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Indo-Pacific: Towards Dialogue and

Cooperation and Reducing Rivalry


– An Australian Perspective
Emeritus Professor Carlyle A. Thayer
Paper to International Conference on
Indo-Pacific: The New Maritime Geopolitical Theater
Maritime Institute of Malaysia, Embassy of Japan
and High Commission of Australia
DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
24 October 2019
Overview

1. Australia and the Indo-Pacific


2. Australia and the U.S.
3. Trilateral Security Cooperation
4. India/Quadrilateral Security
Dialogue
Overview
5. Australia and ASEAN/ARF
6. Australia and its Strategic Partners
7. Australia and its New Strategic
Partners
8. Australia and the South Pacific
9. Australia and China
1. Australia and the Indo-Pacific
Australia has Interests in both the
Indian Ocean and South Pacific
Australia’s Views the Indo-Pacific as a
Single Strategic Maritime Arc
2. Australia and the United States
3. Trilateral Security Dialogue
August 2019
• Australia, Japan, United States
• Cooperation in capacity building for maritime
security in consultation with others
• ASEAN centrality
• Indian Ocean Rim Association
• Pacific Islands Forum
• South China Sea COC and third parties
4. Australia and India/Quad
Framework for Security Cooperation (2014)
• Annual summits, 2 + 2 meeting (foreign and
defence ministers), senior officials, service to
service, military exercises
• Annual Maritime Dialogue
• East Asia Talks
• Cooperation in multilateral forums
– EAS, ARF, ADMM Plus, IORA, IONS
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue
• Quad 2.0 security dialogue revived (2017)
– India, Japan, United States and Japan
• Biennial meetings, no binding joint statement
• Inclusion of non-security issues
– private sector development, good governance
• Support for ASEAN centrality and IORA and
PIF
• Free and Open Indo-Pacific, rules-based order
5. Australia and ASEAN/ARF

Co-chair
EAS
Intersessional
Meeting on ADMM
Maritime ARF Plus
Security with ASEAN
Vietnam and EU
until 2020
PMC EAMF
+1
6. Australia and Its Strategic Partners –
Indonesia

• Framework for Security Cooperation (2006)


– Lombok Treaty/Joint Understanding 2014
• Joint Declaration on Maritime Cooperation
(2017)
– Maritime Cooperation Plan of Action
• Comprehensive Strategic Partnership (2018)
– 5 pillars: maritime cooperation, contributing to
Indo-Pacific Stability and Prosperity
Australia and Singapore

• Five Power Defence Arrangements


• MOU on Defence Cooperation (2008)
– Training facilities in Australia
• Comprehensive Strategic Partnership (2015)
– Prime ministers meet annually
– Joint Ministerial Committee biennial
• defence and security
Australia and Malaysia
• Five Power Defence Arrangements
• Strategic Partnership (2015)
– Annual meeting of foreign ministers
– Senior Officials’ Meeting
– Strategic Dialogue
– Enhanced Defence Dialogue
– Collaboration – ARF, ADMM Plus, APEC, ASEM,
IORA
Australia and the Philippines
• MOU Cooperative Defence Activities (1995)
– Joint Defence Cooperation Committee
• Status of Visiting Forces Agreement (2012)
• Comprehensive Partnership (2015)
– Biennial Philippines-Australia Ministerial Meeting
– annual joint defence cooperation consultations
– Navy-to-Navy Strategy talks (2017)
– Cooperation: EAS, APEC, ASEAN, ARF, UN and
Cairns Group
Australia and Vietnam
• MOU for Defence Cooperation (2010)
• Joint Statement on the Establishment of a
Strategic Partnership (2018)
– Annual meeting of prime ministers
– annual defence ministers meeting
– defence, intelligence and security cooperation
– Maritime and aviation security
– Maritime policy-making
7. Australia and Its New Strategic
Partners – France
• Joint Statement of Strategic Partnership
(2012)
• Joint Statement of Enhanced Strategic
Partnership (2017)
– Strengthen engagement in Indo-Pacific
– Priority areas: political, defence, security and
intelligence
3. Vision Statement on the Australia-France
Relationship (2018)
Australia and the United Kingdom

• Australia-UK Ministerial Consultations


– 11th AUKMIN hosted by Australia 2019
• Treaty between the UK and Australia for
Defence and Security Cooperation (2013)
• BAE Systems – Hunter-class frigates
• Global Britain post-Brexit
Australia and Germany

• Berlin-Canberra Declaration of Intent on a


Strategic Partnership (2012)
– Strategic Steering Committee
– Strategic policy dialogue, security and defence
cooperation including Asia-Pacific region
– Foreign ministers to meet annually
• Inaugural 2 + 2 Ministerial Meeting, Berlin (2016)
Australia and European Union
• Australia-EU Partnership Framework (2008)
– shared foreign policy and global security
interests
– the multilateral rules-based trading system and
the bilateral trade and investment relationship
– the Indo–Pacific region
• Framework Agreement (2017)
– Does not include defence and security
Australia and the South Pacific
• Pacific Island Forum Leaders’ Meeting (2016)
– ‘step-change’ announced by Australia
• Pacific Island Forum Leaders’ Meeting (2018)
– ‘Step Up’ announced by Prime Minister Morrison
• Boe Declaration of Regional Security
– recognises an expanded concept of security,
including human, cyber and environmental
security, and guides regional responses to
emerging security issues.
9. Australia and China
• Comprehensive Strategic Partnership (2014)
– annual meeting between prime minister/premier
– Dialogues on regional and global issues, foreign
and strategic relations, international security
• Australia-China High-Level 1.5 Track Dialogue
– political and strategic issues
3. Chinese interference in Australia’s domestic
affairs has put relationship under strain
Conclusion
• Australia has embraced the Indo-Pacific
Region as a policy framework
• Engagement by the United States is
critical for regional peace, security and
stability
• Australia is contributing to building a
network of allies and strategic partners
both old and new
Conclusions
• Australia seeks engagement with China
through dialogue
• China’s unilateral assertiveness of territorial
claims, militarisation of the South China Sea,
naval deployments in the Indian Ocean,
quest for naval port access in the South
Pacific and interference in Australia’s
domestic affairs undermine dialogue and
cooperation and intensify major power
rivalry
Indo-Pacific: Towards Dialogue and
Cooperation and Reducing Rivalry
– An Australian Perspective
Emeritus Professor Carlyle A. Thayer
Paper to International Conference on
Indo-Pacific: The New Maritime Geopolitical Theater
Maritime Institute of Malaysia, Embassy of Japan
and High Commission of Australia
DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
24 October 2019