Sie sind auf Seite 1von 44


0 Morale
Line of Battle Series 6.1 Morale Checks
6.2 Morale Results
Series Rules, v1.0 6.3 Retreat
6.4 Rally
LoB Design: Dean Essig 6.5 Cowardly Legs
RSS/CWR Series Design, v1.0-v3.0: Dave Powell 7.0 Charge!
CWR v3.0 Series Development: Bob Cloyd 7.1 Charge Requirements
7.2 Charge Restrictions
7.3 Advance after Combat
LoB Playtesting: Kevin Ankoviak, Jerry Axel, Curtis Baer,
8.0 Supply
Norm Bedwell, John Best, Rob Bottos, Daniel Broh-Kahn, 8.1 Wagons
Jim Broshot, Chris Bryer, Ryan Caldwell, Dan Cicero, Dan 8.2 Artillery Depletion
Cochrane, Ric Van Dyke, John Essig, Don Evans, Mike 8.3 Artillery Ammunition Replenishment
Galandiuk, Stephen Graham, Tim Gritten, John Kisner, Jim 8.4 “By Caisson” Replenishment
Lauffenburger, Joe Linder, Ned Mellon, Curtis Milbourn, 8.5 “By Battery” Replenishment
Rod Miller, Dave Misner, Jonas Multing, Elias Nordling, 9.0 Special Rules
Robert Outlaw, Gerry Palmer, Chip Pharr, Gary Phillips, 9.1 Leaders
Dave Powell, Mike Riley, Ed Sasko, Bill Speer, Dan Taylor, 9.2 Headquarters (HQs)
Keith Todd, Bryan Vannortwick, Dick Vohlers, Zach Waltz, 9.3 Command Radius
Paul Wegner, Jay White, Blake Williamson, Max 9.4 Loss Recovery
Workman, Steve Worrell 9.5 Open Order
9.6 Breastworks
LoB Editing: Hans Korting, Dave Demko, Tim Gritten 10.0 Command & Control
©2010 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
10.1 Commands
10.2 Orders
Table of Contents 10.3 Order Types
Introduction 10.4 The Army Commander and Order Creation
1.0 Game Components 10.5 The Order Log
1.1 Game Scale 10.6 Acceptance
1.2 The Rules 10.7 Special Order Situations
1.3 The Counters 10.8 Ending Orders
1.4 The Map 10.9 Skedaddle
1.5 Information Tracks 10.10 Initiative
1.6 Loss Charts 10.11 Creating Commands
1.7 Specialized Terrain Notes 10.12 Artillery Commands
2.0 Game Turns 11.0 Set Up Notes
2.1 Sequence of Play 12.0 Major Optional Rules
2.2 The Activity Phase 12.1 Retire by Prolonge
2.3 Night Turns 12.2 Pre-Set Orders
2.4 Fog of War 12.3 Advanced Cavalry
3.0 Movement 12.4 Defensive Positions
3.1 Formations 12.5 Advanced Road Columns
3.2 Stacking 12.6 Artillery Ammunition Logs
3.3 Facing 12.7 City Fight!
3.4 Zones of Control (ZOCs) 12.8 Axis of Advance
3.5 Closing Rolls 12.9 Brigade Consolidation Markers
3.6 Artillery 12.10 Historical Woods LOS
3.7 Reinforcements 12.11 Simplified Artillery Supply
4.0 Line of Sight Crib Sheet for CWR Players
4.1 LOS Basics Designer Notes
4.2 Special Terrain Features Terms and Abbreviations
4.3 Same Hill
4.4 Final LOS Determination
4.5 Visibility Introduction
5.0 Combat Line of Battle Series (LoB) games are accurate, fast-
5.1 Strength Points (SPs) paced portrayals of American Civil War battles at the
5.2 Restrictions regimental level. The LoB series is based on the Civil War,
5.3 Specialized Fires Brigade Series (CWB) and the later Civil War Regimental
5.4 Opening Volley Series (CWR). It represents a radical departure from the
5.5 Terrain Effects way the CWR was designed, but all LoB games can be
5.6 Combat Table played using the C W R v3.0 rules (additional resources
5.7 Wrecked Status available at should players prefer
5.8 Counter Battery Fires

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1

those rules. Furthermore, the RSS games will work just as the case. Non-combat units are specifically leaders,
well being played with the new rules. Wagons and HQs.
This new series strives to retain important detail,
while providing a much faster playing system that 1.3a Yellow Stripe. Some combat units have a Yellow
improves the model of American Civil War combat. Stripe running diagonally across the counter. This
indicates a mounted unit of some sort (this is for color,
If you are new to wargames, or just new to this unique but also indicates a unit’s status as “cavalry”). Artillery
Civil War game system, WELCOME! only has a stripe to show its attachment to a mounted
higher formation.
To learn to play, browse through the rules and
components. Try to develop a good idea of the contents. 1.3b Split Units. Some combat units are too large t o
Then read the rules lightly. Do not try to memorize them! function as one counter. Such units are designated with a
Set up a few units at random and run through the game’s common unit ID plus “-a” or “-b” (or more). They operate
procedures as play examples. As questions arise, look u p as completely independent units and do not need to stay
the answers. Try to imagine why a rule is the way it is b y adjacent to each other.
applying common sense and your historical knowledge.
After these tentative steps, play the shorter scenarios and 1.3c Consolidated Brigades. Certain brigades are
look up any uncertainties as you go. shown as one counter, rather than their component
Once you understand the basic structure and regiments. They can be identified by the use of “Bde” i n
mechanics, include the Command system in your next their unit ID. These still “count” as brigades for their
session. Before long you will have the system mastered divisions for Fluke Stoppage reserve purposes.
and you will be able to play any LoB game. Do not confuse these with the “Brigade
All LoB games can be played without the Command Consolidation” markers (12.9). Unlike those markers,
system. However, by imposing significant constraints on these have all the information of a normal combat unit.
a player’s freedom, they add a glimpse of history not The markers used for 12.9 are only place holders to reduce
otherwise possible. Note that a player’s losses will be map congestion.
much higher if the Command system is not used.
<<Unit Explanation Diagram XX >>
1.0 Game Components 1.4 The Map
1.1 Game Scale The map depicts the area in which the battle was
Each hex is 110 yards. Each daylight and twilight fought. To eliminate creases, one should carefully
turn is 15 minutes; night turns are 30 minutes. The backfold the maps and secure them to the table with
contour interval is 20 feet. drafting tape or other non-destructive means.
Infantry and cavalry units are shown as regiments.
Artillery units are in batteries. An infantry Strength Point 1.4a Hex Numbers. Individual hexes on the map are
(SP) is 50 men, while mounted units use 64 men (to identified with a unique number. If there is more than one
account for the horse holders). Each artillery SP represents map sheet, they are lettered A, B, C, etc. A hex number on a
one gun and its crew. Leaders represent individual given map sheet begins with the map letter followed by a
commanders at various levels. Headquarters and supply set of numbers, as in A10.10. The digits before the
units are the army’s administrative and logistic systems. decimal point indicate the hex rows running from left t o
right. The digits after the decimal indicate the exact hex
1.2 The Rules from bottom to top. Every fifth hex is numbered (xx.05,
There are two rule books in each game. The “Series xx.10, xx.15) to create a gridline. To find a specific hex,
Rules” apply to all LoB games. The “Game Rules” give say A29.17, follow the gridline for xx.15 on Map A until
details needed for that specific game, including special you find the 29th hex row. Then count up two hexes.
rules, scenarios and set up information. Game Rules
supersede Series Rules if they conflict. 1.4b Special Hexes. Map edge hexes with at least half
a hex showing are playable. Tiny hex slivers are not. Entry
Hexes, for reinforcements, are marked with a number or
1.3 The Counters letter inside a circle.
The playing pieces (counters) include the historical
units (infantry, cavalry, and artillery), leaders,
Headquarters and Wagons; other counters (called markers) 1.5 Information Tracks
display game information and unit conditions. 1.5a Turn Record Tracks. These are used to record the
date and time. Use the markers labeled Day, Hour, and
Definitions: All counters are either “markers” or “units.” Minute to indicate the passage of time. Place the Minute
Units represent actual people or things on the battlefield, marker on the 15 Minute Track during daylight and
while markers describe the condition of units or abstract twilight turns, and move it to the 30 Minute Track during
concepts. All units are “non-combat units” or “combat night turns. Advance the Minute marker one space each
units.” Combat units are restricted to artillery, infantry turn. When it reaches the :00 space (on either track),
and cavalry batteries, battalions or regiments as may be advance the Hour marker. The shading on the Hour Track
indicates twilight and night turns.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

The Green Bars are n o t directionally sensitive, they work
1.6 Loss Charts both ways, even if the associated Woods symbol seems t o
Loss Charts for these games are available on-line for bring the issue into doubt. The placement of the bars was
those interested in playing with the CWR v3.0 rules; they carefully crafted to not only show the woodlot in question,
are not needed for LoB play unless you are playing one but also the effect of other nearby woods, hills, and
of the older games and need to track “wrecked” units or cornfields (which do not have a cost of their own but make
losses for victory purposes. for some interesting effects along the edge of woods). So,
apply them as they are shown, even if the appearance
1.7 Specialized Terrain Notes might be puzzling at first.
1.7a Natural Terrain. The map was made to show the
terrain with minimal hex grid distortions. For LOS, use the actual Woods symbol boundaries.

Design Note: I wanted to create the most realistic map Play N o t e : The RSS games used different graphics and
possible for each battle. Because of this desire, I am rules for these features with different movement costs and
avoiding the usual distortions made in game maps t o requirements. When playing the RSS games, use t h e i r
force the terrain to conform to the hex grid. I made every
terrain effects and rules for Slopes, Extreme Slopes,
effort to keep such distortions to a minimum. My only
direct concessions to the hex grid are the Stone Walls, Sloping Ground, and Woods.
which were forced to fit the hexsides and the
Creek/Woods hexside features which interpret the non- 1.7e Stone Walls. Stone Walls affect fires against
conforming terrain for you. Roads have minimal stacks adjacent to them when the fire crosses that Stone
distortion as well. I hope you will enjoy working with a Wall hexside. Only the player adjacent to a Stone Wall
non-distorted map of the battlefield, although the result hexside “first” (i.e. set up there or arrived at the wall
requires some additional attention on the player’s part. before the other player does) gets the benefit. Stone Walls
have no direction—they “work” both ways—but only for
1.7b Slope Hexes. If a hex has one or more thick the player who got there first. Stone Walls do not affect
Line of Sight or any combat where artillery is used. A
Slope lines in it, it is a Slope hex. Slope hexes have n o
Stone Wall hexside includes the vertices at both ends.
effect on Movement or Combat, but do affect the Morale Just to be clear, the Terrain Column shift awarded b y
Table. a Stone Wall does not apply if any artillery is involved i n
A Slope hex allows combat units to ignore the retreat the shot against the stack behind it. The Stone Wall shift
listed in “bracketed” results (6.2) provided all firers are at on the Combat Table only applies if the shot consists
lower elevations. exclusively of Small Arms. This distinction does not affect
The “amount inside a hex” or “location within the a Stone Wall’s Morale Table effects.
hex” of the thick Slope lines in a hex is irrelevant. Any
amount or location in it will do. 1.7f Cornfields, Buildings, Hay Stacks, Cemeteries and
Other Points of Interest. These have no effect on play and are
Do not confuse the Elevation lines with “Slope lines.” for historical information only.
Only the thick black lines are Slope lines; the
Elevation lines (the thin ones) only help determine the 1.7g Towns. Towns greatly affect movement. All
contours of the land. hexes within the printed Town boundary are considered t o
be Town hexes. The roads inside a Town are not justified t o
1.7c Sloping Ground. Sloping Ground is any hex the hexes but are always considered to take the shortest,
that has the brown “fan-shaped” symbol in it. Do not straightest path in hexes from where the road enters and
confuse this with “Slope hexes” (1.7b), although the type where it exits the Town boundary. Ignore any minor hex
of Slope in it (if any) affects which kind of Sloping Ground grid matters.
it is. Sloping Ground is a hex feature that comes in two Any unit otherwise able to use a road movement cost
types depending on the number of Slope lines within it (2 (those in Column, etc.), can use the regular road movement
or less and 3 or more). Sloping Ground is non-directional; effects provided it moves in a straight line through the
it affects movement equally no matter what direction a unit Town along one road.
is moving. Sloping Ground does not, by itself, affect Line However, each time unit wishes to make a turn or
of Sight. begin to follow a different road, it must apply the
Cornering rule.
1.7d Woods. Woods are handled in two ways, one Cornering. The instant the first unit of a road column
for Movement and another for Line of Sight (LOS). For enters a hex in which the player wants to shift to a
movement, Woods effects are based o n l y on Woods different road (any change that is something o t h e r
hexsides crossed. Woods hexsides are those with the Green following the same road in a bee line), the column must
Bar symbol on them. stop for the turn (regardless of the number of MPs
remaining. If it begins a turn in the hex where the road
change is to occur, roll one d i e before attempting t o

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3

move it. If the roll is a 4 or more, change to the new road Game Turn
and continue to move. On any other roll, the column - Advance Turn markers
stands fast and can try again in the next turn.
Ignore the Cornering rule for Command Radius (9.3e), 2.1b Player Turn Narrative Sequence of Play.
Leader movement and the movement of units in Line or
Open Order. Command Phase (10.0)
- Attack Recovery (10.7c). During full Hour Turns
only (7:00, 8:00 etc.), roll for each division
No unit can move diagonally across the Town’s road currently attempting Attack Recovery. If
grid, all units must move as if following the road they are Recovery occurs, that division is eligible for
on. Stick with the grain of the road net and you are new Attack orders in the next segment of the
satisfying the requirements of this provision. same Command Phase.

1.7h Creek Hexsides. These blue hexside features - Order Issue (10.2). Subject to his Order
mark the hex-based boundary of either Rivers or Creeks Frequency Die Roll (10.4a), the player’s Army
(while the actual waterway symbol is allowed its natural Commander can issue a new order to his
course). subordinates. Jot it down on a note pad with the
information needed for the Acceptance Table and
1.7i Runs. There are a number of i n - h e x water determine when the order will arrive for
features on the map referred to as “Runs.” These are Acceptance based on the Order Arrival Formula.
provided for historical reference and a visual cue for terrain An order issued In Person arrives on the same
turn it was issued.
elevations. They have no effect on play.
- Delay Reduction (10.6c). If any orders were
2.0 Game Turns previously accepted but were found to be in a
Game Turns are divided into phases which make u p Delay status, roll for each order to determine if
the “Sequence of Play.” During his Player Turn, the first the Delay ends.
player conducts all his desired activities based on the
Sequence of Play and is defined as the “active player.” The - Fluke Stoppage (10.8c). Roll to see if any
other player does not do his activities during the enemy divisions that are under Attack orders (and
Player Turn and is defined as the “inactive player.” unable to skip because of 10.8g) suffer stoppage.
After the first player is finished, the active and
inactive roles are switched and the sequence is repeated - Initiative (10.10). Leaders can use the Initiative
for the second player. When the second player finishes all Table to give themselves or their subordinates,
steps in the Sequence of Play, that Game Turn ends and orders.
another begins. Move the markers on the Turn Record
Track to indicate the new Game Turn and repeat this cycle. - New Order Acceptance (10.6a). If any new orders
arrive this turn, use the Acceptance Table to
determine how to handle them.
2.1 Sequence of Play
2.1a Outline Sequence of Play. Activity Phase
- Movement (3.0) & Combat (5.0). The active
First Player Turn player moves his units, conducts his Fire
Command Phase combats and/or Charges. The inactive player
- Attack Recovery (hourly turns only) rolls for Opening Volleys, if/when generated by
- Order Issue the active player’s actions.
- Delay Reduction
- Fluke Stoppage - “By Battery” Replenishment (8.5). Eligible
- Initiative batteries can replenish their ammunition stocks
- New Order Acceptance and remove their Depletion markers.
Activity Phase Rally Phase
- Movement & Combat - Rally (6.4). Friendly units rally: Remove all
- “By Battery” Replenishment Blood Lust, Shaken and Cowardly Legs markers.
Convert Disorganized markers to Shaken
Rally Phase markers. Roll to reduce Routed to Disorganized
- Rally units.
- Remove Counter Battery Fire markers
- Loss Recovery (12 midnight turn only) - Remove Counter Battery Fire Markers (5.8c).
Remove all CBF markers from friendly stacks.
Second Player Turn
- Repeat the above sequence - Loss Recovery (9.4) (12 midnight turn only).
Compute each brigade’s losses and add back

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4

25% of that number (drop fractions) to your
choice of regiments of that brigade (living or During the Activity Phase, any of the active player’s
dead). units may move. Units can be moved individually or as a
stack. All movement must follow a contiguous path of
2.2 The Activity Phase hexes. Units cannot exit the map or conduct off-map
movement. Only friendly units can move in this phase.
The Activity Phase is the centerpiece of the player’s
Movement is calculated using Movement Points
Game Turn. During this phase he moves and fires all, some
(MPs). On the Terrain Effects on Movement Chart, each
or none of his units as he chooses and in any desired
unit type is assigned a Movement Allowance (MA) i n
sequence (as restricted by other rules). A given unit can
MPs. This is the maximum number of MPs available t o
conduct either a Move Activity or a Fire Activity in this
that unit type in one Activity Phase; a unit can expend all,
phase (see also 7.0e). Non-combat units always conduct
some or none of them as the player sees fit. Units cannot
Move Activities (since they cannot Fire).
share or save unused MPs.
As indicated on the Terrain Effects on Movement
1) A Fire Activity allows a unit to move up to half
Chart, each hex and each hexside feature on the map costs
its Movement Allowance (MA) and then fire. The available
a number of MPs to enter or cross. To enter a hex, a
MA can be used to move and/or change formation. Units
moving unit must pay the total hex cost and the cost of
performing a Fire Activity cannot initiate a Charge.
any hexside feature crossed to enter it. Units cannot enter
or cross prohibited hexes or hexsides.
2) A Move Activity allows a unit to Move, t o
conduct Charges, and/or change formation, but does not
References to “stacks” a l s o apply to hexes
allow regular Fire combat.
containing a single unit.
Units in a stack can choose separately, though it is
3.0a Road Movement. Roads, Trails, and/or Railroads
usually easier to play a stack together during one activity.
A unit can also be added to a stack as the stack moves (hereafter “roads”) have their own movement cost listed
through its hex. on the Terrain Effects on Movement Chart. Units moving
The player is free to mix these actions as he chooses along contiguous road hexes through hexsides crossed b y
(given other controlling rules). For example, the player the road pay the road MP cost. Combat units moving
might fire one stack at an enemy stack at two hexes and using Road Movement costs cannot move while stacked
then move another stack to fill in the intervening hex. or move into any road hex containing other combat units
In any event, no unit can ever fire and then move. that have used Road Movement costs earlier in that phase,
but could pay the other terrain (non-road) costs to enter
said hex. Units must use Road Movement to take
2.3 Night Turns advantage of bridges. See also Town effects 1.7g and
Turns at night represent half an hour of time instead Optional Rule 12.5.
of 15 minutes—because everything takes longer at night.
Night Visibility is always one hex, and negative modifiers 3.0b Enemy Units. Friendly combat units cannot enter
apply on the Initiative, Acceptance, Fluke Stoppage, hexes containing enemy combat units. Friendly combat
Combat and Morale Tables. units can enter hexes containing enemy non-combat units
(such as leaders) at no extra MP cost. In those cases,
2.4 Fog of War leaders check for Leader Loss on the Capture column
Do not reveal information about your orders (9.1a). See 8.1b regarding Wagons.
(including their Acceptance status) and plans to your
opponent. A unit’s current strength and status are kept 3.0c One Hex Move. Any unit starting a Move
secret, and only revealed when needed during combat. Activity with MPs available can always move one hex as
Players can always see the top combat unit in a hex. This its full movement provided it is not into prohibited
means you can always look under any non-combat units terrain regardless of the hex’s MP cost. Such a move
(leaders, HQs, Wagons) and markers to see the top combat cannot be combined with any Fire combat or Charge.
unit. You can also ask if a stack contains infantry, cavalry,
artillery and the owning player must give the correct 3.0d Partial Move. A unit or stack must complete its
answer(s). The player need not divulge the number of SPs movement before another unit or stack moves (unless the
of each kind of unit. new units join the moving stack). Units in a stack can
As per 3.2d, the player must keep artillery as the top split off and finish their move before the original stack
combat unit of his hexes (to make them easier to find and finishes its move. You cannot move a stack a little, stop it,
so they take losses in artillery exchanges)—except at the move some other stack, and then move the former some
moment when a shot containing Small Arms or a Charge i s more. Leaders and/or units can move to a stack’s hex and
declared against their hex. join that stack for one consolidated movement.

3.0e DG and Routed Unit Retreat Movement. Routed

3.0 Movement combat units cannot move normally; DG ones can, but at
Important: See 2.2 for a description of Move and Fire half MA. However, DG or R units can self-inflict a Retreat
Activities and how fire and movement is integrated. The result of 6 hexes (hexes, not MPs) in place of their regular
chosen Activity determines the ability of combat units t o movement. This retreat must be 6 hexes (rule 6.3 applies
fire and move.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5

here, too). There are no additional losses or Morale State Important: To qualify for the extra MPs, a unit need not
increases when a player does this to his units. begin the phase in Column, but it must end the phase in
Design Note: 3.0e exists to eliminate an odd effect that
can happen to DG and Routed units—the inability (lack 3.1d Open Order. Combat units skilled in dispersed
of desire?) to run away from advancing enemy tactics can be in “Open Order.” This formation is only
formations. In all cases, these disrupted units should be available to “Open Order Capable” units (9.5). Some units
able to outpace formed infantry in a foot race to the rear! (including Sharpshooters) are strictly Open Order and
have nothing on the other side of their counter. Some
3.1 Formations cavalry units have Open Order on one side and Mounted
on the other.
Combat units have two formations, one beneficial t o
Open Order units use their own column on the
movement (Column, Mounted, or Limbered) and the other
Terrain Effects on Movement Chart. Note that when
to combat (Line, Open Order, or Unlimbered). The counter
cavalry is using this formation and mounts in the same
side showing indicates which formation a unit i s
Activity Phase, it must convert the remaining MP’s
in—Line, Open Order or Unlimbered on the front, and
proportionally (dropping any fractions) between the 8 MA
Column, Mounted, or Limbered on the back.
of the Open Order formation and the 12 MA of the
Units can change formation during the friendly
Mounted one.
Activity Phase by paying one or more MPs as given on the
Terrain Effects on Movement Chart. Flip the counter over
to indicate a formation change. Units can change 3.2 Stacking
formation in either a Move or Fire Activity provided the A “stack” is two or more units in a single hex. The
needed MPs are available. The MA and terrain costs for a arrangement within a stack from top to bottom is called
given unit type vary according to that unit's formation. the “stacking order.” Units can move together as a stack.
Non-combat units do not use formations. Calculate each unit’s MA expenditure independently.
Units can change formation at any time during their Leaders, HQs, and Wagons ignore all stacking
movement. This is the only time a player can intentionally restrictions and can always move through, or stack with,
change formation (Unlimbered artillery is forced t o other friendly units.
Limber when it retreats with the exception of 12.1).
3.2a Stacking Limit. No more than 16 Strength Points
3.1a Units can change formation in an EZOC only i n (counting all types) can stack. Stacking is enforced at the
a Fire Activity not in a Move Activity. See also 3.4b, 3.6c end of a stack’s Movement, Retreat, and at the moment a
and 6.3f. Charge is announced. Ignore temporary overstacking that
occurs during movement. (This rule does n o t allow
3.1b Mounted cavalry has a MA of 12. In Line violation of Road Movement, 3.0a.)
(dismounted) cavalry has only 6. When cavalry in Line Any hex discovered to be overstacked at the times
“mounts,” DOUBLE all MPs used so far, including the 1 listed above is automatically DG (if already DG, then the
MP formation change cost. When a Mounted formation stack is Routed). If the discovery is made upon a Charge
“dismounts” to Line, HALVE the MPs already used, declaration, then the Charge automatically fails its
including the 3 MP formation change cost, and round up. Closing Roll in addition to the above.
The result is the number of MPs already expended. Exception: Regardless of the number of SPs
involved, o n e infantry (or cavalry) unit counter can
RSS Games Note: The note on the Terrain Effects o n always stack with one artillery battery without penalty.
Movement Charts in the pre-LoB games regarding paying
3 MPs for cavalry in Line to change formation is in error. 3.2b Stacking Order. A hex’s stacking order can be
Pay 1 MP (like any other Line) to change and double the adjusted freely whenever a stack conducts either a Fire or
cost (in the conversion above). Move Activity (at any point along its movement),
whenever a new unit enters a stack, and/or after any Charge
Design Note: There is no formation in the game literally or Retreat.
called “dismounted.” Cavalry units have Line/Mounted
or Open Order/Mounted as their counter sides. Some 3.2c Stacking and Leaders. If stacked with combat
cavalry (unskilled in dismounted tactics) could also only units, brigade leaders must be stacked with at least one
have a Mounted formation and cannot “dismount” t o unit of their brigade. While there is no rule requiring all
fight at all. leaders to be stacked with only their units, or a rule
keeping different organizations from intermingling (since
3.1c Units in Column have an MA of 8. To qualify there are times where it can’t be avoided), players should
for the “extra two MPs,” it must end its movement i n strive to keep their organizations intact and free from
Column. It can change to Column at any point during its excessive mixing.
move and is not restricted to roads in any way. Do not
apply any proportional effect (as in 3.1b) for a unit that Design Note: Yes, that requires some judgment on the
starts in Line and ends in Column, merely allow the unit part of the player.
to spend an extra 2 MPs.
3.2d Stacking and Artillery. All unlimbered Artillery
batteries must be the top combat units in their hexes. If

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6

the hex contains more than one battery the player can 3.3a Units can adjust Facing after executing a
choose which of them goes on the very top of the stack, Retreat. There is no MP cost for doing so.
but all of them must be atop any Small Arms units
At the moment Small Arms fires or a Charge is 3.3b EZOCs have no effect on a Facing change.
declared against a stack containing both artillery and non-
artillery units, the artillery drops to the bottom of the 3 . 3 c Wagons, Routed units, units that are in
stack and a non-Artillery combat unit becomes the top Column, Limbered, or Mounted have an “all around” rear
unit for the entire combat sequence. After which, the Facing.
artillery instantly moves back to the top of the stack.
3.3d Charge Facing Restrictions. A stack involved in a
Design Note: The purpose of 3.2d is to show the enemy the Charge (7.0) must apply the following:
battery locations so as to avoid both a shell game effect
(oddly hiding the easiest units to see) and keep players 1) A Charge can be conducted only through the
from wasting time checking with the enemy to determine attacker’s center-front hexside. This applies t o
their locations. all movement and additional Charges that might
occur once the process begins.
3.3 Facing 2) No Facing change is allowed for the attacker
after making the Charge’s Fire combat. The
Line, Unlimbered, and Open Order/Sharpshooter
attacking stack can continue to move (and do
units must be aligned to “face” a single hexside, with the
further Charges) but throughout that process, the
counter’s top edge indicating the unit’s direction. Facing
stack cannot change Facing.
defines the “front” and “rear” of such units.
Design Note: Case 2 above prevents some fancy wheeling
<<Facing Diagram XX>>
after you get a Charge rolling. Just so it is clear, once a
All units in a hex must have the same Facing. Charge begins you are either going straight ahead o r
Facing can be changed freely during a player's you stop. There are no other options.
Activity Phase (in either Fire or Move Activities)—but all
must be made before that stack conducts any combat 3.4 Zones of Control (ZOCs)
(including Charges).
It costs 1 MP per hex for units in Line and Open Zones of Control have no effect on non-combat
Order units (which are not Open Order Capable at the units.
moment, 9.5b) to change Facing any number of hexsides.
If additional Facing changes are made in other hexes If a combat unit can fire, it creates a ZOC in each hex
during the move, each additional hex will independently adjacent to each of its front hexsides. Combat units that
incur the MP cost. c a n n o t fire (due to formation, morale effects, or
Open Order Capable, Column, Mounted, and ammunition concerns) do not exert a ZOC. Terrain does
Limbered units do not pay the extra MP to change Facing. not influence ZOCs. An enemy unit’s ZOC is called an
For them, changing their Facing is free. “EZOC.” Non-combat units never exert a ZOC.

<<example of facing change costs, especially multi-hex <<ZOC Diagram XX>>

move with multiple refaces and crab walking with no
facing change XX>> Once a non-Open Order Capable combat unit is in an EZOC
it cannot leave it until one of the following occurs:
Enemy units have no effect on Facing changes.
Unlimbered artillery can freely change Facing without 1) It gets a Retreat result from the Morale Table,
Limbering (ignore the MP cost for them). including the “player assisted” version in 6.1b
Units can fire only through their three frontal (Intentional Pullout).
hexsides, never along a hexside directly to the right or 2 ) All enemy units providing that EZOC have
left, or to the rear. retreated and no longer provide an EZOC or are
A unit can be fired on from any direction. If the fire destroyed.
enters through a rear hexside or through the vertex 3 ) Its Command executes a Skedaddle, suffers
dividing front from rear, it is eligible for modifiers on the Fluke Stoppage, starts functioning under orders
Combat and Morale Tables. moving the Command to a different location, or
Units can move only through one of their three has succeeded in accomplishing its orders.
frontal hexsides. Exceptions: A stack executing a Charge 4) It is artillery and exits the hex by having to roll
must move through its center-front hex to enter the hex for Gun Loss.
adjacent to the Charge’s target. Stacks that have 5) The first full night turn.
accomplished their mission can “back out” (10.8a). Facing 6 ) The stack is continuing on after a successful
orientation is maintained during a movement into one of Charge.
the non-center frontal hexes unless actually changed 7) The stack executes a “brush away” against Open
using the rules above. Order units (which are the only units generating
Facing does not affect the “movement” in Retreats. EZOCs in this case), 9.5h.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7

Entering an EZOC has no effect except that the units • Closing Rolls automatically succeed if the moving
get locked in place. units are Blood Lusted or are in Open Order.

3.4a EZOCs and Retreats. A stack can freely retreat If b o t h these automatic situations apply, the
into (or out of) EZOCs. EZOCs do not affect the length of “automatic fail” takes precedence.
the retreat. Each EZOC hex entered in a retreat inflicts one
SP loss on the retreating stack. It can be freely applied t o Note that the modifier for moving into a Rear hex o f
any combat unit in the retreating stack, including one enemy unit applies even if the hex is a Front hex of
artillery. some other enemy unit.

3.4b EZOCs and Facing or Formation Change. EZOCs Just so it is clear (exceptions noted both above and i n
have no effect on either of these. Exception: Units can 3.5a):
only change from Column to Line in an EZOC if they
started the phase in that EZOC. See also the restriction i n 1 ) Combat unit moving adjacent to the
3.1a. enemy…requires a successful Closing Roll.
2 ) Combat unit moving adjacent a n d then t o
3.4c EZOCs and Open Order Units. Open Order units launch a Charge…requires two successful
(9.5) can generally move into and out of EZOCs freely (see Closing Rolls, one to move adjacent and another
the restriction on movement out of EZOCs, 9.5e part 2). to make the Charge (make the second roll after
Open Order units are subject to the same rules as normal entering the adjacent hex).
units should they retreat into an EZOC. The Withdrawal 3) Making a Charge when already adjacent to the
in 9.5e is not a Retreat for this purpose. target hex…requires a successful (additionally
Non-Open Order units can “brush off” Open Order modified) Closing Roll.
EZOCs so as to exit them, see 9.5h.
3.5a No Closing Roll Needed. If any of the following
Design Note: In general EZOCs here lock a player’s units situations exist, there is no need to make a Closing Roll.
in position to slug it out. Your battle-line will start t o
fray as units drop back due to bad morale results and 1) If the hex being entered already contains a
you will need reserves available to buck up the weak friendly unit that is not Open Order Capable
points. Your options are limited once entangled, though (9.5b).
you could self-inflict bad morale results to break free, see 2) The moving stack has no clear LOS to any enemy
6.1b. combat unit adjacent to the desired hex at the
moment needing the Closing Roll.
3 ) The hex being entered is adjacent to (or
3.5 Closing Rolls contains) only enemy Open Order Capable units,
A successful Closing Roll is required for combat or non-combat units.
units to enter any hex adjacent to an enemy combat unit 4) The hex is not adjacent to any enemy unit.
(EZOC or not) or to initiate a Charge, unless 3.5a applies.
A moving stack wishing to move adjacent and A unit that would automatically fail a Closing Roll
Charge needs two rolls—one for the hex and then (after can freely enter a hex that doesn’t require a Closing Roll
successfully moving there) a separate one for the Charge. in 3.5a.
Roll one die on the Closing Roll Table to determine
success (modified as on the table) based on the top Example of 3.5a part 2): Inside Woods (no clearings), a
combat unit’s Morale Rating. stack could move adjacent to the enemy without a roll
Make the roll before moving into a hex adjacent t o because the stack could not see the enemy at range 2
any enemy combat unit. If the roll fails, the stack does not before moving adjacent. A roll would still be required t o
enter that hex and ceases all movement for the turn where launch a Charge once a stack has moved adjacent.
it is. That stack could then fire, if it fulfills the restrictions Obviously, Optional Rule 12.10 negates this effect in
of a Fire Activity, even if the original intention was to d o many cases.
a Move Activity.
Once adjacent to an enemy unit, a stack needs a 3.5b Leader Ratings. Use the leader’s Morale Value
successful Closing Roll to launch a Charge, if one i s for purposes of the table’s modifier. The leader can move
desired. If such a roll fails, the attempting stack can switch to the hex from elsewhere, but must be in the hex at the
to Fire Activity and fire (if eligible), but is finished moment of the Closing Roll and must accompany the
moving for the phase. If a stack does switch from a Charge moving/Charging units into that hex or Charge.
to a Fire Activity, it can fire only upon the hex that was t o
be the Charge’s target—it cannot fire at some other hex.
3.6 Artillery
• Closing Rolls automatically fail if the moving 3.6a Unlimbered artillery cannot move. However,
units are DG, the top moving unit is wrecked, or in a they can freely change Facing without Limbering. To leave
Charge attempt where the attacking stack is found to be the hex they must change to Limbered formation first
overstacked (3.2a). (costing 3 MPs) and then move using their remaining MA.
See also Optional Rule 12.1.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8

3.6b They can use their 1/2 MA in a Fire Activity t o first unit of their organization and any Wagons at the rear
unlimber before firing, but they cannot move any hexes of the Column.
and then fire. They can only change formation in place
during a Fire Activity. Play Note: When lots of units arrive as reinforcements,
not all of them may be able to move onto the map in a
3.6c Artillery that changes formation at or within 5 single turn. In this case, leave the excess units lined u p
hexes of enemy combat units (which could1 fire at that hex off map and have them enter in the next friendly Activity
normally) must roll on the Gun Loss Table and risk Phase. New reinforcements arriving at an Entry Hex
losses. before the queue is cleared would line up behind those
still awaiting entry.
Given formation, Facing, range, LOS (ignore all friendly and
enemy units), visibility, Morale State. Depleted artillery can still 3.7a Blocked Entry Areas. If enemy combat units or
“fire” for this purpose. They have a few rounds remaining which EZOCs are blocking an Entry Area, shift the Entry Area
can be used for this emergency.
along the map edge left or right (owning player’s choice)
to the next available Entry Area. If several are blocked,
3.6d A hex can only be the target of three shots
continue to shift in this way until a usable Entry Area is
involving artillery in a single Activity Phase.
3.6e Artillery that sets up outside normal Command
Radius in a scenario is assumed to have been “posted” as 4.0 Line of Sight
per 9.1c. Line of Sight (LOS) determines whether combat units
can see—and therefore fire at—each other. A clear LOS
3.6f Long Range Shots. (repeat of 6.1a) Make n o allows the firer to see and shoot at the target. A blocked
Morale Check (ever) if the firing range is 10 hexes or LOS does not allow this.
more. LOS is almost always reciprocal (4.1c combined with
4.1d can lead to cases where it is not).
3.6g Stacking and Artillery. (repeat of 3.2d) All
unlimbered Artillery batteries must be the top combat First, determine if the LOS problem is trivial (short
units in their hexes. If the hex contains more than one distance, easy slope problem, etc.). If so, determine if you
battery the player can choose which of them goes on the believe the LOS is clear or blocked based on how it looks.
very top of the stack, but all of them must be atop any Ask your opponent if he concurs—“Can these two hexes
Small Arms units see each other?” Be fair about this, the two of you are
While batteries must always be on top of their working together for a great game experience. You can d o
stacks, at the moment any fire containing Small Arms or a this at any time (before you move into a hex that features
Charge is declared against their hex, all non-Artillery some LOS you didn’t expect, is the right time).
combat units (if any) are considered to be on top of the If you reasonably disagree while looking at it or the
artillery. The top such unit must be the top unit in the hex. problem is complex enough to lead to head scratching,
The batteries move instantly back to the top of the stack apply the process below.
when the combat is completed.
Design Intent: In most cases, players will be able t o
3.7 Reinforcements “eyeball” LOS as a trivial decision. If that is the case,
Reinforcements enter play during the Activity Phase and both agree, consider the matter decided and you will
at the time and location listed in the game’s Order of not need to apply the procedure below. Please do not
Arrival. Each reinforcement is given a specific Entry Hex over-think LOS as if the fate of the battle depends on a
or an Entry Area identified by a letter (A, B, C). single LOS being Blocked or Clear—the games are about
Reinforcements cannot be delayed or redirected. bigger issues than LOS. The LOS procedure below i s
Reinforcements can enter in any formation, but are abstract and tends toward “being blocked.”
assumed to start in a long Column extending off the map
edge along the entry road, if there is one. RSS Game Note: The RSS games used a complete-hex
Set up the reinforcements off map, within the normal based elevation procedure and their maps were designed
stacking limits, and line them up starting with the Entry to match it. Some of the following will not graft directly
Hex. The first stack starts in the Entry Hex; the next stack onto the RSS games as a result. When playing using those
starts one hex “off map” and so on. When the Entry Hex maps, use the “eyeball” method above or the original RSS
contains a road, the same road is assumed to extend off LOS rules.
map and units enter using the Road Movement cost. (3.0a)
The easy way to do this is to place the first combat 4.1 LOS Basics
unit into the Entry Hex and move them fully down the LOS is a straight line from the point of the firing
road (at the movement rate of the slowest element of the player’s choosing in each End Point hex (that one player
reinforcing Column); then place each succeeding combat chooses for both ends). The selected point need not be i n
unit in a Column behind the hex where the previous one the center of the hex, but must be on the highest R a w
ended up (placing Road Column markers as appropriate if Height available inside the hex (no matter how small of a
playing with Optional Rule 12.5). Place leaders atop the part of the hex it represents).

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9

Play Note: The above is a compromise. Don’t be lured into Exceptions: 1) Artillery can only fire through enemy
“there isn’t enough of that high ground in the hex for the units to target hexes containing enemy artillery. 2) Ignore
unit to set up” arguments. The hex itself is an artificial all enemy units for LOS purposes when making a roll on
construct; the unit is in and around it. the Gun Loss Table. 3) Ignore the hexside blocking effect
for Opening Volleys.
In a nutshell, LOS determination here involves classifying
the segments of the LOS as clear. When all such Design Note: This rule allows artillery to engage enemy
classifications are made, if the entire line is clear for one guns that move up behind an infantry line. The artillery
reason or another, then the LOS is clear. If any segments would be regarded as a much greater threat and the
remain that are not classified as clear, then the LOS i s defending guns would shift fire to engage them. Also,
blocked. Small Arms fire would always be directed at the nearest
visible enemy troops, regardless of the circumstances.
The heights of points (raw or modified) only apply t o While it may seem odd to not have an exception to this
a given LOS problem if they fall under the LOS line itself. rule for Open Order units, remember one of their
functions is as a screening force.
A “Raw Height” is the elevation of the ground 4.1e No Terrain. If the two End Points have the same
without any modifications for Woods, Towns, Orchards or Raw Height and all intervening points have a Modified
Crests. Height equal to (or lower) than the End Points, the LOS i s
A “Modified Height” is the elevation of the ground clear.
plus whatever modifications apply there for Woods,
Orchards, Crests, and/or Towns. More than one modifier 4.2 Special Terrain Features
can apply to a given point. For example a Crest inside 4.2a Orchards. Orchards modify their Raw Heights b y
some Woods would be modified to +2 levels. +1 level.
The target and firer hexes are referred to as “End
Point” hexes. The End Point hexes are further designated Use the “edge” of the actual Orchard symbols for LOS
as “firing,” “target,” “higher” or “lower” as the rule purposes—inside that edge, the Orchard is a solid block.
requires. You can’t shoot between the rows of trees!
“Segment” is any distance along the LOS, no matter
how small. 4.2b Woods. Woods modify their Raw Heights by +1
4.1a High Terrain. If there is any Raw Height (or Woods hexsides are for movement and have no effect
Modified Height which is not ignored because of the on LOS. Use the actual Woods symbol for LOS purposes.
special Orchard rules 4.4b & 4.4c) higher than the higher
End Point hex, the LOS is blocked. Nothing on the Clear 4.2c Towns. Any segment inside a Town boundary
List (4.4a) makes such an LOS clear. modifies its Raw Elevation by +1 level.
4.1b Always See Adjacent. Regardless of anything else, Buildings and other minor features are included purely
if the two End Point hexes are adjacent to each other, the for historical interest, and—unless marked as Town
LOS is clear. terrain—do not affect LOS.
4.1c Friendly Units. LOS for friendly Small Arms fires 4.2d Crests. A Crest modifies its Raw Height by +1
is always blocked if it crosses into any hexes containing level. Ignore any Crest feature the LOS “rides along” and
other friendly combat units. does not obviously cross.
LOS along a hexside is blocked only if both hexes
making up the hexside have friendly units in them. If only Note that technically, every hilltop and ridge has some
one does, then the LOS is not blocked for this reason. level of “crest” at its peak. The game uses actual printed
Artillery c a n fire through or along hexsides elevations for all but tactically important “odd” terrain
containing friendly combat units provided those units that would not show up otherwise. Suffice it to say that
are not adjacent to the target. unless a Crest in printed on the map, there isn’t one there
to worry about.
1) Open Order Capable units can be adjacent to the <<Example Crests XX>>
target and be fired through by artillery.
2) If the artillery is firing Canister, it cannot fire Design Note: Yes, those are all +1. As a wise man once
through any friendly combat unit (regardless of told me, “… applying detail to [an imprecise estimate]
the above), but c a n fire along such a unit’s really doesn't help make it more precise.” As the LOS
hexside given the requirement in the second system is designed to err toward blockage, then having
paragraph of this rule. something “more blocked” doesn’t affect anything and
testing found that adding “strictly realistic tree heights”
4.1d Enemy Units. LOS that cross enemy combat unit (+3 levels, 60 feet) could be greatly confusing over
hexes are always blocked. This includes the enemy unit’s rugged ground. There was no gain in the added detail.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10

4.4b Target is in an Orchard. If the LOS would ONLY
4.2e Sudden Dips. These are hexside features where have been clear if the target’s entire Orchard was ignored
the terrain literally drops in a table-top fashion making a (including all its hexes), then the LOS is clear, but you
lip troops can use to hide behind. The hexcorners of a then apply the Orchard Partial LOS shift on the Combat
Sudden Dip hexside also count as Sudden Dip. Table.
No unit can “see” an enemy unit adjacent to the
downward side of a Sudden Dip hexside if the LOS goes 4.4c Firer is in an Orchard. Ignore the Orchard height
through that hexside (unless the unit is also adjacent t o modifications for all hexes of the entire Orchard the
that hexside). firer’s hex occupies. Use the Raw Heights instead.
Furthermore, any unit adjacent to the downward side Do not apply the Orchard Partial LOS shift in this
of a Sudden Dip symbol can only “see” adjacent to itself if case; it applies only if the target is in an Orchard.
“looking” through it.
<<Illustrated example of the 4.4b & 4.4c XX>>
<<Example of all the various locations and directions
when it comes to Sudden Dips. XX>> Design Note: Obviously, the above LOS rule is a n
abstraction that will not cover every case with “scientific
4.3 Same Hill precision” (which is, perhaps, actually more realistic
This rule abstractly allows the LOS to be clear than the opposite, as LOS isn’t as cut and dried as i t
looking down the slope of a hill one End Point is on. This looks on a game map). Also, most all of the lines of sight
classifies that segment of the LOS as clear. we deal with are very shallow angles, so the dramatically
Same Hill uses the determination of the “kind of long “shadow” of intervening hills is not a great stretch.
change” (up, down, same) the Modified Height makes as
one moves from point to point along the LOS from the Thanks to Tim Gritten for devising this simple, yet
higher End Point hex toward the lower one. deceptively sophisticated, LOS method and Dave Demko
Start from the higher End Point, using its Raw for the easy to use Same Hill determination method.
H e i g h t . Follow along the LOS making a simple
assessment of the change in Modified Height. Each point 4.5 Visibility
will be thought of as either “up,” “down” or “same.” Visibility is given on the Turn Record Track for some
The “Same Hill” ends at the point where you have turns. A visibility of “5” means units can see targets up t o
made an “up” determination. It can extend forever if all and including five hexes away on that turn. If no number
hexes are considered to be “same” or “down.” is given, visibility is unlimited. Regardless of LOS, n o
For “Same Hill” purposes, a Crest amounts to an “up” unit can “see” or fire further than the current visibility
at that point. allows.
<<Illustrated example of 4.3 XX>>
5.0 Combat
In the Activity Phase, the active player’s combat
4.4 Final LOS Determination units can fire at enemy combat units within range and
Determine if any LOS segments do not fall into any of LOS.
the Clear List categories in 4.4a. Units can fire individually, or together (provided
they are stacked at that moment), according to the
• If all segments along an LOS are clear, the LOS i s restrictions below.
clear. Maximum weapon ranges and any special
capabilities they might have are given on the Weapon
• If any segment is not classified as clear, and none of Characteristics Charts above the Combat Table. The
the special circumstances (4.4b or 4.4c) apply, the LOS i s chart on the left is for Small Arms and the one on the right
blocked. is for Artillery. A combat unit’s specific weapon type i s
given as a letter code on the lower left corner of the
4.4a Clear L ist. counter.

Segments that… Important: See 2.2 for a description of Move and Fire
Activities and how fire & movement is integrated. The
…are in either End Point hex chosen Activity determines the ability of units to fire and
…have Modified Heights at or below the Raw Height move.
of the lower End Point
…are part of the “Same Hill” (4.3) (see also 4.1b) Reminder: While batteries must always be on top of their
stacks, at the moment any Small Arms fire or Charge i s
… are classified as Clear. declared against their hex, the non-Artillery combat
unit(s) (if any) is considered to be on top of the artillery.
<<Comprehensive Illustrated example of 4.4a in action The top such unit must be the top unit in the hex. The
XX>> batteries move instantly back to the top of the stack when
the combat is completed.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11

Procedure and a range that does not exceed the current Visibility
For each target hex, identify the firing and target (4.5).
stacks. Apply the Opening Volley (if any). Determine the
number of firing SPs. The SPs may be modified if the 5.2a Column, Mounted, Limbered and Routed units
firing units are DG. On the Combat Table, drop any and all non-combat units cannot fire.
remaining fractional values and match the modified SPs t o
the column headings. This is the initial column to use. 5.2b Each unit can only fire once in an Activity
Total the applicable column shifts (see list to the left of Phase. Exception: Units that “win” a Charge may be able
the Combat Table) and adjust the initial column by the to Charge again in the same phase.
resulting net total. Positive is right; negative is left. Roll
two dice (2-12) to determine a row and find the result at 5.2c A hex can be Charged or fired upon any number
the row and final column’s intersection. Execute the result of times in a phase. Exception: 5.2f.
as described in 5.6.
5.2d Any fire that is shifted off the left end of the
5.1 Strength Points (SPs) Combat Table automatically results in “No Effect.”
Make no roll in that case. The shot did not happen
Combat units have a letter and a number printed o n
(the units have not ‘fired’ and can be diverted to other,
them in the lower left-hand corner. These indicate the
more useful, shots). Void any Opening Volley loss caused
unit’s weapon type and Strength Points. See the Weapons
by this fire.
Characteristics Charts for a key to the weapon codes.
A combat unit’s current strength is shown either b y
5.2e Resolve fires that are shifted off the right end of
its printed strength (if it has no Strength marker) or by the
the Combat Table on the last available column. Ignore any
Strength marker (if there is one) underneath it.
excess positive column shifts.
Strength markers have four values on each side. The
value at the "top" of the marker (oriented the same way as
5.2f A hex can be the target of only three shots
the unit) is the current strength.
involving artillery in a single Activity Phase. The hex can
be fired upon (or Charged) any number of times (as per
5.1a SP Limit. No more than a total of 8 SPs can ever
5.2c), but only three of them can involve artillery fires.
fire out of a single hex in one phase. Any combination of
combat units can fire from a hex, as long the total does not 5.2g Firing ends a unit’s or stack’s turn in a Fire
violate this limit or 5.3d. If a hex suffers losses from an Activity. In a Move Activity, there may be additional
Opening Volley, these losses do not reduce the 8 SPs actions a stack can make after firing, assuming the Charge
available to fire (unless there are physically less than 8 was successful. (See 2.2 and 7.0)
SPs remaining in the hex capable of firing). If additional
units enter a hex to fire, they can do so, provided the total
of 8 SPs for the phase is not exceeded. 5.3 Specialized Fires
5.3a No Combining Fire. All stacks fire
5.1b Loss Distribution. Losses occur for a number of independently. They can never combine fires into one fire
reasons (Opening Volley, Combat results, Morale results, execution—but the player can engage a given target hex
Retreats and so on). The first loss of a “combat” must be more than once.
taken by the stack’s top combat unit. The first loss here
counts for the entire Combat and Morale Table loss 5.3b Splitting Fire & “Drop Outs.” Stacks cannot split
results (if any) as a ‘single event’ (in other words, there i s fire. They can choose to not fire Small Arms units or
only one “first loss” in a fire involving Combat, Morale, Artillery units. Any units in a stack that do fire, must fire
Gun Loss Table, and/or Retreat in EZOC losses). together at the same target. If any type of weapon “drops
The “first loss from the top unit” rule applies t o out” of a shot, all of that type from that hex must not
Opening Volley losses. fire—at all—in that phase.
After the first loss, the player can freely choose the
combat units to take any remaining losses and distribute Design Note: One might ask why a player might want t o
them as he sees fit (with the restriction that Morale Table “drop out” all the Small Arms or all the Artillery from a
losses must come from Infantry and/or Cavalry units, if stack’s shot. Small Arms might get dropped out to avoid
any are involved). having to apply the Small Arms Range shifts to a longer
range Artillery shot. Artillery might get dropped out t o
Example: In a combat resolution, a stack of infantry avoid the risk of Depletion or to avoid inflicting the CBF
regiments takes one SP loss from the Combat Table, a loss marker shifts on its stack.
of two SPs from the Morale Table and yet another SP
because it retreated into an EZOC. In this case, one loss 5.3c Pre-Fire Movement. Combat units from multiple
must come from the top unit and the player can distribute hexes can move (as part of various Fire Activities) to a
the remaining three SPs in any way he desires. common hex so as to fire together (provided the stacking
and movement rules are not violated). They cannot do this
5.2 Restrictions and then launch a Charge.
Combat units can only fire at targets at or within
their weapon type’s maximum range, given a clear LOS 5.3d Cherry Picking Points. Only units 1) in excess of
the 8 SP limit, 2) which cannot fire because of other rules,

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12

and/or 3) which have been “dropped out” (5.3b) can be
omitted from a hex’s shot. The player decides which A few special cases exist that might be confusing using
“excess” units are to be left out. the above rules:
One unit in a hex can fire less than its full SP value,
if its remaining SPs would exceed the 8 SP limit. Use only 1) A Charge attempt that fails its Closing Roll, but
the number of SPs that brings the hex up to the 8 SP limit. has not expended any MPs, and then fires. Opening
If this “partial” unit is Artillery, should Depletion occur, Volley takes place (use Range 1, not Charge).
the whole unit, even the SPs that did not fire, is affected. 2) An attempt to close that fails (not a Charge),
without other movement, that then fires. No
5.4 Opening Volley Opening Volley.
3) A unit that moves exactly 1/2 MA, fails its Closing
5.4a Each fire announced with a range of 3 hexes (or
Roll and then fires. Opening Volley (of course)
less) by active units that have expended MPs in that phase
and—just so it is clear—the closing attempt did
generates one Opening Volley by the inactive player.
not entail any extra MP cost which would push the
Any Charge, even if no MPs have been expended,
unit over the 1/2 maximum.
generates an Opening Volley. See 7.0d and 7.0e.
4) A unit starts within 3 hexes, but must reface first s o
To do an Opening Volley, there must be at least one
as to get a shot off. The refacing MP is the only MP
inactive combat unit (of any type or size—given range,
expended. Opening Volley takes place normally.
formation, morale, facing, and LOS) that could fire at the
firing stack. That unit must be no further than 3 hexes
Design Note: Opening Volley is a synthesis of what the
away from the firing stack that triggered the Opening
Volley. A unit being Charged can fire an Opening CWR did using an entire Fire Phase (Defensive Fire).
Obviously, doing it this way—using expected values off
Volley regardless of its facing.
the Combat Table columns most common in those
No matter how many additional stacks could provide
fires—greatly speeds up play at a minor cost in perceived
an Opening Volley in a given situation, make only one
precision. Not only that, but there was a bit of a
roll for losses.
sequential problem with the old system. An example of the
latter is the fact that, quite often, attacking formations
Play Note: The unit providing the Opening Volley need
would belly up to the enemy line, get hammered at very
not be in the actual target hex. A given unit can provide close range and then retreat back where they might get
any number of Opening Volleys in an Activity Phase a s their shot in at a greater distance or not at all. While it i s
they are triggered. true, the attacking formation is taking losses on the
approach and might fail in a morale sense at some point,
5.4b Opening Volleys can inflict losses as per the it is not the case that they would never get any firing
Opening Volley Table. There is no Morale Check or any done at the closer ranges in exchange for their trouble.
sort of modifier applied to this roll. Make Leader Loss Now, an attacking formation will take some lumps closing
Checks if there is a loss. Execute the original combat after in and get a shot off before the enemy hammers them i n
inflicting any losses. their own Activity Phase causing them to break off. That’s
more realistic. The downside is some (few SP) hexes might
5.4c Opening Volleys require a one-die roll t o get in more than their fair share of licks, but this is o f
determine the required loss. See the Opening Volley Table. little consequence as such stacks typically get destroyed
very rapidly.
5.4d Artillery must have ammunition (either type)
to provide an Opening Volley, though no ammunition can Also, the requirement to “expend MPs” to generate a n
actually become Depleted when doing so. Opening Volley (other than in Charges) needs to be
explained. Let’s say that the attacking formation from
5.4e In the case of a stack containing some units above does belly up to the enemy line. The Opening Volley
which expended MPs and others that did not, a fire by that from that movement would be executed, of course. But
stack triggers a normal Opening Volley. Take the loss off should the two lines remain in contact, with neither
the unit on top of the stack, even if it that unit did not budging, they exchange blows until somebody does break
expend any MPs. and leave the fight. The advantage of an Opening Volley
has no place in such a fight after the initial contact. Now,
5.4f There is no Opening Volley when enemy units if, instead, the player reinforces his hex with fresh troops
move into position, but do not actually fire. You’ll get and then fires, the new troops engender an Opening
your chance to fire at them in your turn (and, since you Volley loss (they expended MPs).
presumably wouldn’t move, they won’t get an Opening
Volley on you). Play Note: Beware the fact that a given stack can fire any
number of Opening Volleys. You can’t suppress the enemy
5.4g The range used here is that from the hex
fires by stacking dead bodies in front of them, but you are
delivering the Opening Volley.
allowed to futilely try.
5.4h In the case of a stack firing after a failed Charge
Closing Roll, there is a normal (not Charge) Opening 5.5 Terrain Effects
Volley even if the stack did not expend any MPs. (See 5.5a Terrain types that affect combat are listed as
7.0e) column shifts on the Combat Table. A given column shift

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13

can only be applied once in a combat, no matter how many Canister and 4 SPs of Normal Canister fire out of a hex,
of its conditions are met. Terrain applies to the combat apply only Dense Canister.
involved in a Charge normally. Remember the attacker is
still adjacent to the defender for its resolution (not in the After finding the final column on the Combat Table,
defender’s hex). roll two dice and execute the result.

5.5b All hexside features also require the target to be 5.6a Morale Check. Certain results are listed as “m.”
adjacent to the hexside and all fire to enter through the These results call for a Morale Check but no combat
hexside feature. Only apply hex features from the target losses. Execute the Morale Check by itself as the combat
hex itself. result. Do not make a Leader Loss Check.

5.6 Combat Table 5.6b Step Losses. Any numeric combat result gives a
Total the SPs shooting in one stack, modify them if number of losses, a Leader Loss Check, and a Morale
they are DG (x1/2), drop any fractions, and use that Check. See 5.1b regarding distribution of losses. After
column on the Combat Table. applying the loss and checking for Leader Loss, make a
Morale Check.
Next, apply all applicable column shifts. There is no Leader Loss Check if the firer is at 5 hex
range or more.
• Use the top target combat unit to determine if a
shift applies (if a unit status is needed). 5.6c If the last remaining combat unit in a stack i s
eliminated by the Combat Table result, there is no Morale
• If both types (Small Arms a n d Artillery) of Check. Any leaders or HQs that happen to be in that hex
Range shift apply, use the worst one for the remain there (after making the Leader Loss Check).
firing player. Destroy any Wagons in the hex if there is an enemy unit
adjacent to it (8.1b). The destroyed unit allows the
Firepower and Canister Weapons Characteristics placement of a Cowardly Legs marker (6.5).
shift one or more Combat Table columns in favor of the
attack, if they apply. 5.6d Unsupported Artillery Fired on by Small Arms.
Each weapon type on the Combat Table lists its When enemy Small Arms or a mix of Small Arms and
available shift types. In the case of Artillery, the Canister Artillery inflict a Combat Table loss on friendly artillery
shifts apply only if Canister is actually being fired. that did not start this Fire combat stacked with infantry or
The shift listing itself gives the maximum range i t cavalry, apply three step losses for each loss required b y
could apply. If the range is greater than the maximum, the the table.
shift cannot be used. For example, Buck and Ball has a
max range for effect of 1 hex. That shift would never Design Note: Artillery batteries can be rapidly chopped
apply to a shot at range 2 or more. to nothing by enemy infantry if not supported. This rule
In both cases, use the Threshold Value Chart t o takes into account the small size of the gun crews relative
determine the number of SPs in a shot required for these to the numbers of infantry a step loss reflects.
shifts. Use the SP number unmodified for DG in this
determination. Also, the Threshold Value is not type 5.7 Wrecked Status
specific—rate the firing SPs as a whole, not separately for As losses increase, regiments reach a point where
Small Arms and Artillery. For example, a hex firing 6 SPs their combat effectiveness collapses. When a combat unit
would require 3 SPs to get a Firepower shift. Such a hex reaches that point, it is w r e c k e d , and all associated
could possibly get both the Canister and the Buck and penalties take effect immediately.
Ball shifts if it is firing 3 SPs of each.
An infantry or cavalry unit is wrecked when it has
For the Buck and Ball Shift, there must be at least less than 50% of its printed Strength Points remaining.
the Threshold Value of Buck and Ball firing weapons Artillery units never become wrecked.
involved in the shot.
Example: An infantry unit with 6 SPs becomes wrecked
The Canister Shifts are divided into two when it is reduced to a strength of 2; a unit with a
types—Dense and Normal. printed strength of 5 is also wrecked when it is reduced
to 2 SPs.
1) Use the Dense Canister Shifts if the Threshold
Value is met counting only Dense Canister firing Regiments can recover losses to a point where they
artillery. are no longer wrecked. The instant a regiment recovers
2) Use the Normal Canister Shift if the Threshold from being wrecked, the penalties no longer apply.
Value is only met counting all Canister firing
artillery SPs (both types, together). Penalties: A wrecked unit…
Apply only one type of Canister shift, even if both 1) …cannot be the top unit of a stack when it needs
meet their Threshold Values. For example, 4 SPs of Dense to make a Closing Roll (for movement or for a

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14

2 ) …suffers a modifier when making Morale retreat if the enemy approaches (in the Rally Phase if they
Checks. do not Rally). (6.4 part 4) See also 3.0e.
These are listed on the Morale State Effects Chart.
5.8 Counter Battery Fire (CBF) 6.0a Morale and Stacking. A hex can only have one
Place a CBF marker in the target hex when artillery
fires at a hex containing enemy artillery and achieves a t Morale State. A Morale State inflicted on any one combat
least an ‘m’ Combat Table result. unit affects all others in that hex. When combat units
finish an Activity Phase stacked together, that resulting
5.8a The marker’s effects are 1) it precludes “by stack adopts the worst Morale State in it. In the case of
Caisson” replenishment and 2) it applies the Counter Blood Lust and Normal, Normal is the “worst” Morale
Battery Fire shifts on the Combat Table fires in which the State. Combat units can move, but not retreat, through
hex’s artillery participates. There are no other effects. hexes in other Morale States without any effect (see 6.3d,
regarding retreats).
5.8b The CBF shifts apply if the current fire comes
from a marked hex’s artillery. Do not apply this shift if all Exception: Any combat unit that even momentarily stacks
the fire from the hex is coming from Small Arms. with a Routed unit is automatically Routed too.

5.8c Remove all CBF markers from friendly stacks 6.1 Morale Checks
in your Rally Phase (so you are only affected by enemy A stack makes a Morale Check only when called for
artillery firing in his immediately preceding Activity by a Combat Table result.
Phase). The top combat unit in a stack provides the Morale
Rating for a Morale Check. The top unit is also the basis
Design Note: Under a CBF marker, the owning player can for some modifiers that might affect the Morale Check.
use his guns with less effectiveness with a risk o f Use only the modifiers applicable to the current top
Depletion. If he does get a Depletion marker, the guns combat unit, which might be different from the original
have a choice. They can sit there Depleted (and therefore top unit if it was eliminated due to losses inflicted.
are less useful at the affected ranges) or pull out t o Only one leader in the stack (if any) can provide a
replenish—either way, you have silenced his guns for the modifier for a Morale Check.
moment. Some clever players will decide to not fire any
guns under CBF markers in order to avoid a hard Procedure
Depletion result. That’s fine, now he has silenced his Find the top combat unit’s Morale Rating in the
guns for you. column headers on the Morale Table. Total all applicable
die roll modifiers based on the top combat unit. In case of
a Charge, also apply the Additional Charge Modifiers.
6.0 Morale Roll two dice and add the total die roll modifier. Find this
Morale represents unit q u a l i t y—a combination o f number to the left, next move across that row to the correct
leadership, training, motivation, and character. It column to find the result and execute it.
determines how well the unit withstands the shock o f
combat. If the modified roll is greater or less than the last table
row, use the last available row.
Each combat unit has a Morale Rating printed on i t
(in the lower right corner) ranging from A through F (best 6.1a Long Range Shots. Make no Morale Check
to worst). This rating does not change during the game.
(ever) if the firing range is 10 hexes or more.
Morale States are temporary states of confusion,
fear, or anger. Show a Morale State with the appropriate
6.1b Intentional Pull Outs. The “Intentional Pull Out”
marker on top of the units. (Normal has no marker; it i s
the default status). Morale States are imposed through modifier is something the owning player can self-inflict
Morale Table results. Morale States change frequently in order to force a stack to retreat (usually to break contact
during play and affect combat unit abilities in various and get out of an EZOC). The owning player must
ways. announce the use of this modifier before rolling the dice.
The effects of the various Morale States are (in He can do this on any Morale Check and is never forced t o
addition to modifiers on the tables): do so. The player cannot control the amount of the Morale
Blood Lust (BL): The unit moves and fires modifier used—he must apply the whole +3 value.
normally, gets a free pass on Closing Rolls, and must When using this modifier, ignore any friendly
ignore any Retreat or Loss results from the Morale Table. Leader modifier and read any “bracket results” as normal
Normal: The unit is normal in every way. retreats. In other words, you must apply bracket results as
Shaken (Sh): The unit is subject to a few modifiers, retreats.
but is otherwise normal.
Disorganized (DG): DG units move and fire at half Design Note: Intentional Pull Outs are a dangerous way
strength, can’t Charge or successfully pass a Closing Roll. to go, but provide players a safety valve in the case where
See also 3.0e. they must break free of EZOCs but cannot (or do not want
Routed (R): Routed units can neither move normally to) apply things like Skedaddle to do so. Some units may
nor fire, have no ZOC or Front hexes, and are forced t o not get the word, staying engaged; given the chance,
others might collapse, making the retreat rather chaotic.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

I realize ‘A-rated’ units might hang tight in spite of your 2) When a Shaken, Disorganized, or Routed stack
desires. Remember they are stubborn men—that’s what receives a morale result of Blood Lust, the new
makes them A’s! Morale State is as follows:

6.2 Morale Results Sh + BL = BL

DG + BL = Normal
The Morale Table contains a mix of Morale State,
R + BL = Sh
Retreat, and loss results.
Examples: A unit that is Disorganized receives a morale
Morale State Results: Place the appropriate Morale
result of Shaken, back 1, lose 1. The unit would retreat 1
marker on the stack to indicate its new Morale State. hex, take 1 loss, and remain Disorganized. If a DG unit
receives a result of Rout, back 6, lose 2, it would execute
• Ignore any Blood Lust result if the checking hex i s that result and become Routed because Rout is worse
not adjacent to an enemy combat unit or if the checking than Disorganized. A unit that is Routed and receives a
unit is Open Order; it does not matter if it is currently result of ‘Normal’, remains Routed. A unit that i s
Open Order Capable or not. Disorganized and receives a result of Disorganized, back
3, lose 1 would retreat 3 hexes, take 1 loss, and then be
• I g n o r e f r i e n d l y leaders for Blood Lust marked as Routed. If a Disorganized unit receives a Blood
determination (but apply them normally when looking at Lust result, remove the DG marker and revert the unit to
other possible results). ‘Normal’ morale. If any unit is currently BL and gets a
Shaken or worse Morale Table result, ignore any losses
Example: An A with a 4-rated leader that is Wrecked rolls or retreats and replace the BL marker with the
a 3 for a Morale Check. For Blood Lust purposes, the appropriate worse Morale State.
modified roll is a 6 (no BL), but for everything else, it is a
2 (since the BL doesn’t count, the result is No Effect).
6.3 Retreat
Retreat Results: Retreat the stack the given number of Retreat results are given in hexes, not M P s . The
hexes. affected units must retreat that number of hexes. The
owning player must execute the retreat in a relatively
• Ignore all Retreat results if the checking stack i s straight line, locally “to the rear,” away from enemy
BL. combat units. Doubling back and other “game tricks” are
not allowed.
Brackets Retreat Results: A Bracketed Retreat result
(e.g. “[b1]”) means that the retreat is ignored if any of the 6.3a Units in a stack must retreat together. They
listed conditions exist. The player cannot apply such a cannot split up their stack during the retreat. Retreating
result as an actual retreat even if he would like to (he must units can change formation, adjust Facing and/or stacking
stand and fight); the only exception is an Intentional Pull order freely. Units cannot overstack at the end of a retreat.
Out (6.1b).
Slope hexes only allow the negation of a Bracketed 6.3b Apply any loss results before executing a
Retreat result if all firers are at a lower elevation. retreat.

Loss Results. Loss results from the Morale Table can 6 . 3 c Units that c a n n o t finish the required
be taken only off infantry and/or cavalry units. If there are retreat—due to enemy units, the map edge or impassable
more losses than there are infantry or cavalry SPs terrain—are eliminated. They can later recover losses (see
available, then the excess loss is wasted (even if there i s 9.4). A bridge or ford allows units to retreat across an
artillery present). impassable hexside.
Ignore the loss result if the checking stack is BL.
6 . 3 d When a combat unit retreats into a hex
6.2a Additive Morale State Effects. When a combat unit containing other friendly combat units (even if it has
additional retreat hexes to fulfill), those units can do one
or stack with a Morale State of Blood Lust, Shaken,
of the following:
Disorganized, or Routed, receives another morale result,
the worse (if any) Morale State of the two takes effect. For
1) Displace one hex out of the way,
this purpose “Normal” is not worse than Blood Lust, so a
2) Join the retreating stack and retreat with i t
stack that gets a No Result in a Morale Check does not
(provided the stacking limit allows, see below),
lose its BL state.
3) Remain in place and allow the retreating stack t o
There are two exceptions:
pass through.
1) DG + DG = R. Any DG combat unit or stack that
Displacement: Units that choose to Displace worsen
receives another DG result is Routed. No
additional retreat or losses are imposed because their Morale State by one level (Sh to DG, for instance).
of this increase. Displacement is also a ‘retreat’ so the rules regarding
retreats apply. For example, one Displacement might
force another Displacement.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16

A unit can Displace more than once—even in the hexes are regardless of any LOS or Visibility
same retreat—but the Morale State gets one level worse issues.
each time. Leaders, HQs and Wagons in the displacing 5) Remove all Cowardly Legs markers.
units’ hex must also Displace. HQ Displacement will
initiate a Skedaddle. Stacks can Displace to their right or 6.5 Cowardly Legs (a.k.a. Jimmy Legs)
left rear; they are not required to go directly backwards.
If Almighty God gives a man a cowardly pair of legs, how
Displacement is always one hex and no more.
can he help their running away with him?
—A. Lincoln
Stacking: Combat units that choose to stack with a
retreating stack apply the worst Morale State now in the 6.5a When a inactive stack retreats (for any reason,
hex to the combined stack and the stack continues any including Displacement) O R is destroyed because of
remaining retreat. This option cannot be executed if the Combat and/or Morale Table results (but not as a result of
stacking limit would be violated. Non-combat units in the retreating into an EZOC), place a Cowardly Legs marker i n
hex that is joining a retreat must also retreat with the its original hex.
combined stack.
6.5b Any Morale Check made by a stack adjacent t o
Remaining in Place: The retreating units run through a Cowardly Legs marker is subject to the Cowardly Legs
a stack’s hex and continue on with their retreat. The stack modifier. (Take note of 6.5c, though.)
stays, but both the retreating and non-retreating units
absorb the worst Morale State of any of them and that 6.5c No stack is ever affected by a Cowardly Legs
Morale State is worsened by one level (as in Displacement marker it, or a stack that retreated into it, created.
above) for both stacks. This permits leaders, HQs and
Wagons to remain in place avoiding a forced Skedaddle. 6.5d There is no additional effect for being adjacent
to more than one Cowardly Legs marker.
6.3e EZOC & Retreats. Any retreating stack that enters
an EZOC automatically loses 1 SP. There is no Morale 6.5e Remove all Cowardly Legs markers during
Check or Leader Loss Check because of this. Other than every Rally Phase. N o Activity Phase starts with any
the loss, EZOCs do not affect retreats. They do not slow Cowardly Legs markers on the map. It’s acceptable t o
the retreat down, etc. The withdrawal in 9.5e for Open remove the markers “as you go” when they can have n o
Order units is not considered a “retreat” for purposes of additional effect.
this rule—there are no losses in that case because of
EZOCs. Design Note: This harkens back to rules I tested during
the development of the original CWB rules. A frequent
6.3f Artillery. Artillery units must Limber to retreat. note made in official reports is something to the effect o f
Apply 3.6c as needed. Unlimbered artillery cannot “we were doing just fine until the regiment on our flank
Displace or join other units retreating through their hex; retreated… we had to follow suit.” While this could be
the guns must remain in position and execute 6.3d option written off as an excuse, it has an element of truth—units
3. didn’t have much staying power after their flank support
pulled out.
6.3g Blood Lust. BL stacks ignore any Morale Table
Retreat result they might receive.
7.0 Charge!
6.3h Facing. Upon completion of any Retreat or A Charge is a combination of fire and movement
Displacement, a stack can freely change to any desired representing attacks using shock as well as firepower. In
Facing. the CWR a mechanically different version of this was
referred to as Close Combat. “Charge” is simplified from
the older system and gives the offense more teeth. Also,
6.4 Rally unless Optional Rule 12.3 is used, “charging” does not
Rally is the process by which combat units recover imply “mounted cavalry charges” but rather infantry
toward a normal Morale State. During a player’s Rally closing to very short ranges and exchanging fire.
Phase, the active player adjusts his units’ Morale States as
follows in the order shown: Procedure
A Charge consists of moving the attacking stack
1) Remove all Sh and BL markers. into a hex adjacent to the target (making any required
2) Flip all DG markers to Sh. Closing Rolls to do so). Then the attacker announces the
3) Routed Stacks: Roll one die and add the Morale Charge attempt and makes the Charge’s Closing Roll. If
Value of any one leader in the hex. On a 5 or that succeeds, the defender makes his Opening Volley, the
more, remove the R and replace it with a DG attacker takes his losses, and checks for Leader Loss, if
marker. The stack can then set Facing as desired. needed.
Any other result leaves the stack Routed. The attacker then fires on the defender inflicting a
4) Any remaining Routed stacks within 6 hexes of Leader Loss Check if there are losses and a leader i s
an enemy combat unit must retreat until it is 6 present.
hexes away from all enemy combat units. The 6

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17

If a Morale Check is called for because of the 7.0g Charge Morale Table Modifiers. In the Additional
Combat Table result (it is not automatic), make that check Charge Modifiers section of the Morale Table is an Odds
applying both any regular and the Additional Charge Matrix. Select the modifier that applies using the cross
Modifiers (listed on the top right of the Morale Table). index of the “Side Having Odds” of the attack and the
Should the defender retreat, the attacker must advance into quality of the attacker’s morale compared to the
the defender’s old hex and can continue to move with any defender’s.
remaining MA (possibly Charging again). Don’t forget t o For Odds determination, count all the SPs in each
place a Cowardly Legs marker in the defender’s original hex at the moment of the Morale Check (after inflicting the
hex if he is destroyed or retreats. Opening Volley and Combat Table losses).
Ignore SPs from Routed units, Unlimbered artillery
Only Infantry in Line can Charge. Other unit types Depleted of both kinds of ammunition, Limbered artillery
(including Cavalry in Line) cannot Charge. Leaders can (with or without ammunition) and/or any non-combat
participate by “coming along” on a Charge. Infantry i s units.
determined by the Line symbol and the lack of a Cavalry Count other SPs regardless of Facing or formation.
Stripe (1.3a). The ability to be Mounted (on the back of The number of SPs is not restricted by the usual 8 SP
the counter) does not undermine this status (as there are firing limit.
mounted infantry units in some games). Multiply the smaller number by 1.5 to determine the
checking value. If the larger number is greater than or
7.0a In short—to make a Charge, the player must equal to the checking value, then the side owning the
declare a Charge, identify the Charging stack and leader (if larger number is said to “have odds.” If the larger number
any), successfully make the Closing Roll, apply the is less than the checking value, then “neither” side has
Opening Volley Losses, and execute a Combat on the odds.
target hex, in that order. Cross index the odds “situation” column with the
comparison between each stack’s Morale Rating. Using
7.0b Charging is always conducted from a hex just the letter value, rate the attacker as “better,” the
adjacent to the target, never in the defender’s hex. “same” or “worse” than the defender. The cross indexed
cell will give the Dice Roll Modifier to use on the Morale
7.0c The Charging units must have enough MPs Table. Like all other Morale Table modifiers, this i s
remaining at the moment of the Charge’s declaration t o cumulative with any others that apply.
pay the target hex’s normal MP cost. There is n o
additional MP cost for conducting a Charge. Design Note: This is obviously a contraction of the old
Close Combat Morale modifiers plus the old Odds Table.
7.0d Use the Opening Volley Table’s Charge Range Guys might wonder why flank attacks etc. have no effect
only if the Closing Roll succeeds. There are three Opening on the Odds determination—remember that this modifier
Volley rolls applicable to a Charge, choose the one that is in addition to the severe rear modifier from the regular
fits the situation. list; in other words, it’s in there!
1) Target has artillery which is able to fire and i s 7.1 Charge Requirements
not being hit in the rear, Units can Charge only if…
2) Target has artillery which is able to fire and i s
being hit in the rear, or 1) They selected “Move” as their Activity.
3) All other situations. 2) They are infantry in Line and, if present, any one
leader. Cavalry, artillery and/or Open Order units
7.0e A Charge attempt that fails its Closing Roll can can never Charge. (See also Optional Rule 12.3
switch to a Fire Activity and fire normally (if it has not regarding Cavalry.)
already expended too many MPs). In this case, make a 1 3 ) They are adjacent to the target and pass the
hex range Opening Volley even if the attacker had not Charge Closing Roll.
expended any MPs during that phase. 4 ) The Charging units started the phase stacked
together. Exception: Leaders can move to join a
7.0f Leaders. Use the two Charge columns on the stack they did not belong to at the beginning of
Leader Loss Table for any needed Leader Loss Checks. If the phase.
there is no loss result, then no Leader Loss Check occurs. 5 ) The Charge target is across the center-front
Importantly, when making the defender’s Morale Check, hexside of the Charging units. (7.2e)
both the attacking and defending leaders’ Morale Values 6) The attacking stack has enough MPs remaining
a p p l y — subtract the defending leader and a d d the to pay the cost of entering the defender’s hex
attacking leader to the Morale Table roll. and pays them.

Design Note: Yes, that is the attacking leader’s Morale 7.2 Charge Restrictions
Value applying to the defender’s Morale Check. This is a 7.2a A stack can Charge and a target hex can be
measure of the effort, vigor, and force of the Charge. Charged any number of times (by separate attacking
Leaders can add an enormous amount of energy to the stacks). Note that to do more than one Charge, an
Charge, but at a great risk to themselves. attacking stack must have been successful in the previous
attempt (7.3b).

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18

7.2b Clear Pathway. If the Charging units must move
into a hex to be adjacent to their intended target, the hex
8.0 Supply
Artillery ammunition supply is the only type of supply t o
cannot contain any friendly combat units.
truly affect combat at the level shown here. Remember,
these games are about issuing orders to large formations
7.2c Command Radius. Attacking units cannot
and the resulting bloodbath—not micro-management o f
violate Command Radius (9.3) to Charge (even i f they transient “shortage” issues.
started the phase in Command Radius). Command Radius
must reach the attacker’s hex at the moment of the Charge.
A stack that successfully wins a Charge (because the 8.1 Wagons
enemy was destroyed or retreated) is e x e m p t from Wagons can be assigned to either individual corps
Command Radius considerations for the remainder of its (even divisions) or to the army as a whole. Wagon
move (to include any further Charges). assignment restricts which batteries (or other Wagons) can
use a Wagon’s Ammo Points. If a Wagon is destroyed, its
7.2d Status Changes. Wrecked units cannot Charge load of Ammo Points goes with it. Wagons cannot be
(because they cannot pass the Closing Roll). However, a captured.
given Charge continues to completion even if the top
attacking unit becomes wrecked from the Opening Volley. 8 . 1 a Wagons ignore all stacking restrictions.
Wagons are not affected by morale, but they must retreat
7.2e Charge Facing Restrictions. (Repeat of rule 3.3d) along with other units retreating out of (or through) their
A stack involved in a Charge must apply the following: hex.

1) A Charge can be conducted only through the 8.1b When not stacked with combat units, Wagons
attacker’s center-front hexside. This applies t o are destroyed if an enemy infantry or cavalry unit moves
all movement and/or additional Charges that adjacent to them or they are fired upon and receive a
might occur after the first Charge is announced numeric result on the Combat Table. For the latter,
for a given moving stack. Wagons have all-around rear facing.
2) No Facing change is allowed for the attacker
after making the Charge’s Fire combat. The 8.1c Orders. Wagons follow automatically when their
attacking stack can continue to move (and do Command executes any movement order. Once emplaced,
further Charges) but throughout that process, the the Wagon cannot move unless the Command gets an
stack cannot change Facing. order to move elsewhere, it Skedaddles, or the Wagon,
itself, gets an order to move. Orders can be given directly
7.3 Advance after Combat to a Wagon using the “Wagon” column on the Acceptance
7.3a The Defender Didn’t Retreat (or even make a Morale Table. The owning leader of the Wagon can give it an
Check). If the defender does not retreat after a Charge, the “order” to move whenever stacked with it (there is no need
to get Initiative to move Wagons). This order must specify
attacker’s movement is finished, even if there are MPs
a destination hex for the Wagon. Orders to a Wagon count
remaining unspent. This includes any leaders that joined
against the Army Commander’s one per turn Order Limit
up with the attacking stack.
(10.4a), but do not require any Order Frequency die roll.
7.3b The Defender Retreats or is Destroyed. If the target
8.1d Subordinate Wagons are free to replenish from
retreats or is destroyed, the attacking stack must move Wagons further up their chain of command. For example,
into the defender’s old hex, retaining its old Facing a corps Wagon can replenish from the army’s Wagon.
orientation (see 7.2e for Charge Facing Restrictions). No subordinate Wagon can be used to replenish a
There is no additional Closing Roll to enter the defender’s superior Wagon (once distributed to the lower Wagons,
hex after a successful Charge, but any additional the Ammo Points are theirs).
movement the attacking stack makes will require normal To replenish from a higher Wagon, follow the
Closing Rolls. procedure for “by Battery” replenishment (3 hexes, etc.,
At that point, the attacking stack can move with any see 8.3). Wagons have no limit as to the number of Ammo
remaining MPs. These MPs can be used to move (subject Points they can carry.
to a l l the normal movement rules and limitations,
including Closing Rolls (exceptions: 7.3c). The stack
cannot fire, but can initiate additional Charges. The player
can choose to remain in the defender’s old hex and ignore 8.2 Artillery Depletion
any remaining MPs. Finish the movement of this stack Artillery ammunition is handled abstractly.
before starting the movement (or fire) of any other stack. Batteries “run out” or Deplete based on the roll made o n
the Combat Table. (A more literal accounting system i s
7.3c Command Radius and/or EZOCs do not restrict presented in Optional Rule 12.6.) I prefer the standard
this movement. A stack moving after it was successful in a system below as it greatly speeds up play and puts the
Charge can enter and/or exit EZOCs freely (provided i t emphasis of the player at a more appropriate level for the
makes the needed Closing Rolls). simulation.

<<Complete Example of a Charge & fire combatXX>>

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19

8.2a When Depletion Occurs. Artillery only depletes and No Ammo to mark Canister Depletion. A battery
(and is marked “Depleted”) based on the Combat Table Depleted of both would still need both markers.
roll. Depletion is never generated by Opening Volleys or
via any other game mechanic. 8.2e Round Type Effects and Restrictions. A battery can
If the Combat Table roll is in the colored zones of fire either Canister or Shell in a shot (given that it has the
the column used, Depletion occurs and is implemented needed ammunition and complies with other restrictions
using 8.2c. There are two zones: the blue zone only below). All the battery’s guns must fire the same type—no
depletes artillery if it fired Canister. The reddish zone mixing within a battery is allowed. Each battery selects its
depletes artillery no matter what kind of ammunition was type independently of any other batteries in its hex.
fired. Depletion takes effect after the Combat Table result The player must announce which batteries are firing
is inflicted. Canister before making the Combat Table roll.
Depending on the availability of ammunition, “by Canister can be fired only at ranges of 3 or less.
Caisson” replenishment, and the player’s desires, a battery Canister cannot be fired through any friendly unit,
that rolls Depletion may not actually be marked Depleted. but can fire along a friendly unit’s hexside given the
requirement in the second paragraph of 4.1c. Artillery
8.2b Two Kinds of Depletion. Batteries have two restricted by this rule could (given 4.1c) fire Shell.
kinds of ammunition—Shell and Canister. Both Deplete There are two types of Canister—Dense and
and replenish independently of each other. Depletion only Normal—as shown on the Weapons Characteristics
affects the type of ammunition that was fired. Mark Chart.
batteries by using Shell and/or Canister Depletion Use the procedure in 5.6 to determine which, if
markers as needed. Place these markers underneath the either, of the two Canister Firepower Shifts applies.
battery’s counter. Regardless of the mix of guns involved, only one of
the two Canister type shifts can affect a given shot. They
Historical Note: Artillery carried two kinds o f are never cumulative.
ammunition to deal with long-range and short-range Shell can be fired at any range available to the type
tactical problems. Shell (solid shot, shell, spherical case of gun.
shot) was used against targets at all ranges, but
primarily at longer distances. At close range, Canister Play Note: Managing artillery ammunition at the player’s
(canister, “rotten shot” (shell with no fuse time)) level is centered on the decision to shoot or not to shoot.
converted cannon into giant shotguns for anti-personnel The more shots you take, the more often you will risk
work. It was possible that the ability in one distance Depletion. Stocks of reserve ammunition are pretty
realm would be lost while ammo remained for the other. meager, so you’ll want to make sure you really want t o
For example, Lee’s army ended Gettysburg almost make any contemplated shot before announcing it. Long
completely out of long range ammunition, but with ample range sniping with artillery will be a waste of your time
stores of Canister available. Artillery ammunition is a and ammunition. Take note, “Plinkers,” change your
critical matter which could determine the choices made a t habit of taking every shot or you will run out of
the army’s highest command levels. ammo—you have nobody to blame but yourself.

8.2c How to Deplete. Deplete one battery based on the Design Note: The CWR used (as standard) an overall
Combat Table roll. If more than one battery is involved, ammunition pool which was prone to abuse. If the player
randomly choose the battery to Deplete. If this Depletion was given all the ammo for a long scenario, he had n o
is automatically refilled using “by Caisson” real worries about running out of ammo (ammo amounts
replenishment (8.4), then the battery is not actually came in the hundreds of points) and could also feed all o f
marked Depleted. If this is not (or cannot) be done, then it through whatever few guns were critical at any one
mark the battery with the appropriate Depletion marker. moment. The detailed artillery ammunition rules
presented there (and here) as an option cured those
8.2d Effects of Depletion. Depletion reduces the problems, but installed their own paperwork and
effectiveness of artillery. Guns that are Depleted Canister micromanagement downsides. A big game-turn would
cannot fire any Canister and do not count for those become a headache tracking all its firing—battery by
column shifts. Guns that are Depleted Shell cannot shoot battery. The Depletion system fixes the downsides of both
at ranges greater than 3 hexes. When both are Depleted, the of the above methods. In general, excessive use of a given
guns c a n n o t fire and cannot be used to implement battery will cause it to run out, the army ammo supply i s
“Bracketed” morale results. limited and localized so it can’t be funneled to a handful
Depletion (even total) does not affect the ability of of batteries, and there is essentially no paperwork.
artillery to force the enemy to roll on the Gun Loss Table.
Artillery that does not have a Canister Modifier (e.g. The only “oddity” it brings is the chance that a battery
Whitworths) has only Shell and is fully Depleted when its might run out on a very few shots or have a string of luck
Shell Depletes. allowing it to fire for a long time. Of course, it is easy t o
imagine that the “early out” battery merely had a short
RSS Game Play Note. RSS players could use the Low and load of ammo to start with (because of incompetence,
No Ammo markers in their games to represent these poorly cared for rounds, or the destruction of caissons).
Depletion states. Use Low Ammo to mark Shell Depletion A battery that lucks out into a lot of shots merely

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20

exercised slow and careful firing. Both are part of the moved further back and the officer in charge could not
friction of war. find them in time.

8.3 Ammunition Replenishment At Shiloh, several batteries reported various methods o f

“by Caisson” reloading. Some sent caissons back to the
There are two ways artillery batteries replenish
Landing literally, others had wagons of ammunition sent
ammunition. Both expend Ammo Points available from
forward, and still others pulled back (in a below game
the appropriate Wagons. The first is “by Caisson,” where
resolution sense) so as to restock from their own
the battery remains in place and a continual ammunition
baggage trains. All of these methods would be
flow from the Wagons is transported to it. The other is “by
considered “by Caisson.”
Battery,” where the battery itself goes to the Wagons t o
The difference here shows up tactically in important
8.3a Only “by Battery” requires the placement of
any Depletion markers. If “by Caisson” is available, the
battery will not be marked; instead deduct the Ammo 8.4 “By Caisson” Replenishment
Points directly from the Wagon.
On going into action, but one caisson
8.3b In either case, deduct one Ammo Point of the at a time for two pieces should be
right type from the Wagon per SP in the battery (all must opened, reserving to the last the
do so, there is no “partial replenishment”). For example, ammunition in the limber-boxes of the
a battery with 4 SPs that needs Shell will require 4 Ammo pieces, in case they should be
Points of Shell. separated momentarily f r o m their
caissons. The pieces should never be
8.3c Regardless of the method used, a battery can without a supply. As soon as a caisson
replenish only from its o w n organization’s Wagons is emptied, it is sent to the reserve
(division, corps or army as the case may be). park.

8.3d Wagons are restricted to the number and type —Gibbon’s Artillerist Manual
of Ammo Points they have remaining. No battery can
replenish from an empty Wagon, or one that does not have Artillery replenishment happens automatically
enough of the right ammunition type remaining. “by Caisson” from the organization’s Wagons. Do this the
instant the Depletion result occurs.
Design Note: Obviously, “by Caisson” is an invented
term here for the act of running a portion of the battery’s 8.4a “By Caisson” is not possible in the following
caissons back and forth to the ammunition park, or the situations:
act of bringing a few ammunition wagons closer to the
battery so it can reload without having to leave its 1) The Wagons are unavailable or are over 25 MPs
location. It has been added as the original “battery must away (see 8.4e).
go to reload” (“by Battery”) method (which is correct i n 2 ) The Wagon has insufficient ammunition of the
many cases) was too restrictive (and deadly) in some right type to replenish.
other situations. 3) The battery’s hex contains a Counter Battery Fire
(CBF) marker. (see 5.8a)
Battery refit and reload “by Battery” was done by most o f 4 ) The battery’s hex could be fired upon by Small
the batteries on Cemetery Ridge during the cannonade Arms weapons at range 2 or less.
before the assault on 3 July 1863 (except Cushing, who
apparently was forgotten). There the battered batteries 8.4b If “by Caisson” i s possible and desired,
pulled out and were replaced by fresh ones from the delete the needed Ammo Points directly from the Wagon’s
Artillery Reserve. Each of those that did this would have stocks. Do not mark the battery Depleted.
been marked with a Counter Battery Fire (CBF) marker i n
the game. 8.4c In cases where “by Caisson” is not possible or
desired, mark the battery with the appropriate Depleted
Meanwhile, on Cemetery Hill, the 1 1th and 1 st Corps guns marker. The player is never forced to replenish.
were busy doing “by Caisson.” They were not subject t o
the intensity of the counter battery fires happening 8.4d Depleted markers can only be removed b y
further south. Other batteries restocked from reserve limbering the battery and sending it to the Wagons to d o
wagons that were sent forward to them (causing “by Battery” replenishment. A Depletion marker cannot
Cornelius Gillett of the Reserve Ordnance Train to be removed “by Caisson” after being placed.
complain about the practice as batteries would take too
much and then have to move, leaving the excess rounds 8.4e Count the 25 MP distance limit from the
wasted at the old location). Wagon to the battery using the Limbered artillery terrain
costs. It need only get to any hex adjacent to the battery.
On the Confederate side, Alexander sent his caissons This pathway is blocked by any terrain artillery cannot
back to refill, but they failed as the trains had been move through, enemy combat units, and/or EZOCs; the

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21

blockage cannot be negated. Some senior leaders (division-level and above) may
have additional insignia in their counter’s lower left
The caisson park is about 100 yards (one hex) behind the corner. Aside from the possibility of being marked an
battery, ammunition is man-handled forward from there. “Artillery Leader” there, these symbols have no game
effect other than to help the player keep his army
8.4f Morale State does not affect the ability to d o organized and quickly identify his important leaders.
“by Caisson” replenishment. For a Morale Check, any one leader in the stack can
contribute the Morale Table modifier. The player can
8.5 “By Battery” Replenishment freely select the leader used if more than one is available.
Leaders do not suffer from Morale States and do not
“By Battery” replenishment is the only means to get
make their own Morale Checks.
rid of a battery’s Depletion marker(s). It involves
physically moving the artillery to the Wagons to get the
9.1a Leader Loss. When a hex containing leaders
needed ammunition.
suffers a loss from the Combat Table or from an Opening
8.5a Depletion marker removal is done only during Volley, the firing player rolls two dice for each leader in
the “by Battery” Replenishment Segment. the target hex on the Leader Loss Table. Use the column
listing the situation at hand.
8.5b To do “by Battery” replenishment, a Depleted The player also rolls for any enemy leaders that
battery must meet the requirements in 8.5c and the Wagon happen to be alone in any hex which his combat units
it is drawing from must have enough of the right kind of enter (using the Capture column). This occurs only in the
Ammo Points. Expend one Ammo Point per SP of the type case of leaders that are alone in their hex at the start of a
needed. combat or enemy movement. Do not apply capture t o
leaders whose units are destroyed under them by a
8.5c The requirements to do “by Battery” combat; use 9.1d instead. See also 9.1d when a hex’s units
replenishment are: are destroyed in a Charge.
If the result is Captured, Wounded or Killed, remove
1) The battery must be at or within 3 hexes of an the leader from play (the difference here is only for color).
appropriate Wagon along a path free of enemy If a capture attempt fails, the owning player places the
combat units, EZOCs, and/or prohibited terrain. leader(s) in a stack with any combat unit of the leader’s
There is no “adjacent is good enough” effect. Command. See 10.7e for the effect of Leader Losses on the
2) The battery is not Disorganized or Routed. orders they might have.
3) The battery is Limbered. If all of a Command’s combat units are eliminated,
remove its leaders. All appropriate leaders return when any
8.5d Batteries can remove both types of Depletion at of their combat units return through Loss Recovery.
once if 1) they require it, 2) the ammo is available, and 3)
the player desires. The player is free to replenish only one Play Note: Leader Losses take place before a Morale
type if he chooses or is forced to do so by inadequate Check, so a leader available at the moment of combat
ammunition supplies. might not be around for the Morale Check.

8.5e If the full cost in Ammo Points is paid given Watch out for the Leader Loss for attackers in a Charge!
the restrictions above, the battery can remove the Tell the leader to place his hat on his sword and go into
appropriate Depletion marker(s). the fray (to get that juicy Charge modifier), and you will
have a very good chance of taking him back off the field
8.5f The player is never required to remove a on a stretcher. Use it when the Charge is very important,
Depletion marker. It’s always his choice. but be aware of the risk. If abused, your command ranks
will be devastated.
8.5g Batteries are exempt from Command Radius t o
go to remove Depletion markers. 9.1b Promotion. When a leader is lost, promote the
ranking leader from the next lower level of his Command
to fill that position. You can only promote leaders
9.0 Special Rules actually in play. If the most senior ranking leader is not
9.1 Leaders yet available, temporarily promote the senior available
Leaders are individuals who fulfill important leader until the senior one arrives (at that point the senior
command positions. Leaders move normally using their leader takes over and the subordinate returns to his old
own MA. As non-combat units, they do not count for position which might involve the removal of a generic
stacking and have no formation, or Facing. Leaders are not replacement leader).
required to stack with any unit. They can be in a hex by Promotions can open vacancies in lower leadership
themselves. positions. Fill those slots in the same way as a loss
Printed on their counters are two different ratings. working from the top down.
The left one is the “Command Value” and the right one i s At the brigade level, all replacement leaders are
the “Morale Value.” The value needed for a given function represented by generic leader counters labeled “Repl.”
is specified on the table used. When a brigade leader is promoted to fill a higher
position, leave that leader where he is and put a Repl

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22

leader in the hex as well. When a brigade leader is lost, flip because one of the qualifications for this status is the
the counter over to the Repl side and place it with any of rank needed to get infantry commanders to pay attention.
that brigade’s combat units in another hex. A captain just doesn’t have that kind of horsepower. Only
If there is no other hex containing a combat unit of those Artillery Leaders that have an actual Artillery
his brigade, place the Repl leader back in the original hex Battalion organization in the game even have this sort o f
after making any required Morale Check from the combat Repl. If the Artillery Leader is a “floater” without any
that generated the loss, if any. formal Artillery Battalion to command, he is not replaced
Except for the last case above, do all leader at all if lost and the player must make do without any
promotions the moment they happen. leader filling his shoes.
Once in play, a Repl leader is subject to the same
loss possibilities as any other leader. Should a Repl 9.1d If all the combat units in a leader(s)’s hex are
become a casualty or get captured, simply replace the Repl destroyed by Combat and/or Morale results, displace the
with another (using the same counter) following the rules leader(s) to any other hex of his (their) organization. If
above. there is none, remove the leader(s) from play. If the above
occurs during a Charge, roll for the capture of the leader(s)
Design Note: All leaders, except the Army Commander, before doing any displacement.
have a Repl leader on the reverse side. Some Repl
counters have a brigade designation on them to clarify 9.1e Surrounded Leaders. If one or more leaders find
the chain of command. Others list the word “Any” so they themselves entrapped by enemy units and/or EZOCs alone
can be used where needed. in their hex, the leaders can “escape” to be placed on any
stack of their organization. In this case, if the enemy does
9.1c Artillery Leaders. Some leaders (especially those not enter their hex(es), self-inflict a Capture Roll on each
of Artillery Battalions and some other officers with leader and if a No Effect occurs, that leader successfully
extensive artillery experience) are designated “Artillery escapes. Place the leader with any stack of his
Leaders” by their counter’s “Crossed Cannon” symbol. organization.
Each of these is a normal leader in every way, except:
• He allows access to the Artillery Range shift with 9.2 Headquarters (HQs)
an Artillery Leader column for all artillery batteries of his HQs serve to locate the center of operations of
Command which are at or within 2 hexes (not MPs) of his various formations (to keep their combat units from
location (after the leader has finished his movement for drifting about willy-nilly). HQs also identify the
the phase). Command structure and serve several game functions. All
combat units must be associated with some HQ.
The Artillery Leader reduces the effect of longer ranges
on those guns as their fire is better coordinated and
controlled. Commands
“Command” refers to the combination of a leader
• He can “Post” any battery of his Command outside and HQ, plus all the subordinate leaders and units under
of Command Radius. To do so, the leader must be stacked their control. The highest level is the Army Commander.
with the battery in the Command Phase. Jot down the hex Under him are all the subordinate Commands that make u p
to which the battery is to go. The battery must then go t o his army. A corps consists of a corps leader, corps HQ, and
that hex and unlimber. If it later limbers (which the all the units of that corps. Divisions and brigades
owning player can do freely in any of his Activity Phases), belonging to a corps and not part of a Lower Command
it must move to be back within normal Command Radius (10.1) do not have their own HQ; their corps HQ governs
unless it is “posted” someplace else or it is going t o them. Any lower unit not assigned to a corps must have an
replenish its ammunition. Batteries that do leave a posted HQ to identify it as a separate Command.
hex to replenish ammunition are free to return to that hex
(and their original posted status) or go back to normal Movement
Command Radius, as the player desires. HQs move like leaders. As non-combat units, they
A leader can only post one battery per turn, even if do not count for stacking, have no formations, or Facing.
he is stacked with more than one. There is no “Acceptance HQs cannot move unless the Command they represent has
procedure” for posting; it happens automatically. an order requiring it.
Batteries unlimbered within Command Radius are Once an HQ is in position it is literally “bolted t o
considered to be “posted” such that if the Command the ground” in that hex and cannot voluntarily move. HQs
moves elsewhere, the player can leave all or some of them can move along freely during the execution of an order
in position, if he so desires. that requires movement—but are again bolted to the
ground when that order is completed. A “bolted HQ”
• He (or his non-Artillery leader replacement) apply means the center of the Command Radius for that
a modifier to their Initiative roll for his own Artillery Command will not move—combat units and leaders are
Command. able to move and/or fight around that point (given other
restrictions) and are not “bolted” themselves.
Design Note: Artillery Leaders typically have a 9.2a HQs without Units. Some HQs (such as the Army
replacement that is not an Artillery Leader. This i s HQ or ‘higher Command’ corps HQs) have no leaders or

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23

units that trace Command Radius directly to them. These down the chain of command—from a brigade leader to his
HQs can be moved to a new location whenever their units, or from a higher leader or HQ to the next lower
commander starts the turn in their hex. Jot down the leader or HQ. Impassable terrain, enemy units, and EZOCs,
desired destination hex in the Command Phase and begin block Command Radius. Friendly units negate EZOCs
the HQ’s movement that turn. There is no Acceptance die for this purpose.
roll or effect on any regular order the commander might Note the difference between the handling of Town
wish to issue that turn. hexes for Command Radius purposes and that for unit
movement. For Command Radius purposes, ignore the
Combat Cornering rule. See 1.7g
HQs have no combat ability, are not affected b y
9.3f Check for Command Radius immediately prior
morale, and cannot be destroyed by combat. Firing at an
to moving a unit or stack and at the moment an initial
HQ has no effect. When stacked with units that retreat, the
Charge is announced. If found to be in Command Radius
HQ retreats with them. If enemy combat units enter a hex
at that moment a unit is free to move as desired and 9.3g
containing an HQ but no friendly combat units, displace
does not apply.
the HQ to the hex with the nearest combat unit of its
9.3g Units not in Command Radius at the moment
they begin moving must move to re-establish it—they
9.2b When an HQ is forced to displace or retreat, its
move normally once it is—but must choose to do a Move
entire Command must execute a Skedaddle (10.9) starting
Activity and cannot Charge while still outside of it.
in the next friendly Activity Phase.
Combat units found to be in an EZOC and out of
Command Radius must wait until they exit the EZOC
9.3 Command Radius otherwise (see 3.4) before they can attempt to move back
Controlling large combat formations is very difficult. In into Command Radius; they are stuck. Artillery can limber
the 19th century, communication limitations forced (and be hammered by the Gun Loss Table) to escape an
leaders to stay in close proximity to their troops. EZOC in such a situation.
Combat units stuck in an EZOC in such a situation
9.3a Command Radius is the maximum allowed can conduct a Fire Activity (an exception to the above).
distance between leaders, HQs, and their units. All units
are required to be within the appropriate Command 9.3h Command Radius Distances. Command Radius
Radius. Exceptions are noted in 9.3d. from a corps HQ to a division leader is 12 MPs. Only the
leader must be within this Command Radius, not the
9.3b Command Radius begins at the Command HQ. division’s units.
From there it branches like a tree all the way down to the Command Radius from a division leader to a brigade
actual combat units. leader is 8 MPs. Likewise, only the leader must be within
this Command Radius, not the brigade’s units.
<<Illustration of Command Radius, showing all combos Command Radius from a brigade leader to his units
of leaders, command HQs, and levels>> is 6 MPs.
Note that when lower units form their own
9.3c Command HQs do not need a “higher” HQ t o Commands (such as a division with its own HQ), use the
trace Command Radius to—they are controlled by their distance appropriate to its level and use the HQ instead of
orders (Exception: see 10.7f). the leader for the highest-level distance measurements.

9.3d Leaders in charge of Commands (or the Army <<Illustration of command radius in bubble form>>
Commander) are exempt from Command Radius. Leaders
that actually mark a Command Radius center (such as Design Note: Situations may arise where a leader or his
most all brigade and many divisional commanders) are units get cut-off by the enemy or terrain. Cut-off units
constrained by the Command Radius that links through must attempt to move back into Command Radius as best
them to their units or subordinates. Wagons are exempt they can. In situations where some units are not cut-off,
from Command Radius requirements, but cannot move but the leader himself is cut-off, allow Command Radius
without the required orders (8.1c). Artillery batteries can to be traced (temporarily) from the next higher leader o r
ignore Command Radius when going to replenish HQ directly to those units that can be reached. This
ammunition or after having been “posted” (9.1c). exception exists in order to avoid having units that are
nominally within Command Radius to be forced to move
Play Note: Regarding artillery batteries going toward a leader who is cut-off.
somewhere to replenish ammunition. It is acceptable t o
move batteries to a safe location to be ready to reload 9.3i Artillery. Artillery batteries measure Command
and await the arrival of ammunition supplies or just sit Radius from the leader or HQ to which they are assigned.
out of the way if none is forthcoming. All of this can be This could be by using the special Artillery HQ Command
done out of Command Radius and without any sort of Radius distance (4 MPs) if they belong to an actual
order. Artillery Battalion with its own HQ.
9.3e Command Radius is counted using leader
Movement Points. Always calculate Command Radius 9.4 Loss Recovery

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24

Included in a unit’s losses are men who are separated Design Note: Essentially, a brigade will be good for one
from their units because of confusion, those who helped major action (after which it has shot its bolt as a n
wounded men, some who were just unable to keep up with offensive force). If players want to keep their brigades a s
the unit, lightly wounded, and finally those actively “forces in being” for later in a battle, they must manage
shirking their duty. In many of these cases, the men will losses (both in quantity and distribution) very carefully.
rejoin their regiments as quickly as they can—they are
not trying to avoid their duty. Play Note: Admittedly, this process takes some effort, but
only needs to be done once per game day… plus everyone
Loss Recovery gives infantry and cavalry brigades a likes to get strength back. An easy way to avoid making
chance to rebuild their strength and could allow mistakes is to make a quick list of all your brigades that
eliminated infantry and cavalry units to return to play. (If qualify for recovery. Go through each brigade and total
there are non-brigaded infantry and cavalry units, treat the number of losses by comparing the unit’s printed and
each unit as its own independent brigade-group.) current strengths. Don’t forget to count units in the dead
pile. Jot this down next to the brigade’s designation.
Artillery batteries never execute (or benefit from) Once all brigade losses have been determined, divide the
Loss Recovery. losses by 4 and truncate the fractions. Write that number
next to the loss value. After determining the recovered SPs
Loss Recovery only occurs during the Rally Phase at for each brigade, go back to the brigade and assign them
midnight. It will not occur in games or scenarios where to the regiments you choose (yes, this means you’ll
there is no midnight turn. gravitate toward the best regiments in the
brigade—that’s expected). Once all SPs are assigned and
To recover losses… strengths adjusted, move on to the next brigade until you
are done.
1) A brigade must have at least one loss t o
2 ) Each “living” combat unit must be 9.5 Open Order & Sharpshooters
within normal Command Radius, and “Open Order” is defined here as those combat units
3) The Command controlling the brigade proficient in dispersed tactics. Likewise “Sharpshooter”
cannot be executing any order at this only refers to units not only proficient in dispersed
moment, nor can it accept any new tactics but also well selected and trained as marksmen. It
orders before dawn. The need for Attack does not include the many self-titled “sharpshooter”
Recovery does not affect Loss units who had neither special training nor tactical skills.
9.5a Identification and Basic Handling. Open Order
9.4a Each eligible brigade can recover 25% of its unit counters show a “bugle” in the place of the usual
current infantry and/or cavalry losses (which includes its “battle-line.” Sharpshooters (a special class of Open Order
“dead” units). Drop all fractions. Distribute the returning unit, 9.5g) show a “rifle” instead.
steps as desired within the brigade. These units follow normal Facing rules and always
use the Open Order column of the Terrain Effects Chart for
Example: A brigade has sustained 7 losses. It would movement. They can never Charge as the attacker, or
recover 1 SP (1.75 with fraction dropped to be 1). “jump” an HQ to force it to displace (creating a Skedaddle)
Another brigade has lost 16 SPs, it would have 4 SPs t o or become Blood Lusted. Optional rule 12.5 never applies
recover. to them.

9.4b No unit can exceed its printed strength due to 9.5b Open Order Capability. Open Order units are
the Loss Recovery. “Open Order Capable” only if they are not stacked with
any combat unit (even other Open Order units) and are not
9.4c If a brigade-group is mixed (both infantry and DG or Routed.
cavalry), then compute the returning SPs for each type “Open Order Capability” is a basic requirement for
separately and they must be applied to the same type of the special abilities below. If an Open Order unit is not
unit. In other words, cavalry only reacquires SPs from currently “Open Order Capable,” then they cannot use
cavalry and infantry only reacquires SPs from infantry. these abilities.

9.4d Place eliminated combat units returning to play 9.5c Facing. Open Order Capable units do not pay
in any hex that is both in Command Radius and at least 4 the +1 MP cost to change Facing.
hexes from any enemy combat unit. If this is not possible,
then that unit cannot recover losses. If their leaders have 9.5d Combat & Morale. Open Order Capable units
been removed (because all their combat units have been apply the various Open Order modifiers.
eliminated), use the next higher Command Radius for this
determination. 9.5e Tactical Flexibility. Open Order Capable units
Removed leaders, who were not Wounded or Killed, enjoy several special abilities. Each can happen multiple
return with the first eliminated combat unit of their times in a single turn.
formation that recovers an SP.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25

1) They can exit EZOCs freely provided the hex “real units”) by expending 1 SP per EZOC producing hex.
being entered is n o t adjacent to any enemy There is no effect on the Open Order units, but this allows
combat unit. However, there is nothing about the “real unit” to move out of the at-start EZOC(s) as if
this case that frees an Open Order unit from the they were not there.
step loss in 6.3e because of an actual Retreat into
an EZOC. Design Note: In simplified form, this represents the
2) If any fire is declared against their hex that sending out of a company or two to get rid of the local
would require an Opening Volley (including a pests with the losses coming from an abbreviated (and
Charge), before doing the Opening Volley, they very effective) Opening Volley the player need not
must withdraw two hexes and the fire/Charge actually roll. Obviously, this is a devil’s choice… one the
does not occur. This withdrawal is not player would only choose when it was very important to
considered a “retreat” for Retreat into EZOC regain freedom of action.
purposes (6.3e). The Active player’s moving
stack must cease movement at that point (even if
MPs remain) and it cannot switch to another
9.6 Breastworks
target; it is done for the phase. Contrary to common belief, field fortifications were a
3) Artillery can fire through Open Order Capable feature of Civil War battlefields from the very beginning.
units even if they are adjacent to the target. (This McClellan’s advance up the Peninsula in 1862, for
rule does not allow Canister fires through their example, was a matter of constant digging. What
hex.) developed during the war was a readiness of the troops
4) In exception to 10.7b, they can function as to dig in enthusiastically when asked and the
desired as long as they are within Command commander’s acceptance of the reduction in offensive
Radius. potential involved.

Important Note: Nothing about the freedom of Open For much of the war, building fortifications was
Order units implies they can violate the normal rules something the troops did before or after an engagement,
regarding Command Radius. Also, remember that but not during it. Exceptions to this were found a t
Command Radius cannot enter an unnegated EZOC hex. Chancellorsville and the “between days” preparations a t
Gettysburg. True fortified “mobile” operations would
9.5f Closing Roll. Open Order Capable units not begin in earnest until Spottsylvania. Even at the
Wilderness in 1864, efforts were haphazard.
automatically pass their Closing Roll to move adjacent t o
enemy combat units.
9.6a Construction. Breastworks can be built only at
9.5g Sharpshooters. A special class of Open Order night. If all conditions have been met, the markers are
flipped from their “Under Construction” side to their
unit, these are specially trained marksmen. No unit is a
“Breastwork” side on the first morning Twilight turn.
Sharpshooter simply because it has “sharpshooter” in its
While building them, a Command cannot accept any
name. They are marked with a rifle symbol (identifying
orders. Combat units building these breastworks cannot
them as Sharpshooters and Open Order).
move during the night, but can recover losses normally
(an exception to the “no orders” provision of Loss
Apply all the Open Order rules to Sharpshooters plus the
Recovery). Breastworks can be built in any terrain.
9.6b Orders to Build Breastworks. For a Command t o
1) If Sharpshooters perform a Fire combat use the
special modifier on the Leader Loss Table. begin building Breastworks, it must accept an order to d o
2) Sharpshooters use the Sharpshooter Small Arms so from the Army Commander. The Construction order can
Range shifts on the Combat Column Shifts only tell the Command to build Breastworks and applies
portion of the Combat Table. the modifier on the Acceptance Table. The order must be
accepted before Midnight on the night the work is to be
Each of these special abilities is lost if the done. Once Accepted, the Command’s combat units can
Sharpshooter is stacked with any combat unit, even move on that turn normally, but cannot move thereafter.
another Sharpshooter or Open Order unit. 9.5b applies to Place a Breastworks marker (“Under Construction” side
Sharpshooter abilities as well. up), with the desired Facing, on each building stack when
this final move ends. All, or some, of the Command’s
Play Note: Open Order units are capable of some fancy stacks can build Breastworks as the player desires. Once
established, the Breastwork Facing cannot be changed.
footwork because of their tactical flexibility and relative
Combat units of the Command that are not in hexes
immunity to Fire combat and Charges. This may seem
building Breastworks are also unable to move during
excessive at first, but it accurately reflects the quality o f
these units. Have fun with them, they are rare and special.
Design Note: Obviously, in many cases the real orders t o
9.5h Brushing Them Off. At times, a non-Open Order
build Breastworks came from junior leader initiative, but
Capable unit (a “real unit” if you will) might find itself
that allows more freedom than I want the player to have.
locked in with EZOCs from Open Order Capable units. It
This is an intentional abstraction.
can break free of those EZOCs (but not those from other

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26

9.6c Closing, Facing, and Breastworks. Combat units Note that “Command” here denotes a “formation with
suffer a modifier if they attempt to close with the enemy its own HQ,” it does not mean “to give orders.” It is a n
from a Breastworks hex. All units in a Breastwork must object, not an instruction.
have the Breastwork’s Facing and that Facing cannot be
changed. A Command is a given set of units and leaders plus
its own HQ. Controlling the movement of the HQ is the
9.6d Breastwork Markers and Friendly Units. Once purpose of the orders system (moving it here and there
created, Breastworks exist as a terrain feature for any and with enemy interactions). Commands range from Artillery
all friendly combat units (including those from different Battalions all the way up to a Corps of multiple
Commands). The markers never disappear or change divisions. A Command sometimes has additional, lower,
Facing for the rest of the game. You cannot “build them Commands within it.
again” to change their Facing, so set them carefully the Orders control the movement of the Command’s HQ.
first time! A Command’s units can fight and/or move pretty much as
desired as long as they stay within Command Radius
9.6e Breastwork Markers and Enemy Units. Friendly (9.3) of the HQ.
Breastworks do not exist (for any purpose or modifier) for
enemy combat units (even if they happen t o The player can “create” his own Commands b y
work—Facing-wise—for them). Enemy units are not ordering portions of existing Commands off on specific
forced to conform to their Facing. missions (10.11). Some games restrict or preclude this
ability. In any event, be careful as doing so can easily
create an army you can no longer control.
10.0 Command & Control
These rules strive to be realistic, but not overwhelming. Some Commands are listed as “attached” to another
They embody simple concepts that give players a sense o f “higher” Command. A Command belongs to a higher
what it was like to command on the battlefield. The Command if the name of a higher Command is printed o n
orders you give determine what your forces do and when. its HQ counter. If there is no such designation on the
HQ’s counter, the Command is not a lower Command at
The basic idea is that while you know what you’d like t o all.
do, you won’t be able to do it as quickly as you want. Lower Commands are not required to remain in their
This makes it difficult to take advantage of fleeting higher Command’s Command Radius, but have an
opportunities. Once you do have your army in motion, i t additional rule constraining them if they are not within
won’t fight to the last man to get the job done. Getting i t Command Radius (10.7f).
to change direction once moving will prove difficult and If the lower Command’s parent organization i s
inefficient. issued an order, that order must (in an exception to 10.2c)
include instructions for all the lower Commands
In general, the order system works as follows: The assigned to that parent. You do not need to write any
Army Commander (i.e. the player) issues orders t o instructions for lower Commands which are not
instruct the army’s units (in their “Commands,” see 10.1) participating in the new operation. They merely remain i n
as to what to do, be it movement or attack; no order i s place.
needed to sit in place and defend. These orders can be These “lower Command orders” embedded into the
whatever the player wants, and he records them on a higher Command’s order need only instruct the lower
notebook paper Order Log. They are then sent to his Commands as to their role in the operation and where
Commands or given directly to another leader if he is i n they are to execute it. It is assumed that their route to the
the same hex as the Army Commander. When a new order operation is the same as delineated in the higher
arrives, check for its Acceptance by the recipient. The Command’s orders unless explicitly stated otherwise i n
order will be found to go into Delay (which will be a time it.
period before the order can be followed) or be thrown Lower Command orders come into force when the
away (Distorted). Once the order is actually accepted, the main order is accepted. Acceptance here is handled in one
Command must act on an order in good faith, even if the of two ways, given the location of the lower Command
situation has changed. (which could be in or out of the higher HQ’s Command
Basically, an order will instruct a Command t o Radius), see 10.7f.
advance and capture an objective OR to move to a
specific terrain feature or hex. Commands that have n o E x a m p l e : If a corps whose divisions are lower
accepted orders are “defending.” Commands gets an order those divisions will need their
own instructions within that order. Furthermore, i f
10.1 Commands those divisions also have “lower Command” artillery
“Commands” are the working “blocks” of the army battalions, these, too, will need instructions as to what
as seen by the Army Commander. Literally, from the to do in the corps order. The need to have specific
commander’s (player’s) viewpoint, his options pretty instructions applies to any “lower Command” that is t o
much boil down to ordering Commands to move or fight. participate in the operation. This is the player’s battle
How he uses his Commands is his battle plan. plan—take the time needed to make sure the parts make
sense, General!

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27

This can get fairly involved in a large complex “Move to B13.24 and establish a defensive position
organization. Big orders for complex operations will along the creek and secure the bridge”
take some planning and thought. They aren’t something
you should (or would want to) throw together a bunch o f …effectively say the same thing, but with more “color”
times in one day! The idea is to give you a taste and in the latter.
better appreciation of the complexity involved i n
running an army. Enjoy! The player is free to use as much or as little
elaboration as desired to add to his game play. Orders
<<Example Order: Longstreet’s Attack on the 2nd Day of provided in scenarios typically carry with them the
Gettysburg, with all sub-parts>> elaboration needed to bring out the historical events.
Follow the elaboration to the best of your abilities.
It is important to note that once a Command has its Avoid parsing them legally. Follow them to the best of
orders, you do not literally disseminate them within i t your ability the way you’d expect the real commanders
(see also 10.7f for lower Commands that are out of would have.
Command Radius of their higher Command’s HQ).

Example: Once a corps accepts an order you sent to it,

10.3 Order Types
the corps is ready to go and do whatever it was told. There are two types of orders: Attack and Move. In
There is no need to resend the order to the divisional the broadest sense, an Attack order instructs your troops
commanders and so on (all that occurs below the game’s to move to some location and seize terrain from the
resolution level). enemy. A Move order merely moves a Command to some
new location.
Scenario orders are listed as “Attack” if they are
10.2 Orders Attack orders. Those without such a designation are
Orders are the instructions to a Command telling it what automatically Move orders. Move Order type (Long or
to do. An order’s wording conveys both meaning and Short, see 10.3b) can be easily determined by the
intent. They exist in a society steeped in notions of duty, movement distance the order requires counting from the
honor, and glory. They must be followed as originally Entry Hex.
intended, even though circumstances might have
changed. That’s a big part of the fun in using them! 10.3a Attack orders are required for offensive
operations (those involving actual assaults on the
10.2a Orders must be clearly written so they are enemy).
easy to interpret and understand. An order’s content
should be as detailed—or as brief—as needed to convey 10.3b Move orders are divided into two sub-types
its intent and purpose (see also 10.2d). based on the order’s required movement distance.
• Short Move orders (10.3d) require a Command’s
10.2b Each order must give a precise objective and a HQ to move 16 hexes or less.
route of advance. Only one objective can be given in one • Long Move orders (10.3c) require an HQ to move
order. This can be in the form that orders an attack along 17 hexes or more.
an axis of advance (such as a road) to get to some specific The sub-types are automatic based on the raw
deep location. Open-ended orders such as “Attack west!” distance. Regardless of sub-type, these are both just
are not allowed; they are too broad and vague. The Move orders for Acceptance purposes.
“objective” of a Move order would be its destination, An order to an Artillery Battalion (10.12) moving i t
which in turn would be the hex the HQ is to move into. to some location to provide fire support for an attack, i s
a legal Move order.
10.2c An order can only contain instructions for For 10.3, Infantry is any unit with a Column
one Command. Exception: A single order can give formation on one side of the counter. Open Order units,
instructions to both a Command and any lower mounted infantry, and (obviously) all artillery and
Command(s) it owns (see 10.1 & 10.7f). cavalry are not Infantry for this rule. (This is the same
definition applied to 10.8g regarding the skipping of
Example: You cannot issue an order to one corps with Fluke Rolls).
instructions for another corps. That would require two
orders. 10.3c Long Move Orders. These are Move orders that
require the Command’s HQ to move 17 or more hexes. All
10.2d Order Details and Elaboration. Orders can carry Infantry must be in Column and form a “conga line”
as much “elaboration” as the player desires. without breaks (as described in 12.5a, even if the
optional rule itself is not being used—if that’s the case,
Both … simply form an unbroken “column” of units in Column
without applying the additional requirements of 12.5).
“Move to B13.24” They must remain in this column (on or off actual roads)
until they deploy.
and A Command following a Long Move order can only
deploy if one of three events occur:
1) The Command reaches its intended Objective.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28

2) The Command begins acting on new orders that receiving HQ by 14 and round any fraction up. The result
do not require the application of 10.3c. is the number of turns until it arrives. Orders arrive at
3 ) The Command’s leader obtains Initiative t o their destination and check for Acceptance in the
deploy. Command Phase.
Once the column deploys, the Long Move order
ends. 10.4c Issuing Orders in His Hex. The Army
Commander can also issue an (In Person) order to another
10.3d Short Move Orders. These are Move orders that leader provided they are stacked together during the
require the Command’s HQ to move 16 or fewer hexes. Command Phase. Check these orders for Acceptance the
These orders do not carry the formation requirements of same Command Phase they are issued.
10.3c (move any way you like), however, units under The Army Commander can issue one order to only
these orders cannot move adjacent to any enemy combat one leader at a time—even if there are others in the hex.
The player can end these orders at any time during 10.5 The Order Log
the movement. Once he does so, the Command can defend
its current location normally (i.e. its units can move Orders are recorded in an Order Log (lined notebook
adjacent to enemy units so as to preserve its current paper). The Order Log reminds the player when to check
frontline). an order for Acceptance and lists the information below.

10.4 The Army Commander and Order Each order must record:
The Army Commander is the source of most orders. He 1) The time it was issued (so as to track the Army
can do this in two ways: Commander’s Order Limit)
2) The time the order will arrive at its destination
1 ) Send orders from his hex to any of the 3) The sending leader’s name and rating
subordinate HQs. 4) The receiving leader’s name and rating
2) Give an order to another leader In Person. 5) Whether the order is Attack or Move (Long or
Short) type
Lower ranking leaders can create their own orders (for 6) If the order was given “In Person” (10.4c)
themselves or their subordinates) using Initiative, see 7) The actual order text
10.10. 8) Instructions to any “lower Commands”
9) Conditions, if any (10.7d)
10) When it is determined, the order’s Acceptance or
1 0 . 4 a Order Limits & Frequency. The Army
Delay status
Commander can issue only one order (of either type) at a
time and can make only one Frequency attempt per turn. <<example order log entry with example order>>
Each turn the player wants his Army Commander t o
issue an order, he rolls one die on the Order Frequency
Table in the Order Issue Segment. If the roll succeeds, he
10.6 Acceptance
can issue one order. If he fails, he can try again the next 10.6a Order Acceptance. Acceptance measures how
turn but cannot issue any order right now. quickly a leader reacts to new orders. Whenever an order i s
To apply either (or both) –1 modifiers, the Army received (see also 10.7d), and the Command’s leader i s
Commander must meet the conditions for the preceding within Command Radius of his HQ, check it for
hour (a roll at 9:15 would require them to be fulfilled o n Acceptance in the Command Phase. If the leader is
9:00, 8:45, 8:30 and 8:15). elsewhere when an order arrives, do not check for
Acceptance until the leader moves back into his own HQ’s
Example: A 0-rated Army Commander (lucky you) wants Command Radius.
to issue an order. The player, realizing he cannot roll a 0 On the Acceptance Table, cross index the sending
has him stacked with his HQ and neither have moved i n and receiving Leader’s Command Values and determine
hours, but he did issue an order 45 minutes ago. He rolls what die roll modifiers apply. Roll one die, add any
one die and gets a 1 which is modified to 0 allowing him DRMs, and read the result. Record the result on the Order
to issue an order this turn. Log and follow the table’s instructions.

The Army Commander cannot use Initiative. If any unit of the Command has fired or been fired upon b y
Small Arms in the previous turn or has units in friendly
1 0 . 4 b Sending Orders Out of His Hex. The Army Breastworks, apply the Acceptance Table modifier.
Commander can issue orders via messenger to anywhere
on the map. These can be sent to any subordinate in play. Design Note: The above “slowness” of Acceptance when
Orders are sent to a Command HQ, not to its leader. involved in a firefight is important. Not only does i t
Compute the time until arrival using the Order Arrival show the Command in contact loses responsiveness, but
Formula on the Charts and Tables: Divide the leader it emphasizes the importance of “uncommitted”
Movement Points between the Army Commander and the Commands as army reserves in a fluid situation.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29

normally within the area they currently occupy, but may
10.6b Existing Orders. When a new order i s not advance (or expand) this area without new orders.
Accepted, it replaces any previously accepted order the Exception: Open Order units can operate anywhere
Command might have. An order that gets a Delay cancels within Command Radius as the player desires without
additional orders to do so.
any other order the Command has in Delay, but does not
affect its Accepted order, if any. Distorted results do not Design Note: When a Command does not have an order,
affect existing orders in any way (unless a Loose Cannon the current unit locations determine its forward lines.
result occurs). Units are free to move and fight within this area, but
Another order (with essentially the same cannot advance beyond it without new orders. Units that
instructions) cannot be issued again to a Command t o retreat from this forward line can attack to regain the
get a better Acceptance result. lost ground. Don’t be too rigid about this, a player can
move his units around within Command Radius provided
10.6c Delay. A Delay represents normal preparation he’s not trying to create a de facto Attack order.
time (as well as any foot-dragging) needed before acting
on an order. A Delayed order becomes Accepted b y 10.7c Attack Recovery. Once an Accepted Attack order
making a successful Delay Reduction roll. Roll one die; if ends (successfully or not), each division must achieve
the roll is equal to or greater than the number associated Attack Recovery before it can be issued any new Attack
with the Delay, the roll succeeds (the Delay ends and the order. Roll one die on the Attack Recovery Table each
order is Accepted). If he roll is not successful, repeat it i n Hour to determine if the attempt is successful (or not).
the next Delay Reduction Segment. Make one roll per such division per Hour turn until
successful in the friendly Command Phase.
All orders will get at least a one turn Delay. Divisions that suffer a Fluke Stoppage cannot begin
to roll for Attack Recovery until the next Hour turn after
10.6d Distortion. An order that is Distorted i s stoppage. Begin Attack Recovery the very next hour turn,
misunderstood by the receiving leader and thrown away. even if the attack ended at 45 minutes past the hour.
If the receiving leader is rated 0 or 1, it becomes a Loose Roll one die. If the modified roll is in the range of
Cannon result as well (see 10.6e). the Base Check, recovery is possible. If it is less than that
range, recovery is not possible.
10.6e Loose Cannon. Loose Cannons reflect poor If recovery is possible, roll another single die and
judgment and/or decisions. Whenever a Loose Cannon check it against the appropriate Leader Command Value
occurs, the opposing player writes a Short Move order for column to see if recovery occurs or not.
that Command or leader as the case may be. The Other than not being able to be issued Attack
Command/leader must then follow that order; it i s orders, there are no other effects for not yet having
already Accepted. Roll two dice after the order is written; successfully recovered from an attack. For example, such
this is the duration of the Loose Cannon order in turns divisions conduct Loss Recovery normally.
(counting the current turn as “one”). None of the leaders All divisions still attempting Attack Recovery
involved can get Initiative or apply 10.8a until this automatically Recover on the first daylight turn of the
period expires. next calendar day.
Once it has expired, the Loose Cannon Command A corps that has divisions still attempting Attack
needs to get new orders or Initiative to conduct a new Recovery can be issued new Attack orders, but those
mission. Note that Loose Cannon never creates a new orders only pertain to its recovered division(s). When
Command. If out of Command Radius after the Loose new divisions recover after such an order is issued, add
Cannon period out-of-radius units simply return them automatically to the order and they can participate
(sheepishly) to Command Radius without additional without additional delay.
orders. If a corps is still following its original orders t o
attack when one of its divisions successfully rolls for
10.6f Accepted. When the Delay ends, an order is Attack Recovery, that division can rejoin the corps attack
Accepted and the Command immediately starts to act on without additional orders. This provision only applies t o
the new orders. divisions that actually execute Attack Recovery.
Commands that take advantage of the Balky Command
10.7 Special Order Situations rule cannot do so.
10.7a Operations of Units within Command Radius.
Smaller than Division Commands and Attack Recovery.
Under any order, units function freely within Command
Radius, provided they follow the order’s intent and If a Command consists of something less than a division,
instructions. The Command’s HQ must follow the order’s roll for it separately for Attack Recovery as a “division”
movement path as given in the order. using the above rules.

10.7b No Orders. Any Command that does not have Balky Commands. In an exception to the normal
an Accepted order is automatically defending its local Attack Recovery rules, if a Command has been issued an
area. The Command’s HQ is “bolted to the ground” and Attack order and that order Flukes Out before any of its
cannot move. The Command’s units move and/or fight units has taken or given any Small Arms fires in that
attack, apply the following: Do not roll for Attack

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30

Recovery. The “fluked” division can be issued new <<include a diagram of Higher and Lower Command
Attack orders starting exactly one hour after the Fluke relationships in each game>>
Stoppage (i.e. stoppage occurs at 8:45, new orders can be
issued at 9:45). These orders can be given by Initiative. Example A: Lower Command HQ in Command Radius of
This can happen multiple times to a given division the Higher Command’s HQ. Here Hood’s Division is a
(the “pushing a wet noodle” effect). The player is free t o Command with a higher Command of 1st Corps. The Hood
forego this rule and execute regular Attack Recovery if HQ is within 1st Corps’ HQ’s Command Radius.
1st Corps accepts an order which in part instructs
10.7d Conditional Orders. While players cannot use Hood’s Division to move some 40 hexes (well out o f
the clock to ensure coordination (thereby applying 2 0th Command Radius of 1st Corps) to guard a flank
century staff procedures), the player can designate a approach route.
number of conditions to order starts.
Regardless of the condition, use the same Hood’s Division begins to follow those instructions a t
procedure. Once the condition occurs, the leader can then the moment the order itself is accepted.
attempt to accept the order—make no Acceptance Check
or “preliminary movements” before this occurs. Example B: Lower Command HQ outside Command
Radius of the Higher Command’s HQ. Once established
Allowed Conditions: in its out of Command Radius flank position by Example
A, the player wants to move Hood’s Division some
1) First Light (the first Twilight turn of the day). distance away in adjustment. If the player chooses to use
2) When another Command attacks. orders (rather than Initiative) to do this, he can proceed
3) Some time period (hour or half-hours only) in one of two ways.
after another Command attacks.
4) When another friendly Command reaches a First, he can have the Army Commander issue an order
specific location or takes a specific objective. directly to Hood’s Command to execute this movement.
This is handled like any order to a separate Command.
<<examples of conditions>>
Or he can choose to issue an order to 1st Corps which
10.7e Leader Losses and Orders. If a Command’s has in its body the instructions for Hood’s Division. Once
senior leader is lost, then any Attack order he has i s 1st Corps accepts these orders, the 1st Corps commander
automatically destroyed and the Command suffers Fluke must move to the Hood HQ’s hex starting that turn. Once
Stoppage (10.8c). In any other case (Move orders or he arrives there, the new orders for Hood become
subordinate commanders), the original orders proceed accepted in the first Command Phase where the higher
without interruption because of the loss. leader and Hood are in the Hood HQ’s hex. The higher
leader is free to leave that hex only on that turn, in the
10.7f Higher HQs: Command Radius & Orders. Some immediately following Activity Phase.
Command HQs list a “higher Command” at the bottom of
their counter (10.1). These “lower Commands” get orders 10.8 Ending Orders
as specific instructions in the orders issued to their higher Generally LoB uses “Natural Stoppage” to handle a
Command. This can only be done instantly if the lower Command’s success or the inability to continue to
Command HQ is in the higher Command HQ’s Command execute its orders.
Radius. Such orders can send the lower Command out of
Command Radius. See Example A below. Obviously, if you take your objective and have no further
If the lower HQ is beyond the higher HQs Command orders, your order ends and you defend that ground. If
Radius, you can do one of two things: the Army you fail to take the ground, an attack could cease if the
Commander can issue an order directly to the lower attacking force gets too ground up to be able to
Command or (after Acceptance of an order detailing continue or because of what I have styled “Fluke
instructions to the lower Command) the higher Stoppage.” This occurs as divisions decide “OK, that’s
Command’s leader must make an immediate trip (starting enough for me!” Players who tuck a division in the rear
that same turn) to the lower Command’s HQ. In that latter as a corps reserve will suddenly be much rewarded.
case, the order becomes accepted for the lower Command
in the first Command Phase the higher leader and lower A defense that holds on too long will find itself getting
leader are in the lower Command HQ’s hex. See Example B destroyed. The player must be aware of how far he can
below. push his people. There will come a point where staying
If the higher leader has more than one lower leader t o in place is foolish.
visit in order to distribute orders, the player determines i n
which order he wishes to do them. This process could also In the older system, Natural and Fluke Stoppage were
be repeated down the tree if a lower Command has its own combined into one. However, the old Stoppage Table had
subordinate Commands out of Command Radius (at which a very high loss threshold before it kicked in—so high
time it will be appropriate to question the player’s control that it amounted to the Command’s decimation. What
over his army!). was left was a small probability of randomly imposed

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31

stoppage which amounted to nothing more than a The units of a stopped division must move to the
lightning bolt of chance. rear where they cannot be fired upon by enemy Small
Arms fires. The exact number of hexes withdrawn is not
Here I have separated the two. Natural Stoppage will important, but the division must be in a more secure
behave, well, naturally and the player will take his location that cannot (at that moment) be fired upon b y
objectives or pay the price for going too far. Fluke Small Arms. Do this in the next available friendly
Stoppage throws in the chance that, even when things Activity Phase.
were going well, an attack may falter and stop. Between Once moved, these units default to the natural “no
the two of them, I was able to eliminate all paper record Accepted Orders, defensive status” and cannot advance
keeping of losses and wrecked units. into the vacated zone without new orders. The enemy can
approach these units without causing additional
10.8a Orders remain in effect until one of these withdrawals because of their earlier Fluke Stoppage
events happen. result.
The rest of the corps (if the stopped division is part
1) The Command fulfills its orders. For example, of a corps-level operation and other divisions have not
if ordered to attack a given terrain feature and suffered Fluke Stoppage) continues as before. The corps
the Command’s HQ now occupies the center o f will not stop its attack until all divisions have stopped.
that feature, the attack stops and the Command If the corps HQ continues to advance, divisions that have
defends its new location. “fluked out” can follow along to stay in Command
2) A new order is Accepted Radius, but should continue to stay out of any areas
3) A Skedaddle occurs. (10.9) subject to enemy Small Arms fires while they attempt
4 ) A Fluke Stoppage occurs to all sub-units Attack Recovery (should they succeed before the corps
(10.8c) itself stops, they can rejoin the attack without delay).
5 ) The player chooses to end an attack he now
considers futile. A distinction here i s Scenario Start Grace Period: Make no Fluke Stoppage
important—he must consider the attack as Rolls in the first 8 turns (2 hours) of any scenario, unless
unable to achieve its objective, not that the the scenario specifically states otherwise.
objective is no longer worthwhile or fitting
with the situation. Apply 10.8c in this case. Design Note: Obviously a short scenario would explode
6 ) A Command following a Long Move order if the attacking units Fluked out too soon. Even a larger
deploys. one could end up radically changing balance. Once the
7) The player decides to end a Short Move order. ball is well underway, any odd Fluke Stoppage can be
chalked up to the friction of war.
In the event of a Command fulfilling its orders, its
units are allowed to back out of EZOCs to ‘break contact’ 10.8d Reserve Modifier. A division has “reserves” for
(yes, this allows movement into rear hexsides briefly) purposes of the Fluke Stoppage Table modifier if all of
and establish a more secure defensive line. If this is done, the following is true:
the ability of that Command to attack without orders i s
limited to the new (not original) perimeter. 1) A formation used as a reserve does not contain
any Wrecked or Destroyed regiments.
10.8b Natural Stoppage. The player need not d o 2) All reserve formation units cannot be fired upon
anything regarding this: It will just happen to him. by any enemy unit at or within 3 hexes at the
Combat units will be unable to close (killing the ability moment of the Fluke Stoppage check.
to attack powerfully) or will bolt from positions he needs 3) Cavalry brigades and regiments cannot be used
to hold (leading to the collapse of a defense). as a reserve for an infantry division.
4) A division of three or more brigades must have
10.8c Fluke Stoppage. Each turn each division one complete brigade as its reserve to qualify.
following an Attack order must make a Fluke Stoppage If the division has less than 3 brigades, then i t
check, unless allowed to skip the roll because of 10.8g. must have at least one full-strength regiment as
Roll two dice on the Fluke Stoppage Table its reserve.
applying any applicable modifiers. If the roll passes the
Base Check, there is no chance of Fluke Stoppage that There is no procedure for assigning or releasing
turn (and no Leader Roll is needed). If the roll fails the “reserves” for purposes of this modifier. They either exist
Base Check, then roll two dice and compare to the ranges (or don’t) at the moment of the check.
shown in the divisional Leader’s Command Value’s
column. The result will be either stoppage or no effect 10.8e Separate Brigade Operations. If a brigade i s
(the attack continues). given its own Attack order, then it will check for Fluke
Stoppage itself. Use the procedure in 10.8c, rolling with
When a stoppage occurs, the division must the brigade leader instead. A separate brigade
successfully conduct Attack Recovery (10.7c) before it automatically falls under the “division” of “less than 3
can be ordered to attack again. (Exception: see Balky brigades” provision of 10.8d, part 3.
Commands, 10.7c.)

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32

10.8f Units Assigned Directly to a Corps. Units During a Skedaddle, units can exit EZOCs freely and
attached directly to a corps and not part of any division, can enter them (with the step loss as would happen in a
suffer Fluke Stoppage only when the corps order itself retreat) provided the movement allows further retreat.
stops because all the divisions have done so.
Facing change costs and restrictions on the direction of
Example: Say a corps of three divisions and a cavalry movement (frontal hexsides only for some formations)
regiment (which is directly assigned to the corps) i s apply in a Skedaddle normally.
attacking. When all three divisions suffer Fluke
Stoppage, the corps order ends and the attack of the Wagons can move (without separate orders) t o
cavalry regiment ends as well. However, the cavalry will follow their Command’s Skedaddle.
continue to attack as long as at least one of the
divisions is still going. 10.9a Army HQ. The Army HQ can declare a
Skedaddle like any other HQ. Its retreat distance is the
10.8g Skipping Fluke Rolls. A division that had all same as a Corps HQ (12 to 24 hexes). There is no effect o n
its Infantry (see below) in Column and those units subordinate units. It is just embarrassing.
moved no more than 1/2 their Movement Allowance i n
the previous turn can forego the current turn’s Fluke 10.9b Ending a Skedaddle. A Skedaddle ends when
Stoppage roll. all of a Command’s units are within 1/2 of normal
A can skip rolls for any number of turns provided it Command Radius. So, to end a Skedaddle, units are only
maintains the conditions above. in Command Radius if they are at or within half the
Such a division can deploy (and cease to meet the normal Radius in MPs. Once the Skedaddle ends
requirements) at any time, but once it does so, it cannot (presumably in the Activity Phase the last unit moves
return to skipping rolls again in that attack. into this restricted Command Radius), the Command’s
For this rule, Infantry is any unit with a Column units begin to function normally. See also 10.9d.
formation on one side of the counter. Open Order units,
mounted infantry, and (obviously) all artillery and 10.9c Skedaddles and Orders. When a Skedaddle
cavalry are not Infantry for this rule. occurs, the Command’s orders (Accepted and/or in Delay)
are cancelled. Until the Skedaddle ends, the Command
cannot attempt to accept any orders. If orders arrive
10.9 Skedaddle during the Skedaddle, they await its end before checking
“Skedaddle” (soldier’s slang for “running away”) is used for Acceptance.
to move Commands out of harm’s way.
10.9d Trapped Units. It is possible that a Skedaddle
A Command can Skedaddle by choice or because the
might not be able to fulfill the conditions of 10.9b
enemy forced it to happen. In either case, a Skedaddle is a
because one or more units simply cannot work their way
controlled event (not a rout).
back to the needed Command Radius. This may be the
A Skedaddle can be declared by the player in his
case because of enemy units or terrain. In this case, the
Activity Phase, but units that have already moved cannot
player has a choice: Allow the Skedaddle to last until
participate during that phase.
such time as the enemy mops up the units (which he
A Skedaddle also occurs when enemy combat units
might choose to not do) OR take those units off the map
catch an HQ alone in a hex or if an HQ retreats from a
as dead units and free the Command. The player can make
result involving Small Arms fires or because other units
this choice on any turn after he discovers himself to be i n
force it to Displace. The actual Skedaddle begins in the
this situation.
owning player’s next Activity Phase.
Regardless of the Skedaddle’s cause, the execution
is the same. 10.10 Initiative
Initiative allows leaders to create their own orders.
Procedure: To get Initiative for a leader, roll two dice and check
First, place the HQ in any desired hex in the rear the column on the Initiative Table that matches the
between its Command Radius (in hexes) and up to 2 4 Leader’s Command Value. If the dice result is within the
hexes. So, a Corps HQ would be placed at least 12 hexes range shown on the “Allow a D1 Order” line, the attempt
and up to 24 hexes to some location in the rear the player succeeds and the leader gets the order (in a D1 status). A
selects. Ignoring all other concerns, pick up the HQ and leader winning Initiative can either create one D1 order
put it in that hex. for himself O R he can give a D1 order to one of his
Placement is unaffected by impassable terrain, subordinate leaders, (provided that leader is in Command
EZOCs, or enemy combat units. If the edge of the play Radius). The player must decide which of these he i s
area does not allow the needed retreat, place the HQ only doing before rolling the dice!
as far as it can go, there is no additional ill effect. If the result is No Effect, then nothing happens and
All other units of the Command must move to re- the leader can try again in a future turn.
enter Command Radius (if the HQ movement left them If, however, the result is Loose Cannon, the leader
out of it) and move out of any hexes subject to Small becomes a “Loose Cannon” (see 10.6e). If a leader i s
Arms fires. See 10.9b for the additional restrictions o n attempting Initiative in order to give a subordinate leader
Command Radius until the Skedaddle ends. Initiative, it is the subordinate who gets the Loose

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33

movement outside normal Command Radius. There is n o
Design Note: Initiative works best in its historical role, other reason to do so.
where leaders try to take advantage of a fleeting
opportunity or act to forestall disaster. Overuse o f 10.11a Only brigades and/or divisions currently i n
Initiative runs the risk of Loose Cannon, which can Command Radius can be turned into new Commands.
cause a disaster, so use Initiative sparingly and never a s Individual regiments cannot do this.
a substitute for the normal orders system. New Commands are only created from within a
single existing Command. It is not possible to create a
While it is not necessary to actually write an order new Command that involves sub-elements of more than
before each Initiative attempt, a player must decide what one existing Command.
he wants to do before rolling the dice.
10.11b To create a Command, the existing
Obviously, you can’t “fail” a D1 reduction roll (if you Command containing the desired element must Accept an
do, check your dice). D1 results merely insert a n order indicating the new Command and its orders. When
automatic one turn delay. that order is Accepted, the new Command comes into
existence instantly (place a generic Command HQ with
10.10a General Restrictions. Initiative cannot the leader of the new Command) and it begins to follow
activate an order in Delay or issue an order that is similar the orders. For example: If the player wants to send a
to an order in Delay. The Army Commander cannot use division out from its corps as its own Command, the
Initiative. Army Commander must send an order to that corps
Only one leader can attempt Initiative each turn for commander which establishes the new Command and
a single chain of command. explains what the division is supposed to do. Once the
corps commander accepts it, the new Command is created
Play Note: The limitation to only one leader per chain o f and goes about its orders.
command means you will want to roll at the highest level
that will get the job done. Rolling for a brigade leader 10.11c Any order can include instructions for
will block off the ability of his division and corps Command creation. When the order is Accepted, both the
commanders from getting Initiative that turn. parent Command and the newly created one have
Accepted orders. In this case, the instructions passed on
10.10b Permissible Initiative Orders. There are only a to the new Command must be of the same type (i.e. Attack
or Move) used for Acceptance.
few orders that can be given using Initiative.
10.11d The player can also write orders specifically
These are restricted to…
to create a new Command. Receiving and accepting such
1) Issue a Short Move order. (Long Move orders
an order does not affect the parent Command’s existing
must come from the Army Commander.)
orders, if it has any.
2) Modify an existing order as to route or timing,
but not objective.
Example: A corps conducting an attack could accept a n
3) Return a “player formed Command” back to its
order to send one division elsewhere while maintaining
parent’s Command Radius. (10.11f)
the corps’ attack. That division is no longer under the
4 ) Re-issue an Attack order that falls under the
corps’ orders, but follows the ones delineated in the
Balky Command rule. (10.7c)
order creating the new Command.
5 ) Deploy a Command following a Long Move
10.11e Recall. To return a Command to its original
parent, that leader must accept an order telling him to d o
Play Note: Experienced players will rapidly note that the
so. When that order is Accepted, the Command must
rule on using Initiative to create a new Command move to be within its old Command Radius. When it is,
(10.11f) and 10.10b are important new restrictions o n remove the generic HQ; that Command ceases to exist.
Initiative. No longer can some lower commander “just
decide” to run rings around the enemy army’s flank just 10.11f Initiative. A leader cannot use Initiative t o
because he feels the urge and has a good rating. He will
create a new Command. However, the new Command’s
be constrained by the chain of command above him.
leader c a n use Initiative to r e t u r n to his original
The above rule exists as a stop to excessive “freedom” o n
the part of leaders to ignore the Army Commander and
just go off in spite of the old man. It is much more 10.11g Disbanding Commands. Player created
realistic to keep units working with the army orders. Commands can be disbanded following the procedure i n
10.11e above. Commands that exist in the printed game
(not created by the player) cannot be disbanded.
10.11 Creating Commands
A player can issue orders to create new Commands Design Note: Game specific rules will place limits on the
from the sub-units of his existing Commands. A new number of Commands you are allowed to create. Take
Command exists for a specific operation that requires care to use this sparingly or you may find your army t o
be completely unmanageable!

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34

4. When a Corps, Division, or Brigade designation i s
Exceptions may be made to recreate the historical listed in the set up or Order of Arrival (1/1/1, F/H, 3 Corps,
orders. If so, units set up under those exceptions can etc), it refers to all units of that formation (including
continue to follow them without penalty. leaders).
5. The Confederate player turn is first.
10.12 Artillery Commands 6. Any Command that starts a scenario away from its
parent must set up with a generic HQ even if the HQ is not
Artillery batteries are sometimes organized into
listed in the set up (earlier CWR games did not apply the
their own Commands independent of any parent division
current definition of Command).
or corps assignment. These are called “Artillery
7. Each scenario lists the applicable historical
Battalions.” For example at Gettysburg, Dearing’s
orders. For existing series games THG (98), TTS, AFS and
Artillery Battalion controls the guns of Pickett’s
South Mountain, interpret these orders as follows:
Division. Artillery might be assigned directly to an
a) Any wording that indicates a Command already
infantry or cavalry formation or an Artillery Battalion.
on the map in the location specified is defending does not
Artillery Battalions might or might not be assigned t o
give the Command an accepted order. If it must move t o
some larger, infantry or cavalry, Command.
get there, then it has a Move order.
If not assigned to an actual Artillery Battalion,
b) Any order instructing units to join their
batteries act like any other part of whatever organization
Command, move to an HQ, or move to some location (with
to which they belong.
or without a requirement to “defend”) is a Move order.
Add a generic HQ for these units (if needed) and remove i t
When Artillery Battalions are shown as Commands, the
when they get into Command Radius to their normal
following rules apply:
Command. Generally, it is perfectly acceptable to skip this
Command HQ step if a set of units is merely following a
1) Batteries must trace Command Radius to their
conga line on the road with their leaders to get into
Artillery Battalion HQ using the Artillery HQ
Command Radius. No need to over-think this.
Command Radius (4 MPs)—unless going t o
c) If the order is in Delay, retain its Delay status.
get more ammunition or after being “posted.”
Keep in mind that the terminology for Delay has changed
2) Artillery Battalions can always move under
over the years. Use what is stated in the rules that came
orders of the Army Commander, a Skedaddle,
with the game.
or through its leader’s Initiative.
d) Other than the above, all other orders are treated
3) Any order moving an Artillery Battalion must
as accepted Attack orders.
record the desired destination hex of the
e) Any order specifying a movement to a location i s
Artillery Battalion’s HQ.
assumed to imply movement by the quickest direct
4) If the Artillery Battalion is subordinated t o
some higher Command, it can also move
8. When playing games that use losses as a criteria
about as the result of its parent leader’s
for victory, only count those losses from the Combat
Initiative and using 10.7f.
Table. When it refers to “stragglers” these would be akin
5) Artillery Battalion HQs do not have to be
to the losses from all other sources. Use the Loss Charts
within the Command Radius of their parent
to determine the status of “Wrecked” units for victory
organization, if any. They merely move to the
purposes, if needed.
hex specified in their orders.
9. Artillery batteries set up fully loaded with
ammunition unless specifically noted otherwise.
Design Note: For simplicity, I have called all higher
10. If there are initial losses (or losses and stragglers
artillery organizations “Artillery Battalions” even in the older games), apply all of them as losses during set
though the Union equivalent was the “Artillery up.
Brigade.” 11. The higher organization (if any) of units are
listed in parenthesis. For example, 59 Ind, 26 Wisc
Play Note: For part 4, an order going to a corps with (1/1/5) would mean the 59th Indiana and 26th Wisconsin
several Artillery Battalions (such as those inside its Infantry Regiments which belong to the 1st Brigade, 1st
divisions), record a destination hex for each Artillery Division, 5th Corps.
Battalion. 12. Any unit with a higher organization listed on the
counter as “Any” can trace Command Radius to any
11.0 Set Up Notes friendly leader or Command using whatever Command
Radius is appropriate to them.
When setting up a game in the LoB series, use the
following guidelines except when explicitly stated 13. Combat units begin at full strength unless
otherwise in the Game-specific rules. explicitly stated otherwise.
1. Combat units set up in any formation or Facing 14. If a replacement leader is called for, it will be
and in a Normal Morale State. The order of a listing in the listed as “Repl (1/2/1)” showing what the leader
set up does not affect stacking—the player is free to stack commands. If there is a list of units of the leader’s
in any stacking order he prefers. organization in the same hex, this designation will only
2. Leaders set up on any subordinate unit. be shown once, at the end of the list. If a named leader has
3. “w/i X” means to set up the given unit(s) within X been moved to a different organization, he will be shown
hexes of the listed hex. with the designation of the current organization.
15. No stack ever sets up with a CBF marker on it.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 35

16. If artillery sets up outside normal Command owning player chooses and b) the cavalry must stand its
Radius, it is assumed to be “posted” in that hex. ground and fight if the rule applies because the unit i s
17. Set ups take into account 12.5h. If that rule i s being Charged by Mounted cavalry using 12.3a.
not being used, do not set up any Road Column markers,
just leave those hexes empty.
12.4 Defensive Positions
At the moment troops finish occupying a defensive
12.0 Major Optional Rules position, the owning player can announce that it is a
All players must agree on any Optional Rules to be Defensive Position. Once established, the Command
used before starting. cannot set up a different Defensive Position without
orders to do so. Units cannot move into a position and
12.1 Retire by Prolonge then announce later that the rule is in effect, you must d o
it the moment the troops are first in the positions you
Unlimbered artillery at or within 3 hexes of the
enemy can remain unlimbered and move up to two hexes
through any of its original Rear hexsides—never a Front
As such, it has the following requirements:
hexside. It cannot also limber or change Facing in the
same phase. This is a Fire—not Move—Activity.
1) Units in the frontline cannot leave their hex
Do not roll on the Gun Loss Table. The artillery
without following new orders. If forced out, they
remains unlimbered and can still fire in that phase (after
can maneuver as needed.
they move).
2) No more than 1/3 of the Command can be placed
You cannot apply this to a retreat result or use i t
in reserve. Reserves are allowed to shift (and fill
into any Sloping Ground or Prohibited hex. It can be used
in) as desired.
to get artillery out of an EZOC (other units in the EZOC
remain under the normal rules).
There are no benefits for doing this other than a
more accurate simulation.
12.2 Pre-Set Orders
Each scenario gives starting orders for Commands Design Note: This rule exists to prohibit assigning overly
setting up or arriving as reinforcements. However, players large sectors to defensive formations and then
might want to create their own orders before the game conducting a sort of crab scuttle left or right so the
begins. In some cases, this will greatly upset the game’s defense magically matches an incoming attack’s axis o f
balance; be very careful applying this—all players are advance.
operating with 100% hindsight!
To establish your own orders before the game
begins; replace any or all of the historical orders with 12.5 Advanced Road Columns
your own. Combat units moving using the Road Movement
costs as in 3.0a must form a Road Column to do so. Road
Columns are restricted to roads until they break up.
12.3 Advanced Cavalry
12.3a Mounted Charge! Mounted cavalry units can 12.5a Creation and Breakup. There is no special cost
Charge while Mounted. In addition to all normal Charge (or order needed) to create or break up a Road Column.
rules, Mounted cavalry units cannot Charge a hex that Combat units are excused from the requirements below
costs more than 2 MPs or requires roads or bridges t o when building or breaking up a Road Column.
enter normally. Charging Mounted units use Pistols (no Road Columns begin and end manually. They form
matter what their actual armament). with the “head” (12.5f) leaving on the chosen route and
pulling the needed length out of its starting hex like taffy.
The target of the Charge must be one of the following: When the needed road space is filled, the next unit follows
until the entire Column is formed. This solid “conga line”
a) Cavalry (Mounted or in Line) cannot be broken as units further down the Column try t o
b) Open Order (Capable or not) take advantage of minor MP cost variations (see 12.5f).
c) Routed or DG Wagons can trail their Column and they do not constitute
d) Through a rear hexside of a hex that is not in an a break in the Column. Leaders are not constrained by the
EZOC of another enemy stack. Column, except as noted in 12.5f.
Breaking a Road Column up is easier. Move each
Double any Opening Volley loss to Charging unit counter to the desired location and halt it. Then move
cavalry. each Road Column marker into that hex to collapse the
Column. The actual unit cannot move again until all Road
12.3b Mounted Flexibility. In addition to any Column markers belonging to it have moved into its hex.
tactical abilities a given cavalry unit might have when Remove the Road Column markers as they do so.
dismounted (Open Order, etc.), allow all mounted cavalry
units to take advantage of 9.5e parts 1 and 2. These apply 12.5b Size and Organization. A Road Column can
even if the cavalry is stacked with some other unit. consist of any number of combat units, but must contain
Furthermore, for part 2, a) cavalry has the option of (without breaks, see also 12.5f) all units executing one
standing fast and not automatically withdrawing if the order in a single line.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 36

No unit can take advantage of any “leftover” space
12.5c Stacking. No Road Column combat unit can some other unit leaves. For example, a 6 SP infantry unit
enter (or be in) a hex containing any other Road Column will take up two full hexes and no other unit can take
unit or Road Column marker. Exceptions: See 12.5g & advantage of the “wasted” space.
While not normally subject to stacking issues,
12.5d Intersections. If two Road Columns arrive at a Wagons are given their rightful road space below.
road intersection, the one closest to it (in MPs) goes first
and blocks the intersection for the other. The later one Infantry: 1 hex per 4 SPs.
must wait until the first has cleared the intersection before Artillery: 1 hex per 8 gun SPs.
continuing. Mounted Cavalry: 1 hex per 2 SPs
Wagons: 6 hexes (based on roughly 25 wagons in a
12.5e No Passin g. If one Road Column is following corps ordnance train)
another Road Column and the lead Column must stop for Army Reserve Ordnance Train Wagon: 16 hexes
some reason or is being followed by slow Wagons, the (70 wagons)
following Column cannot pass any unit of the preceding
Road Column. 12.5i Road Column Markers. These are nothing more
than place-holders. When it comes to enemy action, all
12.5f Heads. A given Road Column must have a fires must be directed toward the actual unit—effectively,
“head.” Brigade leaders must be on the lead unit of their these hexes are empty. If an enemy combat unit moves
brigades. The head determines the direction of march of into a hex containing a Road Column marker, remove the
the Road Column. marker. There is no ill-effect on the unit it belongs to (it
instantly collapses).
Important: Count all MPs at the head of the Column. The
remainder of the Column merely follows in a long line. Design Note: The above is designed to deal with brigade
Ignore any variations in MP counts along it due to the and larger marching Columns on roads. A given regiment
timing of units getting to or leaving road hexes (the that wants to change formation and jump on a road for a
conga line will remain solid, regardless). Simply move the short movement is not so constrained (although such a
head unit and pull everyone else behind it. This dropping unit could not share or cross the road being used by a n
of MP concerns for follow-on units does not apply t o actual Road Column).
different terrain costs for different unit types. In that case,
the Column will break up into different segments, but 12.6 Artillery Ammunition Logs
follow-on units still cannot “pass” slower ones ahead of Do not use 8.2 Artillery Depletion when using this
them in the same Column. rule.
Each battery generally begins play with 6 rounds of
12.5g Countermarching. Should the Column have t o long range ammo (Shell) and 3 rounds of short range
reverse direction, the head of the Column must remain the ammo (Canister). A battery can never carry more
head (rather than having all the units “flip” direction). ammunition than it has available on the Ammunition Log.
Such a countermarch will require the head to lead the Existing Ammunition Logs are available for download at
Column along the new path. If the pathway desired i s
directly along the column, then a temporary exception t o Expend the ammo types according to the normal
12.5c (Stacking) above is allowed as the Column goes rules. Mark off one box for each shot the battery makes.
back over itself to reverse direction. When the boxes are all checked off, that kind of
ammunition is no longer available. Replenishment occurs
12.5h Column Length. To more accurately show the according to the standard rules, which allow for all boxes
length of Road Columns, place the actual combat unit in to be unchecked for a number of Ammo Points equal to the
the first hex of its Column and leave a number of hexes as battery’s SPs. Partial reloading is possible using
determined below after one unit and before the next. Fill proportions.
these hexes with Road Column markers as place holders t o
keep the correct distance. Truncate any fractions.
12.7 City Fight!
Example: A 9 SP infantry unit would require two hexes Given the limited room to deploy, combat units
of road space. Its counter counts as one, the next hex have a difficult time maneuvering and generating
would need to be filled with a Road Column marker. The firepower in Town hexes.
remaining 1/4 hex of road space required would be To simulate this effect, any unit that is in (or enters)
ignored. A following unit (if any) would be in the third Line or Unlimbered formation in a Town hex i s
hex. automatically marked DG at that moment. Furthermore, it
cannot rally to Shaken as long as it is still in Line or
Small units can stack to take advantage of the limits Unlimbered and still in a Town hex.
below, but can never stack such that a hex exceeds the
limit. For example, two 2 SP infantry units can march 12.8 Axis of Advance
together in a hex, but a 2 SP infantry unit and a 3 SP Each Command must be given a axis of advance line
infantry unit cannot. in its order that specifies the center of the Command’s

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 37

attack. This line cannot be changed without new orders (or Batteries can be anywhere on the map and in any situation
Initiative). It can be a map feature (such as a road) or (including CBF marked) and still do so.
simply the line connecting two specified hexes. Off map Ammo Points and any on reinforcement
An Axis of Advance line must be either a) a straight Wagons are directly added to this same log.
line, b) a road feature, or c) a stream, creek or river. Be sure to isolate the Ammo Points on the log s o
The Command must attack up this line with no that, say, 1st Corps batteries are the only ones that can
greater deviation than the space its units would take up if draw off the 1st Corps supplies. Any unit can draw off the
its brigades were on line (one regiment per hex) with n o Army supply, if any. In this system, there is no real reason
gaps between their regiments (no more than one hex space to ever move Ammo Points from the Army supply to a
between brigades) centered on the line. lower Command.
The units being used as reserve cannot contribute t o
this frontage. Crib Sheet for CWR Players…
There are three things going on here.
Design Note: Like the Defensive Position rule (12.4) this
First, I resolved to simplify and streamline play t o
rule is designed to preclude the “drift” you might see i n make the series accessible to a wider audience.
an attack as it tries to “out crab-walk” the defender Second, I wanted to improve the model while doing
(presumably as the commander examines the current so. A deeper explanation of this will be found in the
satellite imagery of the defender’s positions). Combined, Designer’s Notes.
these two optional rules lend a much more realistic look Lastly, I want to make the Series games more
at the interaction of the armies without the benefit o f manageable (in terms of raw size) for more players. This
100% eye in the sky intelligence. involves not only the selection of battles portrayed, but
also a change in the type of options shown. Whereas the
12.9 Brigade Consolidation Markers RSS (and CWB before it) tended to dwell on “Let’s see what
Stacks can get quite large as units get chopped u p the battle would be like with more men…,” I want to steer
during a battle. Brigade Consolidation markers are the options toward deeper questions about the battles
provided to alleviate this congestion. shown—better “what ifs” as it were.
Replace a brigade’s units on map with its Brigade While it will be impossible to list all the minor
Consolidation marker. The marker is just a place-holder points where L o B differs from C W R , here are the
for the units (which are kept off map). highlights…
A marker can only contain units of its brigade and
the off-map units must be arrayed in the same stacking General
order they would have if they were on the map. Units can A number of period terms have been incorporated to
enter or exit the marker as if they were operating in those give the game more life and color.
hexes normally. The Consolidation marker itself does not
provide access to the exception in 3.2a regarding the Switched around some tables (so rolling high is more
stacking of one unit with one battery if there is more than generally good) and re-instituted 2-12 rolls where
one unit counter inside the marker. possible.
It is not the intention of this rule to provide a “shell
game” effect for fog of war, its only purpose is to alleviate Various modifiers have been changed, so be sure t o
map congestion. read them when using the new tables.

12.10 Historical Woods LOS The turn sequence is different. Gone are the multiple
Wood lots subject to 1860’s farming practices were fire phases. Players now make “Move” or “Fire”
far more open than modern experience would lead players actions (in any desired combination or sequencing)
to believe. in a single Activity Phase. “Move” allows units t o
In all cases other than “Thicket” terrain, units have a move and/or Charge. “Fire” allows half movement
clear 2-hex LOS in Woods (given no other blocking (no Charge), but grants the ability to fire after
issues) provided the LOS doesn’t cross any contour lines moving.
in the hex between the two End Point hexes. Thicket
terrain always blocks and units must be adjacent to each Revised the Optional Rules to conform to the other
other to have a clear LOS. changes. Deleted Forced March as it allowed players
to take advantage of their God’s eye too much.
12.11 Simplified Artillery Supply LoB is not designed to support Random Events. They
Some players would rather avoid the hassle of the
are not needed. Use the old ones at your own risk.
two types of replenishment and so on. This rule is for
Do not allow any Wagons on the map or to enter as Command
reinforcements. Rather, keep a log sheet that lists the Command has been streamlined somewhat and some
ammunition available, by formation, and by type. new features have been added. Orders are never
Allow replenishment to be taken directly off this log completely accepted in one die roll (even for
any time a Depletion occurs and the player wishes to d o Initiative); it will always take at least one turn to get
so. Simply deduct the Ammo Points from the log. a Command moving. Distorted results can also can

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 38

give Loose Cannon results. This was needed to get are able to go at speeds that would be undignified for
Loose Cannon to apply to lousy leaders who never commanders. This makes it useful to send orders t o
roll for Initiative. Lastly, a commander can apply his distant commanders rather than always driving the
own Initiative to a subordinate without being in the Army Commander to them personally.
same hex (provided the subordinate is in Command
Radius). Eliminated the ability to be in Command Radius b y
being adjacent to some other unit that is.
Changed the name “Complex order” to the more
descriptive “Attack order.” Likewise, “Simple” has
become a “Move” order.
Units in Column have a Movement Allowance of 8.
Move orders are split into two sub-types that impose Note that to get the “extra 2 MPs” the unit must
restrictions on the formations used depending on the remain in Column at the end of its movement. (3.1c)
distance travelled. The TEC also gives extra benefits for using Column
Eliminated Order Points and its sub-systems (format
of orders and such) and replaced them the frequency Added the concept of “Closing Rolls” (see 3.5).
die roll and allow only one order (any kind) per turn.
Locking EZOCs have been introduced (see 3.4).
Stoppage has been revised to apply “Natural” effects
and to better reward the use of reserves. (10.8) Facing change costs a stack 1 MP (for any number of
hexsides changed). Regular movement is only
Renamed Emergency Retreat to Skedaddle. Skedaddle allowed through frontal hexsides (except in a
is different from the older Emergency Retreat (there Command that is breaking contact after achieving its
are no additional losses). objective).

Made some Conditional orders legal (10.7d). Retreating into an EZOC was modified to a simple
loss of one SP per hex. No dice, no fuss.
Leader Losses and orders are addressed (finally)
(10.7e). Reduced the number of times (other than regular
movement) that units can change Facing to just at the
Installed an “Attack Recovery” mechanic (10.7c). end of a Retreat.

Restricted what can be done with Initiative Orders Clarified that one infantry or cavalry unit of any size
(10.10b). can always stack with one artillery battery (designed
to cover over-sized regiments). The 8 SP fire limit
Wagon movement is more restricted. (8.1c). still applies.

Only one leader per chain of command can try to get Replaced the “no stacking when in Column or
Initiative in a given turn. Limbered” rules with a full blown optional Road
Column rule (12.5) and a minor rule regarding
Renamed Detachments to be “Creating Commands” stacking while moving on roads (3.0a)
and made them conform to the now-standard
Command concept. Changed the working of Slopes and Extreme Slopes.
Eliminated the named distinction between the two
Eliminated the various restrictions on the Army types, but there are now two varieties of Sloping
Commander and his orders (from the HQ that is not Ground which accounts for the differences. (1.7b)
moving, and all that). Combined with the restrictions
on corps commanders, the Army Commander becomes Some special terrain features are not listed on the new
even more important. Terrain Effects on Movement Chart. Use the RSS
game’s costs and effects for those.
Applied two leader ratings to all leaders, not just the
lower ranking ones. Play the older ones with some There is no longer a separate Movement Allowance
single rating leaders as having equal Command and for Horse Artillery.
Morale Values. A “3” rated leader would be played as
a “3-3” here. Line of Sight
Revised the basic method of doing LOS. (4.0)
Eliminated Conferences (they can be done manually
overnight, no need for special rules) and attachments
Modest change to 4.1d regarding artillery firing
(too much temptation for players to redesign their
through friendly units. The range requirement has
army on the fly).
been removed, but a “no Canister” requirement added.
Revised the messenger movement rate to 14. Still not
much better than a walk for a horse, but messengers

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 39

Fire Combat
Added the concept of “Opening Volleys” which Routed and DG units can retreat 6 hexes as their
abstractly represents the fires of inactive units. movement if desired.

Split Fire has been eliminated. Removed the Blood Lust Morale Check. BL units
check morale like any other unit but are able to
ignore retreat and loss results. If they get a Shaken or
Fires are done on a stack by stack basis. A given
worse result, they lose their BL state and get the new
target hex can be fired upon any number of times in a
Morale State.
phase (but only three times by fires generated b y
artillery). The old battery limit for the two sides has
BL is automatically removed in the next Rally Phase.
been eliminated.
Make no Morale Check if a shot is made at a range of
Installed the new “SP & Shift” based Combat system.
10 hexes or more.
Slopes no longer affect Fire combat, but still affect
morale. Artillery
Artillery must stack on top of their stacks except at
Close Combat now “Charge” the moment a Small Arms fire or Charge is declared
against their hex.
“Charge” is merely a Fire combat done at close range
with additional morale modifiers and a higher
Artillery formation changes within close range of
Opening Volley loss. This has replaced the Close
enemy units is handled using the Gun Loss Table.
Combat sequence. Mounted cavalry can only Charge
if the optional rule is used.
Changed the army-wide artillery ammunition system
to the ammunition type Depletion system. Retained
Losses (with the needed modifications to mesh correctly) the
Revised wrecked regiment level to be less than 50% old Detailed Artillery Ammunition system in the
remaining. Exactly 50% is no longer wrecked. optional rules.

Loss distribution changed. The top unit takes the Added “by Caisson” replenishment to the old system
first loss, but remaining losses may be freely (which is now named “by Battery”).
distributed by the player.
When playing an older game with LoB and not using
LoB games do not use Loss Charts, but all games will the optional artillery ammunition rules, you will
be provided with the Loss Charts needed to play need some LoB Artillery Ammo Depletion markers.
using the CWR v3.0 rules (Condensed Brigade and
Regimental Loss Charts). These will be available for Added artillery leaders and the development of
download to keep the box price down. artillery organizations (such as Artillery Battalions).

Leader Loss refigured with separate columns for each Only three shots allowed involving artillery against a
possible situation. hex per Activity Phase.

Revised the accounting of artillery losses when fired No selective artillery shots. Counter Battery Fire i s
upon, by themselves, by Small Arms fires. (5.6d) part of the normal routine if you fire artillery at a hex
containing enemy artillery.

Stragglers and casualties are rolled into one “loss”
concept. Some losses can be recovered (at midnight). Added Open Order and Sharpshooter rules (9.5).

LoB games do not use Straggler Recovery markers. Revised the Blocked Entry Area rule (3.7a).
These will be needed from the earlier games if one
plays with the old CWR rules. Deleted the Small Arms ammunition rules.

New Counters: When playing the RSS games using

Morale LoB, you will need the following markers from an LoB
Added the Cowardly Legs rule (6.5). game—Cowardly Legs, Depleted Shell, Depleted
Canister and CBF. You’ll need Road Column markers
Revised the Morale Table to be 2d6 with DRMs if you play with the Advanced Road Columns
instead of row shifting. Revised modifiers optional rule (12.5).
appropriately and added a couple of new ones. Also,
units can only get Blood Lusted if they are adjacent
the enemy.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 40

Opening Volleys, meanwhile, replaced the old Defensive
Fire Phase by executing “defensive fires” in a very
Designer’s Notes abstract manner only where and when needed. I kept this
The first question I want to deal with is exactly how and brutally simple and fast. Since it is based on “normal”
why Line of Battle came about. In late 2006, Bob Cloyd expected results, there are some odd situations where the
who was in charge of the CWB and RSS series decided t o defender seems to get a benefit, but these things come out
move on from those duties to other work. As a result, the in the wash (being odd, they are also rare). Also, given the
Civil War Regimental v3.0 rules he had been working on original defensive fire sequencing, players would adopt a
with Dave Powell landed on my desk for finishing. While I “fade back” defense at the drop of a hat, so the attacking
had been busy with other series for some time, I was deep player was forever trying to close with the thin line i n
into the preliminary design work for None but Heroes, the front of them. Now the player has the power to rip through
Antietam game, so I knew I needed to do a full court press any thin line that an opponent might put in front of him.
on the rules to get them ready for release. Proper play involves massing troops at critical points and
the use of reserves.
At first, I merely wanted to do a full edit of the existing
draft rules. Very soon it became apparent that numerous Mechanical issues showed rapidly that the original
procedures could be done in a simpler or faster playing system was just too friendly to the defender, much more
manner and some design decisions I made for the CWB so than more recent research would indicate. The defense
over 20 years ago needed re-examination. I called together was so superior in the old system that players responded
the team that had been working on CWR v3.0 to mull these in terror at engaging an enemy line. They would, instead,
things over and leave no stone unturned in the effort t o generate an extremely thin line they could use to edge
clean, streamline, and improve. around the enemy position (and could get away with this
because the enemy couldn’t attack, either). Designers,
I set a goal of making the system play faster as well a s seeing that a defense was nearly impossible to break,
give an improved model of Civil War combat. Originally, implemented a “defensive order failure” rule to boot them
this work was called CWR v4.0, but it was not long before out of the position they would otherwise never need t o
the changes became too much to merely be a new version leave.
of the old rules. It really was a new system and needed a
new name, hence Line of Battle. By addressing this balance between offense and defense,
I’ve made it possible to put the defender into the position
The consolidated Activity Phase was the result of a of having to decide to stay and risk destruction or t o
number of methods that were tried in order to integrate fire implement a Skedaddle and save his Command for later i n
and movement so as to better replicate the “rat fight” feel the battle. No additional “failure” rule was needed.
of the Civil War battlefield. Under v3.0, the attacker would
march up to the defenders, watch his line get devastated Meanwhile the attacker still needed a system to enforce
by defensive fires and then what units remained could get “just stopping the attack” regardless of “the good”
a shot off (leading to a possible “double” Fire Phase b y circumstances. That system is Fluke Stoppage which i s
the units that remained in the front in the enemy turn). based, in part, on “Corps Attack Stoppage.” Attack
While there is no denying the advantage of the defender Stoppage accomplished the same thing but with some
(which still exists here), the net result before was way too extra book keeping. As I’ve noted earlier, an examination
extreme and players reacted accordingly. All battles took of the old system showed it boiled down to two parts. One
on the appearance of Petersburg—where players vied t o was the imposition of simple chance while the other pretty
win the ‘line extension’ contest. The model failed to show much required grinding the formation into the ground.
the swirling battle that did occur in the mobile battles we I’ve split them here and eliminated the book keeping. A
choose to simulate. The mixed fire and movement allows Command that has been “ground into the ground” will
the attacker to mix it up with the defender (who can return stop its attack as it will no longer be able to close and
the favor in his own turn). This gives the type of swirling won’t stay in position when the enemy fires on them. The
open battle that occurred in situations most likely to be former can be dealt with by simple chance, since that’s all
gamed. it really was anyway.

Since fire and movement were integrated like this, I While I retained much of the Command system as it has
introduced two new rules to the system: Closing Rolls been, I eliminated the Order Point system as well as the
and Opening Volleys. minor matters of Written vs. Oral orders and such. While
these things matter in real life, they served no game
Given the perfect control you have over your units and purpose as players did not need to issue orders so fast that
their sequencing, Closing Rolls were introduced to add they would choose the “less effective” option. Orders are
realistic friction. They bring out the effects of units orders now, except for the mechanical distinction of
getting embroiled in firefights and losing their ability t o Attack vs. Move and the minor requirements of Long vs.
continue to close, the unpredictable behavior of poor Short Move orders. The latter exist to ensure players form
morale units, and the effects of covered approaches (where the correct road column formations used for longer
no roll is needed). marches and take the risks inherent in such movements if
they stray too close to the enemy.

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 41

I did reduce the frequency of order issue based on the two types of losses units suffered (casualties and
Army Commander’s rating. Except for the poor sod stuck stragglers) as well as the wrecked status of regiments.
with a weak Army Commander, the rates are still very
liberal; players really should not be issuing that many Dave Powell inserted an easy way to keep track of wrecked
orders. It is important that in an unforeseen crisis, the status in the old rules when strength markers were used:
commander might lose control of events if he is unable t o “50% loss? You are wrecked.” I adjusted this during
issue orders fast enough. development to be “more than 50%” to push the staying
power up just a little, but the idea was (and is) a good one
This is an important new feature. Likewise, Commands that works great.
that are engaged get a modifier to their Acceptance rolls.
This brings out the loss of control of formations i n Tracking stragglers and casualties was a bigger matter. The
contact with the enemy, the loss of flexibility of only effective difference was that you could get stragglers
formations that have dug in, and the need to keep back during the game. I looked at strength recovery
unengaged reserves. during the course of battle and concluded, for the most
part, that men would only return to the ranks during the
A number of other changes, large and small, were designed night, after the fighting had died down. A look at the math
to bring out more leader variations (the new dual leader involved showed that we could make do with a strength
ratings, for instance), get rid of rarely used rules verbiage recovery mechanic involving a percentage and there was
(deleting Conferences), making the Army Commander enough historical data to determine reasonable values.
more important (the change in order issue from the HQ t o Obviously, this broad brush cannot be applied to battles
the commander, speeding of couriers, and the various lasting more than a few days (else all the dead will arise!),
chains on the Army Commander to hang around his HQ). I but that is well beyond the series design parameters.
wanted to bring out better how the player i s the
commander; activating the Army Commander was part of The new Combat Table tracks exceptionally well with the
that effort. old one, but with far less arithmetic overhead. Where i t
does differ, (such as the application of Canister effects
While I certainly feel these things are improvements, I can evenly out to full Canister range) the change i s
understand that some might disagree and I can tell them intentional (in that case, the best effect from Canister i s
that using the old orders system and its structures (if out around 300 yards (Gibbon) as that is where the spread
preferred) will work just fine in the LoB. They are just not is optimal).
as clean and will lose the new features.
Firing by stack without the ability to literally combine
One item of great importance I changed was the addition fires came about as players spent way too much time
of the Attack Recovery system. It was simply too easy i n agonizing over how to best take advantage of the various
the RSS to issue breathtaking fancy-footwork orders t o combinations presented. This made the decision non-
corps that made for a tempo the real commanders could existent (beyond deciding to hit the same target again).
only dream about. The recovery requirement makes for While at first blush a guy might think that this effectively
much more realistic game play. In earlier test versions of doubles the number of combats; that is actually not the
these rules, corps were limited to one Attack order per day. case. In my recorded base of 100 combats from actual play,
While this was historically accurate in all but a handful of only 14 of them involved multiple stacks and of them, 1 0
cases in the war, players felt severely restricted by what were artillery fires. The “artillery leader range” effect is
seemed an artificial limitation and balked accordingly. used to reflect the better coordination of artillery and,
Attack Recovery allows an outside chance of getting all or behind the scenes, gives them a reward for “combining
some of a corps to attack again in the same day fires.” For infantry, the best “bang for buck” was had when
(depending on when the first attack occurred, the leader, fires weren’t combined anyway, so the simplification
and a bit of luck). There are some downsides to taking works out better for them.
advantage of the later attack, but I’ll let you figure those
out for yourself! I made some decisions here that deal with the thorny issue
of artillery representation which has long plagued the
With the improved offensive balance and integrated turn system. Using the Gun Loss Table to deal with artillery
structure, a rule was needed to keep units from simply formation changes allows the player to be as daring (and
zipping through enemy fire fans. This is the new locking wasteful) as he might like in running guns up close to the
EZOC rule. Once you see the effects of this rule, you’ll enemy and replaces the tricky system added to the RSS t o
join the guys wanting to slap me for not installing it years keep artillery from acting as “proto-panzers.”
ago. Units get locked in local death matches, reserves
mean something, yet the rule is so simple, it’s crazy. Also affecting artillery is the addition of both Artillery
Sometimes old ideas aren’t bad, they are just waiting for Leaders and the Artillery Battalion rules. These allow the
the right application. system to show the development of artillery tactics and
use (via their organization) that developed over the course
A part of the general streamlining effort was a desire t o of the first few years of the war by both sides. In order of
unload the old rules’ paper work overhead. I’ve already artillery effectiveness, these are:
talked about the record keeping requirements of the old
Stoppage rules, the rest of the records existed to track the a) Artillery spread out to brigades and divisions.
Flexible, but unable to concentrate both i n

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42

location and fires because of being spread out fighting and adds greatly to both your enjoyment of your
among the infantry. Also, commanded b y games and knowledge of this fascinating era.
infantryman, the guns were not used in the best
possible ways (infantrymen tend to spread the A Word of Thanks…
guns out evenly so everyone gets a few). There were many players who played over and over again
b) Artillery in battalions, but controlled mainly at to test these rules, their names in the playtest credits d o
the Army level. This allows concentration, but i s little justice to the many hours spent going through these
more unwieldy as the battalions need orders rules, playing the R S S games looking for back fit
from the army to be able to move about. problems and so on.
c) Artillery in battalions but assigned to the corps
and divisions. This requires less army attention I’d like to single out two in particular.
in the form of orders and control while retaining
the ability to concentrate fires. First is Hans Korting, he slaved over each and every one
d) Artillery assigned to corps (but technically i n of the many, many editions of these rules looking for
looser battalion/brigade structure). This allows minor editing problems I needed to fix. The rules would
wide and free placement of guns, but the artillery not be as tight and clean were it not for his eagle eyes.
leaders present also allow for concentration
when needed. This is very much like c) but with The second is my youngest son John Essig. After cutting
more ability to operate freely in the corps zone. his teeth on some SCS games, he played LoB in all the
e) Same as d), but with the addition of free-use various developmental stages in small scenarios and large
army reserve batteries and artillery leaders. (even playing three This Hallowed Ground campaign
games in addition to dozens of first day starts). While
Everyone started with a). The Confederates developed only 14 and later 15 years old, he showed a memory for
their way to b) by Antietam and c) by Gettysburg. rules wording and the effects and interactions in the
Meanwhile, the Union worked from a) to d) and e). The last system that made his old man proud (and sometimes
form is very flexible and has all the advantages, but none embarrassed, when the kid was right). It was great playing
of the disadvantages, of the ultimate Confederate system. with you, John!

I deleted the old Small Arms ammunition rules. While not

particularly complex, they still managed to take too much
Terms and Abbreviations
attention away from the important matters here Acceptance: Acceptance is a measure of how quickly
(maneuvering your army and fighting the battle) and a leader reacts to a new order and starts to act on it.
brought the player down to an unnecessarily low level of Active Player: The player currently executing his
micromanagement. It just wasn’t right and the impact o n portion of the Sequence of Play.
the game was so small it wasn’t worth keeping around. Additive Effects: The combined effects which occur
when a unit in a Morale State receives another additional
While retained as an optional rule, the Detailed Artillery morale result.
Ammunition system was promoted to the standard rules Attack order: Any order allowing offensive
for quite a while in testing, but was eventually replaced movement and combat operations.
with the simpler and faster Depletion mechanic. This came Blood Lust: A positive Morale State of temporary
about mainly because of the excessive effort and overhead excitement which reduces normal fear reactions making a
involved in the optional rule. I have John Kisner to thank unit less susceptible to adverse morale effects.
for bringing it up. “by Battery” Replenishment: Artillery ammunition
replenishment which is done literally by moving the
Additionally, I added the abstract “by Caisson” artillery battery to the Wagon.
ammunition replenishment system to the old (now named) “by Caisson” Replenishment: Artillery ammunition
“by Battery” method. There were plenty of instances where replenishment which is done abstractly without moving
“by Caisson” (or something similar) was done. Enough t o the battery to the Wagon.
warrant the bit of rules overhead involved. There were also CBF: Counter Battery Fire. A means of reducing
plenty of times where the old “by Battery” method was a enemy artillery effectiveness.
touch too restrictive. Adding “by Caisson” also opened Charge: Combat occurring closer than 110 yards.
the door to the very straightforward Counter Battery Fire Some hand to hand or melee combat may ensue, but for the
mechanic. Both added depth to the game at little cost. most part, a Charge is a fire fight at very close ranges.
Closing Roll: An abstract measure of the ability of
Lastly, I added the Open Order and Sharpshooter units to “cowboy up” and get in close proximity to the
capabilities that developed throughout the war. These enemy.
give life to these tactically interesting little units and for Column (COL): The formation of infantry marching
the first time bring out their roles and impact. This will on a road.
allow me to demonstrate the development of cavalry as Combat units. All infantry, cavalry, and artillery
dismounted fighters and the Confederate late war “Corps batteries, battalions and regiments.
of Sharpshooters.” Command: The combination of a leader, HQ, and all
the subordinate leaders and units under their control. The
In summary, I hope you find Line of Battle to be a term as used in these rules is a noun, not a verb.
significant advance in the portrayal of American Civil War

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 43

Command Radius: The distance from an HQ or Move Order: An order to conduct movement.
leader to the units under their Command. Movement Point (MP): The measurement unit of
Delay: A result on the Acceptance Table indicating movement and especially time.
an order is delayed. No Orders: The state a Command is in when it does
Disorganized (DG): A Morale State in which much not have a currently accepted order. Commands without
of the command and control has been lost due t o orders are assumed to be defending.
confusion. Non-combat units. Leaders, HQs and Wagons.
Distorted: An order the receiving leader does not Opening Volley: An abstract way of taking losses
understand and gets thrown away. With particularly poor from defensive fires.
leaders, this converts into a Loose Cannon. Open Order: A flexible formation of specially
DRM: Die (Dice) Roll Modifier. A value added to or trained units that allows them to spread out more and take
subtracted from the number shown on the dice. advantage of terrain. A forerunner of 20th century tactical
Enemy Zone of Control (EZOC): A Zone of Control concepts.
coming from an enemy unit. This distinction is made t o Order Log: A list of orders as issued by the Army
avoid confusion with ZOC from friendly units. Commander which provides a quick reference to the status
Facing: The orientation of a unit or stack in a hex. of all orders.
Formations: The assembly of units into Columns, Orders: The formal instructions issued to leaders
Lines (Dismounted), Mounted, Limbered or Unlimbered under his Command.
(as appropriate for each unit type) in order to do specific Player Turn: An iteration of the turn sequence for
tasks on the battlefield. Dictated by the drill of the time, one player, followed by an identical iteration for the other
these formations each have their own individual benefits player, the completion of both ends the Game Turn.
and drawbacks. Rally: The act of improving a unit’s Morale State.
Headquarters (HQ): A counter representing Given time, all units will return to Normal morale.
administrative control centers at various levels of Retreat: The act of moving to the rear away from
command. enemy units.
Inactive Player: The player not currently executing Road Column. The “snake” of a larger unit
his portion of the Sequence of Play. following a road in order to fulfill an order to move to a
Independent Units: Units exempt from Command new location.
Radius which can generally do as they please without Routed (R): A unit that is completely out of control
orders. and is in a headlong flight to safety.
Initiative: The ability of a leader to generate his Shaken (Sh): A Morale State of added caution. The
own orders. unit is still under control, but is more tentative about its
Limbered: A formation of artillery that allows its actions.
movement. The guns are hitched to their caissons and Sharpshooters: Units specifically selected and
teams and are ready to roll, but cannot fire. trained in marksmanship and range estimation to allow
Line of Sight (LOS): The determination of whether long range precision shots.
units can see each other given the lay of the land and other Short Move Order: A Move order that requires a
terrain features. movement of 16 hexes or less. These do not carry with
Long Move Order: A Move order that requires a them the formation requirements of a Long Move order,
movement of 17 hexes or more bringing with it some but do restrict the ability of units to move adjacent to the
special fomation requirements. enemy.
Loose Cannon: The wild card which appears when Skedaddle: The retreat of a Command in dire
players use Initiative excessively or with poor leaders. circumstances.
Effectively, the leader has gone and done something Small Arms: Units using rifles and other light
stupid. weapons (not artillery).
Loss Recovery: A chance for regiments to rebuild Strength Points (SPs): A unit’s strength expressed
their strength and to reform. in points on its counter or Strength Point marker.
Marker. A counter representing an abstract concept, Threshold Value: The minimum number of SPs
unit status or situation as opposed to a unit counter that needed to get the special weapon’s characteristic shifts o n
represents people and equipment on the battlefield. the Combat Table.
Morale: The quality of a unit which determines how Unit: A counter representing people or equipment
well the unit stands up in combat. Units are assigned a actually on the battlefield.
morale level ranging from A (best) to F (worst). Wrecked: A unit that has lost strength to losses and
Morale Check: A requirement to roll on the Morale has become combat ineffective.
Table to determine what effect combat has on a unit’s
Morale State: A temporary effect on a unit because
of a Morale Check. These range from Blood Lust through
Mounted (Mtd): The formation of a cavalry unit i n
which the troopers are mounted on their horses.
Movement Allowance (MA): The total number of
Movement Points a unit can expend in a given Activity

©2009 Multiman Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 44