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Ashna Patel 

Lauryn Fetherston 
Junior Division 
Nelson Mandela: Breaking the Barrier of Apartheid in South Africa 
Annotated Bibliography 
Primary Sources: 

“Biography of Nelson Mandela.” ​Nelson Mandela ​, Nelson Mandela Foundation, 29 Oct.


This biography provided us with a short but to the point summary of Mandela’s
life. We were able to learn about his childhood, college education, political view,
trials, fight against apartheid, and term as President of South Africa. This was
crucial information we needed to know before starting on the website.  

O’Malley, Padraig. “First Letter from Nelson Mandela to Hendrik Verwoerd.” Received by
Hendrik Verwoerd, 107 Central St, Houghton Estate, 20 Apr. 1961,
Johannesburg, Gauteng Province. 

This letter from Nelson Mandela to Hendrik Verwoerd gave us a better

understanding on how determined Mandela actually was to end apartheid. He
sent this letter to Verwoerd, the prime minister of South Africa at the time,
demanding that he call the convention to start taking steps to get rid of apartheid.  

O’Malley, Padraig. “Letter from Nelson Mandela to Sir De Villiers Graaff, Leader of the
United Party.” Received by Sir de Villiers Graaff, 107 Central St, Houghton
Estate, 23 May 1961, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province. 

This letter from Nelson Mandel to Sir De Villiers Graaff gave us a better
understanding of the measures that Mandela took to acheive his main goal of
defeating apartheid, The call for a National Convention was ignored by both the
government and official opposition. Plans for the stay-at-home were put into play
as Republic Day came closer. 

Primary Source Video: 

Nelson Mandela Foundation, director. ​It Is in Your Hands​. ​YouTube,​ YouTube, 24 Nov.

This video helped us understand the way Mandela thought, what type of person he
was, and how he achieved his goals. In this video, Mandela makes a speech to the
new generation of leaders. We simply used this video to gain an understanding of
how Mandela responded as a result of achieving his life long goal of ending

Primary Source Quotes: 

“Nelson Mandela Quotes (Author of Long Walk to Freedom).” ​Goodreads,​ Goodreads,

2019, (quotes, non
textual content). 

These quotes truly reflected Mandela’s character and mindset. We incorporated

two quotes into the second tab of our website as a primary source.  

Primary Source Images:  

Stone, Mee-Lai, and Jo Blason. ​Nelson Mandela: a Life in Pictures​. 5 Dec. 2013. 

We used these images on our website to support the information regarding

Mandela’s life. 

Secondary Sources: 

Bio Staff. “Nelson Mandela: A Life in Photos.” ​​, A&E Networks 

Television,   25 June 2019, 

We incorporated information from this biography into the first page of our
website. We summarized the descriptions beneath the photos found on this site.  

“A History of Apartheid in South Africa.” ​South African History Online​, South African
History , 

We used this information to explain what apartheid was on the first page on our

Sherin, et al. “Nelson Mandela for Kids: Autobiography and Lessons.” ​Kid World Citizen,​
KID WORLD CITIZEN, 22 Jan. 2018, 

We incorporated this information into the whole of our website as it covers

everything from who Mandela was to how he ended apartheid. It has very 
detailed and specific information included in it.