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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT

QUARTER ONE – INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON

TOPIC / LESSON NAME Doing Philosophy


CONTENT STANDARDS The learner understands the meaning and process of doing philosophy
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS The learner reflects on a concrete experience in a philosophical way
Realize the value of doing philosophy in obtaining a broad perspective on life (PPT11/12-Ib-1.3)
LEARNING COMPETENCIES
Do a philosophical reflection on a concrete situation from a holistic perspective (PPT11/12-Ic-1.4)
At the end of the lesson, the learners will be able to:
SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOME 1. Write a one-page reflection paper following the structure of Day-to-day Life, Reflection, and
Application
TIME ALLOTMENT 120 minutes

LESSON OUTLINE:
1. Introduction/Review: Communicating learning objectives & reflection on excerpts from Plato’s Apology and Sapagkat ang Pilosopiya ay
Ginagawa by Roque Ferriols, S.J. (30 minutes)
2. Motivation: The March To Progress in the Philippines (15 minutes)
3. Instruction: Discussion about Indigenous People’s and Philosophical Reflection on Progress (60 minutes)
4. Practice: Deconstructing personal beliefs (10 minutes)
5. Evaluation: Giving of instructions on the take-home reflection paper (5 minutes)

MATERIALS Copy of the articles, notebook


Ferriols, Roque. Pambungad sa Metapisika. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press – Blue Books, 2014.
Abella, Jerrie. “Indigenous people remember Macliing Dulag’s martyrdom.” GMANews.TV. 24 Apr. 2010. Web. 23 Jun.
2015.http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/189239/news/nation/indigenous-people-remember-macliing-dulag-s-martyrdom
RESOURCES
Carolino, Ditsi. “The March to Progress in the Philippines.” Aljazeera. 4 Nov. 2014. Web. 23 Jun. 2015.
http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/viewfinder/2014/11/march-progress-philippines-2014112122317640995.html

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
QUARTER ONE – INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON

PROCEDURE MEETING LEARNERS’ NEEDS

INTRODUCTION (10 MINUTES)


1. Introduce the following learning objectives using any of the suggested protocols (Verbatim,
Own Words, Read-aloud)
a. I can explain the value of philosophy in my life.
b. I can write a philosophical reflection on a concrete situation from a holistic perspective.

2. Unlock the definitions of the following words. Ask the learners first and see if the class can
derive the definitions based on student responses:
a. Holistic perspective
b. Concrete Situation
c. Philosophical reflection

REVIEW (20 MINUTES) Teacher Tips:


1. Ask the learners to read the following passages for ten (10) minutes.
Role of the Text:
a) Excerpt from Plato’s Apology (38a): “The unexamined life is not worth living.” The chosen texts are meant to facilitate the
learner’s acquisition of insight. The role of the
b) Excerpt from Sapagkat ang Pilosopiya ay Ginagawa ni Roque Ferriols, S.J. teacher is not to impose one interpretation of
the text but to point towards the crucial
May mga taong gusto raw matutong lumangoy. Nakasuot-panlangoy na sila at sama- elements that may serve as the basis of the
sama silang nakatayo sa tabi ng swimingpul. May notbuk at bolpen ang bawat isa. learner’s reflection.

Nagsasalita ang guro. “Una sa lahat,” aniya, “magsanay ka munang magtampisaw sa


tubig. Tapos huwag huminga pero idilat ang mata at magpasailalim ng tubig. Tapos
basta’t dumapa. Huwag matakot. Lulutang ka. Tapos, matutong gumalaw ng paa,
matutong gumalaw ng kamay. Matutong huminga. At paulit-ulit na pagsikapan at
pagtiyagaan ang praksis.” Habang siya’y nagsasalita, masipag nilang sinusulat ang lahat
ng sinabi niya.

“At ngayon,” patuloy niya, “eto ang swimingpul. Oras nang magsimula. Lundagin mo
beybe!” Walang lumundag, pero sulat nang sulat pa rin sila. “Hoy, sa tubig na kayo!
Walang kabuluhan ang sulat-sulat niyo kung hindi ninyo ginagawa.” Wala pa rin
lumulundag. Sulat pa rin sila nang sulat.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
QUARTER ONE – INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON

2. Ask the following guide questions to the learners:


a. What does Plato mean when he says “the unexamined life”? Subjective Interpretation of the Text
b. Based on Ferriols’ text, what do you think the students are thinking when they are If the learners give a different interpretation of
diligently copying the instructions given by the teacher instead of diving into the pool? the text, do not dismiss their answers as
c. Why is the teacher so keen on making the learners jump in the swimming pool instead incorrect but ask them what their basis was for
of just taking down notes on how to swim? their interpretation.

3. Write the following terms on the board: day-to-day life, reflection, and application The Nature of Philosophical Reflection
Philosophical reflection is open-ended in the
4. Instruct them to do the following: sense that the goal is not to arrive at one
a. Define what each term refers to. definitive answer for everyone. This means that
b. Share a brief narrative where they encountered the three moments in their own life. while learners may not necessarily agree with
c. Give insights as to the importance of reflection and application (praxis) in one’s day- other’s interpretations, they do not dismiss them
to-day life. immediately without trying to understand where
these people are coming from and what their
Sample responses: reasons are for holding their beliefs. This open-
 It is important to examine our lives. mindedness to the horizons of other people
 Unlike animals, human beings are able to think about what they have done in the enables learners to fairly evaluate different
past. This allows us to reflect on the kind of persons we are becoming. interpretations and to distinguish which among
 Plato suggests that thinking about the past will help us act better in the future. them are excellent, plausible, and poor
 Ferriols’ story tells us that we can not just study about things. We need to do them. interpretations of the text.
 When I come home, I always have food to eat. But I see children in the streets that
beg in order to buy food. I realize that while eating three times a day is normal for me,
not everyone is able to do so because they have no money.
MOTIVATION (10 MINUTES)

1. Remind the learners that today’s topic revolves around current events, and that they need
to be aware of the things happening in the country.

2. Hand out a copy of the news article, distributed as worksheets. This may also be written
on a manila paper; or shown as a news item on-screen.

3. Let them read the text quietly for five (5) minutes.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
QUARTER ONE – INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
The March to Progress in the Philippines
A tribesman leads his village in resisting a development project that promises progress but
threatens his tribe.
By Ditsi Carolino, AlJazeera
November 4, 2014 14:19 PM

I first stumbled upon this story four years ago. My husband, a human rights lawyer, told me
about a remote village in Casiguran, Aurora province where farmers, fishers and indigenous
peoples needed legal help. They were protesting a massive government project called Aurora
Pacific Economic Zone (APECO).

APECO covers 12,923 hectares and would build an airport, a seaport, resorts and factories. It
promised jobs and progress in the once sleepy town of Casiguran. But the project was mired in
controversy.

"They say APECO will bring progress. But we feel this progress is not for us," said Vic, a
Dumagat, an indigenous group who have lived there since the 1900s. They subsist on hunting,
gathering and fishing and need vast forests and coasts to survive.

After a grueling 350km protest march to Manila, Vic meets the president of the Philippines,
looks him in the eye and tells him: "We also want progress, but our idea of progress is different
from your idea of progress."

I asked Vic where he found the courage to speak to the president like that and he said: "We
walked for 17 days to tell the president what we felt. So I did."

Vic was not a tribal chief. He was an ordinary tribesman who finished grade one in school. But
his practical wisdom and the slow, dignified way he spoke reminded me of much-revered
chieftains, long dead and gone but well remembered for the way they led their people against
"development" projects.

While he was fishing, he told us how much the Dumagat valued their freedom. "If we work in the
APECO factories, we work for a boss. In our ancestral land, there is no boss."

Another time he was foraging for food in the forest. "Everything we need to survive is here. If we
nurture our forest and seas, it will sustain our needs. The life of the tribe is simple. We are able
to eat everyday. Our huts are small but we are happy."

Ultimately Vic makes us wonder about the big questions at the heart of this story: What is
progress? Who defines it? And who really benefits from "development" projects?

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
QUARTER ONE – INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
4. Ask the learners to write their reactions about the given article on their notebooks.
Encourage them to write as many questions as they can for three (3) minutes.

5. Gather some questions from the class. Write them on the board.
Teacher Tips:
INSTRUCTION (45 MINUTES)
1. Ask this question and call on three learners to share their answers for each term. Expanding Learner’s Perspectives
a. What is the first thing that comes to your mind when you hear the following terms: For most learners, the good or happy life is
i. Progress/Development associated with having a modern lifestyle (living
ii. Indigenous Peoples (IPs) in a concrete house with electricity and internet,
iii. Traditional Lifestyles malls, gadgets, cars). The traditional lifestyles
iv. Modern Lifestyles of indigenous peoples are often depicted as
v. The Good or Happy Life backwards or inferior to the progressive city-life.
The goal of the discussion is to examine this
2. Tell the learners to examine the following excerpt from the article and reflect on the commonly-held belief and to see whether we
following questions. can expand our beliefs to accommodate other
perspectives.
"Everything we need to survive is here. If we nurture our forest and seas, it will sustain
our needs. The life of the tribe is simple. We are able to eat everyday. Our huts are
small but we are happy." –Vic, Dumagat Tribesman

a. From your point of view, how will you describe Vic’s lifestyle?
b. What do you think is his notion of the good life?
c. How will you describe your own lifestyle? Is it modern or traditional?
d. What is your notion of the good life?
e. Is there a difference between your notion and Vic’s notion of the good life?
f. How would you compare the two notions? Is one inferior to the other? Why or why
not?

3. After reflecting, ask them to partner with their seatmate and share answers for ten (20)
minutes. Encourage them to discuss their points of agreement and/or disagreement
with one another.

4. Call on three pairs to share their answers to the class. Ask the class whether they agree
or disagree with the pairs’ answers to question (f) and to explain their position.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
QUARTER ONE – INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON

5. Lead learners to realize that while our notions of the good life may differ from those held
by Indigenous Peoples (IPs) such as Vic, it does not necessarily mean that one or the
other is inferior or superior. Contrary to the stereotypical depiction of IPs in mainstream
media as backwards people who are against progress, IPs such as Vic actually desire
“progress” as well. As Vic states, "We [the Dumagats] also want progress, but our idea of
progress is different from your [the government’s] idea of progress."

6. Ask learners to reflect on what Vic’s idea of progress.

7. Ask why the State should accommodate their understanding of progress into its own. As a
guide for reflection, share the following excerpt from an article about the life of Mac-liing
Dulag, an IP pangat (tribal chieftain) of the Butbut tribe in Kalinga province who was
assassinated while fighting against the establishment of the Chico Dam in the Cordilleras.

“When an army engineer reportedly asked the Kalingas for titles to their ancestral
land, Dulag was said to have replied, "You ask us if we own the land. And mock us,
'Where is your title?' Such arrogance of owning the land when you shall be owned by
it. How can you own that which will outlive you?" (gmanews.tv)

8. After giving them two (5) minutes to reflect, call on three (3) learners to share their
answers to the class.

9. Synthesize the discussion by explaining to the learners that what have done is to engage
in a philosophical reflection as to the nature of “progress.” Following the structure laid out
earlier, we can divide the process of reflection into three parts.

a. Day-to-day Life: Prior to reflection, our notions of progress seem to be common-


sensical and those who deviate from this notion would readily be labelled as
traditional, anti-progress, and irrational.

b. Reflection: However, an encounter with people coming from different horizons of


understanding (life-worlds) forces us to take a step-back from our notion of progress
and examine their rationality using their own criteria instead of ours. This enables us
to see the existence of an alternative perspective that is neither inferior nor superior
to ours.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
QUARTER ONE – INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON
Application (Praxis): After realizing that there are a plurality of perspectives as to
the meaning of progress and that our own perspective is not necessarily the (only)
correct one, one should realize that it would be unjust to impose one’s beliefs on
others especially when it resorts to violence.

10. Ask a follow-up question: What can you, as an individual, do in order to ensure that the
tragedy that befell on Mac-liing Dulag does not happen again?

PRACTICE (15 MINUTES) Teacher Tips:


1. Instruct the learners to think of a belief that they hold to be common-sensical in their
immediate community (family, neighborhood, school, religious community, ethnic Checking for Understanding:
community) which other people they have encountered do not share. Remind the learners that if they have any
questions and/or clarifications, they should
2. Ask them to formulate their belief in as concise a manner as possible as well as the raise it as soon as possible.
position maintained by those who do not share the same belief and their alternative
positions (if possible). Instruct them to write their answers in their notebooks. Scaffolding:
If students are unable to think of any belief that
Suggested Format based on class discussion: they themselves hold, ask them if they are
Pre-examined Belief Contending Belief Re-examined Belief familiar with any cultural practice from other
Progress consists in Indigenous People’s There is more than one countries that they do not necessarily
having a modern such as Macliing Dulag notion of progress and understand and/or agree with. They can use
lifestyle. (concrete and Vic believe that one is not necessarily this belief as a basis and propose a contending
houses with electricity there is an alternative better than another as belief.
and plumbing, notion of progress which people coming from
automobiles, computers, consists of living in different worldviews have
internet, etc.) harmony with mother different ways of valuing
nature and dwelling in the world.
their ancestral lands.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
QUARTER ONE – INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN PERSON

EVALUATION (5 MINUTES)

1. Give the following instructions to the class: “Based on what you have written down on
your notebook (for practice), write a one-page reflection paper following the structure of
(a) Day-to-day Life, (b) Reflection, (c) Application (Praxis).

2. Remind the learners to cite their references accordingly using the APA format.

3. Refer to the attached rubric for the evaluation of the paper.

EVALUATION (For the Reflection Paper)


1 (NOT VISIBLE) 2 (NEEDS IMPROVEMENT) 3 (MEETS EXPECTATIONS) 4 (EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS)
Learners provided new and
Learners demonstrate a Learners demonstrate a
Depth of Learners demonstrate a lack creative insights resulting
minimal level of reflection and sufficient level of reflection and
Reflection of reflection and internalization from a profound reflection and
internalization of the given internalization of the given
(Content) of the given material. internalization of the given
material. material.
material.
Learners did not comply with Learners complied with the Learners complied with the
Learners complied with the
the structure and format structure and format provided structure and format provided
structure and format provided
provided for the reflection for the reflection paper but for the reflection paper and the
Structure for the reflection paper and
paper and the thoughts were the thoughts were expressed thoughts were expressed in a
(Form) the thoughts were expressed
not expressed in a coherent in an incoherent manner. coherent manner. Writing is
in a coherent manner. Writing
and logical manner. Writing is Writing is vague and sufficiently clear and
is very clear and organized.
vague and disorganized. disorganized. organized.
Grammar, The learners made more than The learners made no more The learners made more than The learners made no more
Spelling five spelling and grammar than five spelling and two spelling and grammar than two spelling and
(Syntax) errors. grammar errors. errors. grammar errors.

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