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Ch 8 How do Organisms Reproduce?

Page No: 128

1. What is the importance of DNA copying in reproduction?

DNA is the genetic material present in the cells of all organisms. The genetic information from
generation to generation is carried by DNA .It is therefore possible for the organism to produce
organism of its own type due to DNA copying only.For the inheritance of traits of the
parent,DNA copying is a must.DNA copying also brings about variation ,which forms the basis
for the origin of new species.

2. Why is variation beneficial to the species but not necessarily for the individual?

Variations are beneficial to the species than individual because sometimes for a species, the
environmental conditions change so drastically that their survival becomes difficult. For
example, if the temperature of water increases suddenly, then most of the bacteria living in that
water would die. Only few variants that are resistant to heat would be able to survive. However,
if these variants were not there, then the entire species of bacteria would have been destroyed.
Thus, these variants help in the survival of the species. However, all variations are not
necessarily beneficial for the individual organisms.

Page No: 133

1. How does binary fission differ from multiple fission?

In binary fission a single cell divides into two equal halves.Amoeba and Bacteria divide by
binary fission.

In multiple fission, a single cell divides into many daughter cells simultaneously. Plasmodium
divide by multiple fission.

2. How will an organism be benefited if it reproduces through spores?

Advantages of spore formation:

→ Large numbers of spores are produced in one sporangium.

→ Spores are distributed easily by air to far-off places to avoid competition at one place.

→ Spores are covered by thick walls to prevent dehydration under unfavourable conditions.
3. Can you think of reasons why more complex organisms cannot give rise to new individuals
through regeneration?

Higher complex organisms cannot give rise to new individuals through regeneration
because complex organisms have organ-system level of organization. All the organ systems of
their body work together as an interconnected unit. They can regenerate their lost body parts
such as skin, muscles, blood, etc. However, they cannot give rise to new individuals through

4. Why is vegetative propagation practised for growing some types of plants?

Vegetative propagation is practiced for growing some types of plants because of following

→ It is used to grow a plant in which viable seeds are not formed or very few seeds are produced
such as Orange, Banana, Pineapple.

→ It helps to introduce plants in new areas where the seed germination fails to produce mature
plant due to change in environmental factors and the soil.→ It is more rapid, easier and cheaper

→ By this method a good quality of a race or variety can be preserved.

5. Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction?

DNA copying is an essential part of reproduction as it passes genetic information from parents to
offspring. It determines the body design of an individual. The reproducing cells produce a copy
of their DNA through some chemical reactions and result in two copies of DNA. The copying of
DNA always takes place along with the creation of additional cellular structure. This process is
then followed by division of a cell to form two cells.

Page No: 140

1. How is the process of pollination different from fertilization?

Pollination is the process of transfer of pollens from anther to stigma. It occurs with the help of
certain pollinators such as air, water, birds, or some insects.

Fertilization, is the fusion of the male and female gametes. It occurs inside the ovule and leads to
the formation of zygote.

2. What is the role of the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland?
The secretions from seminal vesicles and prostate glands lubricate the sperms and provide a fluid
medium for easy transport of sperms. Their secretion also provides nutrient in the form of
fructose, calcium, and some enzymes.

3. What are the changes seen in girls at the time of puberty?

The changes seen in girls at the time of puberty are:

→ Increase in breast size and darkening of skin of the nipples present at the tips of the breasts.

→ Appearance of hair in the genital area.

→ Appearance of hair in other areas of skin like underarms, face, hands, and legs.

→ Increase in the size of uterus and ovary.

→ Beginning of menstrual cycle.

→ More secretion of oil from the skin, which results in the appearance of pimples.

4. How does the embryo get nourishment inside the mother's body?

After fertilization the lining of uterus thickens and is richly supplied with blood to nourish the
growing embryo. The embryo gets nutrition from the mother’s blood with he help of a special
tissue called placenta. It is embedded in the uterine wall. Placenta contains Villi on the embryo’s
side of the tissue and blood spaces on mother’s side surrounding the villi. This provides a large
surface from mother to the embryo and waste products from embryo to mother.

5. If a woman is using a copper-T, will it help in protecting her from sexually transmitted

No, because copper-T will not prevent contact body fluids. Thus it will not protect her from
sexually transmitted diseases.

Page No: 141

4. What are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?

Advantages of sexual reproduction:

→ In sexual reproduction, more variations are produced. Thus, it ensures survival of species in a

→ The new formed individual has characteristics of both the parents.

→ Variations are more viable in sexual mode than in asexual one. This is because in asexual
reproduction, DNA has to function inside the inherited cellular apparatus.

5. What are the functions performed by the testis in human beings?

Functions of testes:

→ Produce sperms, which contain haploid set of chromosomes of father.

→ Produce a hormone called testosterone, which brings about secondary sexual characters in

6. Why does menstruation occur?

Menstruation is a process in which blood and mucous flows out every month through the vagina.
This process occurs every month because one egg is released from the ovary every month and at
the same time, the uterus (womb) prepares itself to receive the fertilized egg. Thus, the inner
lining of the uterus gets thickened and is supplied with blood to nourish the embryo. If the egg
does not get fertilised, then the lining of the uterus breaks down slowly and gets released in the
form of blood and mucous from the vagina.

7. Draw a labelled diagram of the longitudinal section of a flower.

8. What are the different methods of contraception?

The contraceptive methods can be broadly divided into the following types:

→ Natural method: It involves avoiding the chances of meeting of sperms and ovum. In this
method, the sexual act is avoided from day 10th to 17th of the menstrual cycle because during
this period, ovulation is expected and therefore, the chances of fertilization are very high.
→ Barrier method: In this method, the fertilization of ovum and sperm is prevented with the help
of barriers. Barriers are available for both males and females. Condoms are barriers made of thin
rubber that are used to cover penis in males and vagina in females.
→ Oral contraceptives: In this method, tablets or drugs are taken orally. These contain small
doses of hormones that prevent the release of eggs and thus fertilization cannot occur.
→ Implants and surgical methods: Contraceptive devices such as the loop or Copper-T are
placed in uterus to prevent pregnancy. Some surgical methods can also be used to block the
gamete transfer. It includes the blocking of vas deferens to prevent the transfer of sperms known
as vasectomy. Similarly, fallopian tubes of the female can be blocked so that the egg will not
reach the uterus known as tubectomy.

9. How are the modes for reproduction different in unicellular and multicellular organisms?

In unicellular organisms, reproduction occurs by the division of the entire cell. The modes of
reproduction in unicellular organisms can be fission, budding, etc. whereas in multicellular
organisms, specialised reproductive organs are present. Therefore, they can reproduce by
complex reproductive methods such as vegetative propagation, spore formation, etc. In more
complex multicellular organisms such as human beings and plants, the mode of reproduction is
sexual reproduction.

10. How does reproduction help in providing stability to populations of species?

Reproduction is the process of producing new individuals of the same species by existing
organisms of a species, so, it helps in providing stability to population of species by giving birth
to new individuals as the rate of birth must be at par with the rate of death to provide stability to
population of a species.

11. What could be the reasons for adopting contraceptive methods?

Contraceptive methods are mainly adopted because of the following reasons:

→ To prevent unwanted pregnancies.

→ To control population rise or birth rate.

→ To prevent the transfer of sexually transmitted diseases.

Ch 8 How do Organisms Reproduce?
Introduction :

Reproduction is the process by which living organisms produce new individuals similar to
themselves. It ensures continuity of life on earth.

→ Nucleus of the cell contains DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) which is the heredity material.

→ DNA replicates and forms new cells causing variation. So, these new cells will be similar but
may not be identical to original cell.

→ Variations are useful for the survival of the individual and species over time as well as basis
for evolution.

Types of Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

→ A single individual give rise to new individual.

→ Gametes are not formed.

→ New individual is identical to parent.

→ It is extremely useful as a means of rapid multiplication.

→ Adopted by lower organisms.

Sexual Reproduction

→ Two individuals i.e., one male and one female are needed to give rise to new individual.

→ Gametes are formed.

→ New individual is genetically similar but not identical to parents.

→ It is useful to generate more variations in species.

→ Adopted by higher organisms.

Modes of Asexual Reproduction


→ The parent cell divides into daughter cells.

• Binary fission: 2 cells are formed. Example: amoeba.

• Multiple fission: Many cells are formed. Example: Plasmodium.


→ The organism breaks-up into smaller pieces upon maturation, each piece develops into new
individual. Example: Spirogyra.

→ If organism is somehow cut or broken into many pieces, each piece grows into a complete
organism. Example: Planaria, Hydra.


→ A bud is formed which develops into tiny individual. It detaches from parent body upon
maturation and develops into new individual. Example: Hydra
Vegetative Propagation

→ In many plants, new plants develops from vegetative parts such as:

• By roots: Example: dahlias, sweet potato.

• By stem: Example: potato, ginger.

• By leaves: Example: bryophyllum (leaf notches bear buds which develop into plants).

Artificial methods in Vegetative Propagation

(i) Grafting: Example: Mango

(ii) Cutting: Example: Rose

(iii) Layering: Example: Jasmine

(iv) Tissue culture: New plants are grown by using growing tip of a plant.

→ These growing cells are kept in a culture medium leads to the formation of callus. Callus is
then transferred to hormone medium which causes growth and differentiation.
Example: ornamental plants, orchid.

• Benefits of tissue culture

→ We can grow plants like banana, rose, jasmine etc. that have lost the capacity to produce

→ New plants are genetically similar to parents.

→ Helps in growing seedless fruits.

(v) Spore Formation: Spores are small bulb like structures which are covered by thick walls.
Under favourable conditions, they germinate and produce new organism.

Example: Rhizopus

Sexual Reproduction

→ When reproduction takes place as a result of the fusion of male and female gametes is called
sexual reproduction.

→ Fusion of gametes is called fertilization which results in variation.

Sexual Reproduction in Plants

→ Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants.

→ A typical flower consists of four main whorls namely sepals, petals, stamen and pistil.
Types of Flowers

• Bisexual flower: Both male and female reproductive parts are present.

Example: Hibiscus, mustard.

• Unisexual flower: Either male or female reproductive part is present.

Example: Papaya, watermelon.

Structure of Flower

Process of Seed Formation

→ Pollen grains, produced in the anther, are transferred to the stigma of same flower (self
pollination) or stigma of another flower (cross pollination) through agents like air, water or

→ Pollen grains germinate and form pollen tubes which pass through style to reach upto the
ovules present in ovary.

→ The fusion of male and female gametes is called fertilization. Zygote is produced inside the

→ Zygote divides to form embryo. Ovule develops thick coat and changes into seed gradually.

→ Ovary changes into fruit and other parts of flower fall off.
→ The seed germinates to form a plant under suitable conditions such as air, moisture etc.

Reproduction in Human Beings

→ Humans use sexual mode of reproduction.

→ Sexual maturation: The period of life when production of germ cells i.e. ova (female) and
sperm (male) start in the body. This period of sexual maturation is called puberty.

Changes at Puberty

• Common in male and female

→ Thick hair growth in armpits and genital area.

→ Skin becomes oily, may result in pimples.

• In girls

→ Breast size begin to increase.

→ Girls begin to menstruate.

• In boys

→ Thick hair growth on face.

→ Voice begin to crack.

These changes signals that sexual maturity is taking place.

Male Reproductive System

(i) Testes

→ A pair of testes are located inside scrotum which is present outside the abdominal cavity.

→ Scrotum has a relatively lower temperature needed for the production of sperms.

→ Male germ cell i.e. sperms are formed here.

→ Testes release male sex hormone (testosterone).

Function of testes:

→ Regulate production of sperms.

→ Bring changes at puberty.

(ii) Vas deferens

→ It passes sperms from testes upto urethera.

(iii) Urethera

→ It is a common passage for both sperms and urine. Its outer covering is called penis.

(iv) Associated glands

→ Seminal vesicles and prostate gland add their secretion to the sperms. This fluid provide
nourishment to sperms and make their transport easy.
→ Sperm along with secretion of glands form semen.

Female Reproductive System

(i) Ovary

→ A pair of ovary is located in both sides of abdomen.

→ Female germ cells i.e. eggs are produced here.

→ At the time of birth of a girl, thousands of immature eggs are present in the ovary.

→ At the onset of puberty, some of these eggs start maturing.

→ One egg is produced every month by one of the ovaries.

(ii) Oviduct or Fallopian tube

→ Receives the egg produced by the ovary and transfer it to the uterus.

→ Fertilisation i.e. fusion of gametes takes place here.

(iii) Uterus

→ It is a bag-like structure where development of the baby takes place.

→ Uterus opens into vagina through cervix.

Fertilisation of egg

• When egg is fertilised

→ The fertilized egg called zygote is planted in uterus and develops into an embryo.

→ The embryo gets nutrition from the mother’s blood with the help of a special tissue called
placenta. It provides a large surface area for the exchange of glucose, oxygen and waste material.

→ The time period from fertilization upto the birth of the baby is called gestation period. It is
about 9 months.

• When egg is not fertilised

→ The uterus prepares itself every month to receive fertilized egg.

→ The lining of the uterus becomes thick and spongy, required to support the embryo.

→ When fertilisation had not taken place, this lining is not needed any longer.

→ This lining breaks and comes out through vagina as blood and mucus.

→ This cycle takes around 28 days every month and called menstruation.

Reproductive Health
→ Reproductive health means a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction i.e. physical,
emotional, social and behavioural.

• Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

→ Many diseases can be sexually transmitted such as:

(i) Bacterial : Gonorrhoea and syphilis

(ii) Viral : Warts and HIV-AIDS

→ Use of condom prevents these infections to some extent.

→ Contraception: It is the avoidance of pregnancy, can be achieved by preventing the

fertilisation of ova.

• Methods of contraception

(i) Physical barrier

→ To prevent union of egg and sperm.

→ Use of condoms, cervical caps and diaphragm.

(ii) Chemical methods

→ Use of oral pills

→ These change hormonal balance of body so that eggs are not released.

→ May have side effects.

(iii) Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD)

→ Copper-T or loop is placed in uterus to prevent pregnancy.

(iv) Surgical methods

→ In males the vas deferens is blocked to prevent sperm transfer called vasectomy.

→ In females, the fallopian tube is blocked to prevent egg transfer called tubectomy.

Female Foeticide

→ The practice of killing a female child inside the womb is called female foeticide.
→For a healthy society, a balanced sex ratio is needed that can be achieved by educating people
to avoid malpractices like female foeticide and prenatal sex determination.

→ Prenatal sex determination is a legal offence in our country so as to maintain a balanced sex