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The Human Person in the Environment

Environmental ethics - is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human
beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its non-human contents.

Anthropocentrism - refers to a human-centered, or “anthropocentric,” point of view. In philosophy,

anthropocentrism can refer to the point of view that humans are the only, or primary, holders of moral

Biocentrism - also referred to as the biocentric universe, is a theory proposed by renowned scientist,
Robert Lanza. This theory explains that life and biology are the central pieces to being, reality and the
cosmos. It explains how life creates the universe rather than the other way around.

Ecocentrism - a point of view that recognizes the ecosphere, rather than the biosphere, as central in
importance, and attempts to redress the imbalance created by anthropocentrism.

Environmental aesthetics - a relatively new sub-field of philosophical aesthetics. It originated as a

reaction to this emphasis, pursuing instead the investigation of the aesthetic appreciation of natural

Environmentalism or environmental rights - is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement

regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment,
particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the
environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.

Social ecology - the study of relationships between people and their environment, often the
interdependence of people, collectives and institutions.

Environmental justice - the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race,
color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of
environmental laws, regulations, and policies.

Sustainability - focuses on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their needs. The concept of sustainability is composed of three pillars: economic,
environmental, and social—also known informally as profits, planet, and people.

Environmental integrity - a fundamental aspect of jus post bellum. Human life, economy, and culture
depend on a healthy, functioning environment. However, environmental integrity is a complex concept
to describe.

Economic efficiency - implies an economic state in which every resource is optimally allocated to serve
each individual or entity in the best way while minimizing waste and inefficiency. When an economy is
economically efficient, any changes made to assist one entity would harm another.

Equity - focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners.
Equity is measured by comparing the ratio of contributions (or costs) and benefits (or rewards) for each

Prudence - the ability to make morally discerning choices in general; but the term is also used to denote
a habit of cautiousness in practical affairs; most recently, attempts have also been made to identify
prudence with practical rationality, perhaps even with the pursuit of the agent’s own interests, without
any specifically moral implications.
Frugality - a philosophy in which one does not trust (or is deeply wary of) "expert" knowledge from
commercial markets or corporate cultures, claiming to know what is in the best economic, material, or
spiritual interests of the individual.