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1. Linguistic knowledge

Knowledge of the way an anecdote typically unfolds, to the 'fine print', such the knowledge of
grammar and vocabulary. (There are six kinds of knowledge in this)

-Genre knowledge

Involves the broad, two main purposes of speaking.

*Transactional: To convey information and facilitate the exchange of good or services.

E.g.: Phoning a restaurant to book a table

*Interpersonal: To establish and maintain social relations.

E.g.: Conversation between friends that takes place at the restaurant.

Distinctions/factors need to be considered: Interactive/non-interactive and planned/unplanned.

-Discourse knowledge

Knowledge of the ways to organise and connect individual utterances, as well as how to map this
knowledge on to the turn-taking structures of interactive talk.

Examples of discourse marker: Using 'well' to link our utterances to our previous conversation
partner's turn. Or using 'it' or 'some' to refer to the objects of the previous conversation.

-Pragmatic knowledge

Knowing how to do things with language, taking into account its contexts of use.

*Speech acts (functions): A communicative view of language holds as axomatic that when
someone says something, they are also doing something.

E.g.: Complimenting, suggesting, requesting, offering.

*Co-operative principle: Interpreting the communicative force of speech acts, and knowing how
to respond appropriately.

E.g.: If we ask a question, we assume that what our interlocutor says in response is an answer.
However, if it isn't, then it should be relevant to what we have just asked.

*Politeness: The way we take other speakers' face needs into account.

E.g.: Politeness markers such as please and thank you. Or replying to someone's question
according to maxim of quantity.

*Register: Taking three things into consider; Tenor which is the relationship between speakers,
field which is what it is about or what event is it and mode which is how the conversation is
made or the choice of the channel.


To generate much more sophisticated range of meanings.


The usage of deictic language in speech to mean variety of things.

*Spatial deixis: Place, thing, etc.

*Temporal deixis: Time

*Person deixis: Pronouns


Adjusting our pronunciation to take account of the social context.

E.g.: Adopt an accent of quality of voice for a particular effect.

2. Extralinguistic knowledge

The knowledge of topic and cultural knowledge, knowledge of the context and familiarity with
the other speakers.

-Context knowledge allows speakers to make reference to the immediate context. (Shared

-Sociocultural knowledge is the knowledge about social values and norms are realized through


1. Quantity maxim: My friend used to ask me if his answer on a particular mathematics question
is correct or not. I just said yes, simply because his answer was actually correct although the
method that he used to find the answer was wrong.

2. Quality maxim: My teacher used to correct my English essay's grammar although I only asked
her if my content and title of the essay are interesting or not.

3. Relation maxim: I invited my friend to play an online game with me to which he replied "How
many hours?”.

4. Manner maxim: My friend asked me if he can borrow my motorcycle to buy food outside. I
just said, "Yes, the key is in my laptop bag".


1. Familiarity with the topic

It is always easier for us to talk about something that is close/something that we experienced
before rather talking about anything that we have never done before. This means that our
familiarity with the topic will affect our background knowledge upon the matter that we are
talking about.
2. Familiarity with the genre.
We will have a hard time understanding a certain speech or lecture if we have never been in or
familiar in a specific kind of genre. For example, a TESL student might have trouble in
communicating or giving opinions in a culinary class.
3. Familiarity with the interlocutors.
Our closeness with a certain person will affect whether we have shared experiences or
knowledge together. The more familiar or close the relationship, the easier for us to hold the
4. Processing demands.
Whenever the speech demands a complicated mental processing, and also without illustrations to
aid, it will be difficult to communicate or it will take us a longer time to utter a single sentence.