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Inter connection from process to exchange information share resources is called networking.

Benefits of Networking:
1. Simultaneous access, same date & Prof shared by diff. use access rights can be
assigned to any no of users.
2. Shared peripheral devices printers shared saves cost.
3. Personal Communication email, teleconferencing & video conferencing.
4. Easier backup.
Networking Structures:

1. LANs Computers are relatively near every LAN use a protocol (A set of rules that
governs how data / packets are configured & transmitted)
2. WANs (wide area ..)
Multiple LANs inter connected using bridges, routers, & gateways.
LANs can be many miles apart remitting data by phone lines or satellites.
3. Server based Networks Individual PCs (nodes) use central computer (Layer hard disk
for sharing) as a server.
4. Client / Server Networks individual nodes share processing & storage work load with
server. Special software are used in such case.
5. Peer-to-peer network all nodes have equal relation to each other. One node shares
recourses with other nodes may or may not use a server.

A gateway performs translation b/w two different extent types of network.

Network Topologies for LANS:
Topology is the layout of cables & devices that connect nodes.

1. Bus

Each node is connected in series along a single conduit. Linear sub topology needs less
cable than star topology. But fault in main cable shuts down whole net work. At ends
terminators is required Trouble shooting difficult.
2. Star
Star all node connected directly to a central hub or connector. Hut manages & network
Ethernet, or local talk are products used in star topology. Easy to install & trouble shoot.
More cable required, expensive, failure of hub fails network.

3. Tree
It continues characterizes of linear & star topologies. It allows expansion of an existing
network point to point wiring for individual segments. Well supported by vendors. If back
bone line fails entire network fails. Difficult to wire & configure.

4. Ring
Nodes are connected in a circular chain with conduit binary & ending at the same
5. Mesh
Each node has a separate connector on to every other made.

6. Multiply Connected Topology

7. Unconstrained Topology
8. Hierarchy network

Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP):

Computer based devices separate using digital pulses to represent date, the format &
interpretation of pulses different from one computer based device to and her. Thus a set of
agreed upon format is needed that is followed by each devices in a not work. Such procedures
are called protocols or communication protocols or communication protocols MAP,
specifically developed for computer communication in a factory environment. In 1980 GM
decided to begin development of networking protocol for high date ratio expected. This
scheme was expected to provide common standard for all equipt to simplify integration.

 Difficult to agree by countries & vendors on specific standards.
 Broad standards make difficult to develop hardware. The MAP protocol is not clearly
defined in a single document.
 No single document no single vendor could meet all needs & multiple vendors caused
communication in-capabilities.
Reference Model
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport clearly
Network CLNS, ES-IS
Data Link IEEE 802.2
IEEE 802.4
Physical 10MB or SMB corner

ACSE = Association control vice element.

CLNS = CL network system
ES = End system.
FTAM: File transfer & access method.
IS: Intermediate system
MMS: Manufacturing message specifications.