
Try it yourself!
C(s) + 2 H2 (g) ⇌ CH4 (g) ∆H = –75.0 kJ
In which direction will the equilibrium shift when:

• The temperature is increased?


L
• The temperature is decreased? R
• Pressure is increased by adding an inert gas?
Noeffect
• Volume is increased?
i
• A catalyst is added?
Noeffect
Lesson 9.4 – Equilibrium Calculations with ICE Tables
© DAT Bootcamp 35 of 61|Page
Ch. 9 – Chemical Equilbria DAT General Chemistry Outline

A (g) + B (g) ⇌ C (g) Kc = 2.0 × 10-3


[A] = 2.0 M, [B] = 0.5 M
What are the concentrations of A, B, and C once the reaction reaches equilibrium?

A t B C
initial 2.0 OS O ifKoski's disregard
1135
change1
Equilibrium
x x
qq.no
ii
Try it yourself!
A (g) + B (g) ⇌ 2C (g) KC = 5.0 × 10-4
[A] = 1.0 M, [B] = 1.0 M
What are the concentrations of A, B, and C once the reaction reaches equilibrium?

A t B 2C z

1371.0
Equilibrium
change

i z io x
x x
ox
2x
X 1.1102 4 2.2102

HA(g) ⇌ H +
(g) +A –
(g) KC = 4.0 × 10-5
[HA] = 0.1 M
What is the equilibrium concentration of H+?

2
A B t C KcCHICA 4010 s
initial CHAT L 13
µange zo o
µ oo
qu ol x x x

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Ch. 9 – Chemical Equilbria DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 9.5 – Calculating Ksp and Molar Solubility


1. Write out the balanced chemical equation
2. Write out the equilibrium expression, Ksp
3. Solve for whatever is missing

Molar Solubility
What is the molar solubility of PbCl2? (Ksp is 2.5 x 10-4)

Pba s Pbtlaq t za
aq
o 0 Ksp Pb't 472 2.5104 171272
c x xx 2x
x 32
E1x x 2x si
Calculating Ksp
When dissolved in water at a certain temperature, a certain ionic compound A2B is found to have a solubility of 2 x 10-6 M.
What is the Ksp of this compound?

AzBls t2AlaqItBLaq
I 1 O O Ksp AT'lB 2 210612 2 106 41061212106
c 2 106 2x x
E lx 2x 321018

Lesson 9.6 – Common Ion Effect and Precipitation

Common Ion Effect


0.50M HCl is added to a solution of PbCl2. What is the new molar solubility of PbCl2? (Ksp = 2.5 x 10-4)

Pbazls Pbtlaq zcicaq T


I o o's ksp PbkD2 1 710.5272 2.5104
c x 2x x 2.5 10
o.si2x 1 103
E 1x x

Precipitation
1×10-2 M Cu(NO3)2 was added to NaIO3 to a final concentration of 6.0×10-3. Does a precipitate form?
(Ksp of Cu(IO3)2 = 3.6 × 10-6)

110 cuNo z ait Ung


6103 Nato Nat
Iquitos art 2105
ioxo 6103

KspCcu CIOs12 1.01023160103 36.0108 3.610723.6106


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Noprecipitation 37 of 61|Page
Ch. 10 – Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 10: Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations


Lesson 10.1 – Acid Definitions and Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs

Acid-Base Definitions

Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis


Acid H+ donor in water H+ donor Electron acceptor
Base OH- donor in water H+ acceptor Electron donors

Amphiprotic – describes a substance that can act as both a proton acceptor and donor (Arrhenius and Bronsted)
Amphoteric – describes a substance that can act as both an acid and a base (Lewis Acids too)

Autoionization of Water
2H2O(l) ⇌ H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq) Kw = [H3O+][OH-] = 1 × 10-14 at 25°C

Conjugate Acid / Base Pairs

Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base

Hasoy HSO4-1

HNos NO3-1
H3O+ tho
HSO4-1 soya

Lesson 10.2 – Strong Acids and Bases

• Strong acids/bases dissociate completely in water


HI Ht I
o.im o.imo.im
Strong Acids Strong Bases Monoprotic acid: one H+ molecule per molecule
HI Group 1 metal
hydroxides Polyprotic acids: not 1:1 ratio
HBr Mg(OH)2
HCl Ca(OH)2
I
soy't
argue tho.sfmlaoh oH.fm sayin
HClO3 Sr(OH)2
HClO4 Ba(OH)2
di
hydroxide
bases
so.im l o.l2M
H2SO4
releasezmolotievenifnot
verysoluble
HNO3

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Ch. 10 – Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 10.3 – Trends in Acid Strength

Binary Acid Trend (HCl, HBr, HI) Binary acids: HCl, HBr, HI

Oxyacids: HClO3, HClO4, HNO3, H2SO4

Oxoacid Trends (HClO3, HBrO4)


1. The more oxygens you have, the more acidic due to resonance (HClO 4 > HClO3)
2. If the number of oxygens is the same, the more electronegative heteroatom, the more acidic (HClO 4 > HBrO4)

Lesson 10.4 – pH and pOH Calculations

pH Scale

pH = -log[H+] [H+] = 10-pH

pOH = -log[OH-] [OH-] = 10-pOH

pH + pOH = 14 [H+][OH-] = 1 × 10-14

[H+] pH [OH-] pOH


1 108 8 1 106 6
1 10 II 1 103 3
1x10-3 M log3.5104
3 1 10 Ii
1 10 to 3.5x10-4 M c4

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Ch. 10 – Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 10.4 – pH and pOH Calculations (Continued)

Try it yourself!
What are the approximate pH and pOH values of an aqueous solution of 1.0 × 10-3 M HBr?

HBr HttBr
pH log 1103 3
pot11
If a solution has a pH of 2.0, what are [H+] and [OH–]?

Ht 1 10
011 1 1012

Approximate the following pH values:

0.01 M HCl

pH log 1102 2

0.01 M H2SO4

o.am
to.oo2MHipH
logCi.zxio 7 c2
0.00320 M HNO3

3 3
log13.210

1 × 10-11 M HBr

log 110 I 7

0.01 M KOH

log 1102 2 12

0.01 M Ba(OH)2

log 2 1027 cz 12

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Ch. 10 – Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 10.5 – Weak Acids and Bases

Weak Acids Weak Bases

Equation HA + H2O ⇌ H3O+ + A- A- + H2O ⇌ HA + OH-


Equilibrium
[𝐻3 𝑂 + ][𝐴− ] [𝑂𝐻 − ][𝐻𝐴]
Expression 𝐾𝑎 = 𝐾𝑏 =
[𝐻𝐴] [𝐴− ]

Shortcut
[𝐻 + ] = √𝐾𝑎[𝐻𝐴] [𝑂𝐻 − ] = √𝐾𝑏[𝐴− ]

pKA = -log[KA] pKB = -log[Kb]

Kw = 1.0 × 10-14 = [H+][OH-] = KA × KB

pkA + pKb = 14

Larger Ka = smaller pKa = stronger acid


Larger Kb = smaller pKb = stronger base

Calculate the following:


What is the approximate pH of a 0.005 M solution of HF (KA = 5.0 ×10-4)?

Hf Ht f
Ht 3 zsxot.si o3
T.oxiosxo

logCsxio3 spH
sj 3s
What is the approximate pH of a 0.02 M solution of NaF (the KA of HF is 5.0 ×10-4)?

Naf E Natt f HOH


o.com
HftoH
F tho HE oh
KwKalkB ioxto Soxto KB
KB I.o
Soxo4 2.010
s
oti kB oxiofo.cz
2 2 10 pot 6s pH 7.5
What is the approximate pH of a solution that is 0.02 M HF (KA = 5.0 ×10-4) and 0.02 M NaF?

HE Htt f
I o.ozm o o.ozm
c x x x
ka lHt T sxio Ht pH 4

co.oz xxo.az

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Ch. 10 – Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 10.6 – Neutralization Reactions and Normality

nAMAVA = nBMBVB

Calculate the following:


How many liters of 1.0 M HCl do you need to neutralize 2.0 L of 3.0 M NaOH?

ion ionVa 1.013.072.0L

VA 6 ol
How many liters of 1.0 M HCl do you need to neutralize 1.5 L of 3.0 M Ca(OH)2?

iOMIomVai2 o3o 1SL


v 9ol
How many liters of 1.0 N H2SO4 do you need to neutralize 1.5 liters of 3.0 N Sr(OH)2?

t.onlz.com
Va 3onlz.om
l.sLVs
4
How many liters of 1.0 M H2SO4 do you need to neutralize 1.5 liters of 3.0 M Sr(OH)2?
sL2HVA
z 3 is Vs4s

Lesson 10.7 – Hydrolysis of Salts

Label the following as acidic, basic, or neutral:


Neutral cations Neutral anions
Group 1 metals Cl-
NH4I Nhut acid
Group 2 metals Br-
Metals with +1 charge I-
NaNO3 Neutral
NO3-

ClO4- KF f basic
ClO3-

ZnCl2 zit acidic

Al(NO3)3 At acidic

© DAT Bootcamp 42 of 61|Page


Ch. 10 – Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 10.7 – Hydrolysis of Salts (Continued)

Which of the following could you add to increase the solubility of CaF2?
A. Ca(OH)2
B. NaNO3
C. KF cafzscazti.se
D. HCl
O
E. KNO3
addacid

Which of the following could you add to increase the solubility of NH4Cl? (More than one may be correct)
A. Ca(OH)2
O
B. NaNO3
C. KF
O
D. HCl
NHyci NHuti.CI
E. KNO3
acid

Lesson 10.8 – Buffers and Henderson-Hasselbalch

Buffer – is a solution that resists pH change. It is made from a weak conjugate acid/conjugate base pair.

[𝐴− ]
𝑝𝐻 = 𝑝𝑘𝑎 + 𝑙𝑜𝑔
[𝐻𝐴]
Please identify the missing pKA values. Then determine which of the listed acids could be used to prepare a buffer with a
pH of 9.0.
Acid Ka pKa

CH3CH2COOH 1.3 x 10-5 4.9


HCOOH 1.8 x 10-4 4
HNO2 4.0 x 10-4 4 pHpKa
HCN 6.0 x 10-10
to canbuffer

Which of the following substances could be combined to form a buffer solution?


A. KI, HI
B. KBr, HBr
C. CuCl, HCl
D. NaI, HI
E. NaCH3COO, CH3COOH

© DAT Bootcamp 43 of 61|Page


Ch. 10 – Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 10.8 – Buffers and Henderson-Hasselbalch (Continued)

HF has a pKA of 3.2. What is the pH of a solution comprised of 0.1 M HF and 0.1 M NaF?
WA A
pH pKatlog 3.2

What is the pH of a solution comprised of 1.0 M HF (pKA = 3.2) and 0.1 M NaF?

1101
pH 3.2 log 32 1 2.2
II o

What is the pH of a solution comprised of 0.1 M HF (pKA = 3.2) and 10 M NaF?

110
pH pKatlog 3.2 2 5.2

Lesson 10.9 – Titrations

Type of Titration Example Salt formed pH at Equivalent pt.


(Acidic/Basic)
Strong Acid/Strong Base HCl + NaOH NaCl (neutral) 7
Weak Acid/Strong Base HF + NaOH NaF (basic) greater than 7
Weak Base/Strong Acid NH3 + HCl NH4Cl (acidic) less than 7

© DAT Bootcamp 44 of 61|Page


Ch. 10 – Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 10.9 – Titrations (Continued)

What will the pH at equivalence point be for each of the following titrations?
A. HCl + NaOH

SA SB pH7

B. HF + NaOH
wa SB pH 7

C. NH3 + HCl
WB SA pHat

For a generic diprotic acid H2A, whose titration curve is shown here:
• What are the values of pKA1 and pKA2?

pKa 7
pkAz ng
• Which molecule predominates:
• When pH < pKA1?

tha
• When pKA1 < pH < pKA2?

HA
• When pH > pKA2?

p2
© DAT Bootcamp 45 of 61|Page
Ch. 11 – Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 11: Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry


Lesson 11.1 – Laws of Thermodynamics and Definitions

Definitions
State Function – a function that only depends on the initial and final states of the system, not how it got there.
Almost everything in thermodynamics is a state function, except work (w) and heat (q).

System – The chemical reaction we are examining

Surroundings – Everything else around it.

Laws of Thermodynamics
1. (Conservation of Energy) - Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be converted from one form to another.

2. (Entropy increase) - The combined change in entropy of a system and its surroundings (the “universe”) must be positive

3. (Perfect crystal at 0K = 0 entropy) - For a perfect crystal that’s been cooled to 0 K (–273 °C, called absolute zero), its
entropy approaches zero.

Lesson 11.2 – Enthalpy

Enthalpy – the amount of heat-energy a substance contains

Exothermic – a process that gives off heat to its surroundings (negative ΔH). They feel hot to the touch.

Endothermic – a process that consumes heat from its surroundings (positive ΔH). The feel cold to the touch.

Solid → Liquid → Gas = Endothermic

Gas → Liquid → Solid = Exothermic

© DAT Bootcamp 46 of 61|Page


Ch. 11 – Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 11.3 – Enthalpies of Formation

Enthalpy of Formation – the ΔH of a chemical reaction forming one mole of a single substance from its parent
elements in their standard states.

ΔHrxn = ΣnHproducts – ΣnHreactants

Standard States
The enthalpy of formation of any element in its standard state is 0.
Examples: Noble gases, H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, Hg, C(graphite), S8

Example
Using the information in the table, calculate the ΔHrxn for the following reaction:

C2H5OH(g) + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 3 H2O(g) ΔH° = ?


ΔHf° (kJ/mol)
DHf21404 31250 f200 f800 7so zoo C2H5OH(g) -200

CO2 -400
Issozoo H2O(g) -250
1350kt

Lesson 11.4 – Thermodynamic Equations

ΔE = q + w w = -PΔV

+q Heat is transferred to the system (from the surroundings)


(endothermic)
–q Heat is transferred to the surroundings (from the system)
(exothermic)
+w The surroundings do work on the system (compression)
–w The system does work on the surroundings (expansion)

DecreaseV s DV l oudoworkonthesystem
tw y

© DAT Bootcamp 47 of 61|Page


Ch. 11 – Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 11.5 – Heat Transfer and Calorimetry

Heat Transfer
Conduction – heat transfer due to direct contact via molecular agitation within a material
Convection – heat transfer due to the motion of a fluid
Radiation – heat transfer via electromagnetic radiation

Calorimetry
Bomb calorimeter

q = –CcalorimeterΔT

Ccalorimeter = the calorimeter’s specific heat

Example
You used a bomb calorimeter, whose heat capacity is 2000 cal/°C, to measure a banana’s heat content (calories). During
the banana’s combustion, the temperature changed from 15 °C to 20 °C. What is this banana’s q?

q CcaDt 2000 s loooocare

Lesson 11.6 – Heat Curves

c = specific heat
q = mcΔT
q = (m)(ΔHfusion)

q = (m)(ΔHfusion)

© DAT Bootcamp 48 of 61|Page


Ch. 11 – Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 11.6 – Heat Curves (Continued)

How much energy is required to increase the temperature of 36.0 g of H 2O from –20 °C to 50 °C, keeping in mind the
following:
Cice ≈ 2.00 J/g×C
Cliquid water ≈ 4.00 J/g×C q mCDT
ΔHfusion ≈ 6000 J/mol
1
q 36ogx2g 10204
1440

q mDH 36.0g
600011mg
mgIg 12001

q mcDF36gx4g 500 7200

9 20640

What is the final temperature (TFinal) of a 10.0 g ingot of silver that starts at 120 °C and is placed in 20.0 g of liquid H 2O at
40 °C, keeping in mind the following:
Csolid silver ≈ 0.25 J/g×C
Cliquid water ≈ 4.00 J/g×C
2s so
l .ogfo.rs
o
Tf l2o zo.o ooXg.cfTf4oc
gl4
2 s tf 120C so Tf yo

Tf 42C

Lesson 11.7 – Entropy

A measure of how disordered something is Predicting ΔS for Reactions


ΔSrxn > 0 Sublimation, vaporization, fusion
Ssolid < Sliquid < Sgas (going from solid to liquid to gas)
ΔSrxn > 0 Increase in number of moles of gas
ΔS = ΣnSproducts – ΣnSreactants ΔSrxn > 0 solid → aqueous

Example
Indicate if each of the following reactions or processes will have a positive or negative ΔS, and if they are entropically
favorable or entropically unfavorable:

C3H8 (g) + 5 O2 (g) → 3 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (g)


Ds
NaCl (s) → NaCl (aq)
Ds
2 NO2 (g) → N2O4 (g) Ds
BaF2 (s) → Ba2+(aq) + 2 F–(aq) Ds

© DAT Bootcamp 49 of 61|Page


Ch. 11 – Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 11.8 – Hess’s Law

CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) ΔH° = -394 kJ
ΔH° = ? C(s) + 2H2(g) → CH4(g) ΔH° = -75 kJ
2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l) ΔH° = -572 kJ
cHy t DH7514 H2O(l) → H2O(g) ΔH° = +44 kJ

oz coz DE 394kt
2 0 2 DH 57214
2 Here Hog DH 4414

803kt

Try it yourself! Ca (s) + H2 (g) + O2 (g) → Ca(OH)2 (s) ΔH° = –986 kJ


Ca(OH)2 (s) + 2 HCl (g) → CaCl2 (s) + 2 H2O(l) ½ H2 (g) + ½ Cl2 (g) → HCl (g) ΔH° = –92 kJ
ΔH° = ? Ca (s) + Cl2 (g) → CaCl2 (s) ΔH° = –796 kJ
H2 (g) + ½ O2 (g) → H2O (l) ΔH° = –286 kJ

calotiz cats Hug DH 986kt


cacsjtclzcglsco.azs DH
796kJzHcl
Hzlg7 clzlg DH 2l92
kJ2Hzlg
ozg zthole DHzt28
neosootzoo ooo zook

© DAT Bootcamp 50 of 61|Page


Ch. 11 – Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 11.9 – Bond Dissociation Energy

Making bonds = exothermic


Breaking bonds = endothermic

ΔH = ΔHbonds broken – ΔHbonds formed = ΔHreactants - ΔHproducts

Given the following enthalpy data, what is the ΔHrxn for the following reaction?

2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g) Bond ΔHbond


ΔH = ? H–H 400 kJ
O=O 500 kJ
z Yoo soo 21900 Boo1800 SookI H–O 450 kJ

Try it yourself!
Given the following enthalpy data, what is the ΔHrxn for the following reaction? Bond ΔHbond
C–H 410 kJ
C–C 350 kJ
n-propane(g) + oxygen gas → carbon dioxide(g) + water(g) O=O 500 kJ
ΔH = ?
C=O 800 kJ
ctbateHz 502 3coz 41
120 H–O 450 kJ

DH 21350181410 5Soo 6800 8 4so

700 24802500 148003600

6480 8400 1920KI

© DAT Bootcamp 51 of 61|Page


Ch. 11 – Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry DAT General Chemistry Outline
Lesson 11.10 – Gibbs Free Energy

Gibbs free energy – a measure of spontaneity ΔG Meaning of ΔG Values Summary

negative Spontaneous

positive Nonspontaneous

zero At equilibrium

ΔH° ΔS° –TΔS° Reaction


ΔG = ΔH – TΔS – + – Spontaneous at all temperatures
+ – + Nonspontaneous at all temperatures
– – + Spontaneous at low temperatures
+ + – Spontaneous at high temperatures

Try it yourself!
1. Based on your experience with the following physical transformation (the melting of ice): H 2O (s) → H2O (l)

Is ΔH for this phase change positive or negative at room temperature (25 °C)?

HDH
Is ΔS for this phase change positive or negative?

t DS
Considering your answers to the previous questions, does this phase change occur spontaneously at room temperature? Is
its ΔG positive or negative?
yes DG
What could you do to make it nonspontaneous?

Lower
temp
2. What can be said about a reaction that is known to be accompanied by an increase in entropy?

A. The Gibbs free energy change of the reaction has a negative value at all temperatures.
B. The reaction will be spontaneous at all temperatures.

0C.
D.
The reaction will be spontaneous above a certain temperature.
The reaction will be spontaneous below a certain temperature.
E. The reaction is spontaneous only at 25 °C.

Lesson 11.11 – Relating Gibbs Free Energy and K

ΔG° Keq Significance ΔG = ΔG°+ RTlnQ


negative K>1 Reaction is spontaneous (products favored)
ΔG° = -RTlnKeq
positive K<1 Reaction is nonspontaneous (reactants favored)
zero K=1 reactants and products equally favored

© DAT Bootcamp 52 of 61|Page


Ch. 12 – Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 12: Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions


Lesson 12.1 – Electrochemical Vocabulary

Oxidation – loss of electrons LEO the lion says GER


Reduction – gain of electrons OIL RIG

Oxidizing Agent (Oxidant) – what is reduced


Reducing Agent (Reductant) – what is oxidized

Anode – site of oxidation


Cathode – site of reduction

Lesson 12.2 – Oxidation States


https://datbootcamp.com/blog/common-ions-you-need-to-know/

1. Elements in their elemental form are zero oxidation state (Ex. Na, He, O 2, H2, N2, P4, S8, O3 = 0 oxidation state).
2. Group 1 metals are +1, Group 2 metals are +2 in compounds.
3. Hydrogen is +1 when bonded to nonmetals and –1 when bonded to metals.
4. Transition elements’ oxidation numbers must be determined from the other elements in the compound.
5. The most electronegative atoms get their typical oxidation state.
6. When assigning oxidation numbers, the last element assigned gets whatever number balances the charge for the entire
compound.

Example
1. Assign oxidation states for all of the atoms to the following:
• Al2O3
A1 2131
0 3121 6 O
Na2SO3
PS NC

Na2111 2 4433
0
Sos 2 3211
• H2O2
O
• C2H3O21–
l

2. For the following chemical reaction please assign the oxidation state for each element on both sides of the equation.
Then answer the following questions: Ba at 22 (s)
o (s) + Clo2 (g) → BaCl

Which reactant gets oxidized? What is the reducing agent?

Ba Ba
Which reactant gets reduced? What is the oxidizing agent?

ch
ch
© DAT Bootcamp 53 of 61|Page
Ch. 12 – Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 12.3 – Balancing Redox Reactions

Balancing under Acidic Conditions


1. Identify what is getting oxidized and what is getting reduced.
2. Separate the oxidation reaction from the reduction reaction. (These two reactions you’ve now written are called
half-reactions.)
3. Balance all the atoms that are NOT oxygen or hydrogen.
4. Balance oxygen atoms by adding H2O to whichever side is needed.
5. Balance hydrogen atoms by adding H+ to whichever side is needed.
6. Add e– wherever necessary, to balance the charge on each side of the equation.
7. As needed, add integers to your half-reactions to make the number of moles of e– equal in each of your half-
reactions. This final, balanced number of e– is the number of overall electrons-per-mole that get transferred in this
particular redox reaction.

Balancing under Basic Conditions


1. First, follow the same steps as for acidic conditions.
2. For each H+ you added to your half-reactions, now add the same number of OH–’s to both sides of the equation.
Now, wherever an H+ and an OH– appear on the same side an equation, combine them to form H2O’s. Eliminate
excess H2O.
3. Add e– wherever necessary, to balance the charge on each side of the equation.
4. As needed, add integers to your half-reactions to make the number of moles of e– equal in each of your half-
reactions. This final, balanced number of e– is the number of overall electrons-per-mole that get transferred in this
particular redox reaction.

Examples
1. How many electrons are transferred in this reaction?
Cr(C2H3O2)3 + Zn (s) → Cr (s) + ZnSO4
3 3 o o 2 2
cr3t zn cr znzt
or 3e Cr
Zn ze En be
2. Please balance the following redox reaction under acidic conditions and find the number of e- transferred:
MnO41– (aq) + Cl– (aq) → MnO2 (aq) + Cl2 (l)
7412 i 4 z o

3e 4kt 1 Minori Mno 211203 2

za Ck ze 1 3 be

3. Please balance the following redox reaction under basic conditions and find the number of e- transferred:
MnO41– (aq) + Cl– (aq) → MnO2 (aq) + Cl2 (l)

4112021120
3e ftp.imnoci mnozi 2 o 4oH
x2zci
clzt2e x3 se
Lesson 12.4 – Voltaic Cells

© DAT Bootcamp 54 of 61|Page


Ch. 12 – Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline
1. Anode = always site of oxidation
2. Cathode = always site of reduction
3. Electrons always flow from anode to cathode
4. In voltaic/galvanic cells, the anode is negative and the cathode is positive
5. In electrolytic cells, the anode is positive and the cathode is negative
6. The salt bridge lets counter anions flow into the anode, and cations to the cathode
7. The anode metal loses mass, while the cathode metal gains mass

Voltaic (Galvanic) Cells


Spontaneous (–ΔG, +Ecell)
Produce electricity (batteries)
Anode(–) → cathode(+)

Example
Using the diagram to the right for the following reaction in a galvanic cell, please indicate or answer each of the following:

Zn + CuSO4 → Cu + ZnSO4
o z o at z
• Identify the elements being oxidized and reduced. e e e e
oxidized Zn e f I e
Reduced cu

• What flows through the wire?


anode cathode
saltbridge
e

• What flows through the salt bridge?


n
Zn
A
inertcounterion
• Label the flow of electrons in the correct direction. zno aint

• What is each metal made of at the anode and cathode? What is each solution made of?

Anode Zn
cathode a
• What is the purpose of the counterion?

balancebuildingcharges

• What is a salt bridge?

of
source unreactivecounterions

Lesson 12.5 – Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis

© DAT Bootcamp 55 of 61|Page


Ch. 12 – Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline
Electrolytic Cells
Molten Electrolysis Nonspontaneous (+ΔG, –Ecell)
Consume electricity (makes elements)
2 KI → 2K + I2
Anode(+) → cathode(–)
• Under molten electrolysis, there is no salt bridge.
• There is a sea of molten K+ and I- ions.
• Electrons ALWAYS flow from anode to cathode.
• Electrolytic cells need a power source.
• Cations flow towards the cathode to get reduced.
e e e
• Anions flow towards the anode to get oxidized.
e e

Aqueous Electrolysis anode t cathode

Iz k
• Under aqueous conditions you have two competing
reactions (reaction of KI and reaction of H2O)
• You need to use a table of reduction potentials to find
which one will happen more easily (next lesson).

© DAT Bootcamp 56 of 61|Page


Ch. 12 – Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 12.6 – Reduction Potentials

Ecell = Ereduction + Eoxidation (or) Ecell = Ecathode + Eanode

Reduction Potentials What is the strongest oxidizing agent?


K+ + 1e- → K -2.93V
Na+ + 1e- → Na -2.71V Agt
Al3+ + 3e- → Al -1.66V
Mn2+ + 2e- → Mn -1.18V
Zn2+ + 2e- → Zn -0.76V What is the strongest reducing agent?
Cr3+ + 3e- → Cr -0.74V
Fe2+ + 2e- → Fe -0.44V K
Ni2+ + 2e- → Ni -0.25V
2H+ + 2e- → H2 0.00V
Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu +0.34V What are some pairs that react spontaneously?
I2 + 2e- → 2I1- +0.54V
Ag+ + 1e- → Ag +0.80V

When Mn and Zn metals react in a galvanic cell according to the equation below, will the reaction be spontaneous or
nonspontaneous? What will be the products of this reaction? Mn + Zn → ?
Mn mnatze E i is
Zn zn2 tze 0.76 No rin

When Na metal and Fe2+ cation react in a galvanic cell according to the equation below, will the reaction be spontaneous
or nonspontaneous? What will be the products of this reaction? Na + Fe2+ → ?

Na wattle 2.71
Non
spontaneous

fettze Fe 0.44

What are the products of the electrolysis of KI (aq)? K+ + 1e– → K –2.93V


I2 + 2e- → 2I– +0.54V
2H2O + 2e– → H2 + 2OH– –0.80V
K ZI Kt Iz H2O → O2 + 4H+ + 4e– –1.28V

ked K e k
zthotze tht2011 H2o 711202
a z o o
Ox 21 Iz u
Hao3024Ht

© DAT Bootcamp 57 of 61|Page


Ch. 12 – Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 12.7 – Standard Reduction Potentials


Reduction Potentials
What is the standard cell potential, or E°, for the following reactions? K+ + 1e- → K -2.93V
Na+ + 1e- → Na -2.71V
Zn + CuSO4 → Cu + ZnSO4 Al3+ + 3e- → Al -1.66V
o 2 2 o 2 Mn2+ + 2e- → Mn -1.18V
red zn zn to.to Zn2+ + 2e- → Zn -0.76V
HOV Cr3+ + 3e- → Cr -0.74V
ox cu on ozu Fe2+ + 2e- → Fe -0.44V
Zn2+ + Fe → Fe2+ + Zn Ni2+ + 2e- → Ni -0.25V
2H+ + 2e- → H2 0.00V
znzt zn o76 o.su Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu +0.34V
Ee 0.44 I2 + 2e- → 2I1- +0.54V
notspontaneous
Ag+ + 1e- → Ag +0.80V
2Cr + 6H+ → 3H2 + 2Cr3+
0 i o 3T
cr cr3t 0.74
0.74
Ht H o

Lesson 12.8 – Non-standard Cell Potentials and Nernst Equation

Nernst Equation

0.0592 1. Shift to the right = increase Ecell


𝑜
𝐸𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐸𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙 − log(𝑄) 2. Shift to the left = decrease Ecell
𝑛

Example
Given the following:
Zn + Cu2+ → Cu + Zn2+ Eocell = +1.10V

In which direction will the reaction shift if [Cu2+] is increased to 10 M?

How will this change in [Cu2+] affect Ecell?

increase

Use the Nernst equation to solve for Ecell under these new conditions.

E fo o.osa
n log Q
Ean Hov 0.0296 1 1 br
Q III O
long
© DAT Bootcamp 58 of 61|Page
Ch. 12 – Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Lesson 12.9 – Quantitative Electrochemical Calculations

(I)(t s )
= moles of product
(n)(F)

I = current (amps)
ts = time (seconds)
n = number of electrons transferred camp's
F = Faraday’s Constant (96,500 C / mol e-)

If a 20-amp current passes through molten BaCl2 for 30 minutes, how many grams of Ba are produced?

00
20118 Back Ba ch
o
In zliooaoze
tr o

o.ismot 247g
What amount of time (in seconds) would it take to plate out 0.50 kg of Ag from molten AgCl with a current of 100 amps?
(atomic weight of of Ag = 100 g/mol)

s wolf
0.5019 5009
74 SmolAg
A Ag
Ifoooo

Anode Cath
ts sooo se Stitt Mna Mn 4h20 o Red
7 2

2y X Htt tiHao
i o
2 az tho
2y
3 Xx's211 42
12 4 3 2 2 4
36 X 1.08y
3108T us
x4 3 2 34
2 1 4
Is gy Y iooix3 3oomxhrboxz.lk
6
1o8y x 39 07 0.29 0.3 11.43
so3x

jgmyn o.sk
45km
8h50shr 1st4skm 6okm
hr
a bz
t fkl.am'tbk o
© DAT Bootcamp 59 of 61|Page
ftp.alittbli 2 4a 2bO
a be2 41b 2 2b O 2b g
8 250 be 4 a z
Ch. 13 – Nuclear Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline

Chapter 13: Nuclear Reactions


Lesson 13.1 – The Nucleus and Nuclear Particles

The Nucleus
Nucleus – made of protons and neutrons
Atomic number – number of protons
Atomic weight vs. Mass number – atomic weight is an average of all
isotopes of an atom

Lesson 13.2 – Nuclear Reactions

Mass is always lost in nuclear reactions.

Decay (Fission) Reactions Capture (Fusion) Reactions


𝐴 𝐶 𝐸 𝐴 𝐶 𝐸
𝐵 𝑋 → 𝐷 𝑌 + 𝐹 𝑍 + 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐵 𝑋 + 𝐷 𝑌 → 𝐹 𝑍 + 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦

Examples

131 0
53I → −1β + ? 131
soXe
214
84𝑃𝑜 + 2 42α + 2 −10β → ? 232Rn
86

Lesson 13.3 – Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay

Belt of Stability Radioactive Decay

Route of Decay Nuclear particle Result Likely For?


α-decay 4
2α product Reduces mass # Large nuclei
β decay N/Z ratio too high
aboveg
0
−1β product neutron → proton
(β emission) (too many neutrons)
belt β+ decay N/Z ratio is too low
0
proton → neutron
a +1β product
(positron emission) (too many protons)
belt
N/Z ratio is too low
Electron capture 0
−1β reactant proton → neutron
(too many protons)
γ decay 0
0 γ product no change unpredictable

© DAT Bootcamp 60 of 61|Page


Ch. 13 – Nuclear Reactions DAT General Chemistry Outline
Lesson 13.3 – Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay (Continued)

Example
Oxygen-17 and a proton combine and then undergo radioactive decay to emit a nitrogen-14 atom and another particle.
What type of radioactive decay is oxygen-17 undergoing in this scenario?

fO tip IN Ya
a decay

Lesson 13.4 – Kinetics of Radioactive Decay

Always 1st order kinetics. Half-life is constant.

N = N0e-kt or ln(N)=ln(N0) – kt

t1/2 = (0.693/k)

Examples
Given a half-life of 30 minutes and a starting sample of 100 grams, how
many grams would you have left after 2 hours?

10012 2 2 2 6.25
Given a half-life of 15 minutes, how long would it take for 87.5 grams of your 100-gram sample to decay?

tooso25 12.5
i z 3 45min
Lesson 13.5 – Fission, Fusion, Nuclear Binding Energy

Fission and Fusion


Fission – larger nuclei decay into smaller nuclei (atomic bombs, nuclear reactors)

Fusion – smaller nuclei combine to form larger nuclei (stars)


c 3.0108ms
Nuclear Binding Energy
Mass defect – a nucleus always weighs a little less than its constituent nucleons
E = Δmc2 Δm in kg
56
Fe has highest nuclear binding energy per nucleon (most stable nucleus)

Example (Use a calculator)


A proton’s mass is 1.00728 amu. A neutron’s mass is 1.00867 amu. What is the mass defect of a 178Au nucleus, if a 178Au
nucleus weighs 177.9760 amu?

4Au 9,9g
1.00867ohm
x i00728
amu
179.4335 177.9760 1.45745amu
What is the binding energy (in J) of a 178Au nucleus?

DEDmc Samu 3.0108


1.4574 12 1 022 23amu Kokorog II kg 7 2.18 10

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