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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND

TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY
B.ENG (HONS) TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A 2-DIGIT ELECTRONIC LOCK


SYSTEM USING SIMPLE CIRCUIT ELEMENTS AND DIGITAL ELECTRONIC
LOGIC GATES

LECTURER: Mr. Mapuranga

MODULE: Digital Electronics Laboratory

MODULE CODE: TCL 2104

STUDENTS: Mudzingwa Tichatonga NO174791T


Chingwena Bright NO174743T
2 DIGIT COMBINATIONAL LOCK
Acknowledgement

Firstly, we would like to appreciate each and every effort that made this project to succeeded. We
also thank the Telone Administration members Mrs Moyo, Mr Gapa and Mr Marufu for their efforts
in various kinds. Next, we would like to thank our lecturers Mr Mapuranga and Mr Marufu for their
support and the expertise that they have given to us during the execution of this project. We also
need to return a token of appreciation want to our gratitude to our parents for provision of the
finance to facilitate this project. We also want to extend our gratitude to these few individuals,
Dumisani Mukuchura, Lovell Munesti, Tanyaradzwa Madondo , Takudzwa Marinyu and other
colleagues for sharing with us some of the ideas which played crucial roles in the development of
this design. Above all we thank the Almighty for making this project a success.

Abstract

This work is a design of a password enabled door lock for home security. The work involved building
a working model of a security door lock that is password protected. Accessing and changing various
information and settings are done via an electronic system that allows the user to enter secret pass
codes via a keypad and 2 LCD display. The design incorporated 16 bits (2 bytes) memory system that
can retain the information during power outages and runs on available power from the mains supply.
Once the circuit is plugged to the mains supply, the LCD displays the different menu functions and
waits for data input from the keypad, the illustrative door slides open and close when a valid pass
code is entered. The work was designed, developed, and tested and found to perform according to
design objectives.

Introduction

Security is a serious problem in Zimbabwe that calls for a proactive measure by all
stakeholders and owners of residential buildings. Buildings in Zimbabwe (residential and
organizational) do not have adequate security systems that monitor intruders and prevent
access to sensitive files and products. The increasing rate of crime, attacks by thieves,
intruders and vandals despite all forms of security gadgets and locks still need the attention
of researchers to find a permanent solution to the wellbeing of lives and properties of
individuals. To this end, this work uses the model of a keypad enabled access and seeks to
further simplify and solve the problem of security in places where unauthorized access to
organization materials and files are to be prevented. As technology advances, the need for
security also is increased considerably. Security has now become one of the most sensitive
issues in organizations and the demand for higher security for storing company databases,
files (most times on computers) has become higher. An access control for doors forms a vital
link in a security chain. The lock is primarily composed of 4 units which are the keyboard,
the memory, the comparator and the lock unit as illustrated in Fig 1. The goal of this work is
to design a door-latch opening using a password that is entered through a keypad. The lock
system makes use of a 2-digit pass code to grant access to authorized individuals. The pass
code is chosen by the individual who wants to secure the door and it has the advantage that
multiple users can access the door each with their unique user I.D and Pass Code. In other
applications, mobile technology can be utilized to control various units of the houses,
industries and also provide security system. The various doors can be utilized by managing
them remotely by using GSM technology, which enables the user to remotely control the
operations of the doors. Just by pressing keypad of remote telephone the user can perform
OPEN/CLOSE operations on the doors [Arpital et al, 2014]. This work exhibits low cost home
security system which is widely employed in our daily life. The system is designed to prevent
the opening of the door by unauthorized persons. The keypad is used as the password entry
system to open/close the door. When an authorized user enters a valid pass code, the green
led lights, showing that the system is now open. If the pass code entered is incorrect, the
green led remains OFF, showing that the entered pass code is.
Materials

 5V DC Power Supply
 Lots of Diodes (about 20)
 One green LED (to indicate when the system is UNLOCKED)
 One red LED (to indicate when the system is LOCKED)
 14 push buttons
 Lots of resistors (less current limiting resisters)
 Two 7-segments Displays.
 A Lot of wire
 One 7432(OR GATES)
 One 7402
 Two 7486(XOR GATES) soul of the comparator.
 Two 7447 Display driver
 Four 74175(4 D-FF) each is a memory able to hold 4 bits.
 One 7476(2 JK-FF) for the display selector and to hold the OPEN CLOSE signal.
 Two 7404(NOT GATE) invert the clock pulse for the display selector.
Block diagram

FIG.1
Complete Circuit Diagram

FIG.2
WORKING OF THE CIRCUIT.
 THE CIRCUIT IS DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING NUMBERS OF STAGES:
1. Keypad and the Decimal to Binary Coded Decimal Circuit.

Fig 3
 The input of the device is a keypad which comprises of a set of switches arranged in
the shown manner representing digits 0 to 9 which are the digits of the decimal
numbering system (Base10) as shown above. The outputs of the keypad go to the
Dec-BCD circuit, which was supposed to be an IC (74c922).
 Generally, the above circuit is responsible for entering 2 digits, one after another
then converts each digit entered from decimal-BCD number system.

2. Displays

Fig 3
 This circuit takes in the inputs from each memory and since we were using two
digits as our pass code, two of these kinds of circuit were constructed as shown in
fig 2.
 Each number represented in binary coded decimal is then decoded by the 7-
segment display decoder to a language that the 7-segment display will understand.
 So, the entered digit is displayed as soon as has been entered. You enter the first
digit, the first display circuit will be active, it displays the enter digit. When the
second digit is entered, the next display circuit take part and displays it also.
3. Memory Circuits

Fig 4
Fig 5

The memory comprises of a set of (PIPO)shift registers which provide a store for the data
from the keypad. Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show a shift register and how four shift registers were
connected in pairs to form the memory unit. To make the 4 bits (ABCD) memory we just
used a single D- Flip Flop for each bit, and in the 74175 we have 4 of those D FF. The
First Two 4 bits Memories forms the display memory circuit while the other Two forms
the internal memory circuit. To save the information from the DEC to BCD circuit, we
used the jk flip flop in race around condition. When we push a button, the jk ff will change
its output, turning on the first display memory, so that it will save the data, then we push
again and the first display memory recording state will be off, but the second memory
will save the new data. The pulse that determine when this change is made is the "P" that
will be high whenever you press any number, but to save the information on time, we
will need the opposite, so here’s where we used the NOT GATE. The other two 4-bit PIPO
shift registers are responsible for storing the correct pas code. The inputs will be the
outputs of the first two display memories, so when a positive pulse reaches their clock,
you will be coping whatever numbers are in the displays. (both, the memories and
password memories will have the same information).

(i.e) We have a 16 bit/2 byte memory chip in the system but is made up of discrete
components.

4. 2-bit Comparator circuit

Fig 6
 This circuit takes in the 8 bits of the display memories (one bit per XOR, cause the
other input should be used with the password memory) and the 8 bits of the
password memories (it’s a 1 Byte comparator).
 And will deliver only a high output if and only if the information on both display
memories is the same as the information in the password memories, otherwise we
will have a (0) low output.
 If the two numbers match bit for bit, a Green LED will light up and if they do not
exactly match the Red LED will remain on signifying that the system is still locked.
5. Open-Close Circuit

 And finally, a circuit to keep the OPEN or CLOSE signal for an undetermined time,
and of course an output (that’s whatever you want to control with your lock)
 When the lock button is pressed, that led will light signaling that the system is
locked.
 When the enter button is entered, the circuit connected on the Q’ will be ON( in
this case we used A green diode to signify that the system in now open when it
lights up and closed when it remains off.)
Implementations

 Decimal to Binary Coded Decimal circuit since the IC wasn’t locally available.
 In this circuit we used diodes as OR gates so as to reduces Voltage drops since a single diode
consumes only about 0.6-0.7V. In other words, for each diode you connect and its working
at the same time, you will lose 0.65 V we are working with TTL IC, that means that we need
at least more than 2 V. And as we are starting with 5V.
 We Implemented the OR gate also using the (Universal gate) NOR (7400) and NOT GATE
(7404).
 We also design the comparator circuit shown in fig 6, instead of using the proper IC, which
wasn’t locally available.

Recommendations
 Connect a buzzer that produce an alarming signal inform of sound when an intruder has
entered an incorrect pass code.

Challenges

 The dial pad we designed was negatively behaving, not all numbers were able to be
displayed thus limiting us to a few numbers of password options.
 The circuit had so many ICs thus making it very complex to mount so as to
troubleshoot for errors and also took much time to assemble it.
 Circuit components were expensive and rarely available in the market so at some
staged we had to maneuver with the available components such as noting a NOR
gate to get a OR gate.
Conclusion

To a greater extent, this project was a success since it was able to operate as intended,
only with a few areas that were not working well such as the dial pad. We were able to
entre a password, set it as a new password and lock it, thus the red LED would lit. any
password put that was compared at the comparator and was detected different from the
stored one, the red LED would remain lit but if it corresponds, a green LED would light be
showing current is passing to the next stage if any.