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Technical Seminar Report On

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of the award of the degree of

BACHELORS OF TECHNOLOGY
IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Under
JNTU HYDERABAD

BY
MOHD AZHAR UDDIN
17M25A0331

Under the Esteemed Supervision of


Mr. Roshan Zameer Ahamed
Assistant Professor

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
Accredited by NAAC, NBA, Approved by AICTE & Affiliated by JNTU Hyderabad
Survey No. 32, Himayat Sagar, Hyderabad-500019, India.
2019-2020

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LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE/Affiliated to JNTUH/Estd.2002.
Accredited ‘A’ grade by NAAC Accredited by NBA

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Certificate

This is to certify that Technical Seminar report work entitled “POLLUTIONL


ESS ENGINE”, is a bonafide record of the work successfully completed and
submitted by

MOHD AZHAR UDDIN 17M25A0331

Under the guidance of Mr. Roshan Zameer Ahamed, Assistant Professor,


Mechanical Engineering Department for the Requirement of partial fulfillment
for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical
Engineering during the academic year 2017-2020 from JNTU-Hyderabad

Mr. Roshan Zameer Ahamed Dr. Syed Azam Pasha Quadri


Internal Guide HOD/Vice Principal

Mr. Mohammed Asif .K

Seminar Coordinator

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LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE/Affiliated to JNTUH/Estd.2002.
Accredited ‘A’ grade by NAAC Accredited by NBA

DEPARTMENTOFMECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Declaration

We hereby declare that the report “POLLUTIONLESS ENGINE” which is


being submitted by us In partial fulfilment for the award of Bachelor of
Technology in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Lords
Institute of Engineering and Technology, Telangana-500091, is the result of
investigations carried out by us under the guidance of Mr. Roshan Zameer
Ahamed Assistant professor in Mechanical Engineering Department, Lords
Institute of Engineering and Technology.

The work is original and has not been submitted for any degree for this or
any other university.

MOHD AZHAR UDDIN 17M25A0331

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LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE/Affiliated to JNTUH/Estd.2002.
Accredited ‘A’ grade by NAAC Accredited by NBA

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Acknowledgement

MOHD AZHAR UDDIN


17M25A0331
mohda9258@gmail.com
+917730045720

The successful completion of this report involves many people and we


are extremely grateful to lecturers in mechanical engineering department for
their excellence guidance right from selection of project and for
encouragement throughout the completion of the technical seminar.

We express our sincere thanks to my supervisor Mr. Roshan Zameer


Ahamed, Assistant Professor, Lords Institute Technology. The main source
for helping in selection of our technical seminar of Engineering and also
suggested the suitable direction for our technical seminar. The guidance
showed the path towards the successful completion of technical seminar.

We express our sense of gratitude to Dr. SYED AZAM PASHA


QUADRI Vice Principal/Head of the Mechanical Engineering

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Department for his encouragement during the process of this technical
seminar.
We derive great pleasure in expressing our sincere gratitude to our
Technical Seminar coordinator Mr. Mohammed Asif Kattimani for his
kindly suggestions, which helped us to complete this work successfully.

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LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Approved by AICTE/Affiliated to JNTUH/Estd.2002.
Accredited ‘A’ grade by NAAC Accredited by NBA

Seminar Assessment Process


PSO

Professional Skills

Technical seminar

Course Name: - ME706PC

CO.1. Exhibit good teamwork skills and serves as effective members of


multi-disciplinary teams
C0.2. Articulate and justify technical solution to diverse audiences
through oral, written and graphical communication.
CO.3. Analyse the importance of professional and ethical responsibilities
of mechanical engineering.
CO.4. Experimentally analyse the innovative approach with respect to
research &development

PEO

PEO 1: Shall apply fundamental and advance knowledge skills in basic and
engineering science and in Mechanical engineering to find suitable solution
to technology challenges and problem in various areas of engineering and
real life areas using modern tools

PEO 2: Shall practice mechanical engineering in a responsible,


professional, and dedicated manner by functioning effectively either as an
individual or as a member of plenty disciplinary team, for the benefit of the
industry and society at large without detriment to environment and
sustainable development

PEO 3: Shall acquire good job opportunities in industries or pursue higher


studies.

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PEO 4: Shall develop the ability to engage in lifelong learning, research and
development in a responsible, professional, dedicated and ethical manner
for the benefit of the industry and society at large.

Abstract
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a science and a set of computational technologies
that are inspired by—but typically operate quite differently from—the ways
people use their nervous systems and bodies to sense, learn, reason, and take
action. While the rate of progress in AI has been patchy and unpredictable,
there have been significant advances since the field's inception sixty years ago.
Once a mostly academic area of study, twenty first century AI enables a
constellation of mainstream technologies that are having a substantial impact
on everyday lives. Computer vision and AI planning, for example, drive the
video games that are now a bigger entertainment industry than Hollywood.
Deep learning, a form of machine learning based on layered representations of
variables referred to as neural networks, has made speech-understanding
practical on our phones and in our kitchens, and its algorithms can be applied
widely to an array of applications that rely on pattern recognition

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Contents

Certificate ii

Declaration iii

Acknowledgement iv

Seminar assessment process v

Abstract vi

Content vii

List of figures viii

Page no.

Chapter 1. Introduction 10
1.0.Introduction
Chapter 2. Literature Review 12

2.0. Literature Review

Chapter 3. Objectives 14

Chapter 4. Methodology 16

4.1. Working Principle

4.2 Categories of AI

Chapter 5. Results & Discussion 21

Chapter 6. Applications of AI 24

Chapter 7. Future scope of AI 26

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Chapter 8. Conclusions 28

References 30

List of Figures

Page No.

Fig: no.1.machine learning workflow 18

Fig: no.2. Autonomous car (sedan) 19

Fig: no.3. Autonomous car (SUV) 19

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION
Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined as intelligence exhibited by an artificial
entity. Such a system is generally assumed to be a computer. Although AI has a
strong science fiction connotation, it forms a vital branch of computer science,
dealing with intelligent behaviour, learning and adaptation in machines.
Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks
requiring intelligent behaviour. Examples include control, planning and
scheduling, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions,
handwriting, speech, and facial recognition. As such, it has become a scientific
discipline, focused on providing solutions to real life problems. AI systems are
now in routine use in economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as
well as being built into many common home computer software applications,
traditional strategy games like computer chess and other video games.
Artificial intelligence is a branch of science which deals with helping machines
find solution to complex problems in a more human like fashion. This generally
involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them
as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less or flexible or efficient
approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which
influences how artificial intelligent behaviour appears.
Artificial intelligence is generally associated with computer science, but it has
many important links with other fields such as math’s, psychology, cognition,
biology and philosophy, among many others. Our ability to combine knowledge
from all these fields will ultimately benefits our progress in the quest of creating
an intelligent artificial being. A.I is mainly concerned with the popular mind
with the robotics development, but also the main field of practical application
has been as an embedded component in the areas of software development
which require computational understandings and modelling such as such as
finance and economics, data mining and physical science. A.I in the fields of
robotics is the make a computational models of human thought processes.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

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LITERATURE REVIEW
There is an endless exciting new research in the field of Artificial Intelligence;
this review is far from a global summary of the progress made in the last
decade. There also scores of fields within AI. Much of the research covered in
this review could be applicable to developing strong AI. Creating a machine
capable of understanding the concepts behind the words is important because it
allows for more humanlike conversations as well as improved translation. There
is also fascinating research into detecting human emotions through audio and
video cues. In particular, this paper provides a full review of recent
developments within the field of artificial intelligence and its applications. The
work is targeted at new aspirants to the artificial intelligence field. It also
reminds the researchers about some of the issues they have already known.

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CHAPTER 3

OBJECTIVES

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OBJECTIVES
The general objective of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is to make machines –
particularly computers – do things that require intelligence when done by
humans. In the last 60 years, AI has significantly progressed and today forms an
important part of industry and technology. However, despite the many
successes, fundamental questions concerning the creation of human-level
intelligence in machines still remain open and will probably not be answerable
when continuing on the current, mainly mathematic-algorithmically-guided path
of AI. With the novel discipline of Brain-Like Artificial Intelligence, one
potential way out of this dilemma has been suggested. Brain- Like AI aims at
analysing and deciphering the working mechanisms of the brain and translating
this knowledge into implementable AI architectures with the objective to
develop in this way more efficient, flexible, and capable technical systems This
article aims at giving a review about this young and still heterogeneous and
dynamic research field.

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CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY

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4.1. WORKING OF AI
Using computers to solve problems
• Or make automated decisions
• For tasks that, when done by humans,
• Typically require intelligence

Two Major AI Techniques


1. Logic and Rules-Based Approach
2. Machine Learning (Pattern-Based Approach)

1. Logic and Rules-Based Approach


• Representing processes or systems using logical rules
• Top-down rules are created for computer
• Computers reason about those rules
• Can be used to automate processes
• Example within law – Expert Systems
• Turbotax
• Personal income tax laws
• Represented as logical computer rules
• Software computes tax liability

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• Machine Learning (ML) :
• Algorithms find patterns in data and infer rules on their own • ”Learn” from
data and improve over time
• These patterns can be used for automation or prediction
• ML is the dominant mode of AI today

Fig: no.1.Machine learning workflow

Many successful AI systems are hybrids of Machine learning & Rules-Based


Hybrids
• e.g. Self-driving cars employ both approaches
• Human intelligence + AI Hybrids
• Also, many successful AI systems work best when
• They work with human intelligence

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• AI systems supply information for humans

Fig: no.2. Autonomous car (sedan)

Fig: no.3. Autonomous car (SUV)

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4.2. CATEGORIES OF AI
AI divides roughly into two schools of thought:
1. Conventional AI.
2. Computational Intelligence (CI).

1. Conventional AI:-
Conventional AI mostly involves methods now classified as machine learning,
characterized by formalism and statistical analysis. This is also known as
symbolic AI, logical AI, neat AI and Good Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence
(GOFAI).

Methods include:
 Expert systems: apply reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. An expert
system can process large amounts of known information and provide
conclusions based on them.
 Case based reasoning
 Bayesian networks
 Behaviour based AI: a modular method of building AI systems by hand.

2. Computational Intelligence (CI) :-


Computational Intelligence involves iterative development or learning (e.g.
parameter tuning e.g. in connectionist systems). Learning is based on empirical
data and is associated with non-symbolic AI, scruffy AI and soft computing.

Methods include:
 Neural networks: systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities.
 Fuzzy systems: techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, has been widely
used in modern industrial and consumer product control systems.
 Evolutionary computation: applies biologically inspired concepts such as
populations, mutation and survival of the fittest to generate increasingly better
solutions to the problem. These methods most notably divide into evolutionary
algorithms (e.g. genetic algorithms) and swarm intelligence (e.g. ant algorithms)

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. CHAPTER 5

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

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RESULTS & DISCUSSION
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence:

 Less Errors: errors are reduced and the chance of reaching accuracy
with a greater degree of precision is a possibility.
 Faster Decisions: Using Artificial intelligence, decisions can be taken
very fast.
 Daily Applications: In today’s era, A.I. is used in many applications
just like Apple’s Siri, Window’s Cortana, Google’s OK Google. Using
these type of applications we can communicate with our device using
our voice. Which makes our work easy.
 No Emotions: The complete absence of emotions makes machines to
think logically and take right decision where in humans emotions are
associated with moods that can affect human efficiency.
 No Breaks: Unlike humans, machines can work 24*7 without any
break. H
 Medical Applications: Increasing the integration of A.I. tools in every
day medical applications could improve the efficiency of treatments
and avoid cost by minimizing the risk of false diagnosis.
 Taking risks on behalf of humans: In various situations, Robots can be
used instead of Humans to avoid the risks.
 Public Utilities: Self-Driving cars, which would greatly reduce the
number of car crashes. Facial recognition can be used for security.
Natural language processing to communicate with humans in. their
language

Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence:


 High Costs: The hardware and software need to get updated with time
to meet the latest requirements.
 Unemployment: The increasing number of machines leading to
unemployment and job security issues. As machines are replacing
human resources, the rate of people losing their jobs will increase.
 Can’t think out of box: Robots can only do the work that they are
programmed to do. They cannot act any different outside of whatever
algorithm or programming is stored in their internal circuits.
 Can’t feel Compassion and Sympathy: There is no doubt that machines
are much better when it comes to working efficiently but they cannot
replace the human connection that makes the team. Machines cannot
develop a bond with humans.
 High dependence on machines: In today's generation, most of the
people are highly dependent on Applications like Siri. With so much
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assistance from machine, if humans do not need their thinking abilities,
these abilities will be gradually decrease. In future with the heavy use
of application of artificial intelligence, human may become fully
dependent on machines, losing their mental capacities.

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CHAPTER 6
APPLICATIONS

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APPLICATIONS OF AI
Game Playing: - You can buy machines that can play master level chess for a
few hundred dollars. There is some AI in them, but they play well against
people mainly through brute force computation--looking at hundreds of
thousands of positions.
Speech Recognition: - In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a
practical level for limited purposes. Thus United Airlines has replaced its
keyboard tree for flight information by a system using speech recognition of
flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient. On the other hand, while
it is possible to instruct some computers using speech, most users have gone
back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient. Understanding
Natural Language: - Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not
enough. Parsing sentences is not enough either. The computer has to be
provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is
presently possible only for very limited domains.
Computer Vision: - The world is composed of three-dimensional objects, but
the inputs to the human eye and computer’s TV cameras are two dimensional.
Some useful programs can work solely in two dimensions, but full computer
vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of
two-dimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing
three-dimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what
humans evidently use

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CHAPTER 7
FUTURE SCOPE

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FUTURE SCOPE OF AI
1.In the next 10 years technologies in narrow fields such as speech recognition
will continue to improve and will reach human levels

2. In 10 years AI will be able to communicate with humans in unstructured


English using text or voice, navigate (not perfectly) in an unprepared
environment and will have some rudimentary common sense (and domain-
specific intelligence).

3. We will recreate some parts of the human (animal) brain in silicon. The
feasibility of this is demonstrated by tentative hippocampus experiments in rats
there are two major projects aiming for human brain simulation, Cortex and
IBM Blue Brain.

4. There will be an increasing number of practical applications based on


digitally recreated aspects human intelligence, such as cognition, perception,
rehearsal learning, or learning by repetitive practice.

5. The development of meaningful artificial intelligence will require that


machines acquire some variant of human consciousness.

6. Systems that do not possess self-awareness and sentience will at best always
be very brittle.

7. Without these uniquely human characteristics, truely useful and powerful


assistants will remain a goal to achieve. To be sure, advances in hardware,
storage, and parallel processing architectures will enable ever greater leaps in
functionality

8.Systems that are able to demonstrate conclusively that they possess self-
awareness, language skills, surface, shallow and deep knowledge about the
world around them and their role within it will be needed going forward.

9. However the field of artificial consciousness remains in its infancy.

10. The early years of the 21st century should see dramatic strides forward in
this area however.

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. CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION
We conclude that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a
knowledgeable observer then you certainly should consider it intelligent. AI
systems are now in routine use in various field such as economics, medicine,
engineering and the military, as well as being built into many common home
computer software applications, traditional strategy games etc. AI is an exciting
and rewarding discipline. AI is branch of computer science that is concerned
with the automation of intelligent behaviour. The revised definition of AI is - AI
is the study of mechanisms underlying intelligent behaviour through the
construction and evaluation of artefacts that attempt to enact those mechanisms.
So it is concluded that it work as an artificial human brain which have an
unbelievable artificial thinking power.

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REFERENCES
 Programs with Common Sense: - John McCarthy, In Mechanization of
Thought Processes, Proceedings of the Symposium of the National
Physics Laboratory, 1959.
 Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing Common Sense: -
Richmond Thomason, editor, Philosophical Logic and Artificial
Intelligence. Klüver Academic, 1989.
 Concepts of Logical AI: - Tom Mitchell. Machine Learning. McGraw-
Hill, 1997.
 Logic and artificial intelligence :- Richmond Thomason. In Edward N.
Zalta, editor, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Fall 2003.
 http://www-formal.stanford.edu/ 24
 http://www.genetic-programming.com/

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