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DIPHTHONGS

Diphthong comes from the Latin word diphthongus and the Greek word diphthongos which means "having two sounds."
A diphthong is a sound formed by the combination of two vowels in a single syllable.

A diphthong is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

Diphthongs begin with one vowel sound and change to another vowel sound in the same syllable. Your mouth
position changes slightly through the vowel sound.

You do note that…

 More specifically, diphthongs deal with vowels. Every vowel has its own short sound and long sound vowel.
However, diphthongs come into play whenever a vowel makes a new and different sound, usually because it's
working in conjunction with another vowel.

Diphthongs and Gliding Vowels

 A single vowel, such as the "O" or "I" in "oil" is called a monophthong (mono for one, di for two). An example of
a monophthong is the "O" in "hop." But, when we move from one vowel sound to another, such as the "oi" in
"oil," it's called gliding. As such, diphthongs are sometimes referred to as "gliding vowels."

How many diphthongs are there in the English language?

 It depends on which expert you ask. Some sources cite eight, others as many as 10. Even syllables containing a
single vowel can contain a diphthong. The rule of thumb is: If the sound moves, it’s a diphthong; if it's static,
it’s a monophthong.

 Centring diphthongs glide from a front or back position towards a more central position. The two front
diphthongs start with spread lips, the back diphthong starts with loosely rounded lips. All end with spread or
neutral lip position.
/ɪə/, /eə/, /ʊə/
 Rising diphthongs glide from a more open to a less open tongue position. Rising diphthongs may be defined as
fully back or fully front, or they may glide from a back to a front position. The lip position or movement is related
to the position of corresponding vowel phonemes. A back rising diphthong will therefore have lip rounding,
whereas a front rising diphthong will have spread lips.
/aɪ/, /eɪ/, /əʊ, / /aʊ/, /ɔɪ/

8 American English Diphthongs

/aɪ/ /eɪ/

This diphthong creates sounds similar to This diphthong creates sounds similar to
"eye" and most often occurs with letter “great” and is most often used with letter
combinations that include /i/, /igh/, combinations that include /ey/, /ay/, /ai/
and /y. and /a/.
Examples: crime, like, lime Examples: break, rain, weight

/əʊ/ /aʊ/

This diphthong creates sounds similar to This diphthong creates sounds similar to
“boat” and most often occurs with letter “ow!” and most often occurs with letter
combinations that include /ow/, /oa/
combinations that include /ou/ and /ow/.
and /o/.
Examples: slow, moan, though Examples: brown, hound, now
/eə/ /ɪə/

This diphthong creates sounds similar to This diphthong creates sounds similar to
“air” and most often occurs with letter “ear” and most often occurs with letter
combinations that include /ai/, /a/, and combinations that include /ee/, /ie/ and
/ea/. /ea/.
Examples: lair, stair, bear Examples: beer, near, pier

/ɔɪ/ /ʊə/

This creates sounds similar to “boy” and This diphthong creates sounds similar to
most often occurs with letter “sure” and most occurs with letter
combinations that include /oy/ and /oi/. combinations that include /oo/, /ou/, /u/,
and /ue/.
Examples: oil, toy, coil Examples: lure, pure, fur

CONDITIONALS

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The word "condition" means "situation or
circumstance". The if clause tells you the condition and the main clause tells you the result The order of the
clauses does not change the meaning.

If you study hard, you will pass your exams.


You will pass your exams if you study hard.

Four types of Conditionals

Zero Conditional
We use the zero conditional to talk about things that are generally true. The 'if' in this conditional can
usually be replaced by 'when' without changing the meaning. It is also used to give commands.

 Examples:

 If people eat too much, they get fat.

 If you touch a fire, you get burned.

 You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.

The structure is:

If/When + present simple >> present simple.

First Conditional

We use the first conditional when we talk about future situations we believe are real or possible.

Examples:

If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go to the beach.


If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes. She'll miss the bus if she doesn't leave soon.

In first conditional sentences, the structure is usually:


If/when + present simple >> will + infinitive.

It is also common to use this structure with unless, as long as, as soon as or in case instead of if.

Examples:

I'll leave as soon as the babysitter arrives.


I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.
I'll give you a key in case I'm not at home.
You can go to the party, as long as you're back by midnight.

Second Conditional

The second conditional is used to imagine present or future situations that are impossible or unlikely in
reality.

Examples:

 If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.(I probably won't win the lottery)

 If I met the Queen of England, I would say hello.

 If I had his number, I would call him. (I don't have his number now, so it's impossible for me to call
him).

The structure is usually:

If + past simple >> + would + infinitive.

When if is followed by the verb be, it is grammatically correct to say if I were, if he were, if she were and if it
were. However, it is also common to hear these structures with was, especially in the he/she form.

Examples:
If she was prime minister, she would invest more money in schools.
He would travel more if he was younger.

Third Conditional
It talks about the past. It's used to describe a situation that didn't happen, and to imagine the result of
this situation.

The structure is usually:

If + past perfect, ...would + have + past participle

Examples:

If she had studied, she would have passed the exam. (but, really we know she didn't study and so she didn't
pass)

 If we had taken a taxi, we wouldn't have missed the plane.

 She wouldn't have been tired if she had gone to bed earlier.