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School Batasan Hills National High Grade Level 11

School
Teacher Rhissan B. Acebuche Learning Area Physical Science
Teaching February 19, 2019 Quarter 2nd Semester
Dates and 2:30-4:00 PM
Time and 6:00-7:30 PM

I. OBJECTIVES
The learners demonstrate an understanding of the relationship
A. Content Standards between the function and structure of biological macromolecules

The learners shall be able to distinguish the structures of different


B. Performance Standards biological macromolecules and relate them to their properties

Explain how the structures of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid


C. Learning Competencies/Objectives and proteins, and determine their properties and functions
Write the LC code for each (S11/12PS-IIIe-22)
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to:
1. Distinguish between carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic
acids
2. Complete a graphic organizer to summarize the general
characteristics of each biomolecule
3. Express realization on the importance of having a balanced diet
BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES:
II. CONTENT
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids
III. LEARNING RESOURCES
A. References
1. Teacher’s Guide pages pp. 112-141
2. Learner’s Material pages
3. Textbook pages
4. Additional Materials from Learning
Resource (LR) portal
B. Other Learning Resources/Materials

IV. PROCEDURES
A. Reviewing previous lesson or Activity: Trapezoidal Puzzle
presenting the new lesson Give students pieces of puzzle and let them form a new shape
using those pieces of puzzle. (This will let them realize that there are
many possible shapes formed even if there are only few types of
puzzle pieces.)
B. Establishing a purpose for the Activity: What’s in Peppa Pig’s Stomach?
lesson Students will tell the nutrients found in the food that Peppa pig ate.

C. Presenting examples/instances of Discuss that our body is composed of macromolecules.


the new lesson
D. Discussing new concepts and Activity: BioMac, How Do They Act?
practicing new skills #1 Each group will be assigned to a macromolecule and they will be
given set of guide questions to answer. (see attached)
E. Discussing new concepts and Each group will have 1-2 representatives to discuss their answers.
practicing new skills #2
F. Developing mastery Activity: What’s in the Basket?
(Leads to Formative Assessment 3) Students will pass around a basket where there are
keywords/pictures inside. Once the music stops, the student holding
the basket will get a picture inside. He/She will identify the
macromolecule found in the food in the picture.
G. Finding practical applications of Ask the students, “What can you say about people who are on a
concepts and skills in daily living “one type of food diet” (for example, they will only eat crackers for
the whole week).
H. Making generalizations and Students will watch a video summarizing the lesson. Then, they will
abstractions about the lesson complete a graphic organizer to summarize all the biological
macromolecules.
Each group will be given pictures to raise for their answers. They will
I. Evaluating learning identify the macromolecule described in each of the following.
1. The building block is nucleotides
2. It is composed of C, H, and O
3. Can function as enzyme, or antibody
4. Is not soluble in water
5. DNA and RNA are its examples.
J. Additional activities for application Make an acrostic poem that describes each of the biological
or remediation macromolecules.
Example:
P-roteins like keratin and collagen build hair and nails as well as
ligaments in skin
R-eactions are sped up with enzymes such as catalysts
O-xygen and carbon are two elements that all proteins have
T-he 20 common building blocks called amino acids make up the
molecule
E-xamples of foods that have proteins are meat, poultry, milk, fish
and nuts
I-nsulin is carried by hemoglobin, which is produced by certain
proteins that work with the circulatory system
N-itrogen and hydrogen are two more elements that make up
protein.

V. REMARKS

VI. REFLECTION

A. No. of learners who earned 80% on


the formative assessment
B. No of learners who require
additional activities for remediation
C. Did the remedial lessons work? No.
of learners who caught up with the
lesson
D. No. of learners who continue to
require remediation.
E. Which of my teaching strategies
worked well? Why did these work?
F. What difficulties did I encounter
which my principal or supervisor
can help me solve?
G. What innovation or localized
materials did I use/discover which I
wish to share with other teachers?

PREPARED BY

RHISSAN B. ACEBUCHE
Teacher II-SHS

CHECKED:

FLORENCE N. FIEGALAN
Science Coordinator

NOTED:

JOSEHPINE M. MANINGAS
SHS- Assistant Principal II
ACTIVITY SHEET:
“BIOMAC, HOW DO THEY ACT?”
I. OBJECTIVE/S:
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to:
1. Distinguish between carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
2. Complete a graphic organizer to summarize the general characteristics of each biomolecule
3. Express realization on the importance of having a balanced diet

II. MATERIALS:
Activity sheet, pen and paper, manila paper, marker

III. PROCEDURES:
For Group 1. CARBOHYDRATES: Read the text below about carbohydrates. Then, answer the guide questions.

The word carbohydrate may be broken down to carbon and hydrate. From the chemical formula of carbohydrate,
notice that the ratio of C:H:O is 1:2:1, which can be rewritten as Cn(H 2O)n. Carbohydrates can be seen as hydrates
of carbon. This is a traditional but incorrect understanding of carbohydrates but it still presents a useful picture of the
molecule. Another term for carbohydrate is saccharide. This term is derived from the Latin word saccharum referring
to sugar--a common carbohydrate.
Carbohydrates are classified either as simple or complex. Simple sugars are monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Complex sugars are polysaccharides.

Part A. Study Figure 1.1. The Fischer structure and chemical formula of glucose on the right. Then, answer the questions.
1. What elements do you see in the structure/ formula?
2. What do you notice with the chemical formula of glucose?

Part B. Study Figure 1.2. The different structures of Haworth carbohydrates of


monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide below. Then, answer the
questions that follow.
1. What similarities do you see in the structures?
2. What differences do you see in the structures?

C6H12O6 or C6(H2O)6
Figure 1.1. Fisher structure and chemical formula
of glucose

Monosaccharide Disaccharide
Polysaccharide
Figure 1.2

Part C. Study the Haworth structure of different carbohydrates then classify each into monosaccharide, disaccharide or
polysaccharide.
Amylopectin- Like amylose but has more branches attached; Storage form of glucose in plants
Cellulose- Composed of glucose units connected via β-1-4 glycosidic bond, linear chain arranged in a parallel manner;
Structural material in plants--cell wall in wood, wood fiber; Cannot be digested by humans
Fructose- Found in fruits and honey
Galactose-Found in milk and milk products

Glucose- Used in dextrose, blood sugar; the form utilized by the human body
Glycogen- Composed of more glucose, more highly branched (same type of bond as amylopectin); Storage form of
glucose in animals, stored in the liver and muscles
Lactose-Found in milk and milk products
Maltose- Found in malt
Starch/Amylose-Composed of 250 - 400 glucose molecules connected; Storage form of glucose in plants
Sucrose-Found in regular table sugar, sugar cane, sugar beet

MONOSACCHARIDE DISACCHARIDE POLYSACCHARIDE


ACTIVITY SHEET:
“BIOMAC, HOW DO THEY ACT?”
I. OBJECTIVE/S:
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to:
1. Distinguish between carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
2. Complete a graphic organizer to summarize the general characteristics of each biomolecule
3. Express realization on the importance of having a balanced diet

II. MATERIALS:
Activity sheet, pen and paper, manila paper, marker

III. PROCEDURES:
For Group 2. PROTEINS: Read the text below. Then, answer the guide questions.
The word protein came from the Greek term proteios meaning first. One can think of protein as the beginning of life. From
egg albumin being pure protein to sperm and egg cells, we all start from proteins. Proteins are composed of four elements,
namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins are composed of amino acids in the similar way that
carbohydrates are composed of saccharides. Depending on the sequence of the different amino acids, proteins will
acquire certain structure and functions. An amino acid is a molecule that has an amine and a carboxyl group. Below is the
structure of an amino acid:

There are 20 amino acids. The combination of many amino acids creates protein. Amino acids are joined together with a
peptide bond. Proteins are also called polypeptides. The different kinds of this biomolecule based on their functions are
structural, enzyme, transport, storage and antibody.

Below is a list of some examples of amino acids. Read their descriptions and classify them according to their functions.
Sucrase - also called invertase, help in the digestion of sugars and starches
Immunoglobulins- are proteins manufactured by the body that help fight against foreign substances called antigens. When
an antigen enters the body, it stimulates the immune system to produce immunoglobulins. (The immune system is the body's
natural defense system.) The immunoglobulins attach, or bind, themselves to the antigen and inactivate it.
Lipase - help in digestion of fats
Keratin- is a protein found in hair, skin, and nails. It is a highly cross-linked protein containing α-helix and β-pleated sheets.
Sheep’s wool is made largely of keratin.
Fibroin / Silk protein-found in silk. Silk has a smooth and soft texture. It is one of the strongest natural fibers that have high
resistance to deformation. It is also a good insulation. Silk is primarily composed of β-pleated sheets. The long polypeptide
chain doubles back on its own running parallel connected together by H-bonds.
Myoglobin- a polypeptide that stores oxygen in muscles. It is a globular protein comprised of 153 amino acids in a single
polypeptide chain. It contains a heme group which has an iron (II) ion at its center. This is where the oxygen is stored.
Collagen- is a major insoluble fibrous protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, cartilage and the
cornea of the eye. It comprises as much as 30% of proteins in animals. Its strength is attributed to its triple helix structure
comprising of α-helices braided together. When several triple helices combine, they form the fibrils that make up
connective tissues.
Hemoglobin- a globular protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream. It is composed of four sub-units,
each containing a heme group that enables it to transport four oxygen molecules at a time.
Pepsin - help in breaking down proteins into peptides (smaller units)
STRUCTURAL ENZYME TRANSPORT STORAGE ANTIBODY
-proteins that -proteins that -involved in the -keeps a specific -helps fight dieases
maintain the shape of increase the rate of movement of ions, molecules for future
the cell chemical reactions in small molecules, or use
the body macromolecules
from one point to
another
ACTIVITY SHEET:
“BIOMAC, HOW DO THEY ACT?”
I. OBJECTIVE/S:
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to:
1. Distinguish between carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
2. Complete a graphic organizer to summarize the general characteristics of each biomolecule
3. Express realization on the importance of having a balanced diet

II. MATERIALS:
Activity sheet, pen and paper, manila paper, marker

III. PROCEDURES:
For Group 3. LIPIDS: Read the text below. Then, answer the guide questions.
- The word lipid comes from the Greek word lipos which means fat. Lipids are a family of biomolecules having varied
structures. They are grouped together simply because of their hydrophilic property (water-fearing). They are soluble in non-
polar solvents such as ether, acetone, and benzene. Lipids can be classified into four categories:
Triglycerides (fat and oil), Phospholipids, Wax, and Steroid
-Contains C, H, O, can be with P for phospholipids
-Functions are source of energy, maintaining body heat, aid in digestion, material for cell membrane, and signal molecules
- Can be found in Oil, butter, nuts, fish
- The building blocks of lipids are one glycerol molecule and at least one fatty acid, with a maximum of three fatty acids.
-Examples of lipids are Canola oil, palm oil, margarine, butter, etc.

-TRIGLYCERIDE (Fats and Oil)


Fat refers to solid triglyceride usually from animal sources such as meat, milk, butter, margarine, eggs, and cheese. Oil refers
to liquid triglycerides from plant sources. Examples are olive oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil. Animal fat contains
high percentages of saturated fatty acids while plant oil are mostly unsaturated fatty acids.
-PHOSPHOLIPIDS
Phospholipids contains glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group. Unlike other lipids, phospholipids have a polar and
non-polar end. This property allows it to transport molecules in the bloodstream. It is also a major component in the cell
membrane. The two parts of a phospholipid can be termed as the hydrophilic head (phosphate group) and hydrophobic
tail (fatty acid group). This dual property allows phospholipids to form a phospholipid bilayer. In this configuration, the
hydrophilic head sticks out while the hydrophobic tail is tucked in and away from the watery environment. This is why
phospholipids are suitable as cell membrane.

1. Compare the two kinds of fatty acids below. What is their difference?

2. Study the images below. Which do you think refers to triglyceride and which refers to phospholipids? Give your reasons.

FIGURE A. _________

FIGURE B. _________
ACTIVITY SHEET:
“BIOMAC, HOW DO THEY ACT?”
I. OBJECTIVE/S:
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to:
1. Distinguish between carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
2. Complete a graphic organizer to summarize the general characteristics of each biomolecule
3. Express realization on the importance of having a balanced diet

II. MATERIALS:
Activity sheet, pen and paper, manila paper, marker

III. PROCEDURES:
For Group 4. NUCLEIC ACIDS: Read the text below. Then, answer the guide questions.
Read the information below. Then, answer the questions that follow.
Nucleic acids play an essential role in the storage, transfer, and expression of genetic information. Nucleic acid was
discovered by a twenty-four- year-old Swiss physician named Friedrich Miescher in 1868. He was puzzled that an unknown
substance in white blood cells did not resemble carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids. He was able to isolate the substance from
the nucleus and initially called it nuclein. He eventually was able to
break down nuclein into protein and nucleic acids. He found out that
nucleic acids contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and
phosphorus.
The most common examples of nucleic acids are DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA(ribonucleic acid). DNA is a nucleic
acid that carries the genetic code of organisms. It is fondly termed as
the blueprint of life. RNA, on another hand, carries the information from
the DNA to the cellular factories for the synthesis of proteins. If
carbohydrates are composed of saccharide units, proteins of amino
acids, and lipids of fatty acids, nucleic acids are composed of
nucleotides. Nucleic acids are also known as polynucleotides. A
nucleotide has three parts:
a. Nitrogenous base
b. Five-carbon carbohydrate or sugar
c. Phosphate group
The nitrogenous bases of DNA and RNA are:

DNA’s : Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T)
RNA’s : Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Uracil (U)
DNA has a different sugar group than RNA. DNA has deoxyribose
while RNA has ribose.

The drawing on the right shows that DNA is double stranded and
RNA is single stranded. The bases are paired up as can be seen in
DNA. The bases C and G have three H-bonds between them, and
A and T have two. Hydrogen bonding is greatly responsible for the
shape of both RNA and DNA. The different nucleotides are
connected in a chain via phosphodiester bonds.
The sequence of the base pairs in one’s DNA is unique for every
organism (except for identical twins). The DNA and the cell
containing it determine the kind of protein that will be synthesized. The different proteins are then responsible for the
processes that carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and other substances in the body undertake.

QUESTIONS:
1. Why are nucleic acids named so? What is another term for nucleic acids?

2. What comprises nucleic acids?

3. What are the three parts of a nucleotide?

4. What are common examples of nucleic acids?

5. What is the primary role of DNA?

6. How does RNA help in protein synthesis?

7. What are the bases of DNA? of RNA?

8. How are DNA and RNA similar?

9. How are DNA and RNA different?