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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus L.) is an important vegetable grown for its green tender fruits

which are used as a vegetable in a variety of ways. It is rich in vitamins, calcium, potassium and other

minerals matter. It can be fried and cooked with necessary ingredients.

Okra is also known as lady’s finger. It is a green flowering plant. It is a common vegetable every

day, which is why we probably haven’t been giving it much of importance.(Ravi Teja 2018)

Okra is cultivated under rain fed and in irrigated areas and wide range of soil. The production is

seriously affected by use of local varieties (low yielding) sub-optimal and in appropriate manure doses.

The use of inorganic fertilizer has not been helpful under intensive agriculture because it is often

associated with reduced crop yield, soil acidity and nutrients imbalance (Ojeny, 2003). Furthermore, the

extent to which farmers can depend on this input is constrained by un availability of the right type of

inorganic fertilizer at the right time, high cost, lack of technical know-how and lack of access to credit

(Chude, 2000).

Okra is a warm seasonal vegetable, also known as gumbo or ladies finger. We will look at the

nutritional content of okra, its possible health benefits, recipe tips for preparing okra, and any possible

health rush (www.medicinalnewstudy.com).

Lady’s finger or okra is an important vegetable crop of tropical countries. It is one of the most

common vegetable in India. It is available almost throughout the year. The crop is grown chiefly for the

tender green fruit, which are mucilaginous and are cooked in various

ways.(www.agriculturalproductsindis.com)
Organic agriculture is a farming practice that excludes chemicals and promote natural inputs like

organic fertilizer and compost which benefits both environment human like using fermented seaweed

extract and carrageenan.

Fermented seaweed extract “power” has played an important role in plant growth which

provides such auxin. Cytokinin and gibberillins which have a significant effect on plant to stimulate the

growth hormone. It enhances the plant resistance to drought, cold, pest and disease.

Carrageenan proved to be the most potent elicitor molecule because of its high sulfate content,

as compared to that of i-and K-carrageenan. Carrageenan induced systemic resistance against

phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae in tobacco cells by increasing the expression of a sesquiterpene

cylase involved in the synthesis of thephytoalexin capsidio.

Fermented seaweed extract are use as fertilizer which is suitable for use in organic agriculture,

(Lopez-Mosquera et. A.,2011)

Fermented seaweed extract has played an important role in the plant growth, which provide

plants with very comprehensive nutrients and the endogenous plant growth regulator such as auxine,

cytokine and gibberellins, which have a significant effect on plant growth to stimulate plant to generate

specific biological factor, amino acid and virous vitamin which can be absorb easily by the roots and

leaves of the plant as nutrient directly and enhance the plant’s resistant to drought, cold, pest and

diseases. Also, the cytokines available in seaweed stimulate vigorous growth because they mobilize

nutrient in the leaves and they provide protection from marginal frost (to-3C) and retard senescence

(aging process in the plant). This substance is environmental friendly, non-toxic to human and animals.

(www./lantengbio.com/or seaweedextract).
The application of seaweed extract as seed treatment and or foliar spray helps significant

growth of plants. The extract contains micro-nutrients,auxins and cytokinins and other growth

promoting substance(Spinelli et al.,2010). These hormones play an important role in enhancement of

cell size and cell division, and together they complement each other as cytokinins are effective in shoot

generation and auxins in root development, while micro-nutrients improve soil health (Lin and Linjun,

2011).

This study aims to address the problem by using organic foliar fertilizer to improve the

production of crop. Some efforts are required to fulfill a part of nutrient and improve the physical,

chemical, and biological traits of the soil through the application of organic fertilizer. (Maghfoer, M.D. et

.al..2014)

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Generally, the study aims to determine the effect of foliar spray on the yield performance of

okra.

Specifically, this study aims to determine the:

1. Average number of fruits/plants

2. Average length(cm) of fruits/plants

3. Average weight(g) of fruits/plants

4. (kg) of marketable fruits/plants

5. (kg) of non-marketable fruits/plants

6. Cost of producing (kg)/ fruits


TIME AND LOCALE OF THE STUDY

This research will be conducted of the experimental area at Cagayan State University Gonzaga

Campus, Gonzaga.
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON OKRA PRODUCTION

Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus L.) is one of the most important vegetable grown in Nigeria it is

an annual crop grown mainly as fruits and leafy vegetable in both green and dried state in the tropics.

The crop is used a soup thickener with may also be served with rice and other food type the fresh fruit is

a good source of vitamins, mineral and plant protein (Eke et al.,2008). Okra contains about 20% edible

oil and protein while its mucilage is utilized for medicinal purposes. The mature stem contains crude

fiber which is used in paper industries and for making ropes. Okra’s flower can be very attractive and

sometimes used in decorating the room (Schippers, 2000).

Okra a commercial vegetable crop belongs to the family of Malvaceae. It originates from

Ethiopia and is widely spread all over tropical, subtropical and warm temperature regions of the world.

It plays an important role in the human diet and is a good source of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins,

calcium potassium, enzyme, and total minerals which are often lacking in the diet of developing country.

Its medicinal value has also been reported in curing ulcer and relief from hemorrhoids. Okra has found

medicinal application as plasma replacement or blood volume expander and also useful in genitor-

urinary disorders, spermatorrhoea and chronic dysentery. The fruit of okra have reawakened beneficial

interest in bringing the crop into commercial production. (www.researchgate.net).

Lady’s finger or okra is an important vegetable crop of tropical countries. It is one of the most

common vegetable in India and is available almost throughout the year. The crop is grown chiefly for the

tender green fruit, which are mucilaginous and are cooked in various ways at the proper edible stage,

the fruit one a good source of protein, carbohydrates and minerals. Apart from its importance as a

vegetable, okra has several other economic used also. White eyed black or brown seeds of the mature
fruit are sometimes roasted and used as a substitute for coffee powder. The mature fruits and stem

containing the crude fiber are used in paper industry.(Schippers et al.,2000).

Seaweed extract is viewed superior because the organic matter aids in retaining moisture and

fertilizer that promote the growth and yield attribute properly of the plant when applied in a small

quantity during a crop cycle. The bio stimulant present in seaweed extract increase the vegetative

growth (10%), the leaf chlorophyll content (11%), the stomata density (6.5%), photosynthetic rate and

the fruit production (27%) of the plant (Spinelli et al.,2010). The liquid seaweed extracts from seaweed

are usually prepared by hydrolyzing the material under pressure, however, the preparation may varies

from species to species depending upon the amount of dried material available. Its method of extraction

significantly differs from person to person and also the mode of application to crops. Seaweed extract

are used in several way, such as drench in soil during transplanting, during field preparation (Lingkuma

et al.,2002) seed treatment of foliar application. Foliar application is spraying of nutrient to leaves and

stems when they are absorbed by the plant (Sethe and Adhikary 2008).

The use of natural seaweed as fertilizer has allowed for partial substitution of conventional of

synthetic fertilizer (Dhargalkar and Pereira 2005; Hong et al. 2007; Khan et al. 2009; Zodape et al. 2010).

In addition, a number of commercial seaweed extract products are available for use in agriculture and

horticulture and can be used as liquid extracts applied as foliar spray, soil drench, or in granular/power

form as soil conditioners and manure (Lingakumar et al. 2004; Thirumaran et al. 2009). These extract are

marketed as liquid bio stimulants because of chemical analysis of seaweeds and there extracts has

revealed the presence of a wide variety of plant growth- promoting substance such as auxins, cytokines,

and betonies (Khan et al. 2009). These substance can influence shoot and roots system development

(Durand et al. 2003; Strirk et al. 2004). As well, macronutrient and micronutrient can help promote the

growth of virous vegetables, fruits, and other crop. Many beneficial effects have been reported on the
use of seaweed extract. Positive responses include improved germination, root development, leaf

quality, general plant vigour, and resistance to pathogens (Khan et al. 2009).

Fermented seaweed extract has a principle of biological fermentation method is using various

kind of enzymes produces by microorganism in the metabolic process which used seaweed as nutrient.

It degrades macromolecule material in seaweeds into macromolecules and water soluble strong alkali

and high temperature of chemical method. It maximize the retention of bioactive and nitrous substance

of seaweed extract. It also stimulate plants to generate specific biological factor and 18 kinds of amino

acids, arachidonic acid, peptides, nucleotides, algea, polyphenols, flavonoids various vitamins, alginic

acid and humid acid etc. which can be absorb easily by the roots and leaves of the plant and enhance

the plant resistance to drought, cold, pest and disease. All these substance are extracted completely

from natural algea in a balanced ratio by using the fermentation process, but not from chemical

additives these substance are environment-friendly, nontoxic to human and

animals.(www.lianfengbio.com.cn/e-seaweed-extract)

Lemonier-Le Penhuizic et al.,2001. Carrageenan and aligo carrageenan’s (OCs) stimulate the

growth of green land plants by modulating various physiological and biochemical process. OCs are

oligomers of sulfated galactose, generally 20 units long, prepared through depolymerization by hot, acid

hydrolysis of the commercially available carrageenan’s. OCs appears to act as signal molecule, enhancing

the induction of microspore embryogenesis in Brassica oleracea var. italic.

Lemonier-Le Penhuizic et al.,2001. State that in combination with heat stress, carrageenan

significantly enhanced the production of B. oleracea var. italic microspore-derived embryos.

Bi et al.(2011) found that carrageenan initiates early flowering and improves growth in chickpea

and maize by increasing plant height, the number of pods in chickpea and leaves in both plants. Spray
application of OCs resulted in increased plant growth and cell division in tobacco and these change were

associated with increased cell number but not cell size.

Gonzalez et al.,2013. Stat that Eucalyptus globules plants treated with carrageenan showed an

increase in height and trunk diameter and carrageenan caused a 58 and 47% increase in plant height,

respectively, and a 44 to 40% increase in trunk diameter, respectively.

Lemonier-Le Penhuizic, C., Chatelet, C., Kloareng, B., and Potin, P. (2001). Carrageenan

oligosaccharides enhance stress-induced microspore embryogenesis in Brassica oleracea var. italic.

Sangha, J. S., Kandasamy, S., Khan, W., Bahia, N. S., Singh, R. P., Critchley, A. T., et al.,(2015).

Carrageenan suppresses Tomato Chaotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVD) replication and symptom expression in

tomatoes.

Mercier et al., (2001) reported that carrageenan proved to be the most potent elicitor molecule

because of its high sulfate content, as compared to that of i- and k-carrageenan. Carrageenan induced

systemic resistance against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae in tobacco cells by increasing the

expression of a sesquiterpene cylase involved in the synthesis of the phytoalexin capsidio.


CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND TREATMENT

The experiment will be conducted using single factor experiment in Randomized Complete Block

Design (RCBD) with (3) treatments and replicated thrice.

The following treatment:

T1-vermi compost (control)

T2-vermi compost + 20ml (seaweed extract): (1liter pure water)

T3 –vermin compost 20ml (carrageenan): (1 liter pure water)

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

LAND PREPERATION

The land will be prepared by plowing the area two times in a week interval to lessen the weeds.

Each plowing will be followed by harrowing to give enough time for the weeds and stables of previous

crop to decompose. Plowing depth in 15 to 20cm. harrowing will be done to break the clods and level

the field.
SOIL SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Before land preparation, gathering of soil samples will be done to different location within the

experimental area at a depth and width of 6 inches. These soil samples will be submitted to CV/AL soil

laboratory.

PLANTING

When the weather is warm, it’s time to plant the okra in your garden. Sow your seeds 4 inches

(10.2cm) apart at depth of ½ inch (1.3cm). if you started your seeds indoors, handle the seedlings very

carefully and plant them 1foot (0.3m) apart in rose 3feet (0.9m) apart. Dig holes larger enough to hold

the base of the plants. Water the garden to help set the soil.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION

The ½ kilo of vermin compost will be applied to every plant in furrow and covered with fine layer of

three centimeter of soil. The treatment which are 20ml (carrageenan);5 li. (pure water) and 20ml

(fermented seaweed extract);5 li. (pure water) will be applied 15 days after transplanting.

IRRIGATION

The plant will be watered after transplanting to provide sufficient moisture for the growing seedling.

Irrigation will be done as the need arise.

CULTIVATING AND WEEDING

Hand weeding will be done at the base of the plants regularly to avoid the weeds completing with plants

in nutrient and water uptake.


RECOMMENDATION

Recommendation based on soil analysis;

HARVESTING

Harvesting the pods when they are 2 to 3 inches (5.1 to 7.6cm) long. Harvest the okra every other day,

and every day. You may even need to harvest twice per day to keep up with growth at the peak of the

season.

DATA TO BE GATHERED

1. Average number of fruit/plants

Number of fruits per plant will be counted from the times of five(5) priming’s such times that

the fruits still good.

2. Average length of fruits/plant

This will be taken from ten (10) representative sample plants by measuring the length of fruit

from the tip to the other using tape measure. The total will be divided by ten to get the average.

3. Average weight of fruit(grams) plant.

This will be taken from all the sample plant in every treatment and average will be taken.

4. (kg) of marketable fruits/plants

This will be determined by weighing the harvested marketable fruits per plants.

5. (kg) of non-marketable fruits/plants

This will be determined by weighing the harvested non-marketable fruits per plant.

6. Cost of producing (kg) fruits/plants

This will be calculated by adding all the production cost than the sum, will be dividing by the kg

of produced fruit.
Formula:

Total production cost

____________________

(kg) of harvested fruit


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS PAGE

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………I

APPROVAL SHEET…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………II

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..III

CHAPTER I-INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………IV

Importance of the study

Objectives of the study

CHAPTER II-REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………………………………………………………………………………..V

Review of related literature

CHAPTER III-RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………………………………….VI

a. METHODOLOGY

b. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND TREATMENT

c. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

a. Land preparation

b. Soil sample analysis

c. Planting

d. Fertilizer application

e. Irrigation

f. Weeding and cultivating


g. Recommendation

h. Harvesting

i. Data to be gathered
YIELD PERFORMANCE OF LADY’S FINGER (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) INFLUENCED
BY SEAWEED EXTRACT AND CARRAGEENAN

A Thesis Presented to the


Members of the Local Research Committee
Of the College of Agriculture
Cagayan State University
Gonzaga, Cagayan

In Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements for the Degree
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE
(Major in Crop Science)

AVON TABASAN
AUGOST 2019
Republic of the Philippines
Cagayan State University
Gonzaga, Cagayan

APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis proposal attached hereto entitled “YIELD PERFORMANCE OF LADY’S


FINGER AS INFLUENCED BY SEAWEED EXTRACT AND CARAGEENAN” presented
and submitted by ROBIN P. TABASAN; in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree Bachelor of Science in Agriculture is hereby endorsed.

Adviser
_________
Date

Member Member
_________ _________
Date Date

English Critic Statistician


_________ _________
Date Date

.
College and Campus Research Coordinator
_________
Date

Program Chair
_________
Date

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree Bachelor of Science in
Agriculture, Major in Crop Science.

FROILAN A. PACRIS Jr. Ph.D.


Campus Executive Officer
_________
Date
Republic of the Philippines
Cagayan State University
Gonzaga, Cagayan

APLLICATION TO CONDUCT

January 5,2019

Dr. CLARIBEL A. GASPAR Associate


Dean, College of Agriculture Gonzaga Campus
Sir /Madam:

I, Robin P. Tabasan a fourth year BSA student of Cagayan State University, Gonzaga Campus wishes to
the conduct the research study entitled YIELD PERFOMANCE OF BITTER GOURD (GALAXY f1) AS
INFLUENCED BY PERMENTED SEAWEED EXTRACT AND CARAGEENAN in partial fulfillment for the
degree of bachelor of science in agriculture major in crop science.

I am humbly asking permission to conduct the said proposal this January 5,2019 at Cagayan State
University Gonzaga Campus.

Attached is the project proposal

Thank you and more power.

Respectfully yours,

ROBIN P. TABASAN
Researcher

Noted by:

JAYROME S. BUTAY KRISTINE Q. TUMABAO, MSA


Faculty Adviser

LYLE SUMER, BSA HERBERT C. IMATONG Ph. D


Faculty Faculty

CALIXTO B. ALICAY, Ph. D


Director for RDE

Approved by:

CLARIBEL A. GASPAR, Ph. D


Associate Dean, CA