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psi MPA KPA inch mm

1 0.0069 1 25.4
50 0.344738 345 10 254
10000 69 20 508
14 0.0965 97 0
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
ef = number of equivalent standard ax
ef = (L/8160)n (for loads in kg) Equation 2.3 L = axle load (in kg or kN)
or ef = (L/80)n (for loads in kN) Equation 2.4 n = damage exponent (n = 4.5
Axle 1 Axle 2 Axle 3
Truck No Load(kg) Factor Load(kg) Factor Load(kg)
1 6780 0.43 14150 11.91 8290
2 6260 0.30 12920 7.91 8090
3 6350 0.32 13000 8.13 8490
4 5480 0.17 12480 6.77 7940
5 6450 0.35 8880 1.46 6290
6 5550 0.18 12240 6.20 8550
7 5500 0.17 11820 5.30 7640
8 4570 0.07 13930 11.10 2720
9 4190 0.05 15300 16.92 3110
10 4940 0.10 15060 15.76 2880
Mean equivalency factor for truck-trailers
In this example it is assumed that similar calculations have been performed, giving mean
equivalency factors for buses and trucks of 0.14 and 6.67 respectively.
Initial car survey (in 2002)
2002 AADT Constant Growth ra2005 AADT One directional flow
Car 250 0.05 289 145
Bus 40 0.05 46 23
Truck 130 0.05 150 75
Truck-trail 180 0.05 208 104
Selecting a design period of 20 years, the cumulative number of vehicles in one direction
over the design period is calculated as follows:

For structural pavement design the cumulative traffic loading of each of the motorised
vehicle classes over the design life of the road in one direction is required. For a given
class, m, this is given by the following equation:
T(m) = 0.5 x 365 x AADT(m)0 [(1+i/100)N – 1]/(i/100) Equation 2.2
Where
T(m) = the cumulative traffic of traffic class m
AADT(m)1 = The AADT of traffic class m in the first year
N = the design period in years
For structural pavement design the cumulative traffic loading of each of the motorised
vehicle classes over the design life of the road in one direction is required. For a given
class, m, this is given by the following equation:
T(m) = 0.5 x 365 x AADT(m)0 [(1+i/100)N – 1]/(i/100) Equation 2.2
Where
T(m) = the cumulative traffic of traffic class m
AADT(m)1 = The AADT of traffic class m in the first year
N = the design period in years
i = the annual growth rate of traffic in percent
Vehicle Class Cumulative number in one direction over 20 years
Car 1 1,746,433
Bus 4 279,429
Truck 6 908,145
Trucks and trailers 7 and 12 1,257,431
Finally, the cumulative numbers of ESAs over the design period are calculated as follows,
using the cumulative numbers of vehicles previously calculated and the equivalency
factors:
Vehicle Class Cumulative number of Equivalency
v Factor Total ESA(106)
Car 1 1746433 0 0.0
Bus 4 279429 0.14 0.0
Truck 6 908145 6.67 6.1

Trucks and trailers 7 and 12 1257431 11.5 14.4


Total ESAs 20.5
Based on the above analysis, the trunk road under study belongs to the traffic class T8 for
flexible pavement design.
Traffic Class Range(106 ESAs)
T1 < 0.3
T2 0.3--0.7
T3 0.7--1.5
T4 1.5-3
T5 3--6
T6 6--10
T7 10--17
T8 17--30

Example 2

A two-way two-lane highway section is to be constructed. A one week axle load survey on this section was carried out
and the average daily commercial traffic in both directions is as given below. A 10-year design period with a traffic
growth rate of 5% per annum is assumed. Compute the cumulative ESA. (Assume 60/40% directional split)
Solution Range-1 Range-2 Range-3
Axle load (KN) 10 30 30 50 50
No of axles 100 70 30
Average axle load 20 40 60
(Lx/80) = EALF
4.5
0.002 0.044 0.274
EAL 0.20 3.09 8.22
∑ ESA i = 289.51/day in both directions. ESA in 10 6

ESA( for 10 years design period) 1329204.5614541 1.329 both directions


For D= 0.6(60/40 traffic distibution) 0.8 one direction ( two-lane)
for L= 0.9 0.72 Design lane
m
0.0254

ber of equivalent standard axles (ESAs)


L = axle load (in kg or kN)
= damage exponent (n = 4.5)
Axle 3 Axle 4
Factor Load(kg) Factor Total Factor
1.07 8370 1.12 14.5
0.96 9940 2.43 11.6
1.20 9340 1.84 11.5
0.88 9470 1.95 9.8
0.31 10160 2.68 4.8
1.23 10150 2.67 10.3
0.74 9420 1.91 8.1
0.01 2410 0.00 11.2
0.01 2450 0.00 17.0
0.01 2800 0.01 15.9
tor for truck-trailers 11.5
mean

ne direction

f the motorised
red. For a given

on 2.2
ulated as follows,
he equivalency

T8 for

ction was carried out


eriod with a traffic
irectional split)
Range-3 Range-4 Range-5 Range-6 Range-7
70 70 90 90 110 110 130 130 150
30 20 15 15 10
60 80 100 120 140
0.274 1.000 2.730 6.200 12.407
8.22 20.00 40.94 93.00 124.07 289.53
on ( two-lane)
∑ ESA i
Given the three-layer system shown in Figure 2 .30 with a = 4 .8 in. (122 mm), q = 120 psi (828
kPa), h1 = 6 in. (152 mm), h2 = 6 in. (203 mm), E1 = 400,000 psi (2.8 GPa), E2 = 20,000 psi
(138 MPa), and E3 = 10,000 psi (69 MPa), determine all the stresses and strains at the tw o
interfaces on the axis of symmetry .
q = 828KPa

Given
a
E1=2.8GPa all σr,ϵ=? h1=152mm E1
E2
E3
E2=0.138GPa h2=152mm h1
h2
h3
E3=0.069GPa h3= ∞ q

Solution

The stresses in a three-layer system depend on the ratios k1, k2, A, and H, defined as:
K1 E1/E2 20
K2 E2/E3 2
A a/h2 0.8
H h1/h2 1
From table 2.3
ZZ1 0.12173
ZZ2 0.05938
ZZ1-RR1 1.97428
ZZ2-RR2 0.09268
Stress calculation equation
σz1 q*(ZZ1) 101 KPa
σz2 q*(ZZ2) 49 KPa
σz1-σr1 q*(ZZ1-RR1) 1635 KPa 1.63 MPa
σz2-σr2 q*(ZZ2-RR2) 77 KPa

σz1-σ1r1 (σz1-σr1)/k1 81 Kpa


σz2-σ r2
1
(σz2-σr2)/k2 38.4 Kpa

At bottom of layer 1(Strain Calculation equation and radial stress)


σr1(Bottom) σz1-q*(ZZ1-RR1) -1534 KPa -1.53 Mpa
ϵz1(Bottom) (σz1-σr1)/E1 0.000584
ϵr1(Bottom) (σr1-σz1)/2*E1 -0.00029
At Top of layer 2(Strain Calculation equation and radial stress)
σ1r1(Top) σz1- (σz1-σr1)/k1 20 KPa
ϵz2(Top) (σz1-σ1r1)/E2 0.000584
ϵr2(Top) (σ1r1-σz1)/2*E2 ###
At Bottom of layer 2(Strain Calculation equation and radial stress)
σr2(Bottom) σz2-q*(ZZ2-RR2) -28 KPa
ϵz2(Bottom) (σz2-σr2)/E2 0.000556
ϵr2(Bottom) (σr2-σz2)/2*E2 ###
At Top of layer 3(Strain Calculation equation and radial stress)
σ1r2(Top) σz2- (σz2-σr2)/k2 10.8 KPa
ϵz3(Top) (σz2-σ1r2)/E3 0.000556
ϵr3(Top) (σ1r2-σz2)/2*E3 ###
2 mm), q = 120 psi (828
GPa), E2 = 20,000 psi
and strains at the tw o

122 mm
2.8 Gpa
0.138 Gpa
0.069 Gpa
152 mm
152 mm
∞ mm
828 Kpa

, and H, defined as:

dial stress)