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DESIGN OF MACHINE

ELEMENTS-I
[Week 3-4]

By
Dr. Liaquat /Anique Mukhtar
aniquemukhtar@hotmail.com
Spline Problem
• 1-inch shaft transmits 7.5 hp at 1450 rpm. The shaft is made of steel. If
direction is regularly reversed, design a spline so that it can’t slide under
loading condition. Justify number of splines selected.
Spline Design
The torque capacity for SAE splines is based on the
limit of 1000-psi bearing stress on the sides of the
splines, from which the following formula is
derived:
T = 1000NRh
1. Number of Spline - N
2. Mean Radius of Spline - R
3. Spline Depth - h
Spline Design
Design of Keys & Couplings
• Ch-13 Khurmi
• Ch-7 Shigley
• Ch-11 Robert L. Mott
Pinning
• A hole can be drilled through
both the shaft and hub.
• A pin can be inserted in the
hole.
• Types of Pins
Cylindrical Pin Taper Pin Split spring Pin
Pinning
• Fitting as well as prevention of a cylindrical pin from falling out of the
assembly is difficult.
• To overcome above problem, taper or split spring pin is utilized.
• Split spring pin is the most suitable pin as the hole is made slightly smaller
than the diameter of the pin in this case.
• The pin is press fit in the hole and requires a little force to insert the pin.
Stress in Pin
Shear Stress in Pin

1. Diameter of shaft - D
2. Diameter of Pin - d
COUPLING
Shaft couplings are used in machinery for;

1. To provide for the connection of shafts


2. To provide for misalignment of the shafts
3. To introduce protection against overloads
COUPLING
Types of Shafts Couplings

1. Rigid coupling
a) Sleeve or muff Coupling
b) Clamp or Compression Coupling
c) Flange Coupling

2. Flexible coupling
a) Universal or Hooke’s Coupling
COUPLING
Sleeve or Muff-coupling
COUPLING

Clamp or Compression Coupling


COUPLING
Flange Coupling
COUPLING
Flange Coupling
COUPLING
COUPLING
COUPLING
COUPLING

Generator

Steam turbine
(5 KW)
Keyway
COUPLING
MATERIALS
• Aluminum offers low cost and low moment of inertia. When coated
appropriately, it also boasts low coefficient of friction, good wear
characteristics, and good corrosion resistance. aluminum is the best default
choice for metallic coupling components.

• Stainless steel offers good corrosion resistance and high strength over a wide
range of temperatures, but increases cost.

• Alloy steel and brass are worth considering when cost is the primary
consideration.
Flange Coupling

tf = 0.5 d
COUPLING
Design of Flange Coupling

d = Diameter of shaft or inner diameter of hub,


D = Outer diameter of hub,
d1 = Diameter of bolt,
D1 = Diameter of bolt circle
n = Number of bolts
tf = Thickness of flange
τs, τb and τk = Allowable shear stress for shaft, bolt and key material
τf = Allowable shear stress for the flange material i.e. cast iron,
σcb and σck = Allowable crushing stress for bolt and key material
COUPLING
Design for hub

T 16T
h = r h = D
J  (D − d )
4 4

Design for key


Failure by Shearing Failure by Torsion Failure by Compression

2T  r2 l=
4T
l= l=
dw 2w c t d
COUPLING
Design for flange

F F .( D / 2) = T A = π D tf
f =
A
2T
f =
 D2 t f
COUPLING
Design for Bolts
Failure by shearing

F
b =
A
F .( D1 / 2) = T π d12
A=n
4
8T
b =
n  D1 d12
COUPLING
Design for Bolts

Failure by crushing
F
 cb = F .( D1 / 2) = T A = nd1t f
A

2T
 cb =
n D1 d1 t f
COUPLING
Design for Bolts

n = 3, for d upto 40 mm
n = 4, for d upto 100 mm
n = 6, for d upto 180 mm

d (mm)
n= +3
50
COUPLING
Example-1

Design a rigid type flange coupling to connect two shafts in order to transmit
torque. The input shaft transmits 20 HP at 200 R.P.M. to the output shaft through
coupling. The service factor of safety is 1.5 and the design torque is 1.5 times the
rated torque.

The stress values are given below.


Flange & hub (Grey cast iron) with σyt = 200MPa
Shaft (Plain Carbon Steel) with σyt = 400MPa
Key & bolts (Plain Carbon Steel) with σyt = 350MPa
16T tf = d/2
h = D
 (D − d )
4 4

2T
f =
 D2 t f
8T
b =
n  D1 d12
2T
 cb =
n D1 d1 t f

d (mm)
n= +3
50
COUPLING

Example-2

Design a cast iron flange coupling for a steel shaft transmitting 50HP at
500R.P.M. and having an allowable shear stress of 40MPa. The working stress in
the bolts should not exceed 30 MPa. Assume that the same material is used for
shaft and key and that the crushing stress is twice the value of its shear stress. The
maximum torque is 25% greater than the full load torque. The shear stress for cast
iron is 14 MPa.
COUPLING

Example-3

Design a cast iron flange coupling to transmit 15 kW at 900 R.P.M. from an


electric motor to a compressor. The service factor of safety may be assumed as 1.35.
The following permissible stresses may be used :
Shear stress for shaft, bolt and key material = 40 MPa, Shear stress for cast iron
flange = 8 MPa.
See You In Next Class

Anique Mukhtar| DME- I |Fall 2018 34