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Incompressible flow – Example sheet 1

1.

P = ρRT

a =

N

γRT
γRT

R

= 287

2

m

/

s

2

K

R L α α α D A U ∞
R
L
α
α
α
D
A
U ∞

C

N = 1.2

C

A = 0.03

α

= 12°

From resolving the forces we have the following:

L = N cos α Asin α

C

L

= C

N

cos α

C

A

sin α

C L

C L

= 1.2 cos12 0.03sin 12

= 1.2 × 0.978 0.03 × 0.208 = 1.168

D

= N sin α + A cos α

C

D

C

D

= C

N

sin α

+ C

A

cos α

= 1.2 sin 12 + 0.03 cos12

C

D = 1.2 × 0.208 + 0.03 × 0.978 = 0.279

dC L a = dα C L 1.168 For symmetrical aerofoil α 12
dC
L
a =
C L
1.168
For symmetrical aerofoil
α
12

dC L

d

α

= 5.58 2

π

Don’t forget to convert the angle into radians when calculating the gradient The real curve may not be linear, due to three dimensional effects.

Incompressible flow – Example sheet 1

2.

Plot C M(C/4) Vs C L

M

M

'

LE

'

LE

+

+

c

4

L

′ =

M

c

4

x

cp

cL

′ =

M

cp

= 0

Subtracting second from the one;

L

(

c

cx

cp

)

=

M

 

dividing by q Sc

 

4

 

c

   

4

c

L

(0.25

x

cp

)

= c

M

c

rearranging

 

4

x

cp

c

= 0.25

c 4 c L
c
4
c
L

M

 

α

C

L

 

C

M(0.25) c

x

cp

 

-2

0.05

 

-0.042

1.09

 

0

0.25

 

-0.040

0.41

 

2.0

 

0.44

 

-0.038

0.336

 

4.0

 

0.64

 

-0.036

0.306

 

6.0

0.85

 

-0.036

0.292

 

8.0

1.08

 

-0.036

0.283

 

10.0

 

1.26

 

-0.034

0.277

 

12.0

 

1.43

 

-0.030

0.271

 

14.0

 

1.56

 

-0.025

0.266

L’

M’ c/4 ac
M’ c/4
ac
1.43   -0.030 0.271   14.0   1.56   -0.025 0.266 L’ M’ c/4 ac c/4

c/4

1.43   -0.030 0.271   14.0   1.56   -0.025 0.266 L’ M’ c/4 ac c/4

cx ac

Incompressible flow – Example sheet 1

For most conventional airfoils, the aerodynamic centre is close to, but not necessarily exactly at, the quarter-chord point.

Dividing by q Sc , we have

Or

M

ac

= Lcx

(

ac

c

M

L

ac

=

x

q

Sc

q

S

ac

(

/ 4)

+ M

c / 4

0.25)

+

M c / 4

q

Sc

c

m ac

,

= c

l

(

x

ac

0.25)

+ c

m c

,

/ 4

Differentiating with respect to angle of attack α , we have

dc

dc

m,ac

=

l

x

d

α

d

α

ac

(

0.25) +

dc m c

,

/ 4

dα

dc

m,ac is zero by definition of the aerodynamic centre (Pitching moment is

dα

However

constant with incidence, hence the derivative is zero).

0 =

dc l ( x ac d α
dc
l
(
x
ac
d α

0.25) +

dc

m c

,

/ 4

dα

For airfoils below the stalling angle of attack, the slope of the lift coefficient is constant and also the variation in the second term is negligible compared to the slope of lift curve.

Designating these slopes by

We arrive at the following;

dc l

dc m c

,

/ 4

a

;

d

α dα

0 =

x

ac

a

(

x

ac

0.25) + 0

= 0.25

0

Incompressible flow – Example sheet 1

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 -0.005 -0.01 -0.015 -0.02
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
-0.005
-0.01
-0.015
-0.02
-0.025
-0.03
-0.035
-0.04
-0.045
Cmc/4

cl

Xcp

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

aoa(degrees)

Incompressible flow – Example sheet 1

3.

For dynamic similarity we must satisfy three criterions:

1. Same Mach number

2. Same Reynolds number

3. Geometric similarity

For aerofoil (1) we have the following data:

T

= 200

o

K

V

= 100m / s

ρ

= 1.23kg / m

3

For aerofoil (2) we have the given values:

1.23 kg / m 3 For aerofoil (2) we have the given values: V ∞ =
1.23 kg / m 3 For aerofoil (2) we have the given values: V ∞ =
V ∞ = 200m / s 3 T ∞ = 800 o K ρ ∞
V ∞ = 200m / s
3
T
∞ = 800
o K
ρ
∞ = 0.615kg / m
1
Assume that
µ ∝ T
2
1
µ
T
2
Since
µ ∝ T
2
we have that:
= 2
µ
T
1
1
V
By definition
1
M
=
a
=
γRT
1
a
1
1
1
V
2
M
a
=
γRT
2 =
2
2
a 2
Where a 1 and a 2 are the speed of sound for the two different aerofoils.
V
1
V
M
=
1
1
γ
RT
1
γ
RT
T
100
800
2
M 1 V
1
1
2
=
=
=
=
= 1
M
V
2
2 V
T
200
200
2
V
2
1
2
M
=
γ
RT
2
2
γ
RT
2
∴ M
= M
1
2
i.e. the Mach numbers are the same so we have so far satisfied the first
condition for dynamic similarity.

Now moving on to explore the Reynolds numbers

Incompressible flow – Example sheet 1

By definition we have:

Re

Re

1

=

2 =

ρ V c

1

1

1

µ

1

ρ V

2

2

c

2

ρ

1

V

1

c

1

Re

1

=

µ

1

=

µ ρ

2

1

V

1

c

1

Re

2

ρ

2

V

2

c

2

µ ρ

1

2

V

2

c

2

µ

2

µ 2 T ρ c 800 1.23 100 1 2 × 2 1 2 1
µ
2
T
ρ
c
800
1.23
100
1
2
×
2
1
2
1 V
1
1
=
=
T
ρ
2 c
200
0.615
200
2
2
2
2 V
1
2
1

= 1

Reynolds numbers are the same

Since the bodies are geometrically similar and the M and Re are the same, we have satisfied all the criterions, hence the two flows are dynamically similar.

4.

(1)

h = 10km

ρ

1

= 0.414km / m

T 1 =

V

1 =

223

o

K

250 m / s

3

(2)

1/5 th scale model

P

2

V

T

2

2

ρ

2

5

= 1.01×10 N / m

= ?

= ?

=

?

Need the Re number and M number doubled. Also

µ T

1/ 2

Re = 2 Re 1 2 = 2M M 1 2 ρ V c ρ
Re
= 2 Re
1
2
= 2M
M 1
2
ρ V c
ρ
V
c
1
1
1
2
2
2
= 2
T
T
1
2
  
ρ
T
  
V
c
1
1
2
2
=
2
ρ
  
T
V
c
2
2
    
1
1

c

1

c 2

=

5

c

=

c

1

2 5

2

Incompressible flow – Example sheet 1

V V V V T 1 2 2 2 2 = 2M ⇒ = 2
V
V
V
V
T
1
2
2
2
2
= 2M
=
2
V 1 = 2
=
M 1
2
a
a
γ
RT
γ
RT
V
2
T
1
2
1
1
2
1
ρ
T
  
T
 1 
1
1
1
2
 =
2
ρ 1 =
ρ
T
ρ
2
T
 
5
2 5
2
2
 
1
3
= 5ρ
= 5 × 0.414 = 2.07kg / m
∴ ρ 2
1
⇒ T
P
= ρ RT
=
P
/ ρ
R
2
2
2
2
2
2
T 2 =
170.56K
(= -102.6 C, Cryogenic tunnel required)
T
170.56
2
V 2 =
=
= 0.437
V 2 =
109.32m / s
V
2 T 1 2
223
1
5.
The zeppelin is a symmetric wing.
3
V
= 15000 m
d
=
14m
max
V
=
30m / s
3
ρ
∞ = 0.9kg / m
C
= 0.05
L
L
2 π
2
=
Where
S
= π
r
=
d
C L
2
max
1
ρ
V
S
4
2
⇒ L = 3117 N

Because we have a free stream velocity we have lift but if it was not moving then it would float due to the effect of buoyancy.

Buoyancy force = weight of displaced air

F

b

F b

=

g

V

ρ

= 9.81×15000 × 0.9 = 132435

N

Incompressible flow – Example sheet 1

Weight = Lift + BuoyancyFo rce = 3117 + 132435 = 135552 N

W / g = 13.8tonnes

-7 7
-7
7

Top View of the Zeppelin