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A

Dissertation on

“ Design Optimization and Analysis of


Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite
Material ”
By

Miss. Mhaisdhune Kanchan Balasaheb

Guide

Mr. D. V. Kushare

Department of Mechanical Engineering


[ ME Design Engineering ]

Nashik District Maratha Vidya Prasarak Samajs


Karmaveer Adv. Baburao Ganpatrao Thakare
College of Engineering, Nashik - 422013 (MS)

[ 2017-18 ]
Nashik District Maratha Vidya Prasarak Samajs
Karmaveer Adv. Baburao Ganpatrao Thakare
College of Engineering, Nashik - 422013 (MS)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Miss.Mhaisdhune Kanchan Balasaheb, has suc-
cessfully completed the Dissertation entitled ”Design Optimization
and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Ma-
terial ” under my supervision, in the partial fulfilment of Master of
Engineering (Mechanical)(Design Engineering) of Savitribai Phule Pune
University.

Date:

Place:

Mr. D.V.Kushare Mr. D.V. Kushare Dr. S. P. Mogal


Guide PG Coordinator HOD
(NDMVPS’s KBT COE)

External Examiner Seal Dr. K. S. Holkar


Principal
(NDMVPS’s KBT COE)

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With all respect and gratitude, I would like to thank all people who have helped me
directly or indirectly for this Dissertation.

I express my heartily thankfulness towards my guide and PG coordinator Mr D. V.


Kushare to complete this work on ‘Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor
Knuckle Joint using composite Material’. His ideas, directions gave me moral boost
up to complete this Dissertation.

Thanks to Head of Mechanical Department Dr. S. P. Mogal, Principal Dr. K. S.


Holkar, and all the Teaching & Non-teaching staff members of Mechanical Engineering
Department for providing necessary information and required resources timely.

I intend to conclude this acknowledgement with the deep thanks and sincere to my
friends and parents who have helped me to complete Dissertation.

Ms Mhaisdhune Kanchan Balasaheb

M.E. Mechanical (Design Engineering)


CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES vi

LIST OF TABLES viii

NOMENCLATURE x

ABSTRACT xi

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Mechanical Joints: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Types of Mechanical Joints: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Material Requirement of Knuckle Joint: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.4 Failures occurring in Knuckle Joint: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.5 Problem Definition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.6 Objective: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.7 Scopes: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.8 Methodology: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.9 Organisation of Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


1.9.1 Design Parameters: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.9.2 Design Requirements (Stress σt , σc , τ ): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.9.3 Design of Knuckle Joint Using Steel: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.9.4 Selection of Composite Material: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.9.5 Design of Knuckle Joint Using Composite Materials: . . . . . . . 12

1.9.6 Comparison of Results: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

ii
1.9.7 Simulation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.9.8 Experimental Validation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.9.9 Results and Conclusion: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 15
2.1 Research Gap: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF STEEL KNUCKLE JOINT 30

3.1 Design and Strength Equation of Knuckle Joint: . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.2 Analysis of Knuckle Joint Made of Steel: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.2.1 Analysis of Rod (30C8): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.2.2 Analysis of Knuckle Pin (Stainless Steel): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.2.3 Analysis of Single Eye (30C8): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.2.4 Analysis of Fork (30C8): . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.3 FEA of Steel Knuckle Joint using CREO: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.4 Actual Failure Occuring in Components : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE KNUCKLE JOINT 44

4.1 Introduction to Composite Material: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4.1.1 Composites with polymer matrices: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4.1.2 Composites with metal matrices: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

4.2 Properties of Metal Matrices Composite: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.3 Compositions and Specification of Composite Materials: . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.3.1 Al 6061T6: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.3.2 Ti6al4V: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4.3.3 AlCuSiMn 2014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

4.3.4 AlZnMgCu 7075: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

4.4 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Knuckle Joint (Pin): . . . . . . . . 50

4.4.1 Aluminium 6061 T6 Alloy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

4.4.2 Titanium Ti6al4V: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

4.4.3 Aluminium AlCuSiMn 2014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

iii
4.4.4 Aluminium AlZnMgCu 7075: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

4.4.5 Response Analysis of Pin for Different Loading Condition: . . . . 52

4.5 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Knuckle Joint (Single Eye): . . . . 54

4.5.1 Aluminium 6061 T6 Alloy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

4.5.2 Titanium Ti6al4V: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

4.5.3 Aluminium AlCuSiMn 2014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.5.4 Aluminium AlZnMgCu 7075: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.5.5 Response Analysis of Single Eye for Different Loading Condition: 56

4.6 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Knuckle Joint (Double Eye): . . . 58

4.6.1 Aluminium 6061 T6 Alloy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.6.2 Titanium Ti6al4V: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.6.3 Aluminium AlCuSiMn 2014: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

4.6.4 Aluminium AlZnMgCu 7075 composite: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

4.6.5 Response Analysis of Composite Joint for Different Loading Con-


ditions: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.7 Comparison of Composite and Steel Knuckle Joint: . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

4.8 Cost Analysis of Different Materials: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

5 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & TESTING 63

5.1 Universal Testing Machine: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.1.1 Introduction: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.1.2 Main Components of Machine: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.1.3 Operation of Universal Testing Machine: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

5.2 Specifications of Universal Testing Machine: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

5.3 Tension Test of Single Eye: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

5.3.1 Experimental Testing and Results for Single Eye: . . . . . . . . . 66

5.3.2 All FEA Results for Single Eye: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

5.4 Shearing Test of Knuckle Pin: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

5.4.1 Experimental Testing: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

5.4.2 FEA Results for Shearing of Pin: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

iv
6 RESULT AND DISSCUSSION 72

7 CONCLUSIONS 74

REFERENCES

v
LIST OF FIGURES

1.1 Cotter Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Turn Buckle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.3 Assembly and Details of Knuckle Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.4 Single Eye subjected to excessive Tension, Crushing and Shear. . . . . . . 4

1.5 Fork subjected to excessive Tension, Crushing and Shear. . . . . . . . . . 4

1.6 Double Shearing of Knuckle Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.7 Flow Process for Achieving Design Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.8 Terminology of Knuckle Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3.1 Knuckle Pin Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.2 Terminology of Single Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.3 Terminology of Fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.4 Actual Pictures of Tractor Knuckle Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.5 Dimensions Knuckle Pin (Material - Stainless Steel) . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3.6 Dimensions of Single Eye (Material - 30C8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.7 Dimensions of Fork (Material - 30C8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.8 Assembly of Knuckle Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.9 Exploded View of Knuckle Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.10 FEA of Steel Knuckle Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.11 FEA of Steel Single Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.12 FEA of Steel Fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

3.13 Failure of Knuckle Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.14 Failure of Single Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

vi
4.1 FEA Analysis of Pin of Composite Al6061T6 for 50 KN . . . . . . . . . 50

4.2 FEA Analysis of Pin of Composite Titanium Ti6al4V for 50 KN . . . . 50

4.3 FEA Analysis of Pin of Composite Aluminium AlCuSiMn 2014 for 50 KN 51

4.4 FEA Analysis of Pin of Composite Aluminium AlZnMgCu 7075 for 50 KN 55


4.5 Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Pin . . . . . . . . 52

4.6 Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Pin . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4.7 FEA Analysis of Single Eye of Composite Al6061T6 for 50 KN . . . . . . 54

4.8 FEA Analysis of Single Eye of Composite Titanium Ti6al4V for 50 KN . 54

4.9 FEA Analysis of Single Eye of Composite AlCuSiMn 2014 for 50 KN . . 55

4.10 FEA Analysis of Single Eye of Composite AlZnMgCu 7075 for 50 KN . . 55

4.11 Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Single Eye . . . . 56

4.12 Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Single Eye . . . . . . . 57

4.13 FEA Analysis of Double Eye of Composite Al6061T6 for 50 KN . . . . . 58

4.14 FEA Analysis of Double Eye of Composite Titanium Ti6al4V for 50 KN 58

4.15 FEA Analysis of Double Eye of Composite AlCuSiMn 2014 for 50 KN . . 59

4.16 FEA Analysis of Double Eye of Composite AlZnMgCu 7075 for 50 KN . 59

4.17 Response Analysis for Maximum Stress of Double Eye . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.18 Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Double Eye . . . . . . 61

5.1 Universal Testing Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.2 Component of Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

5.3 Machine Holding Single Eye for Tension Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

5.4 Control Panel of Universal Testing Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

5.5 Set of FEA Results for Single Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

5.6 Arrangement of component for calculating Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . 69

5.7 Set of FEA Results for Knuckle Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

vii
LIST OF TABLES

1.1 Terminology of Knuckle Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.2 Properties of Material - Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.3 Properties of Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

3.1 Analytical Stress Results for different Load in N/mm2 . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.2 FEA Results of Steel Knuckle Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.3 FEA Results of Single Eye Made of 30C8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

3.4 FEA Results of Fork Made of 30C8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4.1 Properties of Composite(Copy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

4.2 Chemical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.3 Chemical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4.4 Chemical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

4.5 Chemical Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

4.6 Properties of Composite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

4.7 Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Pin . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4.8 Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Single Eye . . . . 56

4.9 Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Single Eye . . . . 57

4.10 Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Double Eye . . . 60

4.11 Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Double Eye . . . . . . 61

4.12 Comparison of Composite and Steel Knuckle Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

4.13 Raw Material Cost and Manufacturing Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

5.1 Results for Deflection of Single Eye using UTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

viii
5.2 Experimental Results for Tensile Stress produced in of Single Eye . . . . 68

5.3 Shear Deflection produced in of Knuckle Pin during experimental test . . 70

6.1 Comparison of FEA and Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

ix
NOMENCLATURE

d Diameter of Rod in mm
dp Diameter of Knuckle Pin in mm
Dp Head Diameter of Knuckle Pin in mm
tp Thickness of Knuckle Pin in mm
lp Length of Knuckle Pin in mm
dS1 External Diameter of Single Eye in mm
dS2 Inner Diameter of Single Eye mm
tS1 Overall Thickness of Single Eye in mm
tS2 Core Thickness of Single Eye in mm
Ls Length of Single Eye in mm
dF External Diameter of Fork in mm
tF 1 Thickness of fork eye in mm
tF 2 Internal Thickness of fork in mm
tF Overall Thickness of Fork in mm‘
lF Length of Fork
σt , σc , τ Tensile, Crushing and Shear Stress in N/mm2
N Newton
Mm Millimetre
MPa Mega Pascal
Al Aluminium
Ti Titanium
Zn Zinc
Cu Copper
Si Silicon
O Oxygen
PCS/MCS Plain/Medium Carbon Steel

x
Abstract

Knuckle joint is used to connect two rods whose axes either coincide or intersect and lie
in one plane. As the rods are subjects to tensile force, yield strength is the criterion for
the selection of material for the rods. The pin is subjected to shear stress and bending
stress. Therefore, strength is criterion for material selection for the pin. Usually the Pin
is Designed Using Cast Iron or Mild steel.

The Knuckle Pin can be replaced by using set of composite material, as the strength and
weight criteria for composite is better than the steel. The Knuckle joint is designed using
both the materials. The Simulation is prepared in Computer aided software on which
the FEA test is carried out. The FEA results are validated experimentally using tension
and shear test. The FEA and experimental test are carried out for both the materials
and results are compared.

Keywords: FEA analysis, Knuckle Joint, Metal Matrix, Optimization, Strength


Criteria.

xi
Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Mechanical Joints:
A mechanical joint is a section of a machine which is used to connect one mechanical part
to another. Mechanical joints may be temporary or permanent, most types are designed
to be disassembled. Most mechanical joints are designed to allow relative movement of
these mechanical parts of the machine in one degree of freedom (insert link), and restrict
movement in one or more others. Mechanical joints are much cheaper and are usually
bought ready assembled. These mechanical joints can be temporary or permanent de-
pending on whether the connection needs to be removed frequently or not removed at
all. This determination is made by the designers and engineers of the machinery with
the maintenance of the machinery taken into consideration.

1.2 Types of Mechanical Joints:

1. Cotter Joint:
A cotter is a flat wedge shaped piece of rectangular cross-section and its width
is tapered (either on one side or both sides) from one end to another for an easy
adjustment. The locking device may be a taper pin or a set screw used on the lower
end of the cotter. The cotter is usually made of mild steel or wrought iron. A cotter
joint is a temporary fastening and is used to connect rigidly two co-axial rods or
bars which are subjected to axial tensile or compressive forces. It is usually used in
connecting a piston rod to the crosshead of a reciprocating steam engine, a piston
rod and its extension as a tail or pump rod, strap end of connecting rod etc.

Fig.1.1: Cotter Joint

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

2. Turn Buckle:
If the Two round tie rods, are connected by means of a coupling, then the coupling
known as a turnbuckle. In this type of joint, one of the rods has right hand threads
and the other rod has left hand threads. The rods are screwed to a coupler which
has a threaded hole. The coupler is of hexagonal or rectangular shape in the centre
and round at both the ends in order to facilitate the rods to tighten or loosen with
the help of a spanner when required. The iron rod is inserted in a hole in the coupler
as shown dotted in Fig. 1.2. This type of turnbuckle is made hollow in the middle
to reduce its weight. In this case, the two ends of the rods may also be seen. It
is not necessary that the material of the rods and the turnbuckle may be same or
different. It depends upon the pull acting on the joint.

Fig.1.2: Turn Buckle

3. Knuckle Joint:
A knuckle joint is used to connect two rods which are under the action of tensile
loads. However, if the joint is guided, the rods may support a compressive load.
A knuckle joint may be readily disconnected for adjustments or repairs. A typical
knuckle joint has the following parts as shown in fig 1.3,

(a) Single Eye and Double Eye

(b) Knuckle pin

(c) Collar

(d) Taper pin

In knuckle joint (the two views of which are shown in Fig. 1.3), one end of one

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Fig.1.3: Assembly and Details of Knuckle Joint

of the rods is made into an eye and the end of the other rod is formed into a fork
with an eye in each of the fork leg. The knuckle pin passes through both the eye
hole and the fork holes and may be secured by means of a collar and taper pin or
spilt pin. The knuckle pin may be prevented from rotating in the fork by means of
a small stop, pin, peg or snug. In order to get a better quality of joint, the sides of
the fork and eye are machined, the hole is accurately drilled and pin turned. The
material used for the joint may be steel or wrought iron.
Advantages of Knuckle Joint:

(a) Knuckle joint can withstand large tensile loads.

(b) It has good mechanical rigidity.

(c) It is easy to manufacture and set up.

(d) It can be easily dismantled and assembled.

(e) Design is simple and easy.

Disadvantages of Knuckle Joint:

(a) The joint cannot withstand large compressive loads.

(b) It permits angular movement in only one plane.

(c) It is not as flexible as universal joint.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Applications of Knuckle Joint:

(a) Its use may be found in the link of a cycle chain.

(b) Used to connect tie rod joint for roof truss, tension link in bridge structure.

(c) Used to connect valve rod joint with eccentric rod and in pump rod joint

(d) Used in Truck, Trailers, Tractors Earth Movers and Cranes.

1.3 Material Requirement of Knuckle Joint:

1. The material should be Rigid.

2. It should have good Cast ability, Machinability and weld ability.

3. It should possess good Fatigue Strength.

4. It should withstand large Tensile Loads.

5. It should have good Resistance to Impact and Shock Loads.

6. It should have good Strength.

The material used in Knuckle joint are mostly stainless steel, wrought iron or Cast Iron.
1.4 Failures occurring in Knuckle Joint:

Fig.1.4: Single Eye subjected to excessive Tension, Crushing and Shear.

Fig.1.5: Fork subjected to excessive Tension, Crushing and Shear.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Fig.1.6: Double Shearing of Knuckle Pin

1.5 Problem Definition:


“Design optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle joint using composite Material
and replacing it with Steel.”

The rods of knuckle Joint are subjected to tensile force. Therefore, yield strength is
the criterion for the selection of the pin. On strength basis, the material for Single eye,
double eye and pin is selected. The steel material are costlier to purchase as well as
to manufacture. Hence, in order to reduce cost and weight and increase the strength,
composite material can be used as replacement.
Composites are light in weight and easy to manufacture as well can be easily given desired
shape. Composites possess somewhat similar strength as that of steel. Hence compos-
ite can replace steel in case of Knuckle Joint. Parts made out of composite materials
are economical to produce, and facilitate overall systems cost reductions by eliminating
secondary operations for parts, such as machining.
Composite Materials are durable and design flexible. It has High Flexural Modulus to
carry demanding Loads and possess High Impact Strength. The density of material is low
as compared to the steel and also possess good strength. Composites are good resistant
to corrosive atmospheres and temperature variations.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

1.6 Objective:

• To find better alternative material for Knuckle Joint.

• Compare the strength and weight for both materials.

• To increase the strength of joint thereby reducing the weight.

1.7 Scopes:

• The society could find a better replacement for steel with composites, which is
cheap and easily manufactured.

• Composites acquires high impact and tensile strength, therefore the knuckle joint
used in Trolleys, tractors and trailers can be replaced easily.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

1.8 Methodology:

Fig.1.7: Flow Process for Achieving Design Objectives

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

1.9 Organisation of Dissertation


1.9.1 Design Parameters:

Fig.1.8: Terminology of Knuckle Joint

Table 1.1: Terminology of Knuckle Joint

No. Notation Parameter

1 d Diameter of Rod in mm

2 dp Diameter of Knuckle Pin in mm

3 Dp Head Diameter of Knuckle Pin in mm

4 tp Thickness of Knuckle Pin in mm

5 lp Length of Knuckle Pin in mm

6 dS1 External Diameter of Single Eye in mm

7 dS2 Inner Diameter of Single Eye mm

8 tS1 Overall Thickness of Single Eye in mm

9 tS2 Core Thickness of Single Eye in mm

10 Ls Length of Single Eye in mm

11 dF External Diameter of Fork in mm

12 tF 1 Thickness of fork eye in mm

13 tF 2 Internal Thickness of fork in mm

14 tF Overall Thickness of Fork in mm‘

15 lF Length of Fork

16 σt , σc , τ Tensile, Crushing and Shear Stress in N/mm2

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

1.9.2 Design Requirements (Stress σt , σc , τ ):


A. Rod :
The rod is subjected to direct tensile Load. Hence the stress developed in the rod is
direct tensile stress. Hence the rod can be designed with respect to failure condition of
tension.

B. Single Eye :
As shown in fig. 1.4, the single eye is subjected to tension, Shear and crushing. Therefore
a single eyes has to be designed by fulfilling all the three strengths criteria.

• Due to direct loads applied on both sides of rod, single eye is subjected to tension.

• When the rod is pulled from both sides, the knuckle pin tears the single eye from
its thickness, hence due to this the shearing is produced on thickness side of eyes.

• Due to the shearing of knuckle pin, the single eye crushes from the inner peripheral
section, hence crushing stress is developed inside the single eye.

C. Fork :
As shown in fig. 1.5, the fork is subjected to tension, Shear and crushing. Therefore a
fork eyes has to be designed by fulfilling all the three strengths criteria.

• Due to direct loads applied on both sides of rod, single eye is subjected to tension.

• When the rod is pulled from both sides, the knuckle pin tears the fork from its
thickness, hence due to this the shearing is produced on thickness side of eyes.

• Due to the shearing of knuckle pin, the fork crushes from the inner peripheral
section, hence crushing stress is developed inside the fork.

D. Knuckle Pin :
The Knuckle pin is a key part of joint which maintains the connection on both eyes. The
strength of Knuckle is strength of Knuckle Joint. As shown from fig 1.6,

• The Pin is subjected to double shearing as it is pulled from opposite forces from
each sides. Hence the pin is to be designed considering the double shearing stress.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

• As the pin is pulled by both the sides, as it is contact with the Single and double eye,
therefore the knuckle pin is also subjected to the crushing stress. Hence, Designed
should be safe against crushing too.

1.9.3 Design of Knuckle Joint Using Steel:


The rods are subjected to tensile force. The strength of Knuckle joint is usually the
strength of pin. Hence the pin should have extremely good strength. Therefore, yield
strength is the criterion for the selection of the pin. On strength basis, the material for
two rods and pin is selected. It is further assumed that the yield strength in compression
is equal to yield strength in tension. In practice, the compressive strength in tension. In
practice, the compressive strength of steel is much higher than its tensile strength. Usually
the knuckle joint is designed considering the ultimate strength and impact strength. The
most common steel materials used for knuckle joint are:
a. Grey Cast Iron
b. Wrought Iron
c. Plain Carbon Steel PCS
d. Medium Carbon Steel MCS
e. Structural Steel
f. Stainless Steel
The Mechanical Properties of Different materials which are used for designing of Knuckle
Joint are as follows,

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Table 1.2: Properties of Material - Steel

Material and Proper- Grey 30c8(PCS) EN8D(MCS) Stainless


ties Cast Iron steel

Ultimate Tensile 160 400 965 586


Strength (MPa)

Ultimate Yield 98 370 862 207


Strength (MPa)

Shear Strength 180 210 350 245


(MPa)

Young’s Modulus 18e4 2e5 2e5 1.93e5


(MPa)

Poisson’s Ratio 0.29 0.3 0.28 0.31

Density (kg/m3 ) 7500 7800 7850 7850

1.9.4 Selection of Composite Material:

Composites meant to be the composition of different material to produce a single compo-


nent. The fibres used in modern composites have strengths and stiffness”s far above those
of traditional bulk materials. The high strengths of the glass fibres are due to processing
that avoids the internal or surface flaws which normally weaken glass, and the strength
and stiffness of the polymeric agamid fibre is a consequence of the nearly perfect.

Composites are being commercialized in three major fields: polymer-matrix composites


(PMCs), metal-matrix composites (MMCs), and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs).
The recognition of the three basic types of composites (PMCs, MMCs, and CMCs) is
based on the nature of the matrix material. Other classification schemes based on a
matrix/fibre notation, such as Al/SiC and 6061/SiC/40p-T6 for aluminium reinforced
with silicon carbide and boron- and carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (BFRP or CFRP),
are also being used. The Composites are used mostly as,

a. They are light in weight and cost saving materials.


b. They are flexible and easily manufactured and can give required shape.

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Table 1.3: Properties of Composite

Material and Proper- Al6061T6 Ti6AL4V AlCuSiMn AlZnMgCu


ties (2014) composite

Ultimate Tensile 310 1200 300 560


Strength (MPa)

Ultimate Yield 270 1100 280 207


Strength (MPa)

Shear Strength 210 710 780 480


(MPa)

Young’s Modulus 69e3 110e3 70e3 1.93e5


(MPa)

Poisson’s Ratio 0.33 0.3 0.33 0.31

Density (kg/m3 ) 2700 4400 2900 3000

1.9.5 Design of Knuckle Joint Using Composite Materials:


Considering the strength of different composite material, the allowable stresses are deter-
mined. This stress are in tension, shearing and crushing. Using the strength equations
of Knuckle joint, all the dimensions are determined.
1.9.6 Comparison of Results:
There are two designs available with us. The design with Steel and design with Composite
material. As well as the stress analysis of tensile, shear and crushing are also compared.
1.9.7 Simulation:
The Simulation software used is Creo 2.0. Using the dimensions and geometry of both
the design, prototype model will be prepared. This model will be for Steel as well as
composite material. The Stress. Strain and deflection analysis will be carried out using
Finite Element Analysis. This analysis will be carried out using different set of loading
conditions.

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1.9.8 Experimental Validation:


The stress results of steel and composites are find previously using the Analytical method
and Simulation approach. In this stage, the results obtained by analytical and simulation
approach are validated using Experimental Investigation. The Experimental Investigation
will be done for, universal Testing Machine for completing the Tension Test and Shear
Test on Knuckle Joint.
1.9.9 Results and Conclusion:
The Results obtained by Analytical, Simulation and Graphical Approach are compared
using graphical Language for both the materials which will clearly show the performance
beneficiary material. Hence on the results basis, conclusions will be made.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Review of Papers
Lakhwinder Singh et. al. [1] explains the Latest Developments in Composite Materi-
als. The authors have stated how the composite materials have changed all the material
engineering. Composite materials are finding their applications in aerospace industry,
automobile sector, manufacturing industries etc. This paper focuses on the importance
of composite materials in mechanical engineering, terminology used in composite materi-
als, various definitions, classification and the latest developments in composite materials
in different parts of the world. The term composite could mean almost anything if taken
at face value, since all materials are composed of dissimilar subunits if examined at
close enough detail. But in modern materials engineering, the term usually refers to a
“matrix” material that is reinforced with fibres. For instance, the term “FRP” (Fibre
Reinforced Plastic) usually indicates a thermosetting polyester matrix containing glass
fibres, and this particular composite has the lion’s share of today’s commercial market
This paper introduces basic concepts of stiffness and strength underlying the mechan-
ics of fibre-reinforced advanced composite materials. In this paper the classification of
composite is described, namely, polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), metal-matrix com-
posites (MMCs), and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs). In this paper the authors have
explained how Composites have attractive mechanical and physical properties that are
now being utilized in industry and aerospace on a grand scale world-wide. New fibres,
polymers, and processing techniques for all classes of composites are constantly being
developed. Research is also ongoing to improve repair techniques, recyclability, and the
bonding between fibres and matrix materials.

Prof. Swati Datey et. al. [2] explains Analysis of Knuckle Joint used in Mahindra 575
DL. In this project the stresses on the knuckle joint and to improve the performance of
knuckle joint to a certain extent is going to be studied by using CATIA V5 and FEM will
be used in analysis. Knuckle joint is one of the most important components in tractor
trailer. Thus, the parts of this joint are susceptible to fatigue by the nature of their
operation. Common sign of knuckle pin failure is bending during operation. Knuckle
joint mainly used in joining of tractor and trailer. During running condition of vehicle
due to unevenness of road the pin get sudden impact which leads to bending of pin.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Because of this we have to change pin again and again which is uneconomical for the
person who buys it. It is very important to know the accurate prediction for the knuckle
pin to fail. For this purpose to check the stress induce in pin, different methods are been
carried out that is theoretical and F.E. analysis by using various parameters. Failure
analysis is the process of collecting and analysing data to determine the cause of a failure
and how to prevent it from recurring. Failure analysis and prevention are important
functions to all of the engineering disciplines. A failure analysis of Knuckle joint is done
which is used in Mahindra DL. All the causes of failure are described. The knuckle joint
in this concept is considered as the component which is made up of ASTM grade 20 grey
cast iron (ISO grade150, ENJL1020), which is a material in the low grade grey cast iron
group of density 7200 Kg/m3 the model was analysed in ANSYS 15.0 considering the
mechanical properties as ultimate tensile strength 150 MPa and Shear strength as 180
MPa. The different theoretical stresses are calculated for various components of knuckle
joint by applying force of 50 KN. For this study the model was replicated for the same
force and the design, results were been tabulated for theoretical and FE analysis. For
the further analysis of knuckle pin different materials like grey cast iron grade 35, grey
cast iron grade 60, Stainless steel and Titanium Alloy were considered with same load
condition and diameter. The author concluded that not only Varying load on pin and
load on trailer can increase stress but sudden impact due to unevenness of road can also
cause the failure of pin. The material also plays a vital role in design of joint. Analysis
is carried out by developing a model of universal joint in Pro-E then it converted into
IGES file and then it imported to FEA software ANSYS. For the study of Model was
replicated for different diameter of 35mm diameter at 50KN loading condition and for
Gray Cast Iron. According to our study Theoretical calculation and FE analysis having
around same results on 35 mm Diameter at 50 KN. Secondly, we also find that material
also plays a very important role in stress reduction acting on joint especially on pin.
As we change material like grey cast iron (ASTM grade 20 (EN-JL 1020), ASTM grade
35 (EN-JL1040), ASTM grade 60 (EN-JL 1070)), Stainless steel and Titanium alloy;
deviations in Equivalent stress (von mises), shear stress and total deformation occurs at
same load and diameter in which it has maximum stresses. As we increase the force the
von misses stress get increased on pin and can lead to bending of pin but if we increase

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

pin diameter, it will sustain maximum stress at same force at which it has bend Not only
Varying load on pin and load on trailer can increase stress but sudden impact due to
unevenness of road can also cause the failure of pin.

Aman Dutt [3] describes, Finite Element Analysis of Knuckle Joint Pin Using Creo 2.0
Software. In this paper, a knuckle joint is prepared using 30C8 material. Tractor - trailer
is widely used equipment in agricultural field for transportation. Tractor – trailer is joined
together by means of knuckle joint which is used to connect two rods which are under
tensile force. This joint is preferred as it is easy to mantle and dismantle. This link is also
used in pump rod joint, lever and rod connection of various types, valve rod of eccentric
valve pump. Paper presents the finite element analysis of knuckle pin. Modal is made in
Creo 2.0 software and then discredited into small elements and then subjected to suitable
boundary conditions. Results are obtained for 30C8 material are then compared with
Teon material and suitable conclusions are made. In present study, results are calculated
for the pin of material 30C8 for the loads and the obtained results are then compared
with Teon material. The Solid model of this joint is prepared in Creo software and FEA is
done using the same software. The design and analysis is done for four different kinds of
loading condition. Simulation was carried out on two different loads and for two different
materials. Simulation has provided the result for von mises stress and displacement. The
material is then replaced by a composite material namely Teflon. The joint is designed
and analyzed using same four loading conditions as that of steel joint. Magnitude of von
mises stress and displacement is maximum at middle section of the pin. Magnitude of
von mises stress is less in Teon as compared to 30C8 material. Magnitude of displacement
is less in Teon as compared to 30C8 material. The comparison of stress analysis is done
for steel as well as Teflon. The comparison of deflection analysis is done for steel as well
as Teflon. Authors concluded that the magnitude of von-misses and displacement is far
less in Teflon as compared to 30C8, which shows life of knuckle pin of Teflon would be
more as compared to 30C8.So, in future Teflon can be used as an alternative to presently
used 30C8.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Yadav et. al. [4] explains Design and Analysis of Knuckle Joint by using FEA. In
this paper, the design of joint is done and how failure of knuckle joint occurs in most
possibilities of accident is discussed. It is required to design a knuckle joint connect two
circular rods subjected to an axial tensile force of 50 KN. The rods are coaxial and a
small amount of angular movement between their axes is permissible. Design the joint
and specify the dimensions of its components. Select suitable materials for the parts.
The rods are subjected to tensile force. Therefore, yield strength is the criterion for the
selection of the pin. On strength basis, the material for two rods and pin is selected as
plain carbon steel of grade 30C8 (Syt= 400 N/mm2 ). It is further assumed that the yield
strength in compression is equal to yield strength in tension. In practice, the compressive
strength in tension. In practice, the compressive strength of steel is much higher than
its tensile strength. The knuckle joint is designed on strength basis, the material for
two rods and pin is selected as plain carbon steel of grade 30C8. All the dimension are
calculated and checked analytically whether the design is safe. The modelling of Knuckle
joint is done in CATIA software. The later FEA is done in ansys software. Finite element
method is a numerical method for solving problem of engineering and physics. It is also
referred to as finite element analysis (FEA). FEA is a numerical method that offer a
means to find approximation solution. FEA applied in engineering is computational
tool for performing engineering. During working condition knuckle pin is subjected to
high stress. As pin is flexible element which can be easily replaced. So we can take
pin for analysing purpose. Knuckle joint was design for 50KN axial load by theoretical
calculation. Failures of knuckle joint were consider during calculation. According to
that calculated dimensions model of Knuckle joint is made in CATIA V5 and model
is taken to ANSYS. Stress developed in knuckle pin by theoretical calculated are more
than stress obtain by analysing the model in ANSYS software. After completing all the
analysis process we conclude that, 30C8 material having maximum permissible stress are
400MPa and Maximum stresses developed in knuckle joint are 201MPa. Based on the
ANSYS analysis, it show that pin of 25 mm diameter can be with stand load of 50 KN
easily. After completing all the analysis process we conclude that, 30C8 material having
maximum permissible stress are 400MPa and Maximum stresses developed in knuckle
joint are 201MPa. So design is safe.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Shaikh.John Bhasha [5] explains Modelling and Analysis of Knuckle Joint. The paper
reports on design and analysis of a knuckle joint which is used in power transmission.
In this study, modelling and analysis of a knuckle joint was performed by using Finite
Element Method. The commercial finite element package ANSYS version 15 was used
for the solution of the problem. The knuckle joint takes compressive loads often, thus
there is a need for quality design tools. The modelling of the knuckle joint is done using
3D software. Here we will be using CATIA V5 for modelling. The simulation part will
be carried out using the Analysis software, ANSYS. The created model is exported to
ANSYS by converting it to IGES format. The imported model is meshed in ANSYS and
boundary constrains are defined. With the Boundary constrains and the compressive
load applied, the knuckle joint is analysed and the values are tabulated. This project
will also help to learn C ATIA V5 and also ANSYS. A knuckle joint is used to connect
two rods under tensile load. This joint permits angular misalignment of the rods and
may take compressive load if it is guided. These joints are used for different types of
connections e.g. tie rods, tension links in bridge structure. In this, one of the rods has an
eye at the rod end and the other one is forked with eyes at both the legs the dimensions
are calculated and a solid model is prepared in CATIA software. The model is exported
in ansys software and stress and deflection analysis is done. The analysis is done for
two different loading conditions. For the same dimensions, a composite knuckle joint is
prepared using Teflon material. The solid model of Teflon is prepared and analysis test
is done using CATIA and ANSYS software respectively. The Teflon is also subjected to
same loading conditions as that of steel. The models of Knuckle joint is made in CATIA
V5 and model is taken to ANSYS and simulated with various material and check for
best material which suit for given design load. From result and output, Teflon is best for
design and it is close to stress got for stainless steel and cast iron. By varying load from
55KN to 65KN, it shown that stress formed in Teflon material is very close to stain steel
and cast iron. Hence steel can be replaced by Teflon.

Ms. Nilesha Patil et. al. [6] performs Static structural analysis of knuckle joint. The aim
of the present paper is to study and calculate the stresses in Knuckle joint using analytical
method. A knuckle joint is used to connect two rods under tensile load. These joints are
used for different types of connections e.g. tie rods, tension links in bridge structure. In

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

this, one of the rods has an eye at the rod end and the other one is forked with eyes at
both the legs. In this study, modelling and analysis of a knuckle joint is performed by
using Finite Element Method. The commercial finite element package ANSYS version
17 is used for the solution of the problem. The knuckle joint takes tensile loads often,
thus there is a need for quality design tools. The modelling of the knuckle joint is done
using 3D software. Here CATIA V5 has been used for modelling. The simulation part
will be carried out using the Analysis software, ANSYS. With the Boundary constrains
and the tensile load applied, the knuckle joint is analysed and the values are. There are
several materials used for manufacturing of knuckle joint such as S.G. iron (ductile iron),
white cast iron and grey cast iron. But grey cast iron mostly used. Forged steel are most
demanding material for this application. Here the joint is designed Structural steel. The
solid model of this joint is prepared in catia software, the model is exported in ansys and
analysis test is done on basis of stress, strain and deflection. In this paper the tensile
stresses for knuckle joint in static condition are calculated and analysed with ANSYS. The
maximum von mises stress is 31.52 MPa and minimum stress is 0.0063687Mpa. Allowable
yield stress of steel is 210 MPa and our obtained von misses stress i.e. 31.52 MPa which
is so much less than the yield stress. It forms the basis of optimization.

Shankar Majhi et. al.[7] performs the Modelling and analysis of knuckle joint used in
tractor. Knuckle joint is a joint which is used to connect two rods under the tensile load.
It is a type of hinged joint. However, if the joint is instruct, it may backing a compressive
load. This joint can be easily connect and disconnect for adjustment or repairing. The
example of knuckle joints are: tension link in bridge structure, tie rod joint of roof, truss,
link of roller chain, jib crane and railway wagon. This joint permitted limited angular
movement between roods about its axis of the pin. A knuckle joint can be failed on the
following three modes are: Shear failure of pin (single shear), crushing of pin against rod
and Tensile failure of flat end bar. In this paper they calculate the knuckle joint stress
with using the analytical method. In these people study about the modelling and analysis
of a knuckle joint using F.E.M. he also define the failure modes of knuckle joint due to
various stresses are develop for reducing the stress they using the F.E.M in their research
paper. Dharpure and mate: They are working in the study and analysis of the failure
condition in knuckle joint which is used in railway couples overdue to shearing as the

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

part of the knuckle pin that a pin is convenient for working of knuckle and there are no
loading case is obtained over it however due to the manufacture of the knuckle and their
cause of failure of knuckle is initiated in their paper. Rangari and mate have analysed
the knuckle joint used in Mahindra 575 DL. Their views on knuckle joint is failure in
various condition like single eye, double eye or fork pin .He hinds the mainly failure in
the knuckle pin which is bending during the carry heavy loads. So they have to change
the pin again and again First of all they draw the geometric model in catia V5, after that
analytical simulation is to be proceed in the several material. After studying the knuckle
joint which is used in tractor and trolley, modelling and analysis on knuckle pin is done
.According to theoretical study, calculation and F.E.A have to around similar results on
50 mm diameter at 60 KN. They also found that when increase the stress on pin can be
bending but we increase pin diameter it will wear maximum stress on that force.

Anupam Raj Jha et. al. [8] describes the Design and Finite Element Analysis of Knuckle
Joint Using CATIA and ANSYS Workbench. The objective of this paper is to design and
analyse the structural deformations in a Knuckle joint. The paper presents a FE analysis
of the knuckle joint assembly. The required solid model based on the real life application
and dimension is modelled in CATIA V5. The model is then discretized and meshed.
Analysis is done in ANSYS workbench after suitable constraints and load conditions are
applied to it. As the rods are subjects to tensile force, yield strength is the criterion for
the selection of material for the rods. The pin is subjected to shear stress and bending
stress. Therefore, strength is criterion for material selection for the pin. The knuckle
joint is prepared using EN8D, which is a medium carbon and medium tensile steel used
mainly for axles, spindles, and studs, automotive and general engineering components.
EN8D is a medium carbon and medium tensile steel used mainly for axles, spindles,
studs, automotive and general engineering components. It is suitable for heat treatment
where extra strength is required. It is medium high carbon steel that can be strengthened
by heat treating after forming. Machinability and weldability are fair. The objective of
this paper is to design a knuckle joint made of EN8D using CATIA V5 and carry out the
finite element analysis (FEA) on the prepared model using ANSYS 14.5 and determine the
values of stress-strain and deformation Typical uses include machine, plow and carriage
bolts, cylinder head studs, machine parts etc. It is also used for U bolts, concrete re-

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

enforcing rods, forgings and non-critical springs. CATIA and ANSYS workbench software
are used for the Finite Element Analysis of the Knuckle joint. At first the Knuckle Joint
is designed in CATIA software and then the file is saved as IGES format and imported
in the ANSYS workbench software. The next step was to mesh the model as shown in
the fig 4, the 10 node tetrahedral element are used. The stress are selected and the joint
is prepared determining all the dimensions of joints. Here the Knuckle joint is designed
by using CATIA V5 and analysis is done by ANSYS workbench 14. With respect to
dimensions a solid model is prepared using CATIA software. The model is exported in
ansys and analysis test is done on basis of stress, strain and deflection. This paper, not
only deals with the design of a Knuckle Joint but also the stress strain effect applied
to it. In design, the Knuckle Joint is taken to have maximum weight possible with the
ability to withstand high stress and strain. It is found that the stress-strain formed in
the EN8D material was much lower than that compared to Cast Iron or Mild Steel.

Sangamesh B. Herakal et. al. [9] describes Structural static analysis of knuckle joint.
The aim of this paper is to study calculate the stresses in Knuckle joint using analytical
method. Further study in this direction can made by using various directions of the
pin and the capacity to withstand load. The present work is concentrating on which
type of meshing is preferable for components. Here knuckle joint is modelled by making
use of catia, later on that model is imported in Hyper mesh and carried out both mesh
those are hexahedral and tetra mesh. This model is solved by using Abacus software.
Early cad systems were basically automated drafting board systems which displayed a
two dimensional representation of the object being designed. Operations could use these
graphics systems to develop the line drawing the way they wanted it and then obtain
a very high quality paper plot of the drawing. B y using these systems, the drafting
process could be accomplished in less time, and the productivity of the designers could
be improved. Although they were able to reproduce high quality engineering drawing
efficiently and quickly, these systems stored in their data files a two dimensional record
of the drawing. The drawing usually of three dimensional objects and it was left to the
human being who read these drawing to interpret the three dimensional shape from the
two dimensional representation. The major drawback of the early CAD systems was
that they were not capable of interpreting the three dimensionality of the object. The

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

joint is prepared using steel as material and all the dimensions are determined. The
model is prepared using CATIA software. The analysis is done in Hyper mesh software.
The analysis is done in two types of meshing model that is tetra mesh and hex mesh.
Comparison of strain and stress values as measured by theoretical in component and as
predicted using the finite element analysis for hex & tetra mesh on knuckle joint is made
in tabulated format. The conclusion made was, the fork takes higher stress and eye takes
less stress under loading condition. Fork is analyzed for stress for the tensile load 50kn
for the both mesh viz hex and tetra mesh and compared with theoretical value. The
conclusion is drawn from work are as follows: The results show that the fork takes higher
stress and eye takes less stress under loading condition. The induced stress in the fork
is higher than allowable stress hence the design is out of safe for that diameter of rod of
knuckle joint needed to be varied. The error between theoretical value and hex meshed
analysed value has less than that of between theoretical and tetra meshed analysed value
and hence hex mesh is better than the tetra mesh.

Nishant Vibhav Saxena et. al. [10] Study & Analysis of Knuckle Joint with the Re-
placement of Material by Using Teflon. In this paper the knuckle joint is prepared using
cast iron and steel as combination of material. The other joint is prepared using Teflon
as base material. The numerical flow simulation needs input of 2D or 3D geometry of
domain under consideration. The domain is divided into small elements called mesh.
Numerical methods are used for discretisation of governing equations over an element.
After completing the draw the wheel model is then import in the ANYSY 13 software.
Meshing is done in ANSYS. The tetrahedral elements have been used for 3D domain.
The material properties and some common input data used for stainless steel, cast iron
and Teflon. The geometry of knuckle joint is modelled in CATIA V-5. After completing
the draw the wheel model is then import in the ANYSY 13 software. Meshing is done
in ANSYS. The tetrahedral elements have been used for 3D domain. The simulation
has been carried out for four different loads and two different materials. The simulation
has provided with values of total deformation, equivalent stress and equivalent elastic
strain. The same method is done for Teflon joint. Under same Maximum Tensile force on
knuckle joint, cast iron was replaced with Teflon. After defining the mechanical property
of Teflon material on knuckle joint, if joint does not deform, then we can easily replace

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

cast iron shaft with Teflon shaft. The author concluded that, Parts made out of com-
posite materials are economical to produce, and facilitate overall systems cost reductions
by eliminating secondary operations for parts, such as machining, as well as facilitating
reduction in part count when compared with metal parts.

R N Rai et. al [11] explains the Studies on synthesis of in-situ Al-TiC metal matrix
composites [11]. In the present research work, synthesis and characterization of in-situ
Al-TiC composites reinforced with ceramic phases was carried out. Aluminium based
metal matrix composites have drawn the attention of many researchers due to their
low density, excellent wear resistance, high specific strength and high specific modulus.
Particle reinforced metal matrix composites are likely to find high volume of commercial
application due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and improved properties. The
practical applications of Al-TiC metal matrix composites are in the aerospace, automobile
and structural industries. The Al-TiC composite system has been studied by a number of
researchers and it has been reported that during synthesis of Al-TiC composites using the
Al-Ti-C system, fine TiC particulates are created in the Al matrix. In these experiments
master alloys of Al-10Ti were prepared in an induction furnace at a temperature of 1200
degree celcius and poured into graphite moulds to solidify. Thereafter, the same Al-10Ti
master alloys were re-melted in a pit furnace at different temperatures such as 1200 degree
Celcius, 1250 degree Celcius and 1300 degree Celcius and activated charcoal was added
into the melt to meet the stoichiometry of TiC (Ti:C) to complete the reaction for the
formation of TiC particles inside the melt. Al-TiC metal matrix composites have been
prepared successfully at a processing temperature of 1250 degree Celcius and holding
time of 30 minutes by an in-situ route which eliminates the incidence of unwanted brittle
TiAl3 particles and the average size of the TiC particles was observed to be about 0.5
micro meter. Microstructures of the composites showed uniform distributions of TiC
particles along the grain boundaries. Hence using this Paper the casting of aluminium
matrix has been studies.

P. N. Siddappa et.al.[12] Explains machinability of Aluminium metal matrix compos-


ites. The Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites have emerged as an advanced class of
structural materials have a combination of different, superior properties compared to an

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unreinforced matrix, which can result in a number of service benefits such as increased
strength, higher elastic moduli, higher service temperature, low CTE, improved wear
resistance, high toughness, etc. The excellent mechanical properties of these materials
together with weight saving makes them very attractive for a variety of engineering ap-
plications in aerospace, automotive, electronic industries, etc. Hence, these materials
provide as alternative substitutes for conventional engineering materials when specific
mechanical properties necessary for required applications. In this work an attempt is
made to study the machining parameters of Al6061/TiC MMC. The composite is de-
veloped by reinforcing TiC particles in varying proportions of 3, 6, 9 and 12% weight
fractions to the Al6061 matric alloy through stir casting technique. Cutting forces were
measured by varying cutting speed and feed rate with constant depth of cut for different
% weight fractions. The results showed that the cutting force increases with the increase
of feed rate and decreases with the increase of cutting speed for all the weight fractions.
Cutting parameters were optimized using Taguchi technique.

Mohammed Imran et.al [13] describes the hardness and tensile strength of Aluminium
7075 percentage when varied with reinforced with graphite and bagasse-ash composites
[13]. Waste sugarcane bagasse-ash and graphite utilizing as reinforcement in fabricating
of an aluminium alloy (Al-7075) based matrix hybrid composites. The aluminium matrix
hybrid composites have been fabricated by stir-casting method at 750 degree Celcius.
Casting was developed in circular metal mould having 5 circular slots of diameter of
21 mm and length of 250 mm. Adding bagasse-ash with varying reinforcement of three
cases, in first case 2% constant with varying graphite 1%, 3%, and 5%, in second case
4%, and in third case 6% constant with varying same graphite percentage. The effect of
the reinforcement has been performed through various mechanical tests. The mechanical
properties measuring such as Brinell hardness and tensile strength of both the samples
have been prepared as per the ASTM E23 and E8 standards. Results give out that there
will be greater effect of reinforcing different bagasse-ash in aluminium alloy matrix hybrid
composites. In the third case more enhanced mechanical properties have been achieved
as compared to case one and two of bagasse–ash combination. It shows that the selection
of bagasse-ash as reinforcement has one of the most significant criteria for the fabrica-
tion of aluminium matrix hybrid composites. Al7075 is chosen as matrix material owing

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to its wide application in many engineering sectors including automotive and aerospace
sectors. Further, this alloy exhibits good strength and formability. Experimental results
of mechanical properties represented in with respect to different compositions, ultimate
tensile strength (UTS in MPa), Brinell hardness number (BHN), percentage of elonga-
tion (%) and yield strength (MPa). l7075–bagasse ash–Gr composites were developed by
using stir-casting method. The investigation results shows increase in mechanical prop-
erties when both graphite and bagasse ash reinforcements are increased. Hence gradually
increasing in hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yielding strength when both rein-
forcements are increased. The 95% confidence interval has shown BHN increased with
increasing in reinforcement. Ductility of the composites decreases with increasing content
of reinforcement in the matrix alloy. Resultant Al7075–bagasse ash–graphite hybrid com-
posite possess ultimate tensile strength and yielding strength increased gradually with
increasing in reinforcement.

Rajendra S. K. and Ramesha C. M. [14] completes a Survey of Al7075 Aluminium Metal


Matrix Composites. [14] A composite material is a combination of two or more chemi-
cally distinct and insoluble phases; its properties and structural performance are superior
to those of the constituents acting independently. Metals and ceramics, as well, can be
embedded with particles or fibers, to improve their properties; these combinations are
known as Metal-Matrix composites. Aluminum 7075 alloy constitutes a very important
engineering material widely employed in the aircraft and aerospace industry for the man-
ufacturing of different parts and components. It is due to its high strength to density
ratio that it a sought after metal matrix composite. In this paper we present a survey
of Al 7075 Metal Matrix Composites. The exhaustive literature provided in the previous
section highlights the properties of Al7075 MMC’s along with various other MMC’s. The
methodologies suggested by the authors give an insight into the advancements made in
the area of composites. It can be observed that Al-Al2O3, Al-SiC composites can be suc-
cessfully fabricated by Liquid metallurgy vortex route technique and Powder metallurgy
route. In the liquid metallurgy vortex route technique, the percentage of reinforcements
used is varied from 5-wt% to 15-wt%. The experiments have shown that mechanical
and wear properties have increased significantly. The use of ceramic materials like beryl
Be3Al2Si6O18, Silicon carbide SiC etc., as a reinforcement for the matrix Al7075 in var-

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ious proportions can lead to more effective MMC’s which exhibit improved mechanical
and Tribological properties.

S. Ranganathan et. al. [15] developed an aluminium hybrid metal matrix composite [15].
Aluminium MMCs plays vital role in the modern industrial sectors due to their excel-
lent tribological properties. The present study involves the development of Aluminium
metal matrix composite reinforced with particulate Sic and Al2O3 by stir casting method.
Weight fraction of 7.5% of Sic, 7.5% of Al2O3 is reinforced with base Aluminium Alloy
matrix. The fabricated aluminium alloy was solution treated and then precipitation
treated for T-6 condition. Casted composite and heat treated composite machined care-
fully to prepare specimens for micro hardness, tensile strength and micro structure as
per the ASTM standards. Mechanical properties include micro hardness; microstructure
and tensile properties were evaluated for the composite before and after heat treatment.
Micro hardness and tensile strength was improved by 34% and 7% by heat treatment.
The micro graphs of hybrid composite studied and revealed the uniform distribution of
reinforcements in the matrix. Further significant improvement in micro structure ob-
served in heat treated hybrid composite. Al7075 hybrid metal matrix is fabricated by
stir casting method. It is an attractive and economical casting technique which allows
conventional metal processing route. Al7075 hybrid metal matrix is fabricated by stir
casting method. It is an attractive and economical casting technique which allows conven-
tional metal processing route. Tensile test was performed to determine tensile properties
of MMC including yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the specimens at room
temperature. Hybrid Al7075 MMC fabricated by stir casting method effectively. The
experimental study reveals the enhanced mechanical properties micro hardness, tensile
strength and microstructure by heat treatment process. The micro hardness improved
by adding reinforcements to the base alloy. The addition of Sic particles improved the
hardness and the improved wear properties results by the addition of Al2O3.

P. Chinna Sreenivas Rao and T. Prasad, M.Harish [16] describes Evaluation of Mechanical
Properties of Al 7075 – Zro2 Metal Matrix Composite by using Stir Casting Technique
[16]. Metal matrix composites are possess significantly improved properties including high
tensile strength, hardness, low density and good wear resistance compared to alloys or

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any other metals. In this work the Metal Matrix composites is developed by reinforcing of
Zirconium oxide Nano powder in Aluminum alloy Al7075, using Stir Casting Technique.
The MMC’s specimens are prepared by varying the percentage of weight fraction of the
reinforced particles as 5% and 10% and the remaining aluminum alloy respectively. To
investigate the mechanical properties of (Tensile strength, Impact Test, and Hardness)
Metal Matrix Composite’s. For conducting of experiments we selected Aluminum 7075
as Matrix Material & Zirconium dioxide Nano powder (Zro2) as Reinforced material.
In this experiment we consider Al 7075 with Zirconium Oxide Nano Powder (Zro2) as
weight 0%, 5%, & 10% respectively. Composites are produced by using Stir Casting
technique as shown in figure. Al 7075 is taken in the form of cylindrical rods for the
experiments. Temperature about 6000 - 7500 is set in an electric furnace with control
panel. The cylindrical rods are placed inside the graphite crucible. The graphite crucible
containing rods now placed inside the furnace and it is heated until reaches its melting
point, once the metal reaches into the liquid state the slag formed on the surface will
be removed slowly. In this experiment we consider Al 7075 with Zirconium Oxide Nano
Powder (Zro2) as weight 0%, 5%, & 10% respectively. Composites are produced by using
Stir Casting technique as shown in figure. Al 7075 is taken in the form of cylindrical rods
for the experiments. Temperature about 6000 - 7500 is set in an electric furnace with
control panel. The cylindrical rods are placed inside the graphite crucible. The graphite
crucible containing rods now placed inside the furnace and it is heated until reaches its
melting point, once the metal reaches into the liquid state the slag formed on the surface
will be removed slowly.

Dr. Sumathy Muniamuthu et. al. [17] Investigates the mechanical properties of al 7075-
al2o3 metal matrix composite in which they have explained that aluminum alloys are
widely used in aerospace and automobile industries due to high strength to low weight
ratio and their good mechanical properties such as better corrosion resistance and wear
resistance, low thermal expansion as compared with other metals. The main objective
of our work is to improve the mechanical properties such as impact strength, hardness
of Aluminum based Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), and its relation with processing
of the Alumina particulate (Al2O3) as reinforced in Aluminum matrix. Aluminum 7075
alloy is chosen as matrix alloy, in which Aluminum is the base element. The work has

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been proposed for four different weight proportions of Al2O3 to aluminum matrix (weight
fractions are 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%). And the processing of the metal matrix composite
is to be processed with stir casting setup and heat treated. The Brinell hardness test
method as used to determine Brinell hardness is defined in ASTM E10. Most commonly
it is used to test materials that have a structure that is too coarse or that have a surface
that is too rough to be tested using another test method, e.g., castings and forgings.
Brinell testing often use a very high test load (3000 kgf) and a 10mm wide indenter so
that the resulting indentation averages out most surface and sub-surface inconsistencies.
Tensile tests were used to assess the mechanical behaviour of the composites and matrix
alloy. The composite and matrix alloy rods were machined to tensile specimens with a
diameter of6mm and gauge length of 30 mm. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often
shortened to tensile strength (TS) or ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a
material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before necking, which is when
the specimen’s cross-section starts to significantly contract. It exhibits a very linear
stress–strain relationship up to a well-defined yield point. Tensile tests were used to
assess the mechanical behaviour of the composites and matrix alloy. The composite and
matrix alloy rods were machined to tensile specimens with a diameter of6mm and gauge
length of 30 mm. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength
(TS) or ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while
being stretched or pulled before necking, which is when the specimen’s cross-section
starts to significantly contract. It exhibits a very linear stress–strain relationship up to a
well-defined yield point.

V. Rama koteswara et. al. [18] Rao makes a review on Properties of Aluminium Based
Metal Matrix Composites via Stir Casting in which they explained that the Aluminium
metal matrix composites are significantly important in the various demanding fields of
medicine and engineering like aerospace, defence, automobiles, dental and consumer
goods. The industrial need of good materials with light weight, excellent properties
and low cost demanded the scientists to research on composite materials. Among the
MMCs, aluminium matrix composites (AMMCs) sought over other conventional materi-
als because of their high strength to weight ratio, high wear resistance and low economic.
These AMMCs offer a large variety of mechanical properties depending on the chemical

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composition of the Al-matrix. The reinforcement in AMMCs could be in the form of con-
tinuous/discontinuous fibers, whisker and particulate as second phase depending on their
applications and property requirements. Addition of various reinforcements such as fly
ash, TiC, SiC, Al2O3, TiO2, B4C etc., to aluminium matrix will enhance the mechanical
and tribological properties. This paper attempts to review the different combinations of
the usage of reinforced materials as a reinforcing agent in different Aluminium matrix
alloys in the processing of aluminium metal matrix composites along with its properties.
Stir casting process is well suited and economical for the preparation of AMMC’s with
desired properties. By increasing the wt% and decreasing the particle size of reinforced
material in the aluminium composites the hardness, tensile strength and yield strength
increases. From the above investigations, we observed that the wear rate mostly depends
on applied load, sliding distance and sliding speed and the most influence parameter is
sliding distance. The tribological properties of the aluminium composites are increased
by reinforcing with various materials, when compared to monolithic alloy up to some
extent as per the above investigations.

2.2 Research Gap


The Knuckle Joint is usually made of Stainless steel or Plain carbon steel. This made
the joint a strong with high shear and tensile strength. But this also increases the weight
and cost of Joint. Most of the researches have made by replacing the material of joint
by polymer matrix composites namely Teflon. Teflon proved to be a better material
for replacing the steel for stress distribution but not in case of deflection and shearing.
Hence it is necessary to replace the material fulfilling the stress, strain and deflection
criteria. This three all objectives can be achieved by using the metal matrix composites.
The joint is not been prepared using the metal matrix composites with composition of
Aluminium, titanium, Zinc, Magnesium, Copper and Bronze. Hence using the metal
matrix composites can give boost up to the new design of joint.

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3. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF STEEL KNUCKLE JOINT


3.1 Design and Strength Equation of Knuckle Joint:

1. Stress Developed in Rod :


The rod is applied with the tensile load on both the sides. Hence the rod is sub-
jected to tension, then the Tensile Stress Developed in Rod is given as,
σt =Load/Area of Rod
σt=P/A

σt = [P ]/[(π/4)d2 ] (1)

2. Stress Developed in Knuckle Pin:


From fig. 1.6, the Knuckle Pin is subjected to Double Shearing, hence the shear
stress developed in the knuckle pin can be given as,
τ =Load/Shearing Area of Pin

∴ τ = p/2Ap

∴ τ = [P ]/[2 ∗ (π/4)dp2] (2)

Fig.3.1: Knuckle Pin Terminology

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Thickness of pin head can be given as

tp = 0.5d (3)

Diameter of Knuckle Pin Head can be given as,

Dp = 1.5d (4)

Length of Knuckle Pin can be given as,

Ip = 4d (5)

3. Stress Developed in Single Eye:

a) Tensile Stress Developed in Single Eye :


As the rod is subjected to tensile load, tensile stress is produced. The single eye is
tends to tearing, and. the area resisting tearing is,

Resisting Area = (dS1 − dS2 ) ∗ (tS1 ) (6)

Fig.3.2: Terminology of Single Eye

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∴ Tensile Stress developed can be given as,


σt =Load/ Resisting Area

∴ σt = P/[(dS1 − dS2 ) ∗ (tS1 )] (7)

b) Crushing Stress Developed in Single Eye :


As the rod is subjected to tensile load, and due to shearing of knuckle pin, crushing
may be induced in the single eye. Hence the crushing resisting area is given as,
Resisting Area = dp *tS1
∴ Crushing Stress developed can be given as,
σck =Load/ Resisting Area
∴ σck = P/[dp ∗ tS1 ] (8)

c) Shear Stress Developed in Single Eye :


As the rod is subjected to tensile load, Single eye will be subjected to shearing
stress and the area resisting shearing is,

Resisting Area = (dS1 − dS2 ) ∗ (tS1 ) (9)

∴ Shear Stress developed can be given as,


τ =Load/ Resisting Area

∴ τ = P/[(dS1 − dS2 ) ∗ (tS1 )] (10)

d) Thickness of Single Eye :


The thickness of single eye can be given as,

ts = 1.25d (11)

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4. Stress Developed in Double Eye:

Fig.3.3: Terminology of Fork

a) Tensile Stress Developed in Fork :


Due to tensile Load, Fork will be subjected to tensile stress and the area is tearing
is,
Resisting Area = P/(dF − dp ) ∗ (2tF 1 ) (12)

∴ σt = P/[(dF − dp ) ∗ (2tF 1 )] (13)

b) Crushing Stress Developed in Fork :


Resisting Area = dp *2tF 1
∴ Crushing Stress developed can be given as,
σck =Load/ Resisting Area

∴ σck = P/[dp ∗ 2tF 1 ] (14)

c) Shear Stress Developed in Fork :


Fork will be subjected to shearing stress and the area resisting shearing is,

Resisting Area = (dF − dp ) ∗ (2tF 1 ) (15)

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∴ Shear Stress developed can be given as,


τ =Load/ Resisting Area

∴ τ = P/[(dF − dp ) ∗ (2tF 1 )] (16)

d) Thickness of Fork :

tF 1 = 0.75d (17)

Overall T hickness = (tF ) = 4d (18)

3.2 Analysis of Knuckle Joint Made of Steel:

Here the Stress analysis of each component of Knuckle Joint is done. The analysis is done
using analytical approach.

Fig.3.4: Actual Pictures of Tractor Knuckle Joint

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

3.2.1 Analysis of Rod (30C8):


The Rod is of Material 30C8. Hence tensile stress developed in the rod for application of
10KN Load Hence σt = [P ]/[(π/4)d2 ]
∴ σt = [10 ∗ 103 ]/[(π/4) ∗ 352 ]
∴ σt = 10.39N/mm2 (Tensile Stress developed in rod)
3.2.2 Analysis of Knuckle Pin (Stainless Steel):
The Pin is made of Material Stainless Steel. Hence Shear stress developed in the pin for
application of 10KN Load.

Fig.3.5: Dimensions Knuckle Pin (Material - Stainless Steel)

∴ τ = [P ]/[2 ∗ (π/4)d2p ]
∴ τ = [10 ∗ 103 ]/[2 ∗ (π/4) ∗ 242 ]
τ = 11.05N/mm2 (Shear Stress developed in Rod)

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

3.2.3 Analysis of Single Eye (30C8):


The Single Eye is made of Material 30C8. Hence stress developed in the single eye for
application of 10KN Load can be given as,

Fig.3.6: Dimensions of Single Eye (Material - 30C8)

a. Tensile Stress :
σt = P/[(dS1 − dS2 ) ∗ (tS1 )]
∴ σt = [10 ∗ 103 ]/[(70 − 35) ∗ (51)]
∴ σt = 5.60N/mm2 (Tensile Stress developed in Single Eye)

b. Crushing Stress :
σck = P/[(dp ∗ (tS1 )]
∴ σck = [10 ∗ 103 ]/[(25) ∗ (51)]
∴ σt = 7.84N/mm2 (Crushing Stress developed in Single Eye)

c. Shear Stress :
τ = P/P/[(dS1 − dS2 ) ∗ (tS1 )]
∴ τ = [10 ∗ 103 ]/[(70 − 35) ∗ (51)]
∴ τ = 5.60N/mm2 (Shear Stress developed in Single Eye)

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

3.2.4 Analysis of Fork (30C8):

Fig.3.7: Dimensions of Fork (Material - 30C8)

a. Tensile Stress :
σt = P/[(dF − dp ) ∗ (2tF 1 )]
∴ σt = [10 ∗ 103 ]/[(38 − 26) ∗ (2 ∗ 23)]
∴ σt = 18.11N/mm2 (Tensile Stress developed in Fork)

b. Crushing Stress :
σck = P/[(dp ∗ (2tF 1 )]
∴ σck = [10 ∗ 103 ]/[26 ∗ 2 ∗ 23]
∴ σt = 8.36N/mm2 (Crushing Stress developed in Fork)

c. Shear Stress :
τ = P/P/[(dF − dp ) ∗ (2tF 1 )]
∴ τ = [10 ∗ 103 ]/[(38 − 26) ∗ (2 ∗ 23)]
∴ τ = 18.11N/mm2 (Shear Stress developed in Fork)

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Table 3.14: Analytical Stress Results for different Load in N per mm2

Load Rod Pin Single Eye Fork


(KN) σt τ σt σck τ σt σck τ

10 10.39 11.05 5.60 7.84 5.60 18.11 8.36 18.11

20 20.78 22.10 11.20 15.68 11.20 36.23 16.72 36.23

30 31.18 33.15 16.80 23.52 16.80 54.34 25.08 54.34

40 41.57 44.20 22.40 31.37 22.40 72.46 33.44 72.46

50 51.96 55.26 28.01 39.21 28.01 90.57 41.80 90.57

3.3 FEA of Steel Knuckle Joint using CREO:


CREO 2.0 software is used for simulation purpose. The Finite Element analysis test for
different stress is been carried out using the same software.
By the same dimensions on which the stress are calculated using analytical method,
referring to fig. 4.5, fig. 4.6 and fig.4.7, the prototype models for Fork, Single eye and
Knuckle Pin are prepared in CREO software.

Fig.3.8: Assembly of Knuckle Simulation

The separate models are assembled and by selecting appropriate materials, the FEA test
is been carried using the same set of loads as that done previously using the analytical
method.

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Fig.3.9: Exploded View of Knuckle Simulation

1. Finite Element Analysis of Steel Knuckle Pin:

Fig.3.10: FEA of Steel Knuckle Pin

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Table 3.2: FEA Results of Steel Knuckle Pin

Load (KN) Analytical FEA Results


Results for τ for τ

10 11.05 12.43

20 22.10 24.87

30 33.15 40

40 44.20 49.75

50 55.26 62.19

2. Finite Element Analysis of Steel Single Eye:

Fig.3.11: FEA of Steel Single Eye

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Table 3.3: FEA Results of Single Eye Made of 30C8

Load Shear Stress τ Crushing Stress


(KN) Analytical FEA Analytical FEA

10 5.60 6.34 7.84 12.63

20 11.20 12.69 15.68 25.27

30 16.80 20 23.52 40

40 22.40 25.38 31.37 50.55

50 28.01 31.73 39.21 63.19

3. Finite Element Analysis of Steel Fork:

Fig.3.12: FEA of Steel Fork

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Table 3.4: FEA Results of Fork Made of 30C8

Load Shear Stress τ Crushing Stress


(KN) Analytical FEA Analytical FEA

10 18.11 17.76 8.36 9.16

20 36.23 35.53 16.72 18.32

30 54.34 53.30 25.08 27.48

40 72.46 71.07 33.44 36.64

50 90.57 88.84 41.80 45.80

3.4 Actual Failure Occuring in Components :


The Knuckle Pin is a device which is pulled by Equal and opposite forces. This forces
are pull forces which are pulled by single eye on side and pulled by fork on the other
side. Due to this pulling, excessive shearing is produced in the pin,the pin tears out from
between as shown in the fig 4.13.

Fig.3.13: Failure of Knuckle Pin

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

The single eye is is pulled by on side and pulled by other side by means of fork and pin.
Hence eye pin is subjected to tensiorn, shear and crushing. The below cause of failure in
single eye is caused due to excessive shearing and crushing stress. The Crushing brought
breakage at internal hole of pin diameter. Excessive shearing casue tearing at the porton
of tie rod.

Fig.3.14: Failure of Single Eye

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

4. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE KNUCKLE


JOINT
4.1 Introduction to Composite Material:
The importance of materials in modern world can be realized from the fact that much
of the research is being done to apply new materials to different components. However
it is natural for a design engineer to rely on trusted and tested materials, but now the
world is changing. Today composite materials have changed all the material engineering.
The evolution of composite materials has given an opportunity to various designers to
use new and better materials resulting in cost reduction, increase in efficiency and better
utilization of available resources. Composite materials are finding their applications in
aerospace industry, automobile sector, manufacturing industries etc.

Composites are being commercialized in three major fields: polymer-matrix composites


(PMCs), metal-matrix composites (MMCs), and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs).Other
classification schemes based on a matrix/fibre notation., such as Al/Sic and 6061/Sic/40p-
T6 for aluminium reinforced with silicon carbide and boron- and carbon-fibre reinforced
polymers (BFRP or CFRP),are also being used. The recognition of the three basic types
of composites (PMCs, MMCs, and CMCs) is based on the nature of the matrix material.
Each of these types may make use of particle or either discontinuous (short fibre) or con-
tinuous fibre reinforcement for property enhancement. It must be realized that systems
reinforced with particulate, discontinuous, and continuous fibres give rise to different
physical and mechanical properties, and that they must be utilized accordingly
4.1.1 Composites with polymer matrices:
Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs) have matrices of thermoplastic or thermosetting
polymers traditionally glass fibre available in the form of roving’s or woven material
embedded in polyester. These materials are utilized at temperatures of not more than
200 degree Celcius in commercial, industrial, and transportation applications, including
chemically resistant piping, valves, pressure vessels, and reactors.
4.1.2 Composites with metal matrices:
Metal-matrix composites are currently the focus of intense world-wide research and de-
velopment. These materials are fabricated by liquid-infiltration techniques, such as high
pressure infiltration casting, squeeze casting, vacuum infiltration casting, compo cast-

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

ing, and pressure less metal infiltration. Other methods of fabrication include powder
metallurgical techniques, plasma spraying of matrix material over properly laid fibres,
physical-vapour deposition, hot pressing, and self-propagating high-temperature synthe-
sis or reactive synthesis. In addition to improved strength, stiffness, and abrasion resis-
tance, and reduced density, MMCs are capable of providing increased oxidation resistance
at high temperature operating limits. Although not precisely termed MMCs, reinforced
ordered intermetallic composites, such as titanium and nickel aluminised, are becoming
important because the aluminised exhibit the unusual characteristic of increased yield
strength with temperature.
4.2 Properties of Metal Matrices Composite:
The different metal matrices composites are selected on the basis of shearing strength
and some bit of tensile strength. The materials selected are,

Table 4.1: Properties of Composite(Copy)

Material and Proper- Al6061T6 Ti6AL4V AlCuSiMn AlZnMgCu


ties (2014) composite

Ultimate Tensile 310 1200 300 560


Strength (MPa)

Ultimate Yield 270 1100 280 207


Strength (MPa)

Shear Strength 210 710 780 480


(MPa)

Young’s Modulus 69e3 110e3 70e3 1.93e5


(MPa)

Poisson’s Ratio 0.33 0.3 0.33 0.31

Density (kg/m3 ) 2700 4400 2900 3000

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4.3 Compositions and Specification of Composite Materials:


4.3.1 Al 6061T6:
Table 4.2: Chemical Composition

Aluminum Al 95.8 - 98.6

Chromium Cr 0.04 - 0.35

Copper Cu 0.15 - 0.4

Iron Fe Max 0.7

Magnesium Mg 0.8 - 1.2

Manganese Mn Max 0.15

Other, each Max 0.05

Other, total Max 0.15

Silicon Si 0.4 - 0.8

Titanium Ti Max 0.15

Zinc Zn Max 0.25

Advantages:
Medium to high strength, Good toughness, Good surface finish, excellent corrosion re-
sistance to atmospheric conditions, Good corrosion resistance, Good Impact Strength,
Good weldability, brazability and workability.

Applications for aluminium alloy 6061 include:


Aircraft and aerospace components, Marine fittings, Transport, Bicycle frames, Cam-
era lenses, Driveshaft’s, Electrical fittings and connectors, Brake components, Valves,
Couplings

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4.3.2 Ti6al4V:
Table 4.3: Chemical Composition

Titanium Ti 90%

Aluminum Al 6%

Vanadium V 4%

Carbon C < 0.10%

Oxygen O < 0.20%

Nitrogen N < 0.05%

Hydrogen H < 0.0125%

Iron Fe < 0.3%

Advantages:
Hardness of Aerodyne Alloys stock is typically 300 BHN. The strength and hardness of
the mill-annealed product may be increased by approximately 20% after an aging heat
treatment. After aging at 975-1025 degree Fahrenheit (524-552 degree celcius), Ti 6al-4v
Grade 5 Titanium bar typical yield strength is 150,000 psi and typical hardness is 360
BHN. Forged and heat treated titanium variants like Ti-6Al-4V are suitable for high tem-
peratures and have excellent fatigue strength, low modulus, high corrosion resistance, and
a superior strength to weight ratio thanks to the addition of vanadium and aluminium.

Applications:
An extremely versatile material, this titanium alloy is used in many different forms,
from bar and plate to sheet metal applications and coil. In the aerospace industry, this
alloy is commonly used in fan blades, fan disks, front compressor blades and disks, front
compressor cases and multistage disks, and airframe forgings in the annealed or heat
treated condition.

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4.3.3 AlCuSiMn 2014:


Table 4.4: Chemical Composition

Aluminium Al 90.2499 - 94.9999

Copper Cu 3.9 - 5.0

Silicon Si 0.5 - 1.2

Manganese Mn 0.4 - 1.2

Magnesium Mg 0.2 - 0.8

Iron Fe 0.0 - 0.7

Zinc Zn 0.0 - 0.25

Titanium Ti 0.0 - 0.15

Chromium Cr 0.1

Advantages:
Good Strength in terms if Impact, Fatigue and Shearing. Good Machinability and Weld-
ablity. The material can be casted into desired shape and hence good castablity. Good
Corrosion resistant to corrosive environment. Good surface finish

Applications:
Specific applications include heavy duty forgings, plate, and extrusions for aerospace
fittings, wheels, tanks, and major structural components, heavy duty automotive frame
and suspension componentry.

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4.3.4 AlZnMgCu 7075:

Table 4.5: Chemical Composition

Silicon Si 0.40

Iron Fe 0.50

Copper Cu 1.2-2.0

Manganese Mn 0.30

Magnesium Mg 2.1-2.9

Chromium Cr 0.18-0.28

Zinc Zn 5.1-6.1

Titanium Ti 0.20

Others (each) 0.05

Advantages:
Aluminium 7075 composite is one of the highest strength alloys available. It has Good
thermal Shock resisting capacity, good impact and fatigue strength. Good Corrosive to
resistant.

Applications:
Aluminium 7075 composite is generally used for aerospace and structural engineering.
May find uses in military applications e.g. Weapons. Aerospace materials are covered by
the ‘L’ series of British standards.

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4.4 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Knuckle Joint (Pin):


4.4.1 Aluminium 6061 T6 Alloy:

Fig.4.1: FEA Analysis of Pin of Composite Al6061T6 for 50 KN

4.4.2 Titanium Ti6al4V:

Fig.4.2: FEA Analysis of Pin of Composite Titanium Ti6al4V for 50 KN

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4.4.3 Aluminium AlCuSiMn 2014:

Fig.4.3: FEA Analysis of Pin of Composite Aluminium AlCuSiMn 2014 for 50 KN

4.4.4 Aluminium AlZnMgCu 7075:

Fig.4.4: FEA Analysis of Pin of Composite Aluminium AlZnMgCu 7075 for 50 KN

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4.4.5 Response Analysis of Pin for Different Loading Condition:

Table 4.6: Properties of Composite

Material Al6061T6 Ti6AL4V AlCuSiMn AlZnMgCu Steel


Load (2014) (7075)

10 KN 115.908 128.181 115.908 127.588 128.181

20 KN 231.816 256.32 231.739 255.177 256.36

30 KN 347.723 384.54 347.723 382.765 384.54

40 KN 463.631 512.725 463.631 510.354 512.75

50 KN 579.539 640.906 579.539 637.942 640.906

Fig.4.5: Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Pin

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Table 4.7: Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Pin

Material Al6061T6 Ti6AL4V AlCuSiMn AlZnMgCu Steel


Load (2014) (7075)

10 KN 0.05809 0.03640 0.05484 0.0207 0.02

20 KN 0.1161 0.0728 0.1096 0.0415 0.04

30 KN 0.1742 0.1092 0.1642 0.0622 0.06

40 KN 0.2323 0.14 0.2193 0.0830 0.08

50 KN 0.2904 0.182 0.2742 0.1037 0.1

Fig.4.6: Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Pin

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

4.5 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Knuckle Joint (Single Eye):


4.5.1 Aluminium 6061 T6 Alloy:

Fig.4.7: FEA Analysis of Single Eye of Composite Al6061T6 for 50 KN

4.5.2 Titanium Ti6al4V:

Fig.4.8: FEA Analysis of Single Eye of Composite Titanium Ti6al4V for 50 KN

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4.5.3 Aluminium AlCuSiMn 2014:

Fig.4.9: FEA Analysis of Single Eye of Composite AlCuSiMn 2014 for 50 KN

4.5.4 Aluminium AlZnMgCu 7075:

Fig.4.10: FEA Analysis of Single Eye of Composite AlZnMgCu 7075 for 50 KN

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

4.5.5 Response Analysis of Single Eye for Different Loading Condition:

Table 4.8: Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Single Eye

Material Al6061T6 Ti6AL4V AlCuSiMn AlZnMgCu Steel


Load (2014) (7075)

10 KN 31.1836 31.1836 31.1836 31.4890 30.7880

20 KN 62.3672 62.3672 62.3672 62.9779 61.5759

30 KN 93.5508 93.5508 93.5508 94.4669 92.3639

40 KN 124.734 124.734 124.734 125.956 123.512

50 KN 155.918 155.918 155.918 157.445 153.940

Fig.4.11: Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Single Eye

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Table 4.9: Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Single Eye

Material Al6061T6 Ti6AL4V AlCuSiMn AlZnMgCu Steel


Load (2014) (7075)

10 KN 0.0183 0.0115 0.0173 0.0065 0.0063

20 KN 0.0366 0.023 0.03461 0.0131 0.0127

30 KN 0.0549 0.03449 0.05192 0.0196 0.0190

40 KN 0.0733 0.0459 0.0892 0.02626 0.0254

50 KN 0.0916 0.05749 0.0865 0.0328 0.0317

Fig.4.12: Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Single Eye

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

4.6 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Knuckle Joint (Double Eye):


4.6.1 Aluminium 6061 T6 Alloy:

Fig.4.13: FEA Analysis of Double Eye of Composite Al6061T6 for 50 KN

4.6.2 Titanium Ti6al4V:

Fig.4.14: FEA Analysis of Double Eye of Composite Titanium Ti6al4V for 50 KN

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

4.6.3 Aluminium AlCuSiMn 2014:

Fig.4.15: FEA Analysis of Double Eye of Composite AlCuSiMn 2014 for 50 KN

4.6.4 Aluminium AlZnMgCu 7075 composite:

Fig.4.16: FEA Analysis of Double Eye of Composite AlZnMgCu 7075 for 50 KN

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

4.6.5 Response Analysis of Composite Joint for Different Loading Conditions:

Table 4.10: Response Analysis for Maximum Stress Distribution of Double Eye

Material Al6061T6 Ti6AL4V AlCuSiMn AlZnMgCu Steel


Load (2014) (7075)

10 KN 85.9625 85.9625 85.9625 85.9625 85.7842

20 KN 171.925 171.925 171.925 171.925 171.568

30 KN 257.888 257.888 257.888 257.888 257.353

40 KN 343.850 343.850 343.850 343.850 343.137

50 KN 429.813 429.813 429.813 429.813 428.91

Fig.4.17: Response Analysis for Maximum Stress of Double Eye

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Table 4.11: Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Double Eye

Material Al6061T6 Ti6AL4V AlCuSiMn AlZnMgCu Steel


Load (2014) (7075)

10 KN 0.0311 0.0019 0.0294 0.0114 0.0108

20 KN 0.0623 0.00391 0.05884 0.0222 0.0216

30 KN 0.0934 0.00586 0.0882 0.0334 0.0324

40 KN 0.124 0.00782 0.0445 0.0445 0.0432

50 KN 0.1558 0.0097 0.147 0.0557 0.054

Fig.4.18: Response Analysis for Maximum Displacement of Double Eye

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

4.7 Comparison of Composite and Steel Knuckle Joint:

Table 4.12: Comparison of Composite and Steel Knuckle Joint

Material Max. Stress Max. Mass of


(MPa) Disp.(mm) Joint(Kg)

Al-6061 579.539 0.2913 1.04

Ti 6AL 4V 640.906 0.12 1.5

AlCuSiMn 579.539 0.1074 1.12


(2014)

AlZnMgCu 637.942 0.1037 1.15

Steel 30C8 640.906 0.162 4

As from the Graph and Table 5.7, the Aluminium (7075) is very suitable for composite
knuckle joint in terms of Displacement, Stress Produced and total weight of joint. Hence
using the same dimensions as that of joint made of Steel, checking whether the design
for composite joint is safe or not by using experimental.
4.8 Cost Analysis of Different Materials:

Table 4.13: Raw Material Cost and Manufacturing Cost

No. Raw Material Raw Stir Casting


Cost Material Cost
Cost/Kg

1 Stainless Steel Rs. 345 Rs. 260/Kg

2 Al 6061 Rs. 300 Rs. 200/Kg

3 Al 7075 Rs. 501 Rs. 200/Kg

4 Al 2014 Rs. 275 Rs. 200/Kg

5 Ti6Al4V Rs. 1100 Rs. 565/Kg

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

5. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & TESTING


5.1 Universal Testing Machine:
5.1.1 Introduction:

Fig.5.1: Universal Testing Machine

A universal testing machine (UTM), also known as a universal tester, materials testing
machine or materials test frame, is used to test the tensile strength and compressive
strength of materials.
5.1.2 Main Components of Machine:

1. Load frame - Usually consisting of two strong supports for the machine. Some small
machines have a single support.

2. Load cell - A force transducer or other means of measuring the load is required.
Periodic calibration is usually required by governing regulations or quality system.

3. Cross head - A movable cross head (crosshead) is controlled to move up or down.


Usually this is at a constant speed: sometimes called a constant rate of exten-

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

sion (CRE) machine. Some machines can program the crosshead speed or conduct
cyclical testing, testing at constant force, testing at constant deformation, etc. Elec-
tromechanical, servo-hydraulic, linear drive, and resonance drive are used.

4. Means of measuring extension or deformation - Many tests require a measure of the


response of the test specimen to the movement of the cross head. Extensometers
are sometimes used.

5. Output device - A means of providing the test result is needed. Some older machines
have dial or digital displays and chart recorders. Many newer machines have a
computer interface for analysis and printing.

6. Conditioning - Many tests require controlled conditioning (temperature, humidity,


pressure, etc.). The machine can be in a controlled room or a special environmental
chamber can be placed around the test specimen for the test.

7. Test fixtures, specimen holding jaws, and related sample making equipment are
called for in many test methods.

5.1.3 Operation of Universal Testing Machine:


The set-up and usage are detailed in a test method, often published by a standards
organization. This specifies the sample preparation, featuring, gauge length (the length
which is under study or observation), analysis, etc.

The specimen is placed in the machine between the grips and an extensometer if required
can automatically record the change in gauge length during the test. If an extensometer
is not fitted, the machine itself can record the displacement between its cross heads on
which the specimen is held. However, this method not only records the change in length
of the specimen but also all other extending / elastic components of the testing machine
and its drive systems including any slipping of the specimen in the grips.

Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on specimen. Through-
out the tests the control system and its associated software record the load and extension
or compression of the specimen.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

5.2 Specifications of Universal Testing Machine:

Capacity : Up to 100 KN
Test Speed :
1. Minimum test Speed : 0.01 mm/min
2. Maximum test Speed : 500 mm /min
Dimensions and Features :
1. Width : 1000 - 1200 mm
2. Depth : 500 - 600 mm
3. Height : 1600 – 2000mm
4. Total Crosshead Travel : 1200 – 1400mm
5. Total Vertical Test Space : 1200 – 1400mm
Test Performed : Tensile Test
Compressive Test
Adhesion Test
Flexure / Bending
Shear / Torsion Test
Measurement System :
1. Accuracy : 0.01% of capacity
2. Repeatability : 0.005% of capacity
3. Industry standards : ASTM E4
Material can be Tested :Stainless Steel,Modified
Stainless Steel Such
as SS316, SS316 LN,
Polymers such FRP,
Polyamides,Epoxy esters,
Copper, Aluminium alloys
etc.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

5.3 Tension Test of Single Eye:


5.3.1 Experimental Testing and Results for Single Eye:

Fig.5.2: Component of Testing

Fig.5.3: Machine Holding Single Eye for Tension Test

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Fig.5.4: Control Panel of Universal Testing Machine

Table 5.1: Results for Deflection of Single Eye using UTM

Load KN Deflection

10 0.0085

20 0.0152

30 0.0223

40 0.0316

According to the deflection obtained in the single eye, the Tensile stress generated in the
eye can be calculates by the equation,
E = (σ/e) (According to limit of proportionality)
Where,
E = Modulus of Elasticity = 193000 N/mm2
σ = Stress in N/mm2
e = Strain Produced = δl/L
δl = Deflection in mm
L = Original Length = 175mm
Hence using the above equation of Modulus of Elasticity.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Table 5.2: Experimental Results for Tensile Stress produced in of Single Eye

Load KN Deflection (mm) Tensile Stres (N/mm2 )

10 0.0085 9.374285714

20 0.0152 16.76342857

30 0.0223 24.59371429

40 0.0316 34.85028571

5.3.2 All FEA Results for Single Eye:

Fig.5.5: Set of FEA Results for Single Eye

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

5.4 Shearing Test of Knuckle Pin:


5.4.1 Experimental Testing:

Fig.5.6: Arrangement of component for calculating Shear Stress

Load KN Deflection

10 0.023

20 0.045

30 0.066

40 0.089

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

Calculating the Shear Strain Produced in the material,


Shear Strain (es) can be given as,

es = (Change in diameter δd)/(Original Diameter) (19)

Original Diameter of Pin = 24mm


Shear Modulus = 26900 MPa
Hence using Limit of Proportionality form,

Shear M odulus = (Shear Stress/Shear Strain) (20)

Table 5.3: Shear Deflection produced in of Knuckle Pin during experimental test

Load KN Deflection Shear Strain Shear Stress

10 0.023 0.000959 25.8039

20 0.045 0.001879 50.53225

30 0.066 0.002758 74.17899

40 0.089 0.003722 100.1255

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

5.4.2 FEA Results for Shearing of Pin:

Fig.5.7: Set of FEA Results for Knuckle Pin

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

6. RESULT AND DISSCUSSION

• The maximum stress produced in the Pin for AlZnCuMn is 127Mpa whereas for
Steel it was 128Mpa, Hence in case of stress distribution both the materials produce
same stress. The deflection produced in Al. Composite and steel are approximately
0.1mm at maximum loading.

• The maximum stress produced in the Single Eye for AlZnCuMn is 157 MPa whereas
for Steel it was 153 MPa, Hence in case of stress distribution in single eye both the
materials produce same stress. The deflection produced in Al. Composite is 0.032
and steel are approximately 0.034 mm at maximum loading.

• The maximum stress produced in the Double Eye for AlZnCuMn is 429 MPa
whereas for Steel it was 429 MPa, Hence in case of stress distribution in single
eye both the materials produce same stress. The deflection produced in Al. Com-
posite is 0.055 and steel are approximately 0.058 mm at maximum loading.

• Using the stress and Deflection criteria, the Aluminium Composite find it somewhat
similar. The weight of Aluminium Composite is 1.5 Kg whereas steel is 4kg. Hence
less the material, reduction in material and manufacturing cost.

• The simulated results are validated using Universal Testing machine for Shear and
tension test of Single Eye and Pin.

• The difference in experimental results are obtained to be mean of about 0.2%.


Hence the results can rely on simulation.

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Table 6.1: Comparison of FEA and Experimental Results

Load (KN)
Parameter
10 20 30 40

Single Eye in tension (Deflection in mm)

FEA 0.065 0.0131 0.019 0.026

Experimental 0.085 0.0152 0.0223 0.0316

Average %Difference in Results 0.21%

Single Eye in tension (Tensile Stress in N/mm2 )

FEA 9.57 19.14 30 38.28

Experimental 9.37 16.76 24.59 34.85

Average %Difference in Results 0.12%

Knuckle Pin in Shearing (Deflection in mm)

FEA 0.018 0.041 0.062 0.083

Experimental 0.023 0.045 0.066 0.089

Average %Difference in Results 0.12%

Knuckle Pin in Shearing (Shear Stress in N/mm2 )

FEA 26.11 52.23 78.34 104.46

Experimental 25.80 50.53 74.17 100.12

Average %Difference in Results 0.36%

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

7. CONCLUSIONS

• The knuckle Joint has been selected which is used in Tractor for pulling of Trolley.
The material of Joint is 30C8 and Stainless Steel. The properties of this material
have been collected and sorted in tabulated form.

• All the Design Equations and Strength equations of joint have been formulated
using the reference books and research papers.

• The dimensions of Joint have been carefully measured from some corners to sections
using vernier calliper, micrometre and ruler. Using the set of dimensions, the cad
model is prepared in AutoCAD and Creo software.

• The FEA is done for Steel as well the composites materials for Al-6061, AlZnCuMn
composite, Al2014 and Ti6Al. Amongst these material, AlZnCuMn composite has
been found best according to Stress and Deflection and same has been selected for
experimental approach considering the criteria’s for, stress, deformation, Strength
to weight, costing and availability of material.

• AlZnCuMn composite shows similarity in but a comparative better performance


with respect to deformation and stress distribution as that of steel.

• With respect to the weight criteria, the weight of AlZnCuMn composite is approx.
1.15 kg and as that of steel is 4 kg. Hence usage of composites metal can reduce
the weight of component by 70%.

• For conductance of experimentation, the knuckle joint of steel as well as AlZnCuMn


composite has been undergone through Tension and Shear test using Universal
Testing machine. The test is done to verify the results with simulation and difference
observed in results ranges from 0.12% to 0.36% which are acceptable.

• The deflection and stress found in AlZnCuMn composite knuckle is found to be


very low as that of steel. Hence material satisfies the strength criteria and can be
used. Hence the objective of reducing the weight of joint and increasing the shear
strength is achieved using Material Optimization.

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Design Optimization and Analysis of Tractor Knuckle Joint using Composite Material

• The cost of AlZnCuMn composite also decreases considerably as the cumulative


weight of joint is decreased. Hence for Tractor Knuckle, AlZnCuMn composite can
be used successfully.

• In order to go ahead for heavy duty trolleys, changes in composition of material


properties may lead to successful results.

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REFERENCES

[1] Lakhwinder Singh, Geetesh Goga, Mukesh Kumar Rathi, “Latest Developments in
Composite Materials”, IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), Volume 2, Issue 8
(August 2012), Page 152-158.

[2] Prof. Swati Datey, Amit A. Rangari, Adarsh A. Dongre, Kunal A. Paraskar, Sanket
V. Lidbe, “ Analysis of Knuckle Joint used in Mahindra 575 DL”, International
Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education , Voume -3, Issue-2,
2017.

[3] Aman Dutt, “Finite Element Analysis of Knuckle Joint Pin Using Creo 2.0 Soft-
ware”, International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology
(IJRMET), Volume 6, Issue 1, Nov 2015-April 2016.

[4] Suraj Yadav, Sanket Benade, Sushil Angchekar, Vaibhav Dhokle, Prof. Rakesh Kol-
hapure, “Design and Analysis of Knuckle Joint by using FEA”, International Journal
of Current Engineering and Scientific Research (IJCESR), Volume-4, Issue-6, 2017.

[5] Shaik.John Bhasha & Hari Sankar Vanka, “Modeling and Analysis of Knuckle Joint”,
International Journal & Magazine of Engineering, Technology, Management and
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