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1- Numerical Line Differential + Distance+ Direction Overcurrent Protection 7SD522

LINE PROTECTION RELAY (87L+21+67N):

Substation Data:
Station Name = ABC SS Current Transformer T1 Issue #
Station Number = 1234 Date : 29-Jul-2019 26/11/1440
Line/Cable Name = Line-1

MAIN OH/UG Line Data: CT & VT DATA:


Primary Side = 33 KV Power Factor = 0.85 CT Ratio = 600 / 1 A
Maximum Load Current = 500 A VT Ratio = 33 KV / 115 V
Load Angle = 31.78 Deg
Min. 3 Phase Bus Fault Level = 13500 A
3 Phase Fault Angle = 88.9 Deg
Min. 1 Phase Bus Fault Level = 16700 A RELAY DETAIL:
1 Phase Fault Angle = 88.9 Deg Relay Ordering No. = 7SD522-5DB99-9HK0
Feeder Type = OH +L0S+M0H+N7S
System X/R = 50
+ve Sequence Resistance = 8.249642 Ohm Current Rating = 1 A
+ve Sequence Reactance = 14.862273 Ohm AC Voltage Rating = 110 V
Line Angle = 29.02969502 Deg DC Voltage Rating = 125 V
Zero Sequence Resistance = 22.89413 Ohm Permissive Trip = Enabled
Zero Sequence Reactance = 46.02888 Ohm
Arc Resistance = To be calculated
Tower Foot Resistance = 10 Ohm (In case of UG cable, this value will be zero)
Conductor Spacing 5 Ohm
Zone-1 Coverage = 70 % Line length
Zone-1B Coverage = 120 % Line length
Zone-2 Coverage = 130 % Line length
Zone-3 Coverage = 220 % Line length
Zone-4 Coverage = 25 % Line length
System Frequency = 60

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


R / Km XL / Km R0 / Km X0/ Km Length (Km) Conductor Banked/Un Banked
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436 0.16 x Un banked 1st type
0.173 0.312 0.476 0.966 47.5 y Un banked 2nd type
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436 0.17 x Un banked 3rd type
0 0 0 0 - 4th type

After divding by 2 if Banked


R / Km XL / Km R0 / Km X0/ Km
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436
0.173 0.312 0.476 0.966
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436
0 0 0 0

After multiplying by length


R XL R0 X0
0.015584 0.020496 0.13776 0.06976
8.2175 14.82 22.61 45.885
0.016558 0.021777 0.14637 0.07412
0 0 0 0

ADJACENT SUBSTATION DATA:

Transformer at remote end


Tranformer rating 20
No. of transformers 3
Percentage imp. 8
Zone 2 cover. 351%
Zone 3 cover. 1405%

Line at remote end #REF!


Next shortest line covered in Z2. 49% #REF!
Next longest line covered in Z3. 120%

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


Calculation for Shortest Line:
R / Km XL / Km R0 / Km X0/ Km Length (KM) Conductor Banked/Un Banked
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436 0.16 x Un banked 1st type
0.173 0.312 0.476 0.966 29 y Un banked 2nd type
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436 0.17 x Un banked 3rd type
0 0 0 0 - 4th type

After divding by 2 if Banked


R / Km XL / Km R0 / Km X0/ Km
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436
0.173 0.312 0.476 0.966
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436
0 0 0 0

After multiplying by length


R XL R0 X0
0.015584 0.020496 0.13776 0.06976
5.017 9.048 13.804 28.014
0.016558 0.021777 0.14637 0.07412
0 0 0 0

Calculation for Longest Line:


R / Km XL / Km R0 / Km X0/ Km Length (KM) Conductor Banked/Un Banked
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436 0.16 x Un banked 1st type
0.173 0.312 0.476 0.966 47.5 y Un banked 2nd type
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436 0.17 x Un banked 3rd type
0 0 0 0 - 4th type

After divding by 2 if Banked


R / Km XL / Km R0 / Km X0/ Km
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436
0.173 0.312 0.476 0.966
0.0974 0.1281 0.861 0.436
0 0 0 0

After multiplying by length


R XL R0 X0
0.015584 0.020496 0.13776 0.06976
8.2175 14.82 22.61 45.885
0.016558 0.021777 0.14637 0.07412
0 0 0 0

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


DIFFERENTAIL PROTECTION CALCULATIONS
5

5 biased diff curve


Id> = 0.30 In
Id>> = 2.00 In 4

3 Operate
3

Idiff
2

1
Restrain
1

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

I rest

DISTANCE PROTECTION CALCULATIONS

Positive Seq. Line Resistance = 8.249642 Ohms

R1 (primary) 8.2496 Ohms

Positive Seq. Line Reactance = 14.862273 Ohms

X1 (primary) 14.8623 Ohms

Polar (primary) =8.2496+j14.8623 Ohms

Z1 17.00 60.97

Zero Seq. Line Resistance = 22.89413 Ohms

R0 (primary) 22.8941 Ohms

Zero Seq. Line Reactance = 46.02888 Ohms

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


X0 (primary) 46.0289 Ohms

Polar (primary) =22.8941+j46.0289 Ohms

Z0 51.41 63.55

Residual compensation = (1/3) x (((R0line)/(R1line ))-1)


= (1/3) x ((22.8941 / 8.2496) -1)

RE/RL 0.59

Residual compensation = (1/3) x (((X0line)/(X1line))-1)


= (1/3) x ((46.0289 / 14.8623) -1)

XE/XL 0.7

Arc resistance calculation (E/F)

Total Impedance = Zs + (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3


Zs (Source Impedance) = (33 x1000 / SQRT(3)) / 16700
1.14 Ohms

Rs (Source Resistance) = Zs x COS (Source Imp. Angle)


= 1.14 x COS(88.9)
0.0219 Ohms

Xs (Source Reactance) = Zs x SIN (Source Imp. Angle)


= 1.14 x SIN(88.9)
1.14 Ohms

Rl (Line Resistance) = 0.7 x (Total Line length positive resistance)


= 0.7x8.249642 Ohms
5.775 Ohms

Xl (Line Reactance) = 0.7 x (Total Line length positive reactance)


= 0.7x14.862273 Ohms
10.4 Ohms

R0 (Line Resistance) = 0.7 x (Total Line length zero resistance)


= 0.7x46.02888 Ohms
16.03 Ohms

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


X0 (Line Reactance) = 0.7 x (Total Line length zero reactance)
= 0.7x46.02888 Ohms
32.22 Ohms

Total Impedance = Zs + (Z1 + Z2 + Z0)/3

Total Resistance = 0.0219 + (5.775 + 5.775 + 16.03) / 3


9.215 Ohms

Total Reactance = 1.14 + (10.4 + 10.4 + 32.22) / 3


18.81 Ohms

Total Impedance = SQRT(Total resistance^2 + Total reactance^2)


= SQRT(9.215^2 + 18.81^2)
20.95 Ohms

E/F current at zone1 reach = Phase voltage / Total E/F Impedance


= (33 x 1000 / SQRT(3)) / 20.95
909.43 A

Arc resistance (E/F) = 28700 d / I1.4

Conductor Spacing 'd' 5 (ASSUMED)


= 28700 x 5 / 909.43^1.4 Warrington's Formula
Therefore;
Arc resistance (E/F) 10.3413 Ohms

Arc resistance calculation (P/F)

Total Impedance = Zs1 + Zl


Zs (Source Impedance) = (33 x1000 / SQRT(3)) / 13500
1.41 Ohms

Rs (Source Resistance) = Zs x COS (Source Imp. Angle)


= 1.41 x COS(88.9)
0.03 Ohms

Xs (Source Reactance) = Zs x SIN (Source Imp. Angle)


= 1.41 x SIN(88.9)
1.41 Ohms

Total Impedance = Zs1 + Zl

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


Total Resistance = 0.03 + 5.775
5.81 Ohms

Total Reactance = 1.41 + 10.4


11.81 Ohms

Total Impedance = SQRT(Total resistance^2 + Total reactance^2)


= SQRT(5.81^2 + 11.81^2)
13.16 Ohms

3ph. fault current at Z1 reach = Phase voltage / Phase Impedance


= (33 x 1000 / SQRT(3)) / 13.16
1447.76 Ohms

PH to Ph fault current = 0.866 x 3 phase fault current


= 0.866 x 1447.76
1253.76 A

Arc resistance = 28700 d / I1.4


= 28700 x 5 / 1253.76^1.4Warrington's Formula
Arc Resistance (ph-ph) 6.6 Ohms

ZONE -1 REACH SETTINGS

Zone-1 Reactance Setting


Forward Direction (Quad)
Z1 Positive Seq. Reactance Setting = 0.7 x X1
10.40361 Ohms

Z1 Zero Seq. Reactance Setting = 0.7 x X0


32.22023 Ohms

Zone-1 Resistance setting


Forward Direction (Quad)
Z1 Positive Seq. Resistance Setting = 0.7 x R1
5.77472 Ohms

Z1 Zero Seq. Resistance Setting = 0.7 x R0


16.02587 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Phase) = Pos. Seq. resistance Setting+Rarc

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


Therefore;
Fault Resistance (Phase) 12.37472 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Earth) = Pos. Seq. Resistance setting+Rarc+Rtower

Therefore;
Fault Resistance (Earth) 26.11602 Ohms

ZONE -1B REACH SETTINGS

Zone-1B Reactance Setting


Forward Direction (Quad)
Z1B Positive Seq. Reactance Setting = 1.2 x X1
17.83476 Ohms

Z1B Zero Seq. Reactance Setting = 1.2 x X0


55.23468 Ohms

Zone-1B Resistance setting


Forward Direction (Quad)
Z1B Positive Seq. Resistance Setting = 1.2 x R1
9.89952 Ohms

Z1B Zero Seq. Resistance Setting = 1.2 x R0


27.47292 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Phase) = Pos. Seq. resistance Setting+Rarc

Therefore;
Fault Resistance (Phase) 16.49952 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Earth) = Pos. Seq. Resistance setting+Rarc+Rtower

Therefore;
Fault Resistance (Earth) 30.24082 Ohms

ZONE -2 REACH SETTINGS

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


Zone-2 Reactance Setting
Forward Direction (Quad)
Z2 Positive Seq. Reactance Setting = 1.3 x X1
19.32099 Ohms

Z2 Zero Seq. Reactance Setting = 1.3 x X0


59.83757 Ohms

Zone-2 Resistance setting


Forward Direction (Quad)
Z2 Positive Seq. Resistance Setting = 1.3 x R1
10.72448 Ohms

Z2 Zero Seq. Resistance Setting = 1.3 x R0


29.76233 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Phase) = Pos. Seq. resistance Setting+Rarc

Therefore;
Fault Resistance (Phase) 17.32448 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Earth) = Pos. Seq. Resistance setting+Rarc+Rtower

Therefore;
Fault Resistance (Earth) 31.06578 Ohms

ZONE -3 REACH SETTINGS

Zone-3 Reactance Setting


Forward Direction (Quad)
Z3 Positive Seq. Reactance Setting = 2.2 x X1
32.69706 Ohms

Z3 Zero Seq. Reactance Setting = 2.2 x X0


101.26358 Ohms

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


Zone-3 Resistance setting
Forward Direction (Quad)
Z3 Positive Seq. Resistance Setting = 2.2 x R1
18.14912 Ohms

Z3 Zero Seq. Resistance Setting = 2.2 x R0


50.36702 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Phase) = Pos. Seq. resistance Setting+Rarc

Therefore;
Fault Resistance (Phase) 24.74912 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Earth) = Pos. Seq. Resistance setting+Rarc+Rtower

Therefore;
Fault Resistance (Earth) 38.49042 Ohms

ZONE -4 REACH SETTINGS

Zone-4 Reactance Setting


Reverse Direction (Quad)
Z4 Positive Seq. Reactance Setting = 0.25 x X1
3.715575 Ohms

Z4 Zero Seq. Reactance Setting = 0.25 x X0


11.507225 Ohms

Zone-4 Resistance setting


Forward Direction (Quad)
Z4 Positive Seq. Resistance Setting = 0.25 x R1
2.0624 Ohms

Z4 Zero Seq. Resistance Setting = 0.25 x R0


5.723525 Ohms

Fault Resistance (Phase) = Pos. Seq. resistance Setting+Rarc


Reverse Direction (Quad)
10.315575 Ohms

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


Fault Resistance (Earth) = Pos. Seq. Resistance setting+Rarc
Reverse Direction (Quad) +Rtower
24.056875 Ohms

LOAD IMPEDANCE:

Z load = Umin/Imax

Umin = 0.95 x 33 31.35 KV


Iload = 500 A

Z load = 36.2 Ohms

Since for calcualting worst power factor i.e. (0.85).


Power Factor ≥ Cos-1 (0.85) + 5 deg (margin)

Therefore;
Angle ≥ 36.79 Degree

Load Resistance = 36.2*COS(36.79)

= 28.99 Ohms

Load Reactance = 36.2*SIN(36.79)

= 21.68 Ohms

BACKUP OVERCURRENT:

Maximum Load current = 500 A

As per the practice the pick up value shall be 150% of maximum load current for non-directional.

Pick up value Current = 750 A

For directional selection the pickup value shall be 60% of maximum load current.

Pick up value Current = 300 A

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter


EARTH FAULT OVERCURRENT:

As per the standard the earth fault value shall be 30% of phase current.

For non-directional:
Pick up value Current = 225 A

For directional:
Pick up value Current = 90 A

Prepared by Syed Furqan Akhter