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*Indicate the difference between Pulse When you talk about normalized binary

Modulation and Digital Modulation waveform, if logic 1 ang imong digital

information, the modulating signal has +1 Volt,
*Pulse Modulation is about having this analog
if logic 0 kay -1 volt ang imong information
signal as your information signal then sampling
it and then converting those samples into
discrete pulses and transporting the pulses over SLIDE 10 : Thus the modulated wave is either
a physical transmission medium Acos… or 0. Hence, the carrier is either “on” or
*Digital Modulation kay digital data na daan
imong information signal then SLIDE 13: ASYNCHRONOUS


SLIDE 3: A voltage comparator circuit compares the

values of two voltages and produces an output
*We cannot transmit digital signals via air to indicate the results. The output is always one
directly. of two values (i.e., the output is digital).
*Digital is abstract information. It is a meaning Suppose, for example, we have two voltage
we choose to assign to physical values. This is comparator inputs labeled A and B.
why you cannot send a digital signal over the air LPF- to filter out the carrier frequency
as radio waves. It must be converted first into
something that exists outside of abstraction, Comparator- produce digital output; compare
like an analog signal which represents the voltage, 1 and 0
information to be transmitted.
Ex: cable modem, wireless router
One of the major differences is that
SLIDE 4: in Synchronous Transmission, the sender and
receiver should have synchronized clocks before
*Analog Modulation in Principles of data transmission. Whereas
Communication topic Asynchronous Transmission does not require a
SLIDE 5 6 7 8: self explanatory clock but it adds a parity bit to the data before
"Square-law" refers to the input-output relation
of the device used for modulation.

Advantage: synchronous

· This reduces overhead bits

· It overcomes the two main deficiencies of the

asynchronous method, that of inefficiency and
lack of error detection.

· The character is self contained & Transmitter SLIDE 35
and receiver need not be synchronized
A Band-limited signal of bandwidth 5Khz means
· Transmitting and receiving clocks are that the signal can be centered at any frequency
independent of each other but its extent around that frequency is 5Khz.
A Band-limited signalof 5Khz is also used to
represent a signal which is having a center
*amplitude sa signal ang sakyan sa noise frequency of 5Khz but which has a fixed band-

An analogy can illustrate the concept of bauds
and bits. In transportation, a baud is comparable
to a bus, a bit analogous to a passenger. A bus
can carry multiple passengers. If 1000 buses go
from one point to another carrying only one
passenger (the driver), then 1000 passengers are
transported. However, if each bus carries twenty
passengers (suppose), then 20000 passengers
are transported. In this case, busses determine
traffic not the number of passengers
consequently broader highways are needed.
Likewise, the number of bauds determines the
required bandwidth, not the number of bits.

Baud rate is expressed in the number of times

a signal can change on transmission line per
second. Usually, the transmission line uses only
two signal states, and make the baud rate equal
to the number of bits per second that can be

Prin com: simplex- one way communication
Half-duplex: two-way communication but
not at the same time (ex: walkie-talkie)
Full-duplex: two way communication at the
same time (ex: calling)
Phase shift keying kay mag-depende kung
pila ka bits ang naa per signal element