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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Burning Issue

Language is as a systematic way of combining smaller units into larger

units for the purpose of communication. For example, we combine the sounds

of our language (phonemes) to form words (lexical items) according to the

‘rules’ of the language(s) we speak. Those lexical items can be combined to

make grammatical structures, again according to the syntactic ‘rules’ of our

language(s). Language is essentially a rule-governed system. For example, we

usually assume that we use language to say what we mean. However, the

processes by which we create ‘meaning’ are actually very complicated indeed.

And for every meaning you can think of, there is a corresponding group of

sounds (a spoken word) and letters (a written word).

The Sociolinguistics is the combination of the Sociology and Linguistic.

It assumes very little previously knowledge of linguistic, anthropology, or

sociology. Any discussion of the relationship between language and society, or

of the various functions of language in society, should begin with some

attempt to define each of these terms. Let us say that a society is any group of

people who are drawn together for a certain purpose or purposes. A part

subject of the sociolinguistic science is the politeness.

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Through our choice of pronominal form when a T/V distinction exist

and of address terms, we can show our feeling toward other –solidarity,

power, distance, respect, intimacy, and also so on- and our awareness of social

customs. Such awareness is also shown through the general ‘politeness’ with

which we use language. Politeness itself is socially prescribed. This does not

mean, of course, that we must always be polite, for we may be quite impolite

to others on occasion. However, we could not be so if there where not rules

of politeness to be broken. Impoliteness depends on the existence of the

standards, or norms, of politeness.

This aspect of language, its ability to communicate information, is very

important. Examples of contexts where this aspect of language is very obvious

are: pilots discussing flight paths with air traffic control; recipes; assembly

instructions with self-assembly furniture; school textbooks; directions on how

to get to a friend’s house. In all these cases, accurate, non-ambiguous

information will be a priority. However, the transmission of information is

certainly not the only reason we use language, and there are many linguistic

choices we make every day which are not a consequence of information

transmission at all.

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“The polite and impolite language used by the collegian based

on the situational context” I believe this theme as one of effect that was

emerged by the language uses for the specific in this case is collegian’s

language. I found the phenomena of language uses of collegian’s language, he

has two characters of the language uses based on situation context; he used the

polite language when made conversation to his: parents, lecturer, sister and his

girls friend but very different when he made conversation to his best friend

who he met everyday in boardinghouse or campus he used impolite language,

but the result was different when the same collegian but this time he felt bad

mood he brave to show the impolite language to somebody such as his

parents, his sister and his girls friend but not to his lecturer, this is very unique

I mean why he do that. So I want to analyze this phenomena with language

uses based on situational context to try answered this question.

B. Focus of Inquiry

The focus of inquiry of this research is: how far is collegian always can

used polite language for communication to every people?

C. Opening Question

The purpose of this study is to describe the change of collegian’s

language use based on the situational context” in communication. As we know

that the collegian is still labile in communication to order his mind with the

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other. Sometimes he used polite language but one minutes furthermore he

used impolite language. The major questions to be addressed are:

1. What were polite and impolite languages that are used by collegian in

communication to some people in good mood and bad mood

condition?

2. What is the collegian’s language can influenced by the education so he

can always used polite language to his lecturer in communication in bad

mood or good mood?

D. Objective of Research

The objective of research in this study is to know the polite and impolite

language that is used by the collegian in communication and that is based on

situational context.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A. The level of politeness language

Some languages seem to have built into them very complex system of

politeness. Bahasa Sunda, one of the principal language of Indonesia, is a

language in which, as Geertz (1960, p.248) says ‘it is nearly impossible to say

anything without indicating the social relationships between the speaker and

the listener in terms of the status and familiarity.’ Before Bahasa Sunda speak

to another, he or she must decide on an appropriate speech style (or styleme,

in Geertz’s terminology): high, middle, or low. Such a decision is necessary

because for the many words there are three distinct variants according to style.

For the example, the equivalent to the English word goes is mangkat or angkat in

high style, indit in middle style, and mantog in low style. Politeness in situational

context for collective the data involve self and other in speech act for

communication. According to Leech, the politeness theory based on five

points those are: cost benefit scale, optional scale, indirectness scale, authority

scale, and social distance scale.

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A. Cost Benefit Scale

Cost benefit scale or scale disadvantages and profit indicate to big or

small the disadvantages or the profit because of a speech act in discourse.

More the speech act made the speaker disadvantages so the speech act will be

judge more polite.

B. Optional Scale

Optional scale or the scale of choice, or at least points to the many

options presented to the partners said the speakers at the events recalled. The

more speech that allows the speaker or partner said that a lot of choices and

flexibility will be increasingly so that speech is polite.

C. Indirectness Scale

Indirectness scale or a scale ranking points to direct or indirect purpose

of a speech. The more indirect purpose of a speech it would be more polite

speech.

D. Authority Scale

Authority scale or scale refers to social status relationship between the

narrator and the partners involved in the substitutions said. The farther the

distance between the speaker and the partners with different social so the

language used will more polite.

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E. Social Distance Scale

Social distance scale refers to the class of social relations between

speakers and partners involved in a speech substitutions. There is a tendency

that the closer the social rank of the two it will be increasingly less polite

speech

Research Finding:

a. Cost Benefit Scale

No. data :1

Name : Intan Wulan

Date : 1 Juni 2012

Location : In The Canteen of The Campus

Context The Data of Speech Act

The seller which meet the collegian as buyer who want Collegian: Ibu punteun ieu

help the seller to cleared up the tools in his small shop ditaruh dimana?

(Bu, yang ini ditaruh di mana?)

Seller in campus: Sawios neng,

teu nanaon, jadi ngerepotken

pembeli, wios ibu wae.

(Sudah neng tidak apa-apa,

biarin ibusaja yang bawa. Eneng

kan pembeli tidak usah repot-

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repot membantu ibu. Biar ibu

saja yang bawa).

Analysis

Obedient with polite principal with used maxim of

wise, because the seller minimize the disadvantages of

other and maximize the profit of other.

b. Optional Scale

No. data :2

Name : Ujang

Date : 2 Juni 2012

Location : In The Home

Context The Data of Speech Act

In the home when the collegian has holiday, he made His neighbors: jang tiasa pang

conversation with old man as his neighbor and then his mennceut tan keun bapa

neighbor ask the collegian to massage him. henteu?

The collegian: muhun pak,

tiasa ku abdi di bantosan, bade

sakantenan di urut henteu pak.?

Analysis

In this case use optional scale because the collegian

give more option to his neighbors

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c. Indirectness Scale

No. data :3

Name : Asep Ridwan

Date : 3 Juni 2012

Location : In The Class

Context The Data of Speech Act

When the collegian has study in the class the collegian The collegian: pak kumaha nya

want get good score in the teacher subject. And he ask nilai mata kuliah , anu

it with indirectness scale kapungkur di bimbing ku bapa

awon, ayeuna teh mata kuliahna

aya anu di bimbing deui ku

bapa, kira-kira nilaina tiasa sae

henteu nya?

Teacher: oh muhun kitu nya

sep, nya entos atuh tingali deui

ku bapa upami nilai na hoyong

sae mah asep kedah rajin

ngumpulkeun tugas supados

nilai na heunte awon deui.

Analysis

In this case the collegian used indirectness scale

because he wants something but he said to the teacher

with indirect

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d. Authority Scale

No. data :4

Name : Muslim Kosim

Date : 4 Juni 2012

Location : On The Way of Campus

Context The Data of Speech Act

The collegian felt bad mood but his teacher ask

him to buy something in a small store The teacher : slim

pangmeserkeun bodrek keur

bapa ti warung tatangga

The collegian: muhun pak

Analysis

In this case the collegian use the authority scale because

of although he felt bad mood but he with his teacher

there is authority so still want goes to small store.

e. Social Distance Scale

No. data :5

Name : Aang Saefulloh

Date : 5 Juni 2012

Location : In The Collegian Home

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Context The Data of Speech Act

The collegian get holiday and stay in his home,

this time the collegian felt bad mood and his old The old sister of the

sister ask him to buy a fish in the supermarket collegian: ang pangmeserkeun

ikan nya ti pasar

The collegian: ah mbong ah…

ku sorangan we

Analysis

In this case the collegian felt bad mood and he doesn’t

want go to the supermarket because there is social

distance scale so he brave to refuse his old sister order

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

A. Pilot study

The researcher used many observe to research the data from the collegian with

observe the collegian in the home and the collegian in the campus so the

researcher can get any data to be collective and then for made conclusion.

B. Instruments

The instrument used in this study is observation. The research observed his

speech in the campus, boarding house, and on the way. The reason using this

instrument is that it is as an outsider and observer gets to see things first-hand

and to use his character and using his knowledge to analyses the data.

C. Respondents

The respondent in this study is some of the collegian in UIN SGD Bandung in

six semesters. The researcher always observes the habitual of the

correspondent in every time during process researching the data.

D. Data obtained

The data obtained in this research used recorder and a photo when the

respondent makes a communication with the other in their live.

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E. Data analysis

The result of this observation was immediately transcribe and classified into

two categories where one another have close relation. Those are:

1. The collegian still keeps his attitude although he felt bad mood when

he made conversation or relation with someone who not close with

him. Because there is authority scale then he used polite language

between him and his teacher such as in the example tables of authority

scale.

2. The collegian used the polite language to someone who closes to him

but sometime when he felt bad mood, he used the impolite language

and then refused the order of his old sisters.

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CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSIONS

In the last chapter, the research concludes that the collegian in UIN

SGD Bandung have many character in communication. There is the collegian

who still keeps his attitude with said polite to somebody who not close to him

such as his teacher when he felt bad mood but when there is the collegian who

show his bad mood to somebody because close to him such: his sister all of

that situation because of there are five theory in politeness such as: Cost

Benefit Scale, Optimal Scale, Indirectness Scale, Authority Scale and The Last

Social Distance Scale.

The most important finding of the researcher inquiry is that the

collegian have many character in communication to the other, sometime he

used polite language and sometime used impolite language in communication

that is depend on the situational, that are: mood and close or not close to

someone.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wardhough, R. 1986. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, Basil-Blackwell,

New York, USA.

Suwito, 1985. Pengantar Awal Sosiolinguistik, Teori dan Problema. Edisi

Ke-2 Surakarta: Henry Offset.

Alwasilah, A.Chaedar.1993.Linguistik Suatu Pengantar .Angkasa.Bandung

Crystal, David.1985. A Dictionary of Linguistic and Phonetics, Basil

Blackwell, New York, USA.

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AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Name : Jaya

Place/Date of Birth : Bekasi 5 Juni 1990

Address In Bekasi : Jln. Raya Tambelang Bekasi

Address In Bandung : Cipadung, Cibiru, Bandung

Statues : The Collegian

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