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SARDAR PATEL PUBLIC SCHOOL

HOSHANGABAD ROAD, MISROD, BHOPAL

(SESSION 2019-2020)

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY

PROJECT FILE

NAME OF PROJECT

STUDY OF QUANTITY OF CAESIN PRESENT IN DIFFERENT MILK


SAMPLES

SUBMITTED TO:

MISS ANJALI NAMDEO

(PGT CHEMISTRY)
SUBMITTED BY:

SHIVENDRA TRIPATHI

XII – A

ROLL NO. -
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the work is being presented in the project file
on the topic of “Study of quantity of Caesin present in different milk
samples” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the subject of XII

Class Chemistry, is an authentic record of our own work carried out


under the able guidance of Miss Anjali Namdeo.

The work has been carried out at SARDAR PATEL PUBLIC SCHOOL,
BHOPAL.

I here declare that above statement is correct to the best of my


knowledge.

SHIVENDRA TRIPATHI

XII - A
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Master Shivendra Tripathi student of XII


Class of Sardar Patel Public School, Bhopal have successfully
completed their project in the topic “Study of quantity of Caesin
present in different milk samples” in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the subject of XII Class, Chemistry in the session
2019-20.

Miss Anjali Namdeo Dr.Babita Jain


(PGT Chemistry) (Principal)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express our deep sense of gratitude to my respected and learned guide


Miss Anjali Namdeo, for their valuable help and guidance.

I am grateful to my respected Principal Dr. Babita Jain, Sardar Patel


Public School, Bhopal for permitting me to select this topic and utilize all
the necessary facilities of the institution.

I am also thankful to all the faculty & staff members of our School for their
kind co-operation and help.

Lastly, I would like to express my deep appreciation towards my


classmates and my indebtedness to my parents for providing us the
moral support and encouragement.

SHIVENDRA TRIPATHI

XII - A
CONTENT

➢ Declaration
➢ Certificate
➢ Acknowledgement
➢ Objective
➢ Introduction
➢ Applications
➢ Experiment
• Aim
• Theory
• Apparatus Required
• Chemicals Required
• Procedure
• Observations
• Result
• Precautions

➢ Bibliography
OBJECTIVE

To Study the quantity of casein present in

different samples of milk


INTRODUCTION

Milk is a complete diet as it contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats,


minerals, vitamins and water. The average composition of milk from
different sources is given below:

Source of Water Minerals Proteins Fats Carbohydrates


Milk (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Cow 87.1 0.7 3.4 3.9 4.9
Human 87.4 0.2 1.4 4.0 4.9
Goat 87.0 0.7 3.3 4.2 4.8
Sheep 82.6 0.9 5.5 6.5 4.5

Casein is the most predominant phosphoprotein is found in milk and


cheese. When coagulated with rennet, casein is sometimes called
Paracasein. British terminology, on the other hand, uses the term
caseinogen for the non coagulated protein and casein for coagulated
protein. As it exists in milk, it is a salt of calcium. Casein is not
coagulated by heat. It is precipitated by acids and by rennet enzymes, a
proteolytic enzyme typically obtained from the stomachs of calves. The
enzyme trypsin can hydrolyze off a phosphate-containing peptone.
Casein consists of a fairly high number of praline peptides, which do not
interact. There are also no disulphide bridges. As a result, it has
relatively little secondary structure or tertiary structure. Because of
this, it cannot denature. It is relatively hydrophobic, making it poorly
soluble in water. It is found in milk as a suspension of particles called
casein micelles which show some resemblance with surfactant-type
micelles in a sense that the hydrophilic parts reside at the surface. The
caseins in the micelles are held together by calcium ions and
hydrophobic interactions. These micelles have negative charge and on
adding acid to milk the negative charges are neutralized.

Ca2+ - Caseinate + 2CH3COOH(aq). Casein+ (CH3COO)2Ca(aq)

The isoelectric point of casein is 4.7. The purified protein is water


insoluble. While it is also insoluble in neutral salt solutions, it is readily
dispersible in dilute alkalis and in salt solutions such as sodium oxalate
and sodium acetate.
Structure of alpha CASEIN structure look’s:
APPLICATIONS

In addition to being consumed in milk, casein in used in the


manufacture of adhesives, binders, protective coatings, plastics (such
as for knife handles and knitting needles),fabrics, food additives and
many other products. It is commonly used by bodybuilders as a slow-
digestive source of amino acids as opposed to the fast-digesting whey
protein, and also as an extremely high source of glutamine (post
workout). Another reason it is used in bodybuilding, is because of its
anti-catabolic effect, meaning that casein consumption inhibits protein
breakdown in the body. Casein is frequently found in otherwise
nondairy cheese substitutes to improve consistency especially when
melted.
EXPERIMENT

AIM –

To study quantity of casein in different samples of milk.

THEORY -

Milk contains 3 to 4% casein suspended in water in the


colloidal form. It is precipitated in a weakly acidic medium.
APPARATUS REQUIRED -

Funnel, funnel stand , glass rod , filter paper, weight box ,

test tubes, pestle and mortar.

CHEMICALS REQUIRED -

(i) Different samples of milk.

(ii) Saturated ammonium sulphate solution.

(iii) 1 % acetic acid solution.


PROCEDURE -

1. Wash the beaker (250 ml) with the distilled water and dry it.
2. Take 20 ml of buffalo’s milk in 250 ml beaker and find its weight.
3. Add 20 ml saturated solution of ammonium sulphate slowly with
stirring. Fat and casein will separate out as precipitate.
4. Filter the above solution and transfer the precipitate in another
beaker.
5. Treat the above precipitate with 30 ml distilled water. Casein
dissolves forming milky solution whereas fat remains as such.
6. Warm the above contents of the beaker to 40 - 45°C on a low flame.
Now, add 1% acetic acid solution drop wise with stirring when casein
gets precipitated.
7. Filter the precipitated casein and wash with distilled water and dry it.
8. Find the weight of dry precipitate.
9. Repeat the whole experiment with cow’s, goat’s and sheep’s milk.
OBSERVATIONS -

Volume of milk taken in each case= 20mL


Weight of milk taken= W1g
Weight of Casein isolated= W2g
Percentage of Casein = Weight of Casein x100
weight of milk

S.no. Type of milk Volume of Weight of Weight of Percentage of


milk taken milk Casein casein
(W1g) (W2g)

1. Buffalo’s 20 23.09 0.632 2.73%


milk

2. Cow’s milk 20 35.66 0.55 1.64%

3. Goat’s milk 20 23.09 0.77 3.67%


RESULT -

Different Samples of milk contains different percentage of


casein. Highest percentage of casein is present in Goat’s milk.

PRECAUTIONS -

1. Handle apparatus and chemicals carefully.


2. Add ammonium sulphate solution very slowly.
3. Stir milk while adding chemicals.
4. Do not disturb milk after adding ammonium sulphate solution and
wait for some time for fat and casein to precipitate out.
5. Take the amount readings carefully with digital weighing machine
only.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

➢ http://www.ncert.nic.in
➢ https://www.wikipedia.org
➢ https://www.quora.com
➢ https://www.scribd.com