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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

Okra(Abelmoschus Esculentus L.) is an important vegetable grown for its green tender fruits

which are used as a vegetable in a variety of ways. It is rich in vitamins, calcium, potassium and other

minerals matter. It can be friedand cooked with necessary ingredients.

Okra is also known as lady’s finger. It is a green flowering plant. It is a common vegetable

everyday, which is why we probably haven’t been giving it much of importance.(Ravi Teja 2018)

Okra is cultivated under rainfed and in irrigated areas and wide range of soil. The production is

seriously effected by use of local varieties (low yielding) sub-optimal and in approppriate manure doses.

The use of inorganic fertilizer has not been helpful under intensive agriculture because it is often

associated with reduced crop yield, soil acidity and nutrients imbalance(Ojeny, 2003). Furthermore, the

extent to which farmers can depend on this input is constrained by un availability of the right type of

inorganic fertilizer at the right time, high cost, lack of technical know-how and lack of access to credit

(Chude, 2000).

Okra is a warm seasonal vegetable, also known as gumbo or ladies finger. We will look at the

nutritional content of okra, its possible health benefits, recipe tips for preparing okra, and any possible

health rish (www.medicinalnewstudy.com).

Lady’s finger or okra is an important vegetable crop of tropical countries. It is one of the most

common vegetable in India. It is available almost throughout the year. The crop is grown chiefly for the

tender green fruit, which are mucilaginous and are cooked in various

ways.(www.agriculturalproductsindis.com)
Fermemted seaweed extract are use as fertilizer which is suitable for use in organic agriculture,

(Lopez-Mosquera et. A.,2011)

Fermented seaweed extract has played an important role in the plant growth, which provide

plants with very comprehensive nutrients and the endogenous plant growth regulator such as auxine,

cytokine and gibberellins, which have a significant effect on plant growth to stimulate plant to generate

specific biological factor, amino acid and virous vitamin which can be absorb easily by the roots and

leaves of the plant as nutrient directly and enhance the plant’s resistant to drought, cold, pest and

diseases. Also, the cytokines available in seaweed stimulate vigorous growth because they mobilize

nutrient in the leaves and they provide protection from marginal frost (to-3C) and retard senescence

(aging process in the plant). This substance are environmental friendly, non-toxic to human and animals.

(www./lantengbio.com/or seaweedextract).

The application of seaweed extract as seed treatment and or foliar spray helps significant

growth of plants. The extract contains micro-nutrients,auxins and cytokinins and other growth

promoting substance(Spinelli et al.,2010). These hormones play an important role in enhancement of

cell size and cell division, and together they complement each other as cytokinins are effective in shoot

generation and auxins in root development, while micro-nutrients improve soil health(Lin and Linjun,

2011).

This study aims to address the problem by using organic foliar fertilizer to improve the

production of crop. Some effort are required to fulfill a part of nutrient and improve the physical,

chemical, and biological traits of the soil through the application of organic fertilizer. (Maghfoer, M.D. et

.al..2014)
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Generally, the study aims to determine the effect of foliar spray on the yield performance of

okra.

Specifically, this study aims to determine the:

a. YIELD PARAMETER

1. Average number of fruit

2. Average length(cm) of fruits

3. Average weight(g) of fruits

b. COST AND RETURN ANALYSIS

TIME AND LOCALE OF THE STUDY

This research will be conducted of the experimental area at Cagayan State University Gonzaga

Campus,Gonzaga.
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON OKRA PRODUCTION

Okra(Abelmoschus Esculentus L.) is one of the most important vegetable grown in Nigeria it is

an annual crop grown mainly as fruits and leafy vegetable in both green and dried state in the

tropics.the crop is used asoup thickener with may also be served with rice and other food type the fresh

fruit is a good source of vitamins, mineral and plant protein (Eke et al.,2008). Okra contain about 20%

edible oil and protein whileits mucilage is utilized for medicinal purposes.the mature stem contain crude

fiber which is used in paper industries and for making ropes. Okras’s flower can be very attractive and

sometimes used in decorating the room (Schippers, 2000).

Okra a commercial vegetable crop belong to the family of Malvaceae. It originates from Ethiopia

and is widely spreed all over tropical, subtropical and warm temperature regions of the world. It plays

an important role in the human diet and is a good source of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, calcium

potassium, enzyme, and total minerals which are often lacking in the diet of developing country. Its

medicinal value has also been reported in curing ulcer and relief from hemorrhoids. Okra has found

medicinal application as plasma replacement or blood volume expander and also useful in genito-

urinary disorders, spermatorrhoea and chronic dysentery. The fruit of okra have reawakened beneficial

interest in bringing the crop into commercial production. (www.researchgate.net).

Lady’s finger or okra is an important vegetable crop of tropical countries. It is one of the most

common vegetable in India and is available almost throughout the year. The crop is grown chiefly for the

tender green fruit, which are mucilaginous and are cooked in various way at the proper edible stage, the

fruit one a good source of protein, carbohydrates and minerals. Apart from its importance as a

vegetable, okra has several other economic used also. White eyed black or brown seeds of the mature
fruit are sometimes roasted and used as a substitute for coffee powder. The mature fruits and stem

containing the crude fiber are used in paper industry.(Schippers et al.,2000).

Seaweed extract is viewed superior because the organic matter aidsin retaining moisture and

fertilizer that promote the growth and yield attribute properly of the plant when applied in a small

quantity during a crop cycle. The biostimulant present in seaweed extract increase the vegetative

growth (10%), the leaf chlorophyll content (11%), the stomata density (6.5%), photosynthetic rate and

the fruit production (27%) of the plant (Spinelli et al.,2010). The liquid seaweed extracts from seaweed

are usually prepared by hydrolyzing the material under pressure, however, the preparation may varies

from species to species depending upon the amount of dried material available. Its method of extraction

significantly differ from person to person and also the mode of application to crops. Seaweed extract are

used in several way, such as drench in soil during transplanting, during field preparation (Lingkuma et

al.,2002) seed treatment of foliar application. Foliar application is spraying of nutrient to leaves and

stems when they are absorbed by the plant (Sethe and Adhikary 2008).

The use of natural seaweed as fertilizer has allowed for partial substitution of conventional of

synthetic fertilizer (Dhargalkar and Pereira 2005;Hong et al. 2007; Khan et al. 2009; Zodape et al. 2010).

In addition, a number of commercial seaweed extract products are available for use in agriculture and

horticulture and can be used as liquid extracts applied as foliar spray, soil drench, or in granular/power

form as soil conditioners and manure (Lingakumar et al. 2004; Thirumaran et al. 2009). These extract are

marketed as liquid bio stimulants because of chemical analysis of seaweeds and there extracts has

revealed the presence of a wide variety of plant growth- promoting substance such as auxins, cytokines,

and betaines (Khan et al. 2009). These substance can influence shoot and roots system development

(Durand et al. 2003; Strirk et al. 2004). As well, macronutrient and micronutrient can help promote the

growth of virous vegetables, fruits, and other crop. Many beneficial effect have been reported on the
use of seaweed extract. Positive responses include improved germination, root development, leaf

quality, general plant vigour, and resistance to pathogens (Khan et al. 2009)
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND TREATMENT

The experiment will be conducted using single factor experiment in Randomized Complete Block

Design with (3) treatments and replicated thrice.

The following treatment:

T1-control/farmer practice

T2-10 ml (seaweed extract):1liter pure water

T3 -30ml (seaweed extract):1 liter pure water

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

LAND PREPERATION

The land will be prepared by plowing the area two times in a week interval to lessen the weeds.

Each plowing will be followed by harrowing to give enough time for the weeds and stables of previous

crop to decompose. Plowing depth in 15 to 20cm. harrowing will be done to break the clods and level

the field.

SOIL SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Before land preparation, gathering of soil samples will be done to different location within the

experimental area at a depth and width of 6 inches. These soil sample will be submitted to CV/AL soil

laboratory.
PLANTING

When the weather is warm, its time to plant the okra in your garden. Sow your seeds 4 inches

(10.2cm) apart at depth of ½ inch (1.3cm). if you started your seeds indoors, handle the seedlings very

carefully and plant them 1foot (0.3m) apart in rose 3feet (0.9m) apart. Dig holes larger enough to hold

the base of the plants. Water the garden to help set the soil.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION

In the application of fertilizer, vermin cast serve as basal. As side dress, urea and 16-20-0 will be

applied as what is needed by the plants.

Both treatment 2 and 3 will be administer in the morning between 8:00 and 9:00 at fair weather

condition. This will be on time for stomata opening and better nutrient absorption. Administering the

treatment will be commence one week after transplanting and be repeated done week interval up to

the onset of flowering.

WEEDING AND CARE OF PLANTS

When the weeds start to appear, light weeding with the use of hoe will be done to eliminate

germinating weeds. Strict sanitation habit can prevent insect population and diseases infestation. Hand

weeding will be done to protect the craw ling vines. It was done by hilling-up inter-row cultivation.

These will be done until the crop has attained sufficient size to cover the soil surface which supress the

growth of weeds. The vine tran along the rows 25 days after planting to facilitate watering and weeding

in the field. These will be done weekly. Prominent vine were will effect the yield.

GATHERING THE DATA


In this study, 10 sample plants will be randomly selected on each plot for the Data Collection.

The sample plant will be provided with the base marks as reference during the gathering of data.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS PAGE

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………I

APPROVAL SHEET…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………II

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..III

CHAPTER I-INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………IV

Importance of the study

Objectives of the study

CHAPTER II-REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………………………………………………………………………………..V

Review of related literature

CHAPTER III-RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………………………………….VI

a. METHODOLOGY

b. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND TREATMENT

c. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

a. Land preparation

b. Soil sample analysis

c. Planting

d. Fertilizer application

e. Water management

f. Weeding
g. Gathering the data

Yield component

Cost and return analysis

h. Analysis the data