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PHILIPPINE HISTORY REVIEWER - Did not experience first-hand (e.g.

magazines, encyclopedias, journal
Antonio Pigafetta – wrote chronicles of articles)
Magellan - Best secondary source -> latest
- wrote Lapu-Lapu and Magellan history, wherein
- Interpretation or analysis of primary
stated that Lapu-lapu didn’t killed Magellan. It source
was a poisoned arrow by Lapu-Lapu’s men that - A secondary source can be a primary
killed Magellan. (Historical Myths and Fallacies) source
Islam is the oldest practiced religion in the Tertiary Source – collection of information about
country (Ignored history) primary and secondary sources
Modern Slavery still exist in the Philippines
Initial Questions to ask:
(Historical Revisionism)
- What type of document is it?
Philippines doesn’t have official history - Who wrote it?
Historiography – study of how history was - When was it written?
written - Why was it written?
- Where was it written?
- Content and context analysis (How? - What is it talking about?
Why?) - What are the main points expressed?
- Without primary sources there will be no - So what?
knowledge about history 1.) Background of the author
2.) Corroborate
3.) Bias
- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
General Document (Diaries)
- Published (produced for mass
consumption), Unpublished (e.g. diary, STRENGTHS:
birth certificate)
- Written, Visual, Oral, Artefacts  Provides info on the who, what,
where, when, why and how of an
Primary Sources – produced at the time of event event
or phenomenon  Can clarify the purpose of the
communication or transaction
- Immediate, First-hand accounts of a
 Can be a clue to the level of
topic people who had a direct
education of the authors
connection with it
 Sometimes offers evidence of
- Types: written, images, artefacts, oral
- E.g. ASEAN document, Map
Advertisement LIMITATIONS:

Secondary Sources – refers to those created  Not thoroughly objective

 Generally, a verbal, not a visual or  Motive
record - for what purpose?
 Bias and agenda - How? (Creator, intended audience,
 Difficult to read because of type of source)
handwriting  Context
 Must be evaluated in conjunction - When = Why + How
with other evidence - Where
- Historical Empathy

Newspapers e.g. Bangkok Declaration - 1967


1.) Southeast Asian Countries were newly
 Many different types of information
independent countries
in one place
2.) Philippines vs. Malaysia over Sabah
 Generally factual
Konfrontasi – Indonesia (first attacked)
 Quick way to get basic info
vs. Malaysia vs. Singapore
 Provides larger context of
- Indonesia was against the Federation
of Malaysia
 Written for a mass audience
 Often has a visual content Non-intervention policy in affairs of each
 Especially good for local information other’s country

LIMITATIONS: 3.) Cold War – Threat of communism

 Shows the bias of the

owner/publisher, editor, writer US was against Malaysia to be a communist
 Subject to political and economic state
US – capitalism – free market economy
 Fact checking not always thorough
USSR – communist
 Newsprint is hard to reserve
Communist state:
 Most newspapers are not indexed
- Command economy – only government will
the market economy; there will be no free
market economy
 Creator - No freedom in trading
- full name - No exploitation of resources
- career
- experience on the topic  Perspective – point of view of creator
 Audience HOW?
- for whom? - age
- How? Explicitly stated, informed - nationality
guests - profession
- cultural background - Military attacks (attempt to subjugate the
- gender people in the Mindanao)
- religious beliefs - Economic Disenfranchisement
- educational background - Socio-cultural Insensitivity
Every source has perspective
 Bias – intentional use of language to - Tarsila – genealogies from royal family
present a clearly one-sided description - trace history
of the event - bolster legitimacy
HOW? - Malay/Moro language
- too positive
- too negative - Codified Laws – Luwaran and the Principal
- omission Sulu Code
- incorrect
- Reports and Correspondences – written by
Spanish officials and missionaries (to subjugate
 Representatives – creator represents
and christianized)
the views of a larger group
HOW? - Chronicles – foreign traders and travelers
- majority Scholars
- minority Najeeb M. Saleeby
- political views Blair and Robertson
- religious beliefs WH Scott
- cultural understandings Cesar A. Majul
- institution’s philosophy
Debunking Myths
 Corroboration – compare info provided
-High literacy and love for learning
by two separate sources and find
- Trade Flourished
similarities between them
- Jolo, Sulu
- Java, Sumatra and Moluccas
- Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Japan, China
MINDANAO HISTORY - Diplomatic relation – system of
government and code of laws
Why is it important to study?

- Erase prejudices and biases “The only good

Muslims or Moros are not homogenous groups
Moro are dead Moro”
- rivalries
- Rectify historical injustices
- diverse -> divided into 13 groups
- Dominant discourse -> “Philippine History” ->
North - Illanun
- struggle favored over the other - Samal and Badjao
- Sungil
What were the injustices?
- Yakan
- Malbog  (Indonesia) Emancipation from the
- Maranao oppressive caste system
- Balanguingui - Islam – equality for all believers
- Jamal Mapun  Political and economic alliances
- Palawani  Simplicity of the doctrines of Islam ->
- Tausug appealing
- Maguindanao  Intermarriages
- Kalibugan
- Kalagan Spanish Colonial Incursions:

When reading sources:  Arrival of Spaniards (1565)

- Mindanao, Manila (Bornean descent) –
 Translation Sultanates
 Critical – e.g. “Barbaric” “savages” used - Luzon and Visayas – spirit worships,
to describe Moros mostly to civilized us animistic, supreme being
 Westerners – “crusading mindset” - Marked the demise of Arab and
 See through the “cracks in the Muslim monopoly in initial trade of SEA
parchment curtain” – Teodoro  1600’s – most people in Luzon and
Agoncillo Visayas were Christianized
- expeditions to Mindanao
“It will never be possible to write a real history
of the Filipino people under Spain because the
 1578 – crusading expeditions to Sulu
colonial government enjoyed a monopoly on
- Enslave Muslims
the production of source material” – Teodoro
- Burn plantation
- Destroy sea craft
Islam and The Rise of Sultanates -> peaceful - Depopulate settlements ->
arrival Christianized
 Peaceful and Diplomatic means futile
 First seeds of Islam – Arab traders Total war -> Muslims settlements
 Intermarriage between Arab and locals - Branded Muslims prisoners and send
formed families-> communities them to the oars
practicing Islamic faith  1800’s – many islands have been
 Second wave – Arab preachers depopulated
- spread faith – Abu Bakar – Sumatra – - Official policy of Spaniards was no
Sultanate of Sulu longer to Christianized Muslims but to
 Islam spread – Maguindanao – Sharif turn them into Spanish subj.
Kabungsuwan Why? Spaniards fear Muslims asking
- Cotabato, Lanao for alliances to other foreign country to
- Basilan, Tawi-tawi, Sulu – Sultanate of retaliate against them.
Why Spaniards want to colonize the south?
Why? (Practice of Islam)
 Irritant to the colonial administration – ASEAN – was founded in August 6, 1967 –
(Luzon and Visayas have been Philippines, Singapore, Myanmar, Indonesia,
colonized) Vietnam, Laos, Brunei, Cambodia, Thailand,
 They see Muslims as people living in sin Malaysia
-> to see the light
Benefits of ASEAN:
 Extension of fight against Spanish
Moors – Nomadic African Invaders - Political Security – Peace
 Gateway to Moluccas (Spice Island)
 Pitted the Christian Natives against the - Socio-cultural
Muslims – Moro-Moro (play) 1637 –
- Economic pillar – free flow of investments,
Introduced by Spaniards – Christian vs.
services, goods, visa free – lower tariffs
Muslims – Propaganda tool to instill
crusading spirits to Christian Tagalog - Peace Dividend - benefits Philippines gained
against Muslims form ASEAN
- refers to economic benefit as
Why did the Spaniards fail to subjugate
it reduced defense spending – infrastructure
and other social welfare programs
- Muslims are politically and strategically smart
- They have sophisticated war/battleships
(speed and maneuverability)
- Form alliances internally and externally
- Destructions weren’t one sided – Muslims
fought back
- Christian natives were not given a
weapon to fight against Muslims because
Spaniards are scared that they might use it
against them
- Jihad (holy war) – enslaved Christians
and sold them; burn their houses and churches
-Juramentados – Moro swordsmen
(suicidal offensive) – form of martyrdom

- Pirates – looted people

- Caracoa – battleship
- W/o slavery, Moros can’t live for it as
it was the base of their wealth and their socio-
political and economic life.

Decline of Sultanates

- relentless Spanish attacks

- Steamships and advanced artilleries