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Known Mixture containing Ag+, Pb+ and Hg₂2˖

+HCl (16 drops)

White Precipitate

AgCl, Hg2Cl2, PbCl2

Centrifuge, Decant the mixture to separate the residue


and supernatant. Add 7 drops of distilled water. Water
bath for five mins. In addition, decant again.

Centrifugate, +K2CrO4 (12 drops) Centrifugate, +NH4OH, Centrifuge

Yellow Precipitate
Centrifugate, +3M HNO₃
Indicates Pb2+ ion is present

White Precipitate White and Grey Precipitate

Indicates Ag+ ion is present Indicates Hg₂2+ ion is present

Note:

 In determining the Pb2+ ion we use the supernatant.


 In the process of determining the presence of Ag+ ion and Hg₂2+ we use the residue.
II. Unknown Mixture

Unknown Mixture possibly containing Ag+, Pb+ and Hg₂2˖

+HCl (50 drops)

White Precipitate

AgCl, Hg2Cl2, PbCl2

Centrifuge, Decant the mixture to separate the residue


and supernatant. Add 7 drops of distilled water. Water
bath for five mins. In addition, decant again.

Centrifugate, +K2CrO4 (4 drops) Centrifugate, +NH4OH, Centrifuge

Yellow Precipitate
Centrifugate, +3M HNO₃
Precipitate, +3M HNO₃ +SnCl₂
Indicates Pb2+ ion is present

No White Precipitate White and Grey Precipitate


There is no Ag+ ion presence in the Indicates Hg₂2+ ion is present
Unknown Mixture

Results
Pb2+ Ag+ Hg₂2+
Yellow Precipitate No White and Grey Precipitate
Indicates Pb2+ ion is present Indicates Hg₂2+ ion is present
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR ANION

Preliminary Test: Reaction with AgNO3

Anions Color With or Without Dissolved/ Not by


Precipitate HNO3
Nitrate COLORLESS WITHOUT PRECIPITATE
Chloride WHITE/ CLOUDY WITHOUT PRECIPITATE
Sulfate COLORLESS WITHOUT PRECIPITATE
Carbonate WHITE/ CLOUDY WITHOUT PRECIPITATE
Chromate YELLOW WITH PRECIPITATE SLIGHTLY DISSOLVED
Oxalate WHITE/ CLOUDY WITHOUT PRECIPITATE
Thiocyanate COLORLESS WITHOUT PRECIPITATE

Preliminary Test: Reaction with BaCl2

Anions Color With or Without Dissolved/ Not by


Precipitate HNO3
Nitrate WHITE/ CLOUDY WITHOUT PRECIPITATE
Chloride COLORLESS WITHOUT PRECIPITATE
Sulfate CLOUDY WITH PRECIPITATE SLIGHTLY DISSOLVED
Carbonate CLOUDY WITH PRECIPITATE TOTALLY DISSOLVED
Chromate YELLOW WITH PRECIPITATE SLIGHTLY DISSOLVED
Oxalate WHITE/ CLOUDY WITH PRECIPITATE TOTALLY DISSOLVED
Thiocyanate COLORLESS WITHOUT PRECIPITATE

Confirmatory Test:

Anions OBSERVATION
Nitrate BROWN RING PRESENCE AND FROM THE UPPER
PART THERE IS A YELLOW COLOR
Chloride WHITE PRECIPITATE
Sulfate CLOUDY PRECIPITATE
Carbonate VIGOROUS EFFERVESCENCE
Chromate WHITE PRECIPITATE
Oxalate DISAPPERANCE OF PINK COLOR
Thiocyanate RED/ BLOODY COLOR
UNKNOWN SOLUTION:

TEST FOR AgNO3

UNKNOWN SOLUTION TEST FOR AgNO3


No reaction occurs (Colorless)

TEST FOR BaCl2

UNKNOWN SOLUTION TEST FOR BaCl2


White Precipitate

Anions Ion Present in the Sample

Nitrate x
Chloride x
Sulfate x
Carbonate x
Chromate x
Oxalate Present
Thiocyanate x