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maging dependent sakanila; gawi ng mga

mananakop ang indolence

– Life and Works of Rizal should Kasaysayang Kasaysayang Panlipunan

Politikal Pang-ekonomik
be included in all curricula of all schools, colleges and
universities, public or private
Kasaysayang Kultural
Jose P. Laurel and Claro M. Recto

- Wanted to instill a sense of nationalism

- Open the eyes of Filipinos to see the cruelty of “The long 19 Century”
the Spanish friars
- So many events occurred
Nationalism and Education – education is linked to - Revolution
- Life of Rizal
the development of nation-states in liberal
- Declaration of independence (Emilio Aguinaldo)

 Dependency Theory
 Social Studies - Pinalawig ni Andre Gunder Frank
- Aims to promote social understanding and - Ugnayang core-periphery sa aspetong political at
civic efficiency on the part of students who are pang ekonomiko
going to take the office of citizenship  Kalakalang Galyon
 History - Nasa unti-unting paghina at pagkalansag (1830)
- Should teach students how to approach and o Galyon Trade – greatest economic
use historical information critically from disaster
 Products sank to the bottom of
multiple perceptions
the seas
National Heroes – they are incarnations of the nation  Opened the doors for world trade
 Monopolyo ng ilang pangunahing produktong
meeting a psychological need for identification with
people one admires and helping to provide a sense of - Nagiisa ang nagmamanage ng lahat
community in the process - Tabako sa Cagayan at abaca sa Bicol
 Pagpasok ng mga korporasyong Ingles at
o Russel and Sturgis Company
1. Noli Me Tangere o Peele and Hubble
2. El Filibusterismo o Ker and Company
3. Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas o Hongkong Shanghai Banking Corporation
4. Dentio de cien anos o Polisya ng British consulate sa
5. La Indolencia de los Filipinos – idleness of pamamagitan ni Nicolas Loney
Filipinos; but we were not really lazy, we only
inherited this trait from the Spaniards Catologo de Apellidos (1849)

- Paglakas ng mga Tsino at Espanyol na mestizo o

1. Anti-klerikong pananaw – regarding Spanish
liturgists who are abusive
2. Panlipunang katawiran at kaunlaran –
believed that the country could progress 1. Pamilihan
3. Liberalismo – openness to new ideas - Ang pagmamayari ay nasa istruktura ng contratista
4. Repormang Politikal at Pang-ekonomiya (mangangalakal)
5. Panloob na Muling Pagsilang – we Filipinos - Karaniwang nasa tabi ng ilog kung saan
are confused and destructed and we don’t karaniwang nanggagaling ang mga kalakal
know where we really came from - Bukas ang mga tiangge pag sarado ang main
6. Diskursong Kolonyal – ideya ng kasaysayan; market
isang destructed na nakaraan – pinigilan ng 2. Transportasyon
mga Espanyol ang mga tradisyon at values - Isang contratista ang mag hahawak sa mga kalesa
kaya nawalan tayo ng sense of pride o karwahe
7. Ang Tamad at Indolent na Indio – Espanyol: 3. Haciendas at Pastos
paurong na estado at eksploytasyon; - Kontrolado ng mga kongregasyong relihiyoso at
ginagawang tamad ang mamamayan para mga mestizos
4. Libangan
- Sabong, tabako at opyo, loteriya, alak, sugal
(baraha at mahjong)  PRIOMORDIALISM
- Nanalig sa Diyos upang maligtas
- Proseso mula sa teoratiko tungong siyentipiko

Epidemya  Execution of Gomburza

 El Fili and Noli Me Tangere
- Ketong, Kolera, Malaria, Beri-beri
Prostitutes  Graciano Lopez Jaena
 Marcelo H. Del Pilar
- Mayroong lisensya
- Karaniwang tagapaghatid ng sakit na syphilis
– nation building
- Hospicio de San Jose, Nueva Quipuzca, Isla
Balabac – lugar na pinagdadalhan ng mga nahuhuli
• Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Virgilio Enriquez)

• Bagong kasaysayan

• Pantayong Pananaw (Zeus Salazar)

  Rizal’s death became an important turning

- A group of people who hold a sense of point in Philippine revolution
unity and common consciousness.  Rizalistas – organization for Rizal
- Human unity  Jove Rex Al, latin name of Jose Rizal
- Territory is not essential according to Rizalista:
- Emotional unity o Jove - God
- Nation is nation o Rex - of
- More stable o Al - all
- Moral and spiritual force  Rizal was known as God, King of All
 Rizalista groups have risen in some part of the
 country after Rizal’s death in 1896.
- Population, territory, government and
Apolinario de la Cruz (1815-1845)
- Political organization  Founded the religous confraternity Confradia
- Territory de San Jose was also considered as “Tagalog
- Sovereignty Christ”
- Multi-nation
- State dies Felipe Salvador (1870-1912)
- Police power
 Also known as Apo Ipe founded Messeniac
society Santa Iglesia considered as “Filipino
Christ and King of the Philippines”
 Fusion of the elements of the nation
(people/community) and the state Miguel De Unamuno (1907)
 Gave Rizal title as " Tagalog Christ"
 Started in Europe, began with Peace of
 State into a Nation-state
 Nation into a Nation-state
 Decolonization and nation-building  August 3,1902 - Earliest record about Rizal
 Secession being declared as a saint

 September 24,1903 - Jose Rizal and the three

priest (GomBurZa) were canonized
o Said to have come from the district of
Fujian in Southern China then
1. Adarnista or Iglesiang Pilipina, migrated to the PH in tha late 1600’s
Founder: Candida Balantac
- started preaching in  Ines de la Rosa
Bangat La Union on 1901, then later on o then settled in the estate of San
Pangasinan and Tarlac. Isidro Labrador, owned by the
2. Sambahang Rizal Dominicans.
Founder: Basilio Aromin o Ines came from a known
- Started preaching in Nueva Ecija on 1918 entrepreneurial family in Binondo
- Established to honor Rizal who was sent
by Bathala to redeem the Filipino race
3. Suprema dela Iglesia dela Ciudad Mistica  Domingo and Ines then had a son whom they
de Dios named Francisco Mercado (Mercado means
Founder: Maria Bernarda “market”, which was a common surname
- raised on 1952 adopted by many Chinese merchants).
- Jesus Christ work is still unfinished and
will be continued by Dr. Jose Rizal Great Grandparents:

 Francisco Mercado
4. Iglesia Samahan ng Watawat ng Lahi
Founder: Arsenio De Guzman o became one of the richest in Binan
- Rizal was Christ and the messenger of and owned the largest herd of
God. Later on, the word Samahan was carabaos.
changed to Iglesia to avoid suspicion by o He was active in local politics (elected
as capitan del pueblo in 1783).
the Japanese.
 Capitan del pueblo – leader of
- It was divided into 3 factions:
 Watawat ng Lahi a town
 Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi  Cirila Bernacha
 Iglesia ng Lipi ni Gat Dr. Jose
Rizal  They had a son named Juan Mercado (elected
as capitan del pueblo in 1808, 1813 and
1823). He was one of the greatest landowners
of Binan.
Short background about Rizal:

 Jose Rizal was born on June 19, 1861 in the Grandparents:

town of Calamba, province of Laguna. The
wonders of creation that surrounded Rizal  Juan Mercado married Cirila Alejandra and
made him love nature at an early age. had 13 children, including Francisco Engracio
 Lived in a region that is known for its Mercado, the father of Jose Rizal.
agricultural prosperity and abundant variety of
tropical fruits
 In his student memoirs show how his love of  Franciso Engracio Mercado
nature influenced his appreciation of the arts o added the surname Rizal from the
and sciences. (Mt. Makiling and Laguna de word “ricial” meaning “green field”
Bay) o Followed Governor Narcisso
Claveria’s decree in 1849 which
Rizal’s Family
ordered the Filipinos to adopt Spanish
 Francisco Engracio Mercado (Rizal’s father) surnames. He added this surname
was a wealthy farmer who leased lands from because he settled in Calamba as a
the Dominican friars. farmer growing sugar can, rice and
Great Great grandparents: o Had a good education that started in a
Latin School in Binan then later
 Lam-co attended the College of San Jose in
o was baptized in Binondo, adopting Manila
“Domingo” as his first name.
 Teodora Alonso Paciano Rizal
o Teodora was a member of the
Spanish Cortes and was educated at  Paciano, Rizal’s only brother, became Rizal’s
the College of Sta. Rosa second father. Rizal respected him and valued
o Franciso and Teodora’s family all his advice.
became a prominent member of the  Paciano accompanied Rizal when he first went
principalia class in the town of to school and he convinced Rizal to pursue his
Calamba. studies in Europe.
o Rizal described Teodora as a “woman  Paciano had his college education in Manila
more than ordinary culture” and that but later decided to join the Katipunan.
she is “a mathematician and has read  After the revolution, Paciano returned to his
many books” home in Los Banos and led a quiet life until his
o Rizal looked up to his mother since death in 1930.
she is his first teacher and taught him
a lot of things
o They lived a prosperous and
harmonious life
 Rizal had good memories of childhood in
Rafael Palma, one of the first biographers of Jose
Rizal, described the family’s house.
o His family prayed together during the
“The house was high and even sumptuous, a Angelus (a Catholic devotion
solid and massive earthquake proof structure commemorating the incarnation)
with sliding shell windows. Thick walls of lime o Spent time in their garden and
and stone bounded the first floor, the second exchanged stories. And through that
floor was made entirely of wood except for the garden, he appreciated nature a lot
roof, which was of red tile, in the style of the more.
buildings in Manila that time. Francisco himself o Showed great interest in reading
selected the hardest woods from the forest books. He spent most of his time
and had them sawed; it took him more than 2 staying in their family library. (at the
years to construct the house. At the back, age of 5, he was able to read the
there was an azotea and a wide, deep cistern Spanish family bible.)
to hold rain water for home use.”  Due to his poor health condition, Rizal had a
personal servant.
o His servant told him legends and
fairy tales, that’s why he became
1. Saturnina (1850 – 1913) – the eldest, married interested with myths and folklore
Manuel T. Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas  First teacher – Dona Teodora
2. Paciano (1851 – 1930) – Rizal’s second o Taught Rizal how to pray, taught
father; joined the Revolution after his brother’s him Spanish and corrected the
execution poems he composed
3. Narcissa (1852 – 1939) – married Antonio o Induced Rizal to love arts,
Lopez, a school teacher of Morong, Rizal literature and the classics
4. Olympia (1855 – 1919) – married Silvestre o Dona Teodora noticed Rizal’s
Ubaldo, a telegraph operator from Manila undeniable skills that’s why she
5. Lucia (1857 – 1919) – married Mariano decided to give Rizal a private
Herbosa tutor. Rizal experienced education
6. Maria (1859 – 1945) – married Daniel under private tutors (Maestro
Faustino Cruz of Binan Celestino, Maestro Lucas Padua,
7. Concepcion (1862 – 1865) – died at the age Leon Monroy)
of 3 which caused Rizal’s first sorrow in life  Leon Monroy – refined Rizal’s skills in basic
8. Josefa (1865 – 1945) – did not marry, died an Latin, reading and writing. This prepared Rizal
old maid at the age of 80 in his formal schooling.
9. Trinidad (1868 – 1951) – died an old maid at  At the age of 9, Rizal left Calamba with his
the age of 83 brother, Paciano, to study in Binan. • Before
10. Soledad (1870 – 1929) – youngest, married leaving, Paciano introduced Rizal to the
Pantaleon Quintero teacher, Justiniano Aquino Cruz.
Fr. Margin Fernando

 Every day, he would wake up early and either  College Registrar, refused to admit him
hear mass at 4 o’clock in the morning or study because of (1) late registered (2) sickly and
his lessons first before going to mass. undersized for his age
 After mass, he’d go home, have breakfast,
Manuel Xerez Burgos (nephew of Father Burgos)
then go to school.
 He’d get dismissed at 10 am in the morning,  intercedes, so Rizal was reluctantly admitted
have lunch, go back to school at 2pm, then get to Ateneo
dismissed at 5pm. The class, as described by
Rizal, was in a nipa house, about 30 meters (located in Intramuros w/in
away from his aunt’s house. the walls of Manila)
 He would pray with his cousins at 6 o’clock
and then study for a while before going to  Ateneo, from the Greek Word “Athena” means
sleep. goddess of wisdom
 Located at Intramuros
 College under the supervision of the Spanish
Jesuits (Jesuits had been expelled from the
 In Binan, he excelled in Latin and Spanish. Ph. In 1768, returned to Manila in 1859)
 He also had painting lessons under Maestro  Bitter rivals of the Dominican owned -
Cruz’s father in law, Juancho. College of San Juan de Letran (charity school,
o Juancho gave Rizal free painting and for poor boys, established by city government
drawing lessons. 1817)
 After receiving a letter from his sister,  Known to offer the best education for boys
Saturnina, Rizal returned to Calamba on  Known for its rigid discipline and religious
December 17, 1870 after one and a half year instruction that trained student’s character
of studying in Binan.  More advance than other colleges
o Saturnina’s letter was about the arrival  Promoted physical culture, humanities and
of the Steamer Talim which would scientific studies
take him from Binan to Calamba. Rizal  Aside from BA, it offered vocational courses:
was accompanied by Arturo Camps, a
Agri, Commerce, Mechanics, and Surveying
Frenchman and a friend of his father.
 Students in Ateneo are required to attend
masses before the start of class

 4 months after the execution of GOMBURZA

and his mothers’ in prison, he was sent to  Two groups (groupings were done to
Manila (not yet celebrated his 11th birthday) stimulate the spirit of competition
among students)
o Roman: students boarding at Ateneo
(red banners) // internos
- Rizal was sent to Ateneo Municipal by his
o Carthaginians: non-boarding
father for a 6-year program BA/
students (blue banners) // externos
accompanied by Paciano.
- Rizal instead Jose Mercado, advised by
Paciano, feared that he might run into
trouble because Paciano was close to  Rankings
father Burgos o Best student – Emperor
- Took entrance exam on Christian o 2nd – Tribune
Doctrine, arithmetic and reading at the o 3rd – Decurion
College of San Juan de Letran and passed o 4th – Centurion
it o 5th – Stand-bearer
- His father wished him to study at Letran
but changed his mind and decided to send
him to Ateneo
o “Trust in the Phil” by Dr. Feodor
Jagor (1) Jagor’s keen observations of
 1st day of class, Rizal 1st heard the mass at the defects of Spanish colonization
the college chapel and prayed for guidance  Prophecized that Spain would lose PH and
and success America would succeed as colonizer
 1st boarded at the house outside Intramuros
(Caraballo street, 25 mins walk) // boarding
house owned by Titay; (owed Rizal’s family,
amount of P300)  Rizal didn’t make it excellent showing in his
 Fr. Jose Bech studies
o 1st professor in Ateneo  He won only one medal- in Latin
o “tall, thin man, body slight bend  Failed to win the medal- in Spanish
 Rizal was an externo, assigned in
 “The pride of Jesuits”
 At the end of the month, he became “Emperor”
 Highest in all subj: Philosophy, Physics,
 To improve Spanish, he took private lessons in
Biology, Chemistry, Languages, Mineralogy,
Santa Isabel College during recess (3pesos
per lesson)
 Became the campus leader: Secretary in
 He placed second, “Tribune” at the end of the
“Marian Congregation” (religious society)
 “Academy of Spanish Lit” and “Academy of
Natural Societies” (exclusive societies in
 Rizal returned to Calamba for a summer  Graduated w/ highest honors; 5 medals
vacation offered to parents
 His mother is in prison (Sta. Cruz)
 Saturnina brought him to Tanauan to cheer  Agustin Saez – famous Spanish painter
him up  Romualdo de Jesus – Filipino sculptor
 After vacation, he returned to Manila and  Tio Manuel – physical training
boarded inside Intramuros (No.6 Magallanes  Fr. Francisco De Paula Sanchez
Street) o great educator and scholar
 Donya Pepay o inspired Rizal to study harder and
o old widow landlady; had widowed write poetry
daughter and 4 sons

o “The Virgin Mary” made in
 He again, became “Emperor”
Batikuling (Phil. Hardwood)
 At the end of the school year, Rizal received
excellent grades in all subjects & gold medal;
o Felix M. Roxas (Rizal’s
with scholarship honors
schooldays which reveals
 Prophecy of mother’s release. Donya Teodora
hero’s resignation to pain and
told her dream to Rizal the previous night and
he interpreted it that she would be released in
3 months (and it became true)
o Jose likened to the youthful Joseph in
o Mi Primera Inspiracion (My
the Bible in his ability to interpret
1st Inspiration)
o 1st poem; dedicated
 Teenage interest in reading
to his mother’s
o interested in love stories and romantic
o wrote it before 14y.o
o “The Count of Mount Cristo” by
Alexander Dumas (1st favorite novel)
o “Universal History” by Cesar Cantu
(enable him to win more prizes in
Father Sanchez inspired: - He also took painting and sculpture
lessons at the Academia de San Fernando
1. Felicitacion and classes in French, English, German at
2. The Departure: Hymn to Magellan’s fleet the Madrid Ateneo.
3. And He is Spanish; Elcano, the 1st - He also managed to enroll in Fencing
Circumnavigate the World class at the schools of Sanz and
4. The Battle: Urbiztondo, Terror of Jolo Carbonell.
 January 1883 – he wrote to his family “ I am
now studying Italian and have made a bet that
I shall be able to speak it in two months.”
 After finishing BA in Ateneo, Rizal was sent
 June 1884 – He was awarded with the degree
again by his father to UST. But Donya
and title of Licentiate in Medicine for passing
Teodora opposed the idea for fear of what had
the medical examinations. He was able to
happened to GOMBURZA, still, Rizal was
practice medicine with this title but he wasn’t
enrolled in UST
able to finish it because he failed to pay the
 Attended the course Philosophy and Letters in
fee to defend his thesis.
UST, Rizal also took vocational course in
- This time, his family faced financial
Ateneo, that gave him the title
problems brought about by low crop
o “perito agrimensor” (expert
production because of drought and locusts
surveyor) on November 25, 1881
and there were delays in his monthly
allowance from the Philippines.
 June 19, 1885 - He obtained the degree
 Shifted course to Medicine because of his Licenciado en Filosofia y Letras( Licentiate in
mother’s failing eyesight Philosophy and Letters) from the Universidad
 Rizal’s academic performance in UST was not Central de Madrid with a rating of
impressive as that in Ateneo. He was good in sobresaliente = outstanding
medicine but not as gifted as he was in Arts - Filipinos in Madrid = ilustrados
and Letters, still he was one of the Seven (enlightened ones) Circulo Hispano-
Students who remained in the course in his Filipino formed informal programs with
last year in UST out of 24. (Jose 2011) activities like Poetry-reading and debates.
So Rizal was asked to write a poem and
he wrote Mi Piden Versos (They Ask Me
for Verses).
 Rizal and Paciano made a secret pact. He  April 1882 – Circulo Hispano-Filipino
would go to Europe to complete his medical established in 1882 by a group of Filipino
studies and prepare himself for the great task students in Madrid led by Juan Atayde, retired
of liberating the country from Spanish army officer and Philippine born Spaniard.
colonizers  January 2, 1884 – In Madrid , Rizal proposed
the writing of a novel about the Philippine
society. (in the house of Pedro Paterno –his
fellow Filipinos agreed to help him but did not
 May 3 1882 – He left the Philippines for Spain. write anything so he drafted it alone. It is in
- He was 20 years old, he loved to interact Madrid where he wrote the first half of Noli Me
with foreign nationals. He made a sketch Tangere.
of the people and things that he saw - Rizal was exposed to liberal ideas through
during his travels. the masons he met. He was impressed
 June 16, 1882 – Rizal reached Barcelona and about a Mason’s knowledge and
met his classmates in Ateneo. At a coffee reasoning and how they valued
house in Plaza de Cataluña, they held a brotherhood. He joined Masonry and
welcome party for Rizal It is where Rizal wrote became as Master Mason at the Lodge
the essay entitled “El Amor Patrio” Love of Solidaridad on November 15, 1890.
Country. This essay was published on August
20, 1882 in Diariong Tagalog = used the pen
name Laong Laan. Don Pablo Ortiga y Rey – the former city /mayor of
 November 3, 1882 – He moved to Madrid and Manila under the term of Governor-General Carlos
he enrolled in Medicine and Philosophy and Maria de la Torre
Letters at the Universidad Central de Madrid.
(summer vacation).
Filipinos often visit him and Rizal joined where he met 3. Secularization of parishes
Don pablo’s daughter whom he was attracted to but he
did not do anything because he was committed to Rizal became preoccupied with writing articles and
Leonor Rivera essays published by Propaganda Movement’s
newspaper, La Solidaridad.
Eduardo de Lete - Rizal’s friend was also in love with
Consuelo but did not want to ruin their friendship. 1883 Intellectual works:
Rizal wrote a poem for Consuelo entitled “A Senorita
 Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (1890)-
C. O. y R.”
annotation of Antoonio de Morga
Rizal specified in Ophthalmology and trained under  Sobre la Indolencia de los Filipinos (On the
leading ophthalmologist in Europe – Dr. Louis de Indolence of the Filipinos) - Essay attributed
Weckert of Paris for whom he worked as an assistant the Filipinos published in 1890.
from October 1885 to March 1886.  Filipinas Dentro de Cien Anos (The
Philippines a Century Hence) - essay for
In 1886, Germany worked with another expert Dr. reforms published in parts from 1889 to 1890.
Javier Galezowsky and Dr. Schwiegger in 1887.
By July 1891 in Brussels – El Filibusterismo was
During his stay, he befriended some scholars – completed, published on September 18,1891 through
Fredrich Ratzel, a German historian the help of Valentin Ventura.

He met Feodor Jagor and Hans Virchow- In 1892, Rizal decided to return to the Philippines
anthropologists on Philippine culture through his friend, thinking that the real struggle was in his homeland.
Ferdinand Blumentritt. He arrived in the Philippines on June 26, 1892. He
immediately visited his friends in Central Luzon and
He mastered German language and wrote a paper encouraged them to join the La Liga Filipina, a socio-
entitled “Tagalische Verkunst” (Tagalog Metrical Art). civic organization that Rizal established on July 3,
He translated Schiller’s William Tell into Tagalog in 1892.
After Liga’s formation, he was arrested and brought to
Berlin - where he finished Noli Me Tangere Fort Santiago on July 6, 1892. He was charged with
bringing with him from Hong Kong leaflets entitled
- It was published on March 21, 1887 with
Pobres Frailes (Poor Friars) – satire against the rich
financial help from Maximo Viola.
Dominican friars and their accumulation of wealth
After 5 years in Europe, he went home on August 8, which was against their vow of poverty. In spite of his
1887. protests and denial of having those materials, Rizal
was exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao.
He enjoyed with family and opened a medical clinic
and curing the sick. He was known as Doctor
Ulimanas he was mistaken for a German. His vacation
1892 – 1896)
was short because of friars who had a negative view
about his novel Noli Me Tangere. He left the country
 Dapitan was Rizal’s home, where in he
again on February 16,1888.
practiced medicine, pursue scientific studies,
and continue his artistic sculpture, painting,
sketching and poetry
 He became more active in the Propaganda  He established school for boys and promoted
Movement with fellow Ilustrados like Marcelo community development projects
H. del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio  Studied Malayan language and other
Luna, Mariano Ponce, and Trinidad Pardo de Philippine languages and engage himself in
Tavera. farming and commerce and invented a
wooden machine for making bricks
Reforms/ Changes in Propaganda Movement:
July 17, 1892
1. For the Philippines to be made a
province of Spain so that Native  Arrived at Dapitan on board, the streamer of
Filipinos would have equal rights Cebu (Dapitan: now a city w/in Zamboanga del
accorded to Spaniards Norte)
2. Representation of the Philippines in the  Headed by Captain Ricardo Carnicero, who
Spanish Cortes became friend of Rizal. He gave him the
permission to explore the place and required  Upon arriving at the fort, however, Governor-
him to report once a week in his office General Despujol told him that there was an
order to ship him back to Manila
September 21, 1892
November 3, 1896
 Rizal won a second prize in lottery together
with Ricardo Carnicero and another  He arrived in Manila and was immediately
Spaniard. He shares amounted to 6,200 brought to Fort Santiago
pesos. A portion of Rizal’s winnings was used
in purchasing land approximately one
kilometer away from Dapitan in a place known
as Talisay. He built his house on the seashore November 20, 1896
of Talisay as well as school and a hospital
 The Preliminary Investigation of Rizal’s case
within the area.
December 19, 1893  Accused of being the main organizer of the
revolution by having proliferated the ideas of
 Wrote a letter to Blumentritt, describing his rebellion and of founding illegal organization
daily activity in Dapitan  He pleaded not guilty and wrote a manifesto
 He wants to improve and beautify Dapitan. He appealing to the revolutionaries to discontinue
made a big relief map of Mindanao and use it the uprising
to teach geography. Using the map, he  Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade
discussed to the town people the position of o Rizal’s lawyer; tried his best to save
Dapitan in relation to other places in Mindanao Rizal
 Assisted by his pupils, Rizal also constructed a
water system to supply the town with water for December 26, 1896
drinking and irrigation. He also helped the
people in putting up lampposts at every corner  Trial ended, and the sentence was read. Rizal
of the town was found guilty and sentenced to death by
firing squad
 Ophthalmologists. George Tauffer,
Josephine Bracken’s father, suffers from an December 28, 1896
eye ailment who traveled from Hong Kong to
Dapitan; The two lived in the octagonal house  Governor-General Camilo de Polavieja
after being denied the sacrament of marriage signed the court decision. He later decreed
by Fr. Obach (Parish Priest of Dapitan). Due to that Rizal would be executed by firing squad at
Rizal’s refusal to retract his statements against 7:00AM of December 30.
the church and to accept other conditions  On his last remaining days, he composed his
longest poem, Mi Ultimo Adios (farewell to
Eve of June 21, 1896
the Filipino people)
 Dr. Pio Valenzuela visited Rizal in Dapitan.
December 29, 1896
Informed him about the founding of Katipunan
and planned revolution, Rizal objected to it.  His mother and sisters visited him; Rizal gave
 Meanwhile, Rizal had been sending letters to away his remaining possession
the Governor-General Ramon Blanca, one in  Sister Trinidad handed his lamp and say,
1894-1895, he asked for a review of his case. “There is something inside.” The copy of
If his request would not be granted, he would Rizal’s last poem
volunteer to serve as a surgeon under the
Spanish army fighting in the Cuban Revolution December 30, 1896

July 30, 1896  6:30AM. Rizal in black suit with his arms tied
behind his back, walked to Bagumbayan
 Rizal’s request to Cuba was approved, next  “Consummation est!” It is finished!
day he left for Manila on board the streamer  The orders were given, and shots were fired.
Espanya. Rizal died offering his life for his country and
its freedom.
September 3, 1896

 He boarded streamer Isla de Panay w/c would

bring him to Barcelona