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Ancient Rome Unit

Created by Teddy Werkheiser
Adapted from Waters and Anderson
Ancient Rome Unit Plan
I. Unit Goals:
1. Students will be able to understand how individuals are shaped by their own past
and by the past of their respective society and institutions.
2. Students will be able to understand the role of human agency in bringing about
change in society and institutions.
3. Students will be able to understand the operation of large-scale forces responsible
for causing change over time, such as politics, economics, and religion.
4. Students will be able to understand the operation of large-scale forces responsible
for causing change over time, such as politics, economics, and religion.
5. Students will be able to understand the nature of cause and effect relationships in
human affairs as they have played out over time and as they continue to operate in
the present.
6. Students will be able to work together to create something based off an assigned or
chosen topic.

II. Unit Objectives:

A. Cognitive:
1. Students will be able to activate prior knowledge and discuss Roman life, culture, and
achievements.
2. Students will be able to answer questions about formation and daily life of the Roman Republic.
3. Students will be able to compare Roman culture to their contemporary lives.
4. Students will be able to determine Roman architectural styles in the modern world.
5. Students will be able to understand the importance of Roman architecture and its cultural
significance.
6. Student will be able to analyze Hannibal’s reason for attack and his military tactics.
7. Students will be able understand what qualities make a strong leader.
8. Students will be able to evaluate Roman entertainment and its importance in Roman society.
9. Students will be able to answer a prompt using what they have learned to support their
position.
10. Student will be able to understand the failure of the second triumvirate to rule together.
11. Students will be able to analyze how one women could tear apart a government.
12. Students will be able to discuss why Augustus Caesar and Marc Antony went to war against each
other.
13. Students will be able to understand the importance of primary document in history.
14. Students will be able to compare good versus bad emperors in Roman history.
15. Students will be able to identify technological feats of Rome’s infrastructure.
16. Students will be able to compare Ancient Roman cities with cities of today.
17. Students will be able to analyze Roman artifacts using prior knowledge about Roman culture
and society.
18. Students will be able to analyze through cause and effect why the Roman Empire started to
break up.
19. Students will be able to identify the causes that led to the fall of the Roman Empire.
20. Students will be able to compare Roman mistakes to mistakes made by nations in the 20 th and
21st centuries.
21. Students will be able to apply prior knowledge to construct a web of ten cause of Rome’s
weakened state.
22. Students will be able to use prior knowledge to construct a timeline of Ancient Rome’s history.
23.

A. Affective:
1. Students will be able to understand the importance different cultures made in shaping Rome.
2. Students will be able to understand different Roman customs and cultural aspects.
3. Students will be able to interpret how Romans would have reacted to the tragedy at Pompeii.
4. Students will be able to understand the importance of religious freedom and tolerance toward
others.

A. Skill:
1. Students will be able to identify the location of Rome and its surrounding area’s geographical
features.
2. Students will be able to analyze a secondary source reading to answer questions about it.
3. Students will be able to compare the geography of Ancient Rome to that of Ancient Greece.
4. Students will be able to identify important Roman building such as the coliseum and the forum.
5. Students will be able to compare Hannibal and Julius Caesar.
6. Students will be able to compare entertainment of Ancient Rome to contemporary
entertainment.
7. Students will be able to identify primary sources.
8. Students will be able analyze primary sources.
9. Students will be able to construct a five paragraph essay using internet research.
10. Students will be able to use technology to help them research their chosen emperor.
11. Students will be able to analyze photos of modern day and determine their historical
significance.
12. Students will be able to compare Emperor Nero’s rule with other Roman emperors as well as
modern rulers.
13. Students will be able to test their understanding of Latin and what English phrases and words
are similar to it.
14. Students will be able interpret a painting from the time and what its significance is.
15. Students will be able to construct a 5 paragraph essay detailing causes that led to the fall of the
Roman Empire.
16. Students will be able to analyze the movie Gladiator and pick out which parts are realistic of
Ancient Rome and which are dramatization.
17.
III. Unit Content
1. Introduction to Ancient Rome

2. Roman Republic

3. Roman Culture

4. Roman Architecture

5. Roman Personalities

6. Roman Entertainment

7. Beginning of Roman Empire

8. Roman Primary Sources

9. Roman Emperors

10. Underground Rome

11. Tragedy in Rome

12. Break Up of Roman Empire

13. Barbarian Invasion of Rome

14. End of the Empire

15. Timeline and Gladiator


Ancient Rome
I Physical Features –

A. Locate on a globe and world map

B. Topographical features

C. Letter to parents asking for help with supplies

II. Founding of Rome

A. Remus and Romulus

B. Peoples

a. Etruscans

b. Latins

c. Gauls

d. Greeks

III. Culture

A. Government

a. The Early Republic

i. Patricians

ii. Plebeians

iii. Consuls

iv. Tribunes

v. Senators

vi. Assemblyman

b. Roman Law and the Twelve Tables

c. Checks and Balances


B. Society

a. Women

b. Social Hierarchy

c. Paterfamilias

i. Relationship between the family and the senate

ii. Virtues taught to children

C. Agrarian Society

a. Troubles of the farmers

b. Tiberius Gracchus

D. D. Arts, Architecture, and Engineering

a. Golden age of Literature

b. Virgil

i. Commonalities with Homer

ii. Aeneid

c. Poetry

i. Horace

ii. Ovid

E. Religion

a. Roman Gods

b. Early Christianity

i. Threat to Rome

ii. Capital Punishment

iii. Trajan
iv. The appeal

v. St. Paul

vi. The Official religion of Rome

IV. The Empire

A. Augustus Caesar

a. The First Triumvirate

b. Julius Caesar

c. Reforms

d. Killing the Caesar

e. Why were the Romans willing to risk their republic and give power to one
man?

C. Pax Roman

D. Expansion

a. Gladiators and Slavery

i. Coliseum

b. Ruling new lands

E. Ruling the empire

a. Jerusalem

b. Cicero

c. Did the Empire benefit those they conquered?

F. The 200’s – An empire in Crisis

a. Constantine

b. Weakening Economy
c. Foreign mercenaries

d. Byzantium

G. Decline of the Roman Empire

a. Weakening Economy

i. Constantine

ii. Weakening Economy

iii. Foreign mercenaries

b. Barbarian Invasions

i. Huns

ii. Routes

iii. Why wasn’t the Eastern Empire Invaded?


Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 and Day 5
Topic: Intro to Rome Topic: Roman Republic Topic: Roman Culture Topic: Roman Architecture
Method: KWL chart, writing on Method: map review, partner Method: comparison, class discussion, Method: class discussion, writing on board, reading, video, video
board, class discussion, class reading, small group, individual writing on the board, partner reading worksheet
reading, map activity, use of writing prompt, pair share Content: Activity 1: Opener will compare the Content: Activity 1: Opener question—List what you think are 5 of the most
technology Content: Activity 1: Review Italian origin and government of the Roman Republic to famous/important buildings in the US. What are their functions? Class will list
Peninsula map for opener. the origins and government of the United States. these on the board and discuss what they are used for, drawing connections to
Content: Opener: Ask students what
Activity 2: Pair reading: “Early Rome: A Activity 2: Class reading of MI: “Roman Bathing.” buildings in Ancient Rome. Activity 2: Class reading of “Roman Architecture”.
things a city/state needs to operate and
Blend of Cultures”. Students answer Students answer questions and compare as a Students answer questions and compare as a class to check for understanding.
keep people happy (running water,
questions and fill in Venn Diagram. class to check for understanding Activity 3: Class will begin viewing David Macaulay’s Roman City and answering
entertainment, laws). Create a list on
Review selected questions as a class to Activity 3: Class compiles a list on the board of questions during the video. Activity 4: Begin reading “Roman Slavery”.
the board and discuss how each item
complete student understanding of their ideal “feast”, including number and
contributes to a healthy society.
Roman geography description of courses and how many people
Activity 1: Students will complete the K
Activity 3:Mel-Con: How does the they would invite. Pairs read “Roman Dining” and
of a KWL chart about Ancient Rome with
geography of Ancient Rome give the answer questions. Activity 4: Begin reading “The
known facts about Roman life, culture,
Romans an advantage or disadvantage Roman Republic”.
and achievements.
Activity 2: Reading: “Romulus and over other civilizations we have
Remus: The Founders of Rome” and discussed so far?
questions. Activity 4: Begin reading “The Roman
Activity 3: Map activity worksheet, to be Republic”.
completed with textbook/mobile
devices.
Day 6 and Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10
Topic: Roman Personalities Topic: Roman Entertainment Topic: Beginning of Roman Topic: Roman Primary Sources
Method: class discussion, partner reading, video clip, opinion Method: class discussion, class reading, Empire Method: open ended question,
prompt, small groups small groups, partners, video clip, Method: class discussion, class small groups, student projects
Content: Activity 1: Opener question—What makes a strong leader? What does narrative prompt reading, question worksheet, Content: Activity 1: Opener
a strong leader need to do to keep power/peace? Discuss the opener as a class as a Content: Activity 1: Opener question—What partner reading, question—What can we gain from
lead-in to learning about Roman leaders of the Republic. Activity 2: Class reading of do you do for fun/recreation? What do you think reading a primary source? Activity 2:
Content: Activity 1: Opener
“Hannibal Barca” Students answer questions and compare as a class to check for most Americans enjoy for entertainment? Complete “Ancient Rome: Analyzing
question—Is there good that can come
understanding Activity 3: Class will view short video clip on Hannibal/crossing of the Activity 2: Finish class reading of Supporting Primary Sources” as a class. Activity 3:
out of seeking revenge against
Alps: “True Story of Hannibal the Great, Part III” Details/Linking “Julius Caesar” and complete Class time is given to work on “No
somebody else? Explain. Activity 2:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFNGVSf7YNM. Narrative writing: Do you think questions in partners. Teacher will check Place Like Rome” project
Review the history of Julius Caesar as a
Hannibal was right to attack Rome? Why or why not? Activity 4: Begin reading responses for understanding. Activity 3: Class will class. Class reading of “Augustus
Supporting Details/Linking “Julius Caesar”. view short video clip from Ben-Hur depicting the Caesar” and completion of questions in
chariot race. In partners, students read groups. Activity 3: Partner reading of
“Gladiators” and answer the questions. Activity “Where are Antony and Cleopatra?”
4: Class compiles a review list on the board of the and completion of questions. Class
daily life activities in Ancient Rome (i.e. bathing, reviews selected questions to check for
dinners, politics, gladiatorial games). Students understanding. Activity 4: Introduction
respond to the narrative prompt: There is a of “No Place Like Rome” advertisement
famous phrase, “When in Rome, do as the project. .
Romans do.” If you lived in Ancient Rome, how
would you act?
Day 11 and Day 12 Day 13 Day 14 Day 15
Topic: Roman Emperors Topic: Underground Rome Topic: Tragedy in Rome Topic: Break Up of Roman
Method: open-ended question, reading, research, use of Method: reading as a class, question Method: individual worksheet, Empire
computers, web question, written narrative worksheet in pairs, online video clip, pair reading, comparing Method: class discussion,
Content: Opener: Ask students what qualities make a good leader. Activity 1: use of photos, class discussion through discussion, work in reading in pairs, activity as a
Students will go to a computer lab. Class will read over “Good or Bad?” worksheet Content: Opener: What are the most basic small groups class
and complete a short web question to find one additional “good” and one “bad” necessities of a city? Activity 1: Exploring Content: Opener: “Artifact Analysis” Content: Opener: “Why are all
emperor. Students will write a narrative on the prompt: Who was the best/worst Underground Rome. Class will read “In Rome’s worksheet, to be completed religions tolerated in the United States
emperor in Roman history? Students will use their worksheet outline to help them Basement” together and complete the questions individually and gone over as a class today? Why is this a good thing?”
construct their response. individually. Class will watch short video on Activity 1: “Nero”: Class will read Class will discuss freedom of religion
Cloaca Maxima: “Nero” in pairs and complete the and draw parallels to Rome’s tolerance
.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=playerdetailpage&v=DEeQPZONYSU attached questions. Class will compare, of religions. Activity 1: Class will read
Class will view photos taken in modern Rome and through discussion, Nero’s actions and “Constantine & Christianity” in pairs
discuss their historical significance. legacy with those of other “bad” and complete the attached questions.
emperors discussed in the computer Activity 2: Class will complete “Cause-
research activity previously. Activity 2: Effect: Break-Up of the Roman
Class will begin “Supporting Details: Empire” as a class. Class will read the
Secrets of Pompeii” and complete in passage and go over one example of
pairs. cause-effect relationships together.
Activity 3: Students will begin “Latin
You May Know” and write in what the
words/phrases mean to them.
Day 16 Day 17 Day 18, Day 19, and Day 20
Topic: Barbarian Invasion of Topic: End of the Empire Topic: Timeline and Gladiator
Rome Method: Graphic Organizer Method: Individual Student Project(Timeline) and Motion Picture(Gladiator), student presentations
Method: Teacher lead (Web) and writing prompt Content: Opener: Teachers will pass back previous Ancient Rome packets and materials for student reference. Activity 1: Class will
discussion, group activity, Content: Opener: Class will begin constructing timelines of Ancient Roman history (500 BCE-500 CE) according to the requirements on the timeline sheet.
complete “Fall of Rome” web with ten Materials will be provided in class. Activity 2: Class will watch Gladiator while working on their projects to reinforce themes of the unit.
reading, student-led discussion
details. Activity 1: Class will write a Activity 3: Students will present this project or their previous brochure project to the class.
Content: Opener: Class will go over
MEL-Con paragraph on the following
the homework, “Latin You May Know,”
prompt: Why did the Roman Empire
and establish class definitions for the
weaken and eventually fall? Paragraph
words/phrases. Teacher will lead
will be collected at the end of class.
discussion on how the phrases are used
today. Activity 1: “Roman Numerals”:
Class will complete “Roman Numerals”
together. Activity 2: Class will read
“Barbarians Invade Rome!” and
complete the questions. Class will then
complete the Primary Source exercise
on the sack of Rome. Teachers will lead
discussion on the significance and
perspective of the painting shown on
the page.
2016
Rome Unit Pt. 1: The Republic

Adapted from Waters & Anderson


12/19/2016
Introduction to Rome
Lesson 1(1 Day)

Standards:
NCSS:
 People, Places, and Environment (3)
 Culture (1)
 Time, Continuity, and Change (2)
PA Core:

 CC.8.6.6-8.C. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and
style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary
sources
 CC.8.5.6-8.G. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps)
with other information in print and digital texts.
Objectives:
Students will be able to identify the location of Rome and its surrounding area’s geographical features.

Students will be able to analyze a secondary source reading to answer questions about it.

Students will be able to activate prior knowledge and discuss Roman life, culture, and achievements.

Materials:
 KWL Chart
 “Romulus and Remus”
 Map activity
 Textbook or mobile device with Internet
Subject Matter:
region, culture, civilization, resources, topography, society

Procedure:
Set:

Ask students what things a city/state needs to operate and keep people happy (running water,
entertainment, laws). Create a list on the board and discuss how each item contributes to a healthy
society.

Essential Question: What was the impact of Rome’s physical location on its founding and how could it
impact the future?

1. KWL Chart:
a. Students will complete the K of a KWL chart about Ancient Rome with known facts about
Roman life, culture, and achievements.

2. Reading:
a. Students will read “Romulus and Remus: The Founders of Rome” and complete the
accompanying questions.

3. Map Activity:
a. Students will complete the map activity worksheet using either a map from their textbook
or a map from the internet using their mobile device/computer.
Close:

Ask students what was the impact of Rome’s physical location on its founding and how could it impact
the future?

Assessments:
 List of society characteristics on the board
 KWL Chart
 Reading responses
Name: _______________________________________ Date: _______________ Period:______

K W L
What do you know? What do you want to find out? What did you learn?
Name: ______________________________ Date: ________ Period: ____

Romulus and Remus: The Founders of Rome


ccording to legend, Remus and Romulus were born

A as grandchildren to King Numito on the Italian


Peninsula. Numito's brother, Amulius, started a war
to overthrow his brother, after which Numito was
imprisoned and his daughter, Rea Sylvia, was forced to
become a Vestal Virgin (female priests), so that she would not
bear any children.

But Sylvia became pregnant and gave birth to twins, boys,


who were called Romulus and Remus. It is said that Mars, the
God of War, was their father. Amulius wanted the children dead and ordered them to be thrown
in the Tiber River. But the children were put into a basket and floated to safety. The babies were
found by a she-wolf, which took care of the children and breast-fed them.

A shepherd came across the basket and adopted the boys. The boys grew as shepherds and
became natural leaders. When they became adults, they realized they who they truly were and
rebelled against Amulius. They reinstated the true king, Numito, and set out to look for a place
to build their own city. In 753 BCE they stopped at the Tiber River, where they had been found
by the shepherd, and where there were seven hills.

They decided to build a city on one of the hills. But they could not decide who should rule in it,
so they asked the gods for a sign. They each awaited an answer from the gods on a different hill.
Remus saw the first sign – six vultures flew above him. Shortly after that, Romulus saw twelve
vultures flying over his head and claimed kingship for himself. Remus started to mock at his
brother and the two began to fight. Remus was killed and Romulus went on to build his own city
and name it after himself: Rome.

1. Is this a true story or a myth? How do you know?

2. Rome was born from conflict. Do you think Rome will grow up to have a peaceful or a violent
culture? Explain your answer.

3. Based on the reading, do you think Rome was an empire that valued religion? Why or why
not?
Name: ______________________________ Date: ________ Period: ____

Ancient Rome: The Italian Peninsula


Directions: Use your book or Internet-enabled device to label the following geographic places:

Tiber Riber Rome (city) Sicily Alps


Adriatic Sea Ionian Sea Corsica Mediterranean Sea
Sardinia Danube River Gaul Tyrrhenian Sea
Carthage (city)
Roman Republic
Lesson 2(1 Day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Individuals, Groups, and Institutions (5)


 People, Places, and Environment (3)
 Culture (1)
PA Core:

 CC.8.5.6-8.B. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source;


provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
 CC.8.6.6-8.A. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
 CC.8.6.6-8.I. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and
shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks,
purposes, and audiences.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to compare the geography of Ancient Rome to that of Ancient Greece.
 Students will be able to answer questions about formation and daily life of the Roman Republic.
 Students will be able to understand the importance different cultures made in shaping Rome.
Materials:
 “Early Rome: A Blend of Cultures”
 “The Roman Republic”
Subject Matter:
Climate, interaction, assimilation, cultural change

Procedure:
Set:

The class will review the Italian Peninsula map.

Essential Question: Why did Rome incorporate parts of culture from peoples that they conquered?

1. Pair Reading:
a. In pairs students will read “Early Rome: A Blend of Cultures”.
b. Students will answer questions and fill in the Venn Diagram
c. Review selected questions as a class to complete student understanding of Roman
geography. Also review any questions students might have.

2. Writing:
a. In a paragraph or two students will answer the following question: How does geography of
Ancient Rome give the Romans an advantage or disadvantage over other civilizations we
have discussed so far.
3. Reading:
a. Begin reading “The Roman Republic” and have students finish reading it for homework.

Close:

Students will answer on an exit slip in 1-3 sentences why they think Rome incorporated cultural aspects
of the people they conquered.

Assessment:
 Reading questions
 Collect map activity
Name: ______________________________ Date: ________ Period: ____

Early Rome: A Blend of Cultures

I
taly is a peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea to the west of
Greece. Greece and Rome share similar climates of
warm, dry summers and mild winters. Unlike Greece,
Italy does not have very good mineral resources or
harbors. Italy, however, is less mountainous than Greece, is
easier to travel through, and has much fertile land. It is no
surprise that Rome was founded as an agricultural society
while Greece had to rely on trade and the seas to survive.

The Italian Peninsula is more closely linked to the rest of


Europe than Greece is. While a mountain range known as
the Alps to the north is a natural barrier, many tribes crossed
into Italy or sailed and established colonies on its shores
(including the Greeks!). The early Romans developed a
strong military to defend against raids and a navy to defend
ships using the Mediterranean for travel.

It is believed that, after Rome was founded by Romulus, the


Romans began to expand and conquer neighboring tribes
called the Latins and Etruscans. While Greeks sought to
spread their own culture, early Romans were very adaptable
and borrowed ideas from everyone they met. They learned
metalworking and architecture (especially using arches) from
the Etruscans, learned how to grow grapes and olives from
the Greek colonies, borrowed the alphabet and language from
the Latins, and even developed a religion based on Latin and Greek deities.

Rome gradually expanded but was still controlled by Etruscan kings. Romans wanting
their own identify and unhappy with paying tribute to a harsh ruler overthrew the
Etruscan king in 509 BCE and founded a new government called a republic. They
swore to never again be ruled by a king and instead let the people elect leaders to lead
and serve the best interests of Rome. This was the beginning of what is known as the
Roman Republic.

Dictionary
Peninsula (noun): a body of land jutting into and nearly surrounded by water.
Deities (noun): gods/goddesses
Republic (noun): a form of government in which power is held by citizens who vote on their leaders
1. What is the main idea of this passage?
The Greeks and Romans share a common history.
The Romans developed their identity by learning from those around them.
Italy is a harder place to live than Greece.
Romans learned to overthrow their kings from the ideas of the Greeks.

2. Why did Romans develop a military/navy?


To conquer the Greeks and Gauls to the north
To teach young men the skills they need to survive
To lead pilgrims to the Holy Lands east of Greece
To defend against raiding tribes in Italy

3. Complete the Venn Diagram below with at least 3 facts in each space based on
your prior knowledge and the passage:

Greek Geography Roman Geography

4. How did the geography of the Italian Peninsula allow a large civilization such as
Rome to develop and grow?

5. According to the passage, what was the main difference in how the Greeks and
Romans conquered other peoples?
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

The Roman Republic


adapted from Vickie Chao
1
For centuries, Italy's Rome has been an individuals who won the office acted on the
important city, playing a pivotal role both advice given by the senate. They were
culturally and politically. According to the responsible for enforcing the laws and
legend, a pair of twin brothers built Rome policies of the Roman Republic. Because the
from scratch in 753 B.C. In a quarrel, consuls would later become senators after
Romulus killed Remus. After that, he named their one-year term in office, they almost
the city after himself and became the first always did what the senate wanted them to
ruler of Rome. While this story is do. As the two men met and discussed state
fascinating, its authenticity is very much in affairs, they attempted to reach unanimous
doubt. decisions. In the event of a disagreement
over serious matters, Roman law allowed
2
Historians have long established the fact the senate to appoint a dictator. This person
that Rome had existed since 900 B.C. By would act as a king, but his power was only
about 600 B.C., a group of people called the good for six months.
Etruscans (pronounced "ih-TRUS-kunz")
took power in Rome. They ruled it for 5
In the early days of the Roman Republic,
nearly a century. Though the Etruscans left all the senators were the nobles, or the
behind many imprints, we know very little patricians. This arrangement did not sit well
about them. In fact, we cannot even say for with the commoners, or the plebeians. As
sure where they came from. Some scholars the distrust worsened, the plebeians went on
believed that the Etruscans were native strikes. In 494 B.C., they set up their own
people of Italy. Others believed that they assembly. They declared that the assembly's
were immigrants from Asia Minor (today's tribunes (elected once a year) had the power
Turkey). Regardless of their origin, we to reject any decision made by Roman
know for certain that the Etruscans spoke a officials or even the senate. In 450 B.C., the
language different from that in Rome. We patricians agreed to one of the plebeians'
also know for certain that their authoritarian main demands and established the Law of
style of governing was very unpopular. In the Twelve Tables. These laws hung openly
around 510 B.C. or 509 B.C., the Romans in marketplaces for everyone to see. It was
revolted. They expelled the last Etruscan applied equally to all citizens. Encouraged
king, Tarquinius Superbus (pronounced by the victory, the plebeians continued to
"tahr-KWIN-ee-us soo-PUR-bus", also fight for their rights. In 367 B.C., they
known as Tarquin the Proud). overturned a law that barred them from
being consuls. In 287 B.C., they expanded
3
With the Etruscans gone, the Romans the assembly's legislative power from
decided that they would never want to go making laws for the plebeians only to
back to the days of monarchy. To avoid making laws for all Roman citizens!
giving too much power to a single person,
they came up with the idea of the republic. 6
As the government structure continued
to take shape, the Roman armies went on to
4
In this new form of government, all conquer new territories for the Republic.
citizens who had the right to vote could The added land did not bring joy. Instead, it
participate in the selection of their leaders. brought forth a big problem. Some
Once a year, they elected two consuls. The
suggested the land be given to the plebeians. 2. According to the reading is the end
Others refused. The dispute paralyzed the of the Roman Republic?
entire nation. Soon, civil wars erupted. Just a. The death of Julius Caesar
when the Roman Republic was heading b. The Romans expelling the
toward total destruction, a general named Etruscan King
Julius Caesar rose to power. c. Augustus had complete
control of Rome
7
Julius Caesar was a military genius who d. Augustus assassinated Julius
fought and won numerous wars. In 49 B.C., Casesar
he led his troops back to Rome and fought
against the senate’s policies. He won. The
senate made him a dictator the following 3. Why did the plebeians establish their
year. Under Roman law, a dictator could own assembly in 494 B.C.?
rule for only six months. But the senate a. Because they wanted to have
made an exception, allowing him to be freedom of speech
dictator for life. As Caesar's power b. Because they wanted to get
continued to grow, some senators began to more land
feel uneasy. They felt Caesar had gone too c. Because they wanted to have
far and had become too powerful. They equal rights as the patricians
decided to get rid of him. On March 15, 44 d. Because they were bored
B.C., they assassinated him.
8
The death of Caesar pushed Rome into 4. Why would the Roman senate want a
turmoil again. The chaos lasted for more dictator?
than ten years. In the end, Caesar's adopted a. To take out opponents of
son, Octavian, managed to quash all the Rome
opposing forces and won the civil war. The b. To guarantee a victory in
senate awarded him the title of Augustus battle
(meaning "highly respected") in 27 B.C. It c. To settle a dispute between
also gave him the absolute power to rule the two consuls that dragged
Rome, effectively making him a king. From on too long
that point forward, ancient Rome was once d. Romans never wanted a
again under the control of monarchy. dictator in charge of their
Though Augustus never coined the term government
"Roman Empire," historians all agree that he
was the first emperor of this newly united 5. What is the main idea of the 7th
kingdom. Thus, 27 B.C. became both the paragraph?
end of the Roman Republic and the a. Caesar was a genius
beginning of the Roman Empire b. Caesar and his army won
several battle
1. How long was Rome considered a c. Caesar’s was assassinated by
Republic? the senate
a. 483 years d. Caesar’s power continued to
b. 467 years increase until his murder
c. 510 years
d. 287 years
Roman Culture
Lesson 3(1 day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Culture (1)
 Individual Development and Identity (4)
 Science, Technology, and Society (8)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary
sources.
 CC.8.5.6-8.B. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary
source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or
opinions.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to understand different Roman customs and cultural aspects.
 Students will be able to compare Roman culture to their contemporary lives.
Materials:
 MI: “Roman Bathing”
 “Roman Dining”
Subject Matter:
Norms, values, society, class, customs

Procedure:
Set:

Compare the origin and government of the Roman Republic to the origins and government of the United
States.

Essential Question: What similarities are there between Roman customs and culture and our culture
here in the United States?

1. Reading:
a. Class will read MI: “Roman Bathing”
b. Students will answer questions and compare as a class to check for understanding

2. Board List:
a. The class will compile a list on the board of their ideal “feast,” including number
and description of courses and how many people they would invite.

3. Reading:
a. In pairs (students may choose partner) the class will read “Roman Dining”.
b. The pairs will also answer the questions with reading.
Close:

The class will discuss how what they put on the board compares to actual Roman dining.

Assessment:
 Reading Questions
NAME: _________________________ PER: ______ DATE: __________

Main Idea/Supporting Details: “Roman Bathing”


YOUR GOAL: Accurately IDENTIFY the MAIN IDEA of the entire reading, PROVE that
your answer is correct, and ASSESS YOURSELF to see how you’ve grown as a thinker.

After you read the passage, you will create a one-statement summary of the “Main Idea.” Your statement
should accomplish each of the following:

1. It is a statement of YOUR creation (not copied from the passage itself).


2. It represents the ENTIRETY of the passage rather than merely restating portions of the
passage.
3. It is a complete statement that gives the reader a sense of the author’s intention.
--good—“The policies of Barack Obama and George W. Bush are drastically different in
many areas.”
--not so good—“It’s about the policies of Barack Obama and George W. Bush.”

“Roman Bathing”
1 The Romans were very serious about bathing. To appease the demand of daily baths, all cities and
towns had public and privately-owned bathhouses. All bathhouses used the so-called hypocaust system
for central heating. They had fire grates in their basements. When fires were lit in the grates, hot air flew
through the wall ducts. It warmed up the baths. The floor at ground level was supported by concrete or
brick pillars. Both building materials were great for retaining heat.

2 Interestingly, the Romans did not wash their bodies with soap. They used oil instead. After undressing,
they would usually rub oil onto their skin and head to a "warm room." Once there, they might lunge into a
pool of lukewarm water for a while. Or they might simply sit around chatting with their friends. When they
felt it was about time to move on, they would then go to a "hot room." A "hot room" was like a sauna. It was
hot and steamy. As the Romans sat and perspired, they used a tool to scrape dirt off their skin. The tool
had a specific name. It was called "strigil." It was made of wood, bone, or metal.

3 Now, with filth thoroughly scrubbed off, the Romans would first take a quick dip in a hot pool and then
in a cold one. After they completed the ritual, some would even hire attendants for massages or haircuts.

4 Roman bathhouses, in many ways, are like our spas. But they offered more services. Beyond the usual
pools, Roman bathhouses also had gardens, exercise yards, reading rooms, and even libraries. They had
concession stands and restaurants. Because of the many features and low admissions, the Romans went
to bathhouses very often. Sometimes they went for cleaning their bodies. Sometimes they went for catching
up with the latest gossip. Sometimes they went for business meetings. And sometimes they went for curing
minor ailments. Regardless of what drove them to go, the Romans took their bathing very seriously. Later
as they invaded other countries, one of the first things they did when they arrived was to build a bathhouse.
By doing so, they brought with them a piece of memory from home. They knew that no matter where they
were, they could always count on going to a bathhouse and having a good time.
PART 1: IDENTIFY THE MAIN IDEA
Remember: Main Ideas represent the ENTIRETY of a passage, not merely sections or
specific examples.

DIRECTIONS: Create a main idea statement that represents the entirety of this
passage.

PART 2: PROVE YOUR ANSWER

DIRECTIONS: Explain why you wrote this answer. In the box below, write at least 5
statements that support the main idea. If you cannot provide at least 5 statements
supporting your main idea, you probably do not have a main idea.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

PART 3: POST-DISCUSSION SELF ASSESSMENT

DIRECTIONS: On the line below, mark an “X” where you believe your main idea
statement belongs.
PERFECT!______________________________________________COMPLETELY WRONG!
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman Dining
1
What did the ancient Romans eat? If garum. Garum was a condiment made from
your answer is pasta or pizza, you are in for fish, salt, and herbs. It could be bought
a surprise! ready-made from a marketplace. At dinner
parties, the guests were often served exotic
2
Back in the old days, the Romans ate food. They might have boiled ostriches.
three times a day, just like us. Both their They might have roasted flamingoes. Or
breakfast and lunch were quite simple. For they might even have stuffed dormice
their first meal, they would usually have sprinkled with honey and poppy seed.
bread with honey or watered down wine.
5
(The Romans thought it rude to drink wine No matter what was on the menu, the
straight up.) For their second meal, they guests could always count on having a tasty
would eat bread with cheese, dates, fruits, treat. When the feast finally began,
and occasionally, some meat. The two everybody dug in - truly. As there were no
modest fares were enough to aid them for a table knives or forks back then, people ate
day of hard work. At dusk, they headed back mostly with their hands. Sometimes, they ate
home to enjoy their main meal, dinner. with spoons, too.
3 6
The Romans loved to hold dinner Dinner parties in ancient Rome could go
parties. Before their guests arrived, they on for hours. And they cost a lot of money.
would have their servants arrange three Besides the food, the hosts would need to
couches around every low dining table. Each prepare many varieties of wine. They would
couch could hold up to three people. The also need to hire clowns, dancers, or
Romans had an interesting dining habit. musicians to perform in between courses.
They liked to eat while lying down! When the guests finally rose to leave -
hopefully all stuffed, drunk, and well
4
Just as each dressed-up guest took up a entertained, the hosts were left with piles of
spot on the couches, the servants began to dirty dishes and high bills.
bring out food and lay it on the tables. On
7
the menu were three courses - appetizer, Since dinner parties were costly, only a
main course, and dessert. Each course could few in ancient Rome could afford them.
consist of several dishes. The Romans ate all Most people were poor. They lived on
sorts of vegetables, fruits, and meats. They government subsidies. Without even having
liked olives, asparagus, mushrooms, beans, kitchens in their apartments, many ate take-
and broccoli. They liked apples, pears, figs, out or used communal ovens. For the
dates, and grapes. They liked fish, oysters, commoners, bread was their staple food.
lobster, eggs, poultry, and pork. They rarely Meats were for special occasions only. For
ate beef. And they did not know about them, boiled ostriches, roasted flamingoes,
potatoes or tomatoes. The Romans put a lot or stuffed dormice were things far beyond
of sauce in their food. They especially liked their wildest imagination!
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

1. Which meal was the most important one for


the ancient Romans?

2. Which of the following did the ancient


Romans not eat?
a. Grilled fish
b. Boiled chicken
c. Mashed potatoes
d. Roasted pork

3. If a host invited 16 people to a dinner party,


how many couches did he need to prepare?
a. 3
b. 9
c. 4
d. 6

4. Which of the following about the ancient Romans' dinner parties is true?
a. The guests ate while lying down on couches.
b. Each guest was served one type of appetizer, one main course, and one dessert.
c. The guests needed to bring their own wine.
d. The hosts would ask the guests to share some expenses.

5. Compare a Roman dinner to your dinner on the Venn Diagram below:


Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman Architecture
Lesson 4(2 days)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Culture (1)
 Time, Continuity, and change (2)
 People, Places, and Environments (3)
 Power, Authority, and Governance (6)
 Science, Technology, and Society (7)
 Global Connections(9)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary
sources.
 CC.8.5.6-8.B. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary
source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or
opinions.
 CC.8.5.6-8.G. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos,
or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to determine Roman architectural styles in the modern world.
 Students will be able to understand the importance of Roman architecture and its cultural
significance.
 Students will be able to identify important Roman building such as the coliseum and the
forum.
Materials:
 “Roman Architecture”
 “Roman City” video notes sheet
 MI “Roman Slavery”
Subject Matter:
Architecture, technology, traditions, culture, symbols, institutions

Procedure:
Set:

List what you think are 5 of the most famous/important buildings in the US. What are their functions?
Class will list these on the board and discuss what they are used for, drawing connections to buildings in
Ancient Rome.

Essential Question: Why is Roman architecture important to us today and can you see influences of it in
modern world?
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

1. Reading:
a. Read as a class using “popcorn” “Roman Architecture.
b. Students will then answer questions and compare as a class to check for
understanding

2. Video:
a. Class will begin viewing David Macaulay’s Roman City and answer the
accompanying questions as they watch the video.

3. Reading:
a. Students will then read “Roman Slavery”
b. Hand out vocabulary worksheet students are to complete for homework

4. Discussion:
a. Class will compare Roman Slavery to that of the United States discussing their
differences and similarities as well as the cultural significance. Teacher will
facilitate.
Close:

Recap the previous day and today’s information on Roman architecture and discuss with students why
they thing Roman architecture is important today.

Assessment:
 Reading Questions
 Video worksheet
 Homework: Vocabulary Worksheet
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman Architecture
Adapted from Colleen Messina

1
The Romans were great builders. Many Sometimes the arena was even filled with
things you see today have been inspired by water for a sea battle. Other shows acted out
ancient Rome. Even though they copied some land battles and ancient myths.
things from the Greeks, the Romans had many
6
original ideas. A large part of the Coliseum is still
standing, and it is open for tours. If you visit
2
The Romans used arches extensively. An Rome, you can see the stadium and imagine
arch is a curved structure that can hold a lot of what it was like to be part of the crowd there.
weight. Arches helped Roman architects a Look at the outside of the Coliseum. You see
great deal. With arches, they could build over three tiers of arches circling around the huge
windows and doors. With arches, they could building. Above that, there is a fourth level.
build huge structures called aqueducts. On that top story there were masts that held up
Aqueducts brought water to the city of Rome a giant canopy. It shaded the fans and still let a
from the hills. breeze pass through. Just like in a modern
stadium, the seats for the fans circled around
3
The Romans invented concrete. Concrete inside. The most important fans sat on the
comes from lime and water. A Roman builder lower level close to the action. The everyday
would make a mushy paste. Then he would people sat higher up.
add volcanic sand and pebbles. It could then
7
be molded into whatever shape was needed. The arena in the center used to have a
The concrete would dry and harden. It would wood floor. It was covered with sand, and this
never get soft again, even in the rain. Roman is where the shows took place. That floor is no
builders also made bricks out of baked clay. longer there. Below the arena floor there are
Bricks were used in many Roman structures. two more levels. Since the floor is gone now,
Each brick maker put his own special mark on you can see into the rooms below. There were
his bricks. That would tell others who made rooms for gladiators waiting to fight. There
the brick and where it came from. were rooms for wild animals. Gladiators and
animals could be raised up on platforms. They
4
The Romans used concrete to build an would appear suddenly through trapdoors in
enormous structure called the Coliseum. It the floor. There were even hoists to raise an
was named the Flavian Amphitheatre, and it elephant up to the stage.
held 50,000 people. Today, people all over the
world call it the Coliseum. 8
The Romans also built thousands of miles
of roads. These roads helped the army keep
5
If you could look down on the top, you track of the vast Roman Empire. The roads
would see that it looks like a circular football were straight. Chariot wheels moved much
stadium. There is a big arena in the center and more easily over paved roads than on muddy
seats all around. The Romans enjoyed ruts. The Romans liked straight roads. They
watching many kinds of fights there. Today, even went through cliffs so their roads could
many of them seem cruel. They would be be straight. The Romans were great builders.
illegal now, but in ancient Roman times, Even fast food restaurants use ideas from the
thousands of people enjoyed these contests. Romans! From arches to concrete, our modern
Roman fighters, called gladiators, would fight world has been influenced by the architects of
to the death in the Coliseum. There were also ancient Rome.
events in which hunters hunted wild animals.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman Circus Wrigley United Center


Coliseum Maximus Field

Year built 80 AD 500 BC 1914 AD 1988 AD

Years used More than 400 Almost 1000 92 and 17 and counting
counting

Used for… Gladiator fights, Chariot Baseball Basketball (Bulls), Hockey (Blackhawks), Shows,
Naval battles, Races, foot (Cubs), Concerts
mock wars, races Football
prisoner and (Bears and
animal college
executions, football),
speeches and Concerts
plays

Dimensions 144 Feet tall 700 Yards 135 feet high 155 feet high
long

Seating 55,000 and up 200,000 40,000 21,000


(100,000 max)

Levels of 4 2 2 3
Seats

Cover Yes No No Yes

Luxury Yes Yes Yes Yes


Boxes

Extras Had hundreds of Had 12 large Ivy covered Remove hard floor for ice rink
statues, one in starting gates walls, field
each arch of for the changed for
stadium. Floor chariots football
changed for
“naval” battles

1. Which stadium is the oldest a. Wrigley Field


a. Wrigley Field b. United Center
b. United Center c. Circus Maximus
c. Circus Maximus d. Roman Coliseum
d. Roman Coliseum
4. What did all the stadiums have in
2. Which stadium had the most uses? common?
a. Wrigley Field a. They all had luxury boxes
b. United Center b. They held over 20,000 people
c. Circus Maximus c. Sports were played in each stadium
d. Roman Coliseum d. All of the above
3. Which stadium held the most people?
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Main Idea: “Roman Slavery”

YOUR GOAL: Accurately IDENTIFY the MAIN IDEA of the entire reading, PROVE that your
answer is correct, and ASSESS YOURSELF to see how you’ve grown as a thinker.

After you read the passage, you will create a one-statement summary of the “Main Idea.”

Your statement should accomplish each of the following:

1. It is a statement of YOUR creation (not copied from the passage itself).


2. It represents the ENTIRETY of the passage rather than merely restating portions of the
passage.
3. It is a complete statement that gives the reader a sense of the author’s intention.
--good—“The policies of Barack Obama and George W. Bush are drastically different in
many areas.”
--not so good—“It’s about the policies of Barack Obama and George W. Bush.”

“Roman Slavery”

(1) Some Roman people were owned by other people as slaves. Because the Romans didn't
really have hourly wage work as we do now, men and women who didn't own their own land
or businesses often found themselves enslaved. The jobs slaves did were jobs which today in
the United States are done by free people working for wages. Like today, some of these jobs
were awful, and some of them were pretty good.

(2) Many of these men and women, especially in southern France and Spain, worked in the
fields on big farms owned by rich landowners. A slave or freedman overseer forced hundreds
or thousands of slaves to work out in the fields all day under the sun, and at night the slaves
slept in barracks, with the men separated from the women. In ancient times, perhaps as much
as 90% of people or more of some communities worked solely in farming.

(3) Other slaves were forced to work deep underground in the mines, getting gold, silver,
copper, iron, or tin for the Roman government. Most suffered and died after just a few years.
Traders kept slaves to row ships, often chained to their oars. Many of these men were
sentenced to the mines or to the ships because they were criminals.

(4) Other slaves were house servants for richer people - nannies, nurses, cooks, butlers,
house-cleaners, stable-boys, laundry-women, tutors for children, accountants. These slaves
often had families, though they could never be sure of keeping them. Children who were slaves
were often sold away from their parents. Many slaves also worked in factories or craft shops.
They might be weavers, or dyers, or potters, or mosaicists, for example. Some slaves worked in
construction, while others worked for the Roman government as accountants or as guards.

(5) Many of these slaves were freed when they got older and became Roman citizens. They
were known as freedmen and freedwomen. Not all slaves were freed, but if a slave was born
from a woman owned by the master, he might free that child when they came of age, around 18
or so. The master might even give a small amount of money so that the slave could start a small
or business or even get married and start a family.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

PART 1: IDENTIFY THE MAIN IDEA


Remember: Main Ideas represent the ENTIRETY of a passage, not merely sections or
specific examples.

DIRECTIONS: Create a main idea statement that represents the entirety of this
passage.

PART 2: PROVE YOUR ANSWER

DIRECTIONS: Explain why you wrote this answer. Provide supporting details from the
passage that led you to this choice.

PART 3: POST-DISCUSSION SELF ASSESSMENT

DIRECTIONS: On the line below, mark an “X” where you believe your main idea
statement belongs.
PERFECT! _____________________________________________ COMPLETELY WRONG!

PART 4: METACOGNITION (“Thinking About Your Thinking”)

DIRECTIONS: Describe the most important lesson you learned from this activity. What
will you do differently the next time we complete an activity like this one?
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Vocabulary
Define the following terms in your own words:

Deities

Plebians

Patricians

Consul

Dictator

Peninsula

Freedman

Aqueduct

Orator

First Triumvirate

Second Triumvirate

Edict

Pax Romana
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman City
David Macaulay

Answer the following questions as you watch the video:

1. What is unique about the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum?

2. What was the “heart of the city?”

3. How was a Roman city laid out?

4. What was the city’s line of defense against attack?

5. How did water reach the city?

6. Why were the Gauls/Druids unhappy with Roman Rule?

7. Why did larger Roman houses have courtyards?

8. What was located on the ground floor of apartment buildings?

9. What happened at the amphitheaters?

Making Comparisons: How is a Roman city similar to our cities today? How were
they different?
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman Personalities
Lesson 5(2 days)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Time, Continuity, and Change (2)


 People, Places, and Environment (3)
 Power, Authority, and Governance (6)
 Global Connections (9)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.G. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos,
or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
 CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources.
 CC.8.6.6-8.A. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content
 CC.8.6.6-8.C. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development,
organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Objectives:
 Student will be able to analyze Hannibal’s reason for attack and his military tactics.
 Students will be able understand what qualities make a strong leader.
 Students will be able to compare Hannibal and Julius Caesar.
Materials:
 “Hannibal Barca”
 Video clip of Hannibal
 SD/L “Julius Caesar”
Subject Matter:
Conflict, topography, power, war, weather, cause and effect

Procedure:
Set:

What makes a strong leader? What does a strong leader need to do to keep power/peace? Discuss the
opener as a class as a lead-in to learning about Roman leaders of the Republic.

Essential Question: Why would Hannibal go through such trouble to invade Rome and should he have
taken such a dangerous path?

1. Reading:
a. Read as a class “Hannibal Barca” (ask students if they would like to read, select
randomly if no volunteers)
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

b. Students then answer the question sheet and compare it as a class to check for
understanding

2. Video:
a. Class will view a short video clip on Hannibal crossing the Alps “True Story of
Hannibal the Great, Part III” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFNGVSf7YNM

3. Narrative Writing:
a. Give students 20 minutes to answer following prompt: Do you think Hannibal
was right to attack Rome? Why or why not?

4. Supporting Details/Linking “Julius Caesar”:


a. Student will read “Julius Caesar” and in pairs answer the SD/L worksheet.
Close:

Have several students share their narrative responses with the class.

Assessment:
 Reading Questions
 Narrative Response
 SD/L
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

the next seven years or so, the two archenemies


tolerated each other, more or less. This delicate
balance finally tilted after a Celt assassinated
Hasdrubal in 221 B.C. Upon Hasdrubal's
untimely death, the Carthaginian armies in
Hispania hailed Hannibal as their commander.
This young military chief decided to provoke the
Romans. He knew that Saguntum, an
independent city-state, had a very good
relationship with the Roman Republic. He
wanted to use that to his advantage. In 219 B.C.,
he launched a series of attacks against Saguntum
and barricaded it for nearly eight months.
During the siege and the looting afterwards, the
Hannibal Barca Roman Republic protested fiercely. It sent an
Adapted from Vickie Chao envoy to see Hannibal. It also sent an
ambassador to Carthage, demanding the
1
Back in the 3rd century B.C., the Roman Carthaginian government to hand Hannibal over.
Republic was expanding at an alarming rate. So When both meetings went nowhere, the Romans
was the Carthaginian Empire (or Carthage for declared war in 218 B.C. That war was called
short) on the other side of the Mediterranean the Second Punic War.
Sea. As the two regional powerhouses rushed to
build up their presence, a conflict was bound to 4
After the onset of the war, Hannibal showed
happen. The first showdown between the no intention of fighting the Romans in Hispania.
Romans and the Carthaginians, called the First He wanted to fight them on their turf -- Italy. So
Punic War, broke out in 264 B.C. and lasted for in the spring of 218 B.C., he took nearly 50,000
23 years. In the end, the Carthaginians lost. They soldiers and several war elephants with him and
ceded control over Sicily Island to the Roman left for Italy. To surprise the Romans from a
Republic and paid it a substantial amount of place where they expected it the least, Hannibal
indemnity. did the unthinkable. He crossed the Alps, the
highest mountain range in Europe! The march
2
Five years after the conclusion of the First was extremely difficult. Before even getting to
Punic War, a forceful Carthaginian general by the Alps, Hannibal had to battle against many
the name of Hamilcar Barca decided to push his hostile tribes along the way. When he finally
country's territory beyond the confines of North reached the foot of the Alps, it was already late
Africa and develop a military base in Hispania autumn. Winter was fast approaching. Eager to
(Spain). He e took his eldest son, Hannibal take down the Roman Republic as soon as
Barca, with him. He wanted the little boy to possible, Hannibal urged his men to keep going.
swear that he would make the Roman Republic The crossing turned out to be a big disaster.
his enemy for life. Hannibal, who was only Many of his soldiers died because of the harsh
about nine years old at the time, took the oath weather. After trekking for nearly two weeks,
and never broke it. Hannibal finally managed to take his force down
the Alps. The entire journey took a big toll on
3
Hamilcar, by all accounts, was a great the battalions. By the time they reached the
general. Under his leadership, the Carthaginians ground, Hannibal had lost nearly half of his men
quickly gained footholds in Hispania. During his and most of his elephants.
nine-year stay there, he fought numerous battles
and kept pushing his troops northward. After he 5
Shortly after invading Italy, Hannibal scored
got killed in combat, his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, a major victory against the Romans. In the
became the new military chief. He wanted peace Battle of Ticinus in November 218 B.C.,
and even signed a treaty with the Romans. For Hannibal defeated and severely wounded a
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman general named Scipio. The triumph gave


8
the Carthaginians a boost in confidence. It also While Hannibal chose to remain in Italy, the
won them support from some of the Roman Roman Republic sent Scipio (son of the Roman
Republic's allies. The Romans sent more general Scipio who lost the Battle of Ticinus in
soldiers. But since they were not nearly as 218 B.C.) to capture Hispania. The idea was to
competent in fighting as Hannibal's men were, intimidate the Carthaginian Empire, forcing it to
they were doomed to fail. In December 218 call Hannibal back. Scipio arrived at Hispania in
B.C., Hannibal won the Battle of the Trebia 210 B.C. and quickly took over. Scipio then
River. Then in March 217 B.C., he won the turned to North Africa in 205 B.C. Once the
Battle of Lake Trasimene. force landed, they again made swift progress and
the Carthaginian government demanded
6
Despite the repeated defeats, the Roman Hannibal’s return. When Hannibal learned of the
Republic again called for more troops (80,000 invasion, he was torn. On one hand, he resented
this time), hoping that sheer volume alone would his fellow countrymen for not giving him the
be enough to stop Hannibal's advance for good. badly needed reinforcement troops several years
It was wrong! Hannibal understood very well earlier. On the other hand, he was patriotic and
how the Romans fought. He knew that the felt duty-bound to defend his nation. In the end,
Romans liked to march forward. He would let he chose to go back. He arrived at North Africa
them do that by pretending to withdraw. In the in 203 B.C. and had a showdown with Scipio the
meantime, he would send a portion of his troops following year. In the fateful Battle of Zama,
to spread out and encircle the enemy. Once the Scipio stunned Hannibal with his newly
trap was set, the onslaught could begin. On improved force and defeated him soundly. After
August 2, 216 B.C., the two sides met in the bloody conflict, the Roman Republic and the
Cannae. Just as Hannibal had predicted, the Carthaginian Empire made a truce and ended the
Romans marched forward and went straight into Second Punic War (218 B.C. - 201 B.C.)
his trap! After days of killing, nearly 50,000
9
Romans died. It was the worst defeat ever in From 201 B.C. to 195 B.C., Hannibal
ancient Rome's history! temporarily gave up his military life and became
a statesman. He soon proved that his ability to
7
After the Battle of Cannae, the Romans govern was as good as his ability to fight. He
finally realized that they had underestimated carried out numerous reforms, and all those
Hannibal all along. Now, because of their measures made him very popular. Seeing his
ignorance, this forceful Carthaginian general success, other Carthaginian politicians were
roamed through Italy. He captured and sacked jealous. They conveniently forgot that they had
one city after another, and many of the Roman refused to help Hannibal all those years ago and
Republic's alliances began to shift their accused him now of not taking down the Roman
positions. Terror loomed over the entire nation Republic. As the tension escalated, some in the
like a dark cloud. Nobody knew what would Carthaginian government even suggested
happen next. Nobody knew if Rome would be turning Hannibal over to the Roman Republic.
able to withstand Hannibal's assault. Amazingly, Saddened by the betrayal, Hannibal packed his
in spite of all the uncertainties, the Roman bags and left his homeland. He never returned.
Republic refused to negotiate with Hannibal. Its
10
new strategy was to avoid open conflicts. With After leaving the Carthaginian Empire,
only about 50,000 men at his disposal, Hannibal Hannibal became a free-agent general. He
could not possibly attack Rome while holding offered his service to anybody who hated the
on to all the cities he just bagged. To make Romans. For years, he drifted from one country
matters worse for this great general, the to another, making a career out of fighting the
Carthaginian Empire turned down his request for Roman Republic. Needless to say, the Romans
more reinforcement troops. For the next thirteen hated Hannibal. As they were closing in on him,
years, Hannibal stayed in Italy and continued to Hannibal swallowed poison and killed himself.
harass its residents. He is believed to have died in 181 B.C.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Hannibal Barca a. Because he wanted to visit


his family
1. Which of the following about b. Because he wanted to run for
Hannibal is correct? an election
a. He started the First Punic c. Because he wanted to defend
War his nation
b. He was a great general, but a d. Because he wanted to recruit
horrible politician more soldiers
c. He captured and sacked
Rome in 218 B.C. 6. What can you infer about the way
d. He vowed to fight the Hannibal died?
Romans since he was 9 years a. He was getting old and
old. wanted to make it quick
b. Hannibal was depressed
2. Which battle was the Roman about being away from
Republic’s worst defeat ever in their Carthage and his family
history? c. The last thing he wanted in
a. The Battle of Cannae life was to get caught by the
b. The Battle of Lake Trasimene Romans
c. The Battle of Ticinus d. He was tricked and poisoned
d. The Battle of Zama by one of his soldiers

3. For how many years did the Second 7. Put the following events in order in
Punic War last? which they happened.
a. 17 years i. The First Punic War
b. 12 years Ended
c. 35 years ii. Hannibal crossed the
d. 23 years Alps
iii. Scipio battled
4. Why did Hannibal leave the Hannibal in Africa
Carthaginian Empire in 195 B.C.? iv. Romans and
a. Because he found a better job Carthaginians made a
elsewhere truce
b. Because he was bored
c. Because his fellow a. i, ii, iii, iv
countrymen betrayed him b. i, iv, ii, iii
d. Because he wanted to take c. iii, iv, ii, i
his force to cross the Alps d. iv, ii, i, iii
and invade Italy

5. Why did Hannibal go back to North


Africa in 203 B.C.?
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Supporting Details/Linking: “Julius Caesar”


YOUR GOAL: IDENTIFY the statements that serve as SUPPORTING DETAILS for
the thesis statement:
Remember: Supporting Details are not merely true statements or words that are present in the
reading; they provide support for an argument (MAIN IDEA) to persuade the reader.
Directions:

A. For each statement, choose one of the following.

1. The statement provides support for the thesis.


2. The statement refutes the thesis.
3. The statement neither supports nor refutes the thesis.
B. Mark the appropriate column with an “X.”

THESIS: Julius Caesar was one of the most important Roman leaders.

Statement Supports Refutes Neither

1. Though Caesar’s family belonged to the first category, they


had lost their fame and fortune a long time ago.
2. Caesar won many battles and became known for his
military genius.
3. His tough stand on crime won him lots of support from the
commoners.

4. Caesar decided to remarry in 67 BC for political gain.

5. Using his brilliance, he conquered many lands and helped


to expand the Roman Republic’s already vast territory.
6. By 48 BC, the Senate appointed him dictator and gave him
total control of Rome.
7. The two [Caesar and Cleopatra] reportedly had an affair.

8. With his power reaching an all-time high, Caesar minted


coins bearing his face.

9. On March 15, 44 BC, they [Senators] stabbed him in a


gathering and laid his body at the foot of Pompey’s statue.

10. Caesar, in the eyes of many, was a controversial figure.


Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Julius Caesar triumphant return to Rome. He secured an


By Vickie Chao appointment from the senate and became
dictator in 81 B.C. With things going his way
1
Ancient Rome had many famous people. now, Sulla began his revenge. He proscribed and
Julius Caesar, undoubtedly, was one of them. outlawed anybody who opposed him. As Marius'
nephew by marriage and Cinna's son-in-law,
2
Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 B.C. Caesar was an obvious target. To save his own
(some say 102 B.C.) At the time, the Roman life, he put on a disguise and went into hiding
society divided its citizens into two large groups. outside of Rome. His relatives and supporters
One was for the nobles. The other was for the persuaded Sulla to change his mind and spare
commoners. Though Caesar's family belonged to Caesar.
the first category, they had lost their fame and 7
fortune a long time ago. The harsh reality forced In spite of Sulla's pardon, Caesar did not
them to live in an apartment house in a less return to Rome. He joined the military and
reputable area in Rome. stationed in Asia Minor until Sulla died in 78
B.C. Caesar won many important battles and
3
Luckily, all hope was not lost. When Caesar quickly became known for his genius in military
was about 10 years old, his aunt, Julia, married a operations. After Sulla's death, he came back to
very rich man named Gaius Marius. Through Rome and began trying his hands as a politician.
him, the financial woes that the Caesars had 8
suffered earlier became a memory of the past. Caesar, by all accounts, was a great orator
(public speaker). As a legal advocate, he
4
Marius started out his career in the army prosecuted former governors notorious for
before pursuing a political life. Politicians in extortion and corruption. His tough stand on
ancient Rome all had one position in mind - crime won him lots of support from the
consul, and Marius was no exception. He won commoners. For the next few years, Caesar took
his first consul election in 108 B.C. and then five one position after another and slowly climbed up
more times. After concluding his sixth term in the political ladder. It is said that he once saw a
the office, he announced his intention to retire. statue of Alexander the Great and wept. When
When he heard that his archenemy, Lucius asked why he was so upset, he said that when
Cornelius Sulla, was preparing for the war Alexander was his age, he already had
against the king of Pontus in Asia Minor (today's conquered so many nations. He felt ashamed
Turkey) in 87 B.C., he decided to come out of because he had done nothing memorable to
his retirement. He convinced the senate that he speak of. As if the realization was not depressing
was a better candidate for the job than Sulla. enough, he soon got two more blows in his
personal life. Both his beloved wife and Aunt
5
As the news of switching commandership Julia died! Alas, 69 B.C. was indeed a difficult
reached Sulla, he was very angry. He led his year for Caesar.
troops back to Rome and forced Marius and his 9
supporters to flee. With Rome now under Sulla's Though stricken by his personal loss, Caesar
control, he took back the right to lead the decided to remarry in 67 B.C. for political gain.
military campaign against Pontus and departed This time,he chose Sulla's granddaughter but
once again. After Sulla was gone, Marius hey divorced five years later.
returned to Rome. Teamed up with Lucius 10
Cornelius Cinna (Caesar's father-in-law), the Caesar was an extravagant spender. Over
duo persecuted Sulla's supporters. After Marius the years, he had accumulated a lot of debts. His
died, Cinna became the effective ruler of Rome personal financial crisis reached a boiling point
for the next couple of years. He died in 82 B.C. by 63 B.C. He eventually had to rely on his
friends to pay off some of his balance. While
6
Upon Cinna's death, Sulla made a stationed away place from Rome, Caesar
developed a remarkable reputation as a military
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

commander. He fought and won numerous most likely, lose his life. Seeing no way out, he
battles against the rebellious local tribes. Upon marched forward and invaded his own country.
his triumphant return to Rome, he decided to run
13
for the office of consul. To achieve his goal, he The victory came swiftly. By 48 B.C., the
decided to seek help from Marcus Licinius scared senate appointed him dictator and gave
Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus him total control of Rome. Pompey fled to Egypt
("Pompey the Great"). With much negotiation, seeking refuge but was ultimately killed. Caesar
the trio set up an alliance (later became known lingered in Egypt for several months. During his
as "The First Triumvirate," or “rule of three”). stay there, he defeated the pharaoh and installed
In their deal, Crassus and Pompey used wealth Cleopatra VII as the new ruler in Egypt. The two
and influence to help Caesar win the election, reportedly had an affair.
and once elected, Caesar lobbied for their
14
political interests. To further strengthen the Caesar left Egypt in 47 B.C. to quash the
bond, Caesar allowed Pompey to marry his remaining rebellion forces. Upon his return to
daughter, Julia Caesaris. Crassus, Pompey, and Rome, the senate showered him with praise and
Caesar's arrangement worked out beautifully. honors. It appointed him dictator for the next 10
Caesar became consul in 59 B.C. True to his years. It allowed him to hold any public office
words, he helped champion the causes beneficial he wanted. It renamed the month of his birth
to Crassus and Pompey. Caesar married for the from Quintilis to July (or Julius in Latin). It
third time during his one-year term in office. made his birthday a national holiday. With his
power reaching an all-time high, Caesar minted
11
After Caesar finished serving as consul, he coins bearing his face. The act was the first in
spent most of his time in the next couple of the Roman history, for no living Roman had
years outside of Rome. Using his brilliance, he ever had his image featured on coins.
conquered many lands and helped to expand the Furthermore, a statue of Caesar with the
Roman Republic's already vast territory. Among inscription "To the Invincible God" was put up
his achievements during this period, the most in the capital.
famous were perhaps the two invasions of
15
Britain - first in 55 B.C. and second in 54 B.C. In 45 B.C., Caesar was made dictator for
life. His influence made many senators very
12
Despite the success, Caesar had a lot of uncomfortable. The spirit of the Roman
problems on his hands. Many people in Rome Republic was to avoid having any one person
disliked him. They would pounce on any chance with absolute control. That is, the spirit of the
to take him down. Of his two staunch supporters Roman Republic was to avoid monarchy. As
from the First Triumvirate, Crassus was dead, Caesar began to act and to be looked upon as the
and Pompey began to develop a different view king, the discontented senators decided to do
of Caesar after he lost his wife Julia Caesaris in something about it. On March 15, 44 B.C., they
childbirth in 54 B.C. Caesar tried to mend the stabbed him in a gathering and laid his body at
relationship with his opponents. But nothing the foot of Pompey's statue.
worked. In early January of 49 B.C., the senate
16
declared him a public enemy. When word Caesar, in the eyes of many, was a
reached Caesar, he set out to prepare for war. At controversial figure. While several of his
the dawn of January 11, he and his men arrived policies made him immensely popular among
at the northern bank of a small river called the commoners, he always had a strained
Rubicon that marked the official border of the relationship with the nobles who eventually had
Roman Republic. Right before crossing, he him killed. From the time of his death until now,
ordered his troops to halt and contemplated his he has continued to be hailed as one of the
options. If he proceeded, he would trigger a civil greatest commanders in history. His military
war and really make himself a public enemy. If achievement was as exceptional as that of
he pulled back, he would face persecution and, Alexander the Great!
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman Entertainment
Lesson 6(1 day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Culture (1)
 Individual Development and Identity (4)
 Individuals, Groups, and Institutions (5)
 Production, Distribution, and Consumption (7)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources.
 CC.8.5.6-8.G. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos,
or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
 CC.8.6.6-8.A. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
 CC.8.6.6-8.C. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development,
organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to compare entertainment of Ancient Rome to contemporary
entertainment.
 Students will be able to evaluate Roman entertainment and its importance in Roman
society.
 Students will be able to answer a prompt using what they have learned to support their
position.
Materials:
 “Gladiators”
 Video clip of Ben-Hur chariot race
 SD/L “Julius Caesar”
 Lined Paper
Subject Matter:
Entertainment, society, traditions, norms, values

Procedure:
Set:

Ask students: What do you do for fun/recreation? What do you think most Americans enjoy for
entertainment? Write answers on the board.

Essential Question: How is Roman entertainment similar to entertainment today?

1. SD/L:
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

a. Go over with students the SD/L worksheet on Julius Caesar students did the day
before.

2. Video:
a. Class will view a short clip form Ben-Hur depicting the chariot race.

3. Reading:
a. In partners(student choice) read “Gladiators”
b. Answer the accompanying questions.

4. Board List:
a. Class will compile a review list on the board of the daily life activities in Ancient
Rome.

5. Narrative Prompt:
a. Discuss famous phrase “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”
b. Students will then have 10 minutes to answer the prompt: If you lived in Rome,
how would you act?
c. Students may finish at home if they would like more time.
Close:

Ask students if they can see any similarities between our entertainment and that of the ancient Romans.

Assessment:
 Reading Questions
 Narrative Prompt
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Gladiators and a "pursuer." The former had only a net in


his right hand and a dagger in his left. The latter
1
Back in the old days of Rome, people loved to came fully armed. As the two warriors faced
see gladiators fight. Gladiators were each other in the arena, the "net man" would
professionally trained warriors. Their job was try his best to cast the net over the "pursuer." If
not to defend the nation, but to battle against he managed to do that, he could then use his
each other in public. To the onlookers, such dagger to kill the opponent.
combats were fun and exciting. But to
5
gladiators, they were not. Every time they Of course, death was the most common
marched to the center of an arena for a match, outcome of a gladiator fight. But it was not the
they put their lives on the line. If they made one only one. When a gladiator was wounded, he
false move, they could easily get injured or could raise his forefinger to beg mercy from the
worse, face the most horrible outcome of audience or the high-ranking officials at the
defeat - death! game. If they wanted to spare his life, they
turned their thumbs up or waved their
2
While Ancient Rome was famous for this handkerchiefs. If they wanted to slay him, they
brutal form of sport, it did not invent it. The turned their thumbs down or toward their
credit should really go to the Etruscans. The chests. Usually, the audience's response was
Etruscans believed that when an important man enough to determine the fate of the wounded
died, his spirit needed a human sacrifice to gladiator. However, the final decision was
survive the afterlife. To honor the deceased, always in the hands of the emperor (if he was
they would stage a battle at the man's funeral. there) or the game organizers.
As the loser lay dying on the ground, his body
6
became a burial offering. Each time he entered a game, a gladiator
knew very well that it could be his last. Each
3
The Etruscans ruled Rome for about a time he made the pledge "We who die to salute
century. Historical records show that the first you!" at the onset of a game. If a gladiator was
gladiator fight in Rome occurred in 264 B.C., lucky enough to win enough combats, he could
long after the Etruscans were gone. That display receive a discharge from further service. A
was for honoring a man named Brutus. At his successful gladiator enjoyed fame and fortune
funeral, his sons held a contest among three though Romans looked down on them for their
pairs of gladiators. The fight must have gotten a shameful backgrounds. The Roman public
lot of buzz around the town. Slowly, it took root followed the sport wholeheartedly. They
in Rome and became a popular sport. With cheered on their favorite contestants and even
more and more people watching the game, the depicted them in poems and paintings.
scale of it grew bigger over time. It went from
7
the initial three pairs to three hundred, and Gladiator fights fell into disfavor during the
then to five thousand! fourth century. Emperor Constantine I issued an
edict (ruling) in 325 A.D. and officially banned
4
For the most part, gladiators were usually the sport but for the next several decades the
criminals, slaves, or prisoners of wars. They Romans continued to hold gladiatorial games.
were sent to special schools called ludi. Once They did not give up this entertainment until
there, they had to learn how to use weapons. Emperor Honorius came along and banned the
Upon "graduation," they each would be sport again in 393 A.D. This time, he made sure
assigned to a specific class. The class would that his order was taken seriously. The last
later dictate the type of weapon a gladiator known gladiator fight in Rome was on January
could use. For example, in a gladiator game, the 1, 404 A.D. After that, it faded into history and
organizer would pit a fight between a "net man" became a thing of the past!
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

1. Who were the least likely to become


gladiators 6. Which of the following statements
a. Nobles accurately depicts a gladiator’s life?
b. Criminals a. Gladiators were all hailed as
c. Prisoners of war heroes and celebrities
d. Slaves b. Some Romans despised them,
others admired them
2. What was the original purpose of c. Most Romans thought
staging a gladiator fight? gladiators lived a fun and
a. To honor the dead exciting life.
b. To celebrate a new year d. Emperors Constantine and
c. To show off wealth Honorius celebrated the lives
d. To please the gods of gladiators

3. Based on paragraph 1, which of the 7. The main idea of the 3rd paragraph
following statements is false? is: “The first gladiator fight in Rome
a. Gladiators were was in honor of the death of Brutus.”
professionally trained
warriors Which of the following statements
b. Everyone thought Gladiator supports the main idea of the
battles were fun and exciting paragraph?
c. Injury or death could occur to a. The Etruscans ruled Rome
a gladiator anytime they for about a century.
entered the arena b. The Etruscans first held
d. Gladiators were not trained to gladiator events as a sacrifice
defend Rome. to honor their dead.
c. At his funeral, his sons held a
4. According to the 4th paragraph, what contest among three pairs of
does the word ‘ludi’ mean? gladiators.
a. Gladiators were typically d. More and more people began
criminals or slaves watching the sport in Rome
b. Special schools in which
gladiators were trained 8. What is the main idea of paragraph
c. It’s the graduation ceremony 6?
for gladiators a. Gladiators were well
d. The organization of respected by nearly all
gladiators into groups Romans
b. Gladiators lived a life filled
5. For how many years did Rome have with turmoil and sacrifice
gladiator fights? c. Gladiators were tough, but
a. 843 years had families that loved them.
b. 140 years d. Gladiators lived a depressing
c. 668 years life of death and shame.
d. 385 years
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Beginning of Roman Empire


Lesson 7(1 Day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Time, Continuity, and Change (2)


 Individual Development and Identity (4)
 Power, Authority, and Governance (6)
 Global Connections (9)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources.
Objectives:
 Student will be able to understand the failure of the second triumvirate to rule together.
 Students will be able to analyze how one women could tear apart a government.
 Students will be able to discuss why Augustus Caesar and Marc Antony went to war
against each other.
Materials:
 “Augustus Caesar” reading
 “Where are Antony and Cleopatra?”
 “No Place Like Rome” project
Subject Matter:
Power, authority, governance, conflict, leadership

Procedure:
Set:

Opener question: Is there good that can come out of seeking revenge against somebody else? Explain.

Essential Question: What was the impact of the second triumvirate and its eventual fracture?

1. Review:
a. Review the history of Julius Caesar that was previously discussed in class.

2. Reading:
a. Together the class will read “Augustus Caesar”
b. In small groups 3-4 the class will answer the questions that accompany the
reading.
c. In their small groups read “Where are Antony and Cleopatra?’ and complete
question worksheet.
d. Review selected questions to check for understanding
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

3. Project:
a. Introduce the “No Place Like Rome” advertisement project. Students will be
provided paper and materials to use in class but encouraged to use time outside
of class to complete their advertisement.
Close:

Students will write down on an exit slip what they think the impact of the second triumvirate and its
eventual fracture.

Assessment:
 Reading Questions
 Advertisement Project
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Augustus Caesar: The Empire is Born


1ForAncient Rome, 27 BC was a defining moment. That year, the
Republic ceased to exist. In its place, the Empire was born, and Augustus
was its first emperor.

2His rise to power was a lucky one, for he had a powerful uncle—none
other than Julius Caesar. Caesar took Augustus, known then as Octavian,
under his wing and taught him to be a soldier and politician. Impressed
by the boy’s potential, Julius Caesar adopted Augustus as his son and successor. Not long
afterwards, in 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated in the Senate building. Augustus quickly gained
the support of his uncle’s troops, though he was only 18.

3
In the power struggle that followed, few took Augustus seriously because of his young age. At
the time, Mark Antony (Caesar’s right-hand man) and Cicero (a Senator) were competing for
power. Cicero ridiculed Augustus publically, which led Augustus to form an alliance with
Antony; together with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, they formed the Second Triumvirate and
gained control of Rome. Immediately afterward, they unleashed their revenge on Rome for
Caesar’s assasination, killing an estimated 300 Senators and 2,000 noblemen. Cicero’s fate was
the worst. He was caught escaping and killed on Dec. 7, 43 BC. His head and hands were
severed and put on public display at the Forum in Rome. Antony’s wife is said to have pulled
out Cicero’s tongue and jabbed it with a hairpin in defiance against Cicero’s power of speech.

4The Second Triumvirate kept Mark Antony, Augustus, and Lepidus united until they had
avenged Caesar’s death. Antony and Augustus could not get along, and when Lepidus died and
Antony decided to leave his wife and go to Egypt to be with Cleopatra. Antony set up a will to
appoint Caesar’s biological son, Caesarion, the rightful heir to Caesar’s power. When Augustus
got word of this betrayal, he stole the document and used it as proof that Antony no longer
cared about Rome and its traditions. Augustus persuaded the Senate to declare war on Antony
and Cleopatra. When the two sides fought, Augustus was victorious. Antony and Cleopatra
fled to Egypt where they committed suicide together.

5
Augustus took over Egypt and had Caesarion killed so nobody else would could claim to be
Caesar’s heir. At the age of 33, Augustus had defeated every opponent of the Republic. As the
most powerful man in the world, Augustus knew he must not rush to consolidate his power and
get rid of the Senate as Caesar had. Instead, he served as Consul for several years but kept
control of Rome’s strong military. His power influenced the Senate, who gave Augustus
supreme power and the title “First Citizen.” He was effectively then the first emperor of Rome.
He led campaigns that greatly expanded and enriched the Republic, and his rule heralded an
era of peace and prosperity known as Pax Romana. When Augustus died in 14 AD, his last
words were "I found Rome of clay, and leave her to you of marble." He had found Rome as a
Republic, and left it an Empire.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

PART 1: IDENTIFY THE MAIN IDEA


Remember: Main Ideas represent the ENTIRETY of a passage, not merely sections or
specific examples.

DIRECTIONS: Create a main idea statement that represents the entirety of this
passage.

PART 2: PROVE YOUR ANSWER

DIRECTIONS: Explain why you wrote this answer. Provide supporting details from the
passage that led you to this choice.

Why:

Supporting Detail:

Supporting Detail:

Supporting Detail:

Supporting Detail:

PART 3: POST-DISCUSSION SELF ASSESSMENT

DIRECTIONS: On the line below, mark an “X” where you believe your main idea
statement belongs.
PERFECT! _____________________________________________ COMPLETELY WRONG!
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Where Are Antony and Cleopatra?

CAIRO, Egypt (Achieve3000, August


27, 2009). An archaeologist in Egypt
believes he may have discovered the
long-lost tomb of Antony and Cleopatra.

Egypt's top archaeologist, Zahi Hawass,


believes that Antony and Cleopatra, two
legendary rulers of antiquity, are buried
inside a 2,000-year-old Egyptian temple
called the Taposiris Magna. The partially
excavated temple is located near the
Mediterranean Sea, about 30 miles from
Egypt's ancient seaside capital of A view of Osiris temple at Taposiris Magna, Alexandria
Alexandria, where Cleopatra is known to
have resided.

While the precise location of Antony and Cleopatra's final resting place has long been a mystery,
historians do know—thanks to Greek writer and historian Plutarch—that the two were buried
together.

General Antony was a ruler of Rome, and Cleopatra was the queen of Egypt. Their deaths in 30
BCE (Before the Common Era) followed the defeat of their united armies during a clash
involving Caesar Augustus, who had challenged the two rulers for complete control of the
Roman Empire. According to Plutarch, Caesar permitted the pair to be entombed together.

So did Caesar have Antony and Cleopatra buried in the Egyptian temple, as Hawass believes?
Hawass concedes that archaeologists are not "100 percent" certain that Antony and Cleopatra are
entombed there. However, he says that excavation work has unearthed a great deal of evidence
supporting his theory. Inside the temple, archaeologists have thus far discovered 22 coins bearing
Cleopatra's name and face. They have also found various carvings that appear to be
representations of the famous pair. In addition, a fragment of a mask with a cleft chin has been
found.

"If you look at the face of Mark Antony, many believed he had this cleft on his chin," said
Hawass. "That's why I thought this could be Mark Antony."

For Hawass, the most compelling evidence supporting his theory is the discovery of a cemetery
encircling the temple. The cemetery contains at least 10 mummies. These mummies are from the
same period as the artifacts found inside the temple. The placement of the cemetery indicates that
someone of great importance was laid to rest inside the temple.

"The discovery of the cemetery [has] really convinced me that there is someone important buried
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

inside this temple," Hawass said. "No one would be buried outside a temple without a reason.
We saw that in the pharaonic days; they were always buried beside pyramids," he said.

Kathleen Martinez, an archaeologist from the Dominican Republic, has studied the life of
Cleopatra for 12 years. Martinez has participated in excavations at the temple with Hawass for
the last three years. Hawass credits Martinez for originally suggesting that Antony and
Cleopatra's tomb might be located inside Taposiris Magna.

"I believe it could be [inside] Taposiris Magna because it was the most sacred temple of its
time," Martinez said.

Hawass' claim about what lies inside the temple is the latest in a long line of spectacular
assertions, many of which have been met with skepticism and bemusement—at least initially—
by experts of Egyptian antiquities. But Hawass has been associated with many impressive
discoveries. These include the Valley of the Golden Mummies, the mummy of the Egyptian
Queen Hatshepshut, and others.

Hawass is confident that he will soon add the tomb of Antony and Cleopatra to his list of
significant finds. He is now studying the temple using ground-penetrating radar, which has thus
far revealed three possible sites of subterranean burial chambers located 40 feet underground.
Excavations are now in progress to determine whether the bodies of the two rulers, long thought
lost forever, are indeed buried within one of these chambers.

"In my opinion," Hawass enthused, "if this tomb is found, it will be one of the most important
discoveries of the 21st century."

The Associated Press contributed to this story.

1. Which cause best fits the box above?


a) Martinez has studied the life of Cleopatra for the last 12 years.
b) Martinez has helped with excavations at the Taposiris Magna for three years.
c) The Taposiris Magna was the most sacred temple of its time.
d) The Taposiris Magna is located near the ancient city where Cleopatra lived.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

2. Which is the closest synonym for the word bemusement?


a) Sarcasm
b) Puzzlement
c) Optimism
d) Adversity
3. The reader can infer from the article that __________.
a) Important leaders were buried with material possessions in ancient times.
b) Archaeologists are sure that Antony and Cleopatra were buried inside Taposiris Magna.
c) Hawass has yet to examine the fragment of a mask with a cleft chin that was found.
d) Greek historians have yet to release information about Antony and Cleopatra.

4. In the fifth paragraph, the author's primary point is __________.


a) Various items found in the temple support Hawass' theory that Antony and Cleopatra are
buried there.
b) Hawass has admitted that archaeologists are not 100 percent certain if the long-lost tomb
is in the temple.
c) Many coins were created in ancient times that displayed the name and face of Queen
Cleopatra.
d) Antony was known to have a cleft on his chin, just like the one on the mask found in the
temple.

5. Which of these should not be included in a summary of this article? 


a) Martinez is an archaeologist from the Dominican Republic who studies Queen Cleopatra.
b) Excavations are in progress to find out if Antony and Cleopatra's tomb is in the temple.
c) Hawass believes he has discovered Antony and Cleopatra's tomb in the Taposiris Magna.
d) Archaeologists found items associated with Antony and Cleopatra at Taposiris Magna.
6. The article states: "I believe it could be [inside] Taposiris Magna because it was the most
sacred temple of its time," Martinez said. Which would be the closest synonym for the word
sacred?
a) Serene
b) Revered
c) Enriched
d) Ornate
7. The news article says all of the following except __________.
a) Archaeologists found carvings that appear to be representations of Antony and Cleopatra.
b) Historians say that Cleopatra resided at the Taposiris Magna before she died.
c) The location of the tomb of Antony and Cleopatra has long been a mystery.
d) The Taposiris Magna is a partially excavated temple located near the Mediterranean Sea.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman Primary Sources


Lesson 8(1 day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 People, Places, and Environments (3)


 Power, Authority, and Governance (6)
PA Core:

 CC.8.5.6-8.D. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including
vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
 CC.8.5.6-8.F. Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g.,
loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
 CC.8.5.6-8.H. Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
 CC.8.6.6-8.C. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and
style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to identify primary sources.
 Students will be able to understand the importance of primary document in history.
 Students will be able analyze primary sources.
Materials:
 “Analyzing Primary Sources” worksheet
 “No Place Like Rome” project
 Project supplies
Subject Matter:
Primary sources, leadership

Procedure:
Set:

Open up class by asking students; what can we gain from reading a primary source?

Essential Question: Why are primary sources important to history?

1. Primary Source Analysis:


a. Complete as a class “Ancient Rome: Analyzing Primary Sources”

2. Project:
a. The rest of class students will have time to work on advertisement project.
Close:

While students are cleaning up ask why primary sources are important to history.

Assessment:
 Primary source questions
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

 Advertisement project
Ancient Rome: Analyzing Primary Sources
Polybius, on the character of Hannibal
“Some cities again he made up his mind to treat with treacherous violence, removing their inhabitants to
other cities, and giving their property up to plunder…these movements were accompanied by robberies
of money, murders, and violence, on various pretexts at the hands of the outgoing or incoming soldiers in
the cities.”

Speaker:

Occasion:

Audience:

Purpose:

Synthesis (finish this statement): The quote about Hannibal reflects his character as…

Plutarch, on the assassination of Julius Caesar


“And by this time, finding himself struck by a great many hands, and looking around about him
to see if he could force his way out, when he saw Brutus with his dagger drawn against
him…gave up his body to their blows. And they so eagerly pressed towards the body, and so
many daggers were hacking together, that they cut one another…”

1. Speaker:

2. Occasion:

3. Audience:

4. Purpose:

5. Synthesis (finish this statement): According to Plutarch, the actions of the Senators were…

Tacitus, on Augustus Caesar


“Augustus won over the soldiers with gifts, the populace with cheap corn, and all men with the sweets
of repose.”

1. Speaker:

2. Occasion:

3. Audience:

4. Purpose:

5. Synthesis (finish this statement): This quote by Tacitus shows that Augustus gained power by...
Playwright Plautus, on slavery in Rome
“There was no high motive for a slave to behave himself---simply a fear of cruel punishment if he did
not. There might be a hope of ultimate freedom, but that depended entirely on the caprice of the
master.”
1. Speaker:

2. Occasion:

3. Audience:

4. Purpose:

5. Synthesis (finish this statement): The life of a slave was…

Microbius, describing a Roman feast


“Before the dinner proper came sea hedgehogs; fresh oysters, as many as the guests wished; large
mussels…field fares with asparagus; fattened fowls; oyster and mussel pasties; black and white sea
acorns…boar's ribs; fowls dressed with flour; becaficoes [songbird]; purple shellfish of two sorts. The
dinner itself consisted of sows' udder; boar's head; fish-pasties; boar-pasties; ducks; boiled teals; hares;
roasted fowls; starch pastry; and Pontic pastry.”

1. Speaker:

2. Occasion:

3. Audience:

4. Purpose:

5. Synthesis (finish this statement): This meal is different from dinners I eat because…

Plutarch, on the Temple of Mars in Rome


“His temple at Rome has two gates, which they call the Gates of War, because they stand open in the
time of war, and shut in the times of peace; of which latter there was very seldom an example.”

1. Speaker:

2. Occasion:

3. Audience:

4. Purpose:

5. Synthesis (finish this statement): The role of gods in Roman daily life was…

Name: _________________________________
Rome

“No Place Like Rome!”


Poster Project

Goal: To better understand a various aspects of Ancient Roman culture.

Task: Create a poster advertising a part of Ancient Roman life that we have
learned about so far. You must sell it to the viewer (your teacher) as
persuasively as possible. Possible topics can include legion recruitment,
gladiatorial games, bathhouses, restaurant/dinner parties, sale of a
villa/apartment, running for political office, etc.

Requirements:
1. Title: Name of product/service/business
2. Short description of what you are selling and how it will benefit the buyer.
3. At least 1 relevant illustration
4. Location/contact information

Recommended:
1. Use Roman themes (font, illustrations, references) as appropriate
2. Use color!
3. Use the full sheet of paper provided. Avoid excessive white space!
4. Be Creative! Bonus points may be awarded for creative “extras!”

Grading Rubric
Presentation Organization (0-5) 0 – 15 pts
Understandability (0-5)
Title (0-5)

Contents Illustration (0-5) 0 – 15 pts


Ad description (0-5)
Contact information (0-5)

Creativity Originality (0-5) 0 – 10 pts


Artistic interpretation (0-5)

Accuracy Spelling/grammar (0-5) 0 – 10 pts


Accuracy of Information (0-5)

Total: 0 – 50 pts

Due Date: ________________ Please attach this sheet to the back of your poster
Rome

2016
Rome Unit Pt. 1: The Republic

Adapted from Waters & Anderson


12/19/2016
Rome

Roman Emperors
Lesson 9(2 days)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Time, Continuity, and Change (2)


 Individual Development and Identity (4)
 Power, Authority, and Governance (6)
 Civic Ideals and Practices (10)
PA Core:

 CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary
sources.
 CC.8.6.6-8.A. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
 CC.8.6.6-8.C. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and
style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.8.6.6-8.E. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present
the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to construct a five paragraph essay using internet research.
 Students will be able to compare good versus bad emperors in Roman history.
 Students will be able to use technology to help them research their chosen emperor.
Materials:
 Computer Lab/Computer Cart
 Good or Bad? worksheet
Subject Matter:
Leadership, power, authority, empire, social control

Procedure:
Set:

Ask students what qualities make a good leader and explain why?

Essential Question: What make a “good” or a “bad” emperor?

1. Reading:
a. As a class read over the good and bad emperor list.

2. Web Quest:
a. Students will use the internet to find an additional good emperor and bad emperor and
fill out the web quest worksheet.

3. Essay:
Rome

a. Students will write a 5 paragraph essay on who was the best/worst emperor in Roman
history.
b. Students are encouraged to use their worksheets and readings in addition to the
internet to help them answer the question.
Close:

Ask students after all the research they have done what does make a “good” or a “bad” emperor.

Assessment:
 Web quest worksheet
 Essay
Rome

Good or Bad?
Vespasian Trajan
(reigned 69-79 AD) (reigned 98-117 AD)
G G
O O
O O
D D
Trajan spent most of his life as a soldier on
In his reign, Vespasian is best known for military campaigns and expanded the
successfully restoring order to Rome after empire to its greatest size during his reign.
the chaotic reign of Nero and the civil war He oversaw large building programs and
following Nero’s death (in which 4 emperors spent lots of money to help the po or and
died). He put down a revolt in Judea, was decrease poverty in Rome. He was second
able to stabilize Rome’s finances, and began in the succession of the Five Good Emperors
rebuilding the city of Rome, including and his legacy survives today as one of
construction of the Coliseum. peace and prosperity.
Antonius Pius Marcus Aurelius
(reigned 138-161 AD) (161-180 AD)
G G
O O
O O
D D

Antonius was the fourth of the Five Good Marcus Aurelius co-ruled with his brother
Emperors. He spared many of the senators Verus after the death of Antonius Pius. He
condemned by his father, Hadrian, while successfully preserved the empire against
funding large building projects and attacks, spending much of his reign fighting
promoting learning and the arts throughout in Syria and Germany. Unfortunately his
Rome. He is known for giving rights to the troops returned with diseases that would
accused in the Roman legal system, and is ultimately kill nearly 5 million people. He
notable for never going on a military was known as a philosopher and the last of
campaign his entire time in office. the Five Good Emperors.
Rome

Good or Bad?
Caligula Nero
(reigned 37-41 AD) (reigned 54-68 AD)
BA BA
D D

Known as one of the worst Roman emperors in


Nicknamed “Little Boots” because he had history, Nero believed he was a great artist (but
traveled with the Legions while he was young, really was not). He heavily taxed Rome to pay
Calig ula was initially very popular after taking for his lavish lifestyle, killed his mother and
power but this soon changed. He insisted he be wife, and executed numerous officials who he
worshiped as a god, turned the palace into a didn’t like. During the Great Fire of Rome in 64
brothel, committed incest, killed those who it is rumored that Nero watched and composed
criticized him, and planned on making his horse songs, then afterward blamed Christians for
a consul (he made him a priest instead and causing it—he had thousands persecuted and
requiring Senators to have lunch with him). He killed. He committed suicide when the
was assassinated by his own guards. discontented Senate voted Nero an enemy of
Rome.
Commodus Elagabalus
(reigned 180-192 AD) (reigned 218-222 AD)
BA BA
D D

Commodus took power at 18 and believed he Since becoming emperor at age 14, Elagabalus
was the reincarnation of Hercules and later created controversy and chaos in Rome. He
Romulus. He bankrupted Rome by spending made Romans worship a sun god of his
money lavishly and particularly loved choosing, tried to appoint his charioteer lover
gladiatorial games. He enjoyed participating as co-emperor, devalued Rome’s currency, and is
a gladiator, often killing hundreds of animals in said to have prostituted himself out in taverns
a day in the Coliseum and personally killing around Rome. He also executed those he
hundreds of innocent people he had chained in disliked. His eccentric behavior and religious
the arena. He renamed Rome after himself and offense caused his guards to assassinate him.
was assassinated in the bath by his wrestling His family and followers were then executed and
partner. Rome undid all his changes, including physically
erasing Elagabalus’ name from their records and
monuments.
Rome

Good or Bad?
Your Task:
Read the short profiles of four “good” and four “bad” emperors. Using the Internet, find one more
example of a “good” and a “bad” emperor of Ancient Rome.

“Good” Emperor

Name:

Years of Reign:

Reason #1 why he was good:

Reason #2 why he was good:

“Bad” Emperor

Name:

Years of Reign:

Reason #1 why he was bad:

Reason #2 why he was bad:

Narrative Prompt

Construct a paragraph to answer the following prompt:

Who was the best/worst (choose 1) emperor in Rome’s history?

Outline your evidence below to help you write your paragraph.

1. Name of best/worst (circle one):

2. Reason #1

3. Reason #2

4. Reason #3
Rome

Underground Rome
Lesson 10(1 day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 People, Places, and Environments (3)


 Science, Technology, and Society (8)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources.
 CC.8.5.6-8.G. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos,
or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
Objectives:
Students will be able to identify technological feats of Rome’s infrastructure.

Students will be able to compare Ancient Roman cities with cities of today.

Students will be able to analyze photos of modern day and determine their historical significance.

Materials:
 “In Rome’s Basement” reading
 Cloaca Maxima video
 Current Rome photographs
Subject Matter:
Infrastructure, city planning, technology

Procedure:
Set:

Ask students what are the most basic necessities of a city? Write the students answers on the board.

Essential Question: How does Ancient Rome’s infrastructure compare to what we have today.

1. Reading:
a. Students will read individually “In Rome’s basement”
b. They may then answer the questions with a partner.

2. Video:
a. The class will watch a short video on Cloaca Maxima:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=playerdetailpage&v=DEeQPZONYSU

3. Photo Analysis:
a. Class will view photos taken in modern Rome and discuss their historical significance.
Close:
Rome

On an exit slip students will answer how Ancient Rome’s infrastructure compares to what we have
today.

Assessment:
 Reading Questions
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: _____________ Period: _____

In Rome’s Basement street runoff and raw sewage. He has taken the
This selection is adapted from an article in National danger seriously, covering every inch of his
Geographic Magazine titled “In Rome’s Basement,” by body with gloves, boots, hooded wind suit, and
Paul Bennett (©2006 by National Geographic Society). mask—all sealed with duct tape. He motions
1 sharply at a conduit disgorging a surge of ocher
Luca pushes his head into the sewer,
liquid into the cavern that aerosolizes into a
inhales, and grins. "It doesn't smell so bad in the
mist, sending members of the group into a
cloaca today," he says, dropping himself
frenzy fitting masks over their faces.
feetfirst into a dark hole in the middle of the
Forum of Nerva. Despite his optimism, the 4
He points out other conduits, some
blackness emits sickening aroma: a mélange of dumping clean water into the sewer from
urine, diesel, mud, and rotting rat carcasses. In underground springs, some releasing dirty
short, it smells just as you'd expect a 2,500- water. At one point, we pass through a sloping
year-old continuously used sewer to smell. section down which brown sludge purls. Beyond
Below in the dark, tuff-vaulted cavern itself, this dangerous obstacle lies a deep hole where,
things aren't much better. As Luca wades sometime during the past 2,000 years, the floor
through water the color of army fatigues, has washed out, forcing everyone to inch along
stepping over garments of temples and an unseen precipice in chest-high, scum-
discarded travertine washed down over the covered water. A joker in the group observes
ages, a diorama of modern life floats past: that it looks like the cocoa-like foam on Italian
cigarette butts, plastic bags, plastic lighters, a espresso.
baby pacifier, and a disturbingly large about of
5
stringy, gray stuff that looks like toilet paper, At a pile of rubble—bones, pottery
although raw sewage isn't supposed to be shards, and caked mud that nearly fill the entire
flowing through here. At one turn, Luca points space of the cloaca—the adventure comes to a
out a broken amphora, perhaps 2,000 years old, halt. The sewer's barrel vault clearly reaches
lying in the mud next to a broken Peroni beer into the darkness beyond—one wonders how
bottle, perhaps a week old. Together they far.
provide a striking testament to how long people
6
have been throwing their garbage into the A remote-controlled robot will someday
gutter of this city. probe beyond the barrier; Luca expects to
confirm that the great drain reaches the Baths
2
Luca Antognoli, 49, works for the city to of Diocletian, nearly a mile (1.6 kilometers)
explore Rome's subterranean spaces—an northeast. Who knows what treasures lie along
amazing array of temples, roads, houses, and the way, he says, noting that archaeologists had
aqueducts buried by history since the fall of the recently pulled a colossal head of Emperor
Roman Empire. According to tradition, the Constantine from a sewer just like this. Spaces
Cloaca Maxima ("great drain"), which runs like the Cloaca Maxima offer clues about how
beneath the Roman Forum, was built in the this city grew to rule an empire from the edge
sixth century BC, making it one of the city's of Scotland to Baghdad, leaving its imprint
oldest—if not the oldest—surviving structures. indelibly on Western history.
So it is surprising to learn, as Luca winds his way
7
through the sludge-filled passage under Via A rivulet coming from the darkness
Cavour, that the cloaca has never been fully flows down the rubble. Someone asks if it's
explored and mapped. dirty or clean. "It's very dirty," Luca says, eyeing
the opening beyond, "but very important."
3
In real life Luca Antognoli is a surgeon,
8
and he has warned us to be careful not to The cloaca, originally an open drain,
expose our skin to the water, a potent mix of was intentionally buried during the time of the
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: _____________ Period: _____
Roman Republic, but most of what underlies whisk away storm water, date from the late first
Rome is there accidentally, buried by two century, when the Flavian emperors were
millennia of sedimentation and urban growth. building the Colosseum. Some ancient writers
claimed the building was deliberately flooded
9
"Rome has been rising for 3,000 years," for mock naval battles. But there was no
says Darius Arya, an archaeologist and director evidence of the large waterworks needed to
of the American Institute for Roman Culture. bring in the water.
Much of Rome is situated in a floodplain,
13
including the modern city center, at a bend of Then, in October 2003, a startling
the Tiber River. Although the Romans put up discovery was made. Below the simple drains
levees, the city still flooded periodically, so they (and predating the Colosseum) were large
built upward, laying new structures and streets conduits constructed by Emperor Nero to
on earlier ones. "It was cost-effective, and it charge an artificial lake in his gardens. The
worked," Arya says. "We see the Romans conduits had obviously been reused by the
jacking their city up two meters [6.5 feet] at a architects of the Colosseum, most likely to pipe
time, raising themselves above the water but quantities of water in and out. For the first few
also burying their past." years of its history, at least, the Colosseum, like
many other theaters, was capable of being
10
Today the city sits on layers of history flooded.
45 feet (14 meters) deep in places. But
14
ironically, while you can dig a hole anywhere In the course of going about business in
within the 12-mile (19-kilometer) ring of walls Rome, someone somewhere bumps up against
that once enclosed the ancient city and find an artifact that hasn't seen the light of day for
something of interest, comparatively little of hundreds—or thousands—of years.
this buried city has been excavated. "I don't
15
imagine more than 10 percent has been "Rome is the biggest open-air museum
documented," Robert Coates-Stevens says. in the world," says Darius Arya of the American
During the 1800s, the Roman Forum was dug Institute for Roman Culture." There's so much
out—work that continues—but most ancient to explore. I find it funny that people talk about
structures are still trapped under the traffic- diving to the bottom of the sea or climbing
clogged streets and office buildings of the faraway peaks. Here's Rome, where we still
contemporary city. don't know what's underneath."

11
In the 1920s and '30s Benito Mussolini
razed sections of Rome's historic center, where Key Words
medieval and Renaissance houses stood, to
reveal the ancient layers below—specifically Mélange: (noun) a mixture
anything dating back to the time of Emperor Subterranean: (adjective) existing below the
Augustus. (Mussolini liked to compare himself
to Augustus and equated fascism with Pax surface, underground
Romana, the time of peace ushered in by Conduit: (noun) a pipe, tube, or channel
Augustus). Archaeologists now favor exploring
ancient spaces from below, leaving the surface Levee: (noun) an embankment built to prevent
undisturbed. flooding
12
Until three years ago only a quarter of Razed: (verb) tore down
the conduits—the driest and most easily
accessible—below the Colosseum had been
explored. These simple drains, designed to
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: _____________ Period: _____
4. Which of the following events was the first
to occur, according to the passage?
1. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Mussolini destroyed medieval and
A. Luca Antognoli is famous for exploring Renaissance buildings.
the sewers of Rome. B. Drains were discovered in the
B. Waste water runoff in Rome is Colosseum
destroying treasures underground. C. The Roman Forum was dug out to
C. The sewer is the most important part of reveal the structures underneath.
the city of Rome. D. A large statue head of Constantine was
D. Roman sewers today reveal much about discovered in a sewer similar to the
the life and times of Ancient Romans. Cloaca Maxima

2. According to the passage, what caused the 5. As used in paragraph 7, rivulet most likely
Romans to build their city upward? means:
A. Periodic flooding of the Tiber River A. An obnoxious noise
B. Too much waste runoff in the sewer B. An ancient construction technique
C. They ran out of room to expand C. A small stream
D. Augustus demanded the Colosseum be D. A tour guide
constructed

6. It can be reasonably inferred from the


3. The passage indicates that: passage that:
A. Surgeons advise against exploring the A. Rome will continue to reveal treasures
sewers and clues to its past
B. The Colosseum flooding was a myth B. We have learned all there is to know
C. Mussolini destroyed many parts of about Ancient Roman culture.
Ancient Rome C. The author does not approve of
D. There are still many discoveries to be exploring the sewers any further
made under Rome D. Rome will stop all further construction
projects after exploring the sewer
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Tragedy in Rome
Lesson 11(1 day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Culture (1)
 Time, Continuity, and Change (2)
 People, Place, and Environments (3)
 Power, Authority, and Governance (6)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources.
 CC.8.5.6-8.G. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos,
or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to compare Emperor Nero’s rule with other Roman emperors as
well as modern rulers.
 Students will be able to analyze Roman artifacts using prior knowledge about Roman
culture and society.
 Students will be able to interpret how Romans would have reacted to the tragedy at
Pompeii.
Materials:
 “Nero” reading
 SD “Secrets of Pompeii”
 “Artifact Analysis”
Subject Matter:
Tragedy, power, authority, leadership, abuse of power, social conflict, revolt

Procedure:
Set:

Start class out with an “Artifact Analysis” worksheet as a class using student prior knowledge about
Roman culture and society.

Essential Question: What do you think the people of Rome thought the tragedy of Pompeii was caused
by?

1. Reading:
a. Class will read the “Nero” reading in pairs and complete the attached questions

2. Discussion:
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

a. Class will compare through discussion Nero’s actions and legacy with those of
other “bad” emperors discussed in the computer research activity previously.

3. Reading:
a. As a class read “Supporting Details: Secrets of Pompeii” and have students
complete supporting detail worksheet
Close:

Ask students what they think the people of Rome thought the tragedy of Pompeii was caused by.

Assessment:
 Artifact Analysis
 Reading Questions
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Artifact Analysis: Rome


Image A

1. What do you think these artifacts are? What are they used for?

2. What do they tell us about Ancient Roman life?

Image B 
3. What do you think this artifact is? What is it
used for?

4. What does it tell us about Ancient Roman


life?
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Image C 

5. What do you think this artifact is? What is it used for?

6. What does it tell us about Ancient Roman life?

Image D 
7. What do you think this artifact is? What is it used for?

8. What does it tell us about Ancient Roman life?


Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Nero 5
Now with her newfound fortune in hand,
Adapted from text by Vickie Chao
Agrippina decided to up her influence even
1
further. She wanted to marry again. This time,
Looking back in history, every country has she wanted to marry a man who could make
had its fair share of bad rulers. In the case of her an empress and her son a future king.
ancient Rome, one emperor by the name of Among all the possible suitors, Emperor
Nero really stood out from the pack. His Claudius was, without a doubt, in the best
notorious behavior not only made his subjects position to fulfill her dream. Using her charm,
miserable, but also nearly brought the great she quickly won the heart of Claudius who
kingdom to its knees! married her on January 1, 49 A.D. Agrippina
became Claudius' fourth wife. She was 34
2
Nero was born Lucius Domitius years old at the time, he 59. The following
Ahenobarbus in Antium (today's Anzio), Italy, year, Claudius officially adopted Lucius who
on December 15, 37 A.D. Both of his parents now took the name Nero Claudius Drusus
came from very prominent families. On his Germanicus. This unexpected turn of events
father's side, he was the great great-grandson made Nero a prince. His only rivalry to the
of Mark Antony. On his mother's side, he was crown would be his stepbrother, Britannicus.
the nephew of Emperor Caligula (also known
as Emperor Gaius) as well as the great great- 6
Claudius, by all accounts, treated Nero
grandson of Augustus. very well. From early on, he took the young
3
boy under his wing and gave him ample
When Lucius was about two years old, his opportunities to show his talents. He involved
mother, Agrippina, was at the center of a him in managing the state affairs. He
scandal. According to the rumor, after her appointed him to senior government posts.
younger sister, Drusilla, died, Agrippina and And he even let him marry Octavia, Claudius'
her youngest sister (Livilla) had an affair with own daughter from a prior marriage. From the
Drusilla's husband (Lepidus.) The three surface, it appeared that Nero would definitely
conspired a plot to overthrow Caligula. be made the heir apparent to the throne.
Unfortunately, word got out beforehand, and Besides the obvious affection showered upon
the plan folded. Furious by the betrayal, him by Claudius, Nero had another advantage
Caligula promptly had Lepidus executed and over Claudius' own son, Britannicus -- age. As
sent his sisters to exile. Just when it seemed the oldest of the two, Nero was the most likely
things could not get worse for Lucius, his candidate for kingship. But when the ailing
father who suddenly fell ill and died. At the emperor began contemplating a successor, he
age of three, Lucius had no parent to care for favored Britannicus. Of course, as ambitious
him. He had to live with his uncle, Caligula, as Agrippina was, she would never allow this
whose behavior was growing more erratic and to happen. Therefore, she resorted to using her
deranged day by day. old trick, poison. On October 13, 54 A.D., she
4
prepared a dish of mushrooms laden with
On January 24, 41 A.D., a group of toxin. The lethal meal killed Claudius. On the
officers murdered Caligula. They hailed same day, Nero became the fifth and the last
Claudius, Caligula's uncle, as the new king of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (27 B.C. -
emperor. Upon ascending the throne, Claudius 68 A.D.).
recalled his nieces from exile. After her return
to Rome, Agrippina married a wealthy 7
Agrippina clearly had hoped to rule the
nobleman. Several years later, she allegedly Roman Empire through Nero. But she quickly
poisoned him and became a rich woman saw her dream crushed. Nero, as it turned out,
overnight. listened more attentively to his advisors,
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Seneca and Burrus, than to her. When he Nero. To please his favorite mistress, he
began to distance himself from her, she vowed to divorce Octavia. He first tried to
decided to befriend Britannicus and support accuse his wife of adultery. When that did not
him instead. That approach turned out to be work out, he accused her of infertility instead.
fruitless, too. Nero considered Britannicus a On that ground, he succeeded. Shortly after
big threat. To ensure that his absolute power the annulment, Nero ordered Octavia’s
remained intact, he poisoned his stepbrother at murder.
dinner. The venom was so powerful that it
12
killed him instantly for all the guests to see! In July of 64 A.D., the "Great Fire of
Nero then exiled his mother from Rome. Rome" broke out. The blaze lasted several
days. When it was finally put out, much of
8
Though horrifying, this crime marked just Rome was destroyed. Right away, rumors
the beginning of Nero's atrocities for the years began to spread that Nero was the one who set
to come. the fire because he wanted to build a new city.
They further suggested that he celebrated the
9
Nero had little interest in politics. As far destruction by singing and playing a lyre. To
as the state affairs were concerned, he trusted his defense, Nero was reportedly on vacation
the judgment of Seneca and Burrus. The two in his birthplace, Antium, at the time. Thus, he
advisors were competent, wise men. Together, could not be the one who actually burned
they helped Nero manage the vast kingdom down Rome -- at least not in the sense of
effectively. The first five years of Nero's reign committing the crime himself anyway.
became an example of fine administration. Determined to clear his name, Nero pointed
Sadly, there was only so much Seneca and the finger at Christians, then a minor and
Burrus could do. In 58 A.D., Nero met a unpopular religious sect. By accusing them of
beautiful woman named Poppaea Sabina. He starting the fire, he was free to torture and
fell deeply in love with her, even though he crucify many believers, including quite
was married to Octavia. The following year he possibly apostles Saint John and Saint Peter.
decided to have his mother murdered. He is
13
said to have tried three times to poison her, Though we may never find out the real
then designed a self-sinking boat for her to culprit responsible for the disaster, we know
ride in. Agrippina survived the sinking, so for sure that Nero did have every intention to
Nero eventually sent assassins to finally kill rebuild the city. On top of his urban plan was
her. the construction of a grand palace, Domus
Aurea (the Golden House.) This magnificent
10
With Poppaea by his side, Nero spent his structure was adorned with all the luxuries. It
time in acting, joining public games, and had hundreds of rooms, a huge park, fancy
racing chariots. All those new hobbies were baths, beautiful fountains, and lovely
costly and, most importantly, deemed pavilions. The Golden House's sheer size and
undignified for people of high social status. extravagance was once again a vivid reminder
Seneca and Burrus' gentle words fell on deaf of what little regard Nero had for the citizens
ears. As Nero plunged the nation's wealth into of Rome, many of whom became homeless
advancing his own personal pleasure, the after the fire. As the discontent continued to
public eyed him disapprovingly. grow, people began to contemplate a plot to
overthrow Nero. The conspiracy came to light
11
In 62 A.D., Burrus was dead, and Seneca in 65 A.D. To his dismay, Nero found his
wanted to retire. Nero was now finally former advisor, Seneca, among the
surrounded by people who would never voice accomplices. He forced them to commit
any objection. Coincidentally, during the same suicide. Shortly after the scheme flopped,
year, Poppaea was pregnant. The news elated Poppaea died (allegedly in the hands of Nero)
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

and Nero left for a tour around Greece. He view. After he was deposed, the Golden
was gone for nearly two years. House became a sore sight. It was a painful
reminder to the Romans of those dark,
14
Upon his return to Rome in 68 A.D., miserable days. When Emperor Vespasian
Nero found himself in dire circumstances. founded the Flavian dynasty in 68 A.D., he
Over the years, he had made so many enemies. announced that he would convert part of the
Now, all those people were ready to pounce land where the Golden House stood and use it
on him. Even the Praetorian Guard, whose to build a public arena. This "superdome"
sole responsibility was to protect the emperor, could seat 50,000 spectators. The work took
began to show signs of contempt and several years to complete, stretching across
disloyalty. In the end, the senate declared the reign of three emperors (Vespasian and his
Nero a public enemy. This order was the nail sons, Titus and Domitian). When it was finally
in his coffin. On June 9, 68 A.D., Nero killed done, the Romans called the facility the
himself. It is said that before he took his own Flavian Amphitheater. That official name,
life, he exclaimed, "What an artist the world is however, was eventually forgotten. Today, the
losing by my death!" However highly he structure still stands proudly in the center of
regarded himself, the public did not share this Rome. Everybody calls it the Colosseum!

Nero
1. Which of the following about Nero is correct?
a. He was the natural son of Claudius.
b. His passion for acting and racing chariots was considered inappropriate for people
of distinctive backgrounds.
c. He was the fourth and last emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
d. He was caught red-handed burning down Rome.

2. Which of the following events took place first?


a. Nero divorced Octavia.
b. Nero became the emperor.
c. Nero built the Golden House.
d. Nero murdered his stepbrother.

3. For how many years did Nero rule the Roman Empire?
a. 20 years
b. 59 years
c. 14 years
d. 38 years

4. Why did Caligula send Nero's mother, Agrippina, to exile?


a. Because she conspired to overthrow him
b. Because she refused to pay taxes
c. Because she killed her second husband
d. Because she burned down Rome
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Supporting Details: Secrets of Pompeii

YOUR GOAL: Identify at least 5 statements that support the following main idea:
Main Idea: Pompeii’s horrifying end preserved the city to teach us about Roman daily life.
Pompeii was a bustling Roman port city that thrived in the shadow of Mt. Vesuvius. On one
horrifying day in 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted and covered the city, 5 miles away, with a millions of
tons of superheated ash that instantly killed over 2,000 people as they tried to flee. Completely
buried, the city was largely forgotten until diggers discovered it in the late 1700s. Because there
was no air or moisture, the ash completely preserved the buildings, objects, and even the form of
the victims as they were on the day Vesuvius erupted. People were found in their beds, in
bakeries that still contained preserved loaves of bread, and clutching the belongings they tried to
escape with. Today the city is still not completely excavated. The villas, theaters, gardens,
artwork, and roads remain exactly as they were nearly two thousand years ago, undisturbed by
centuries of change and construction that normally changes ancient cities. Archaeologists
continue to study the city and work to preserve it from the natural weathering that threatens to
deteriorate the exposed structures.
Remember: Supporting Details are not merely true statements or words that are present in the
reading; they provide support for an argument (MAIN IDEA) to persuade the reader.

PART 1: IDENTIFYING SUPPORTING DETAILS

DIRECTIONS: Write each of the 5 statements in the boxes below.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Supporting Details: Secrets of Pompeii

PART 2: POST-DISCUSSION ASSESSMENT

DIRECTIONS: After our discussion, decide how many of your 5 written


statements support the thesis.

PART 3: METACOGNITION (“Thinking About Your Thinking”)

DIRECTIONS: Describe the most important lesson you learned from this activity. What
will you do differently the next time we complete an activity like this one?
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: _____________ Period: _____

Break Up of Roman Empire


Lesson 12(1 day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Culture (1)
 Time, Continuity, and Change (2)
 Individual Development and Identity (4)
 Individuals, Groups, and Institutions (5)
 Civic Ideals and Practices (10)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources.
 CC.8.5.6-8.D. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text,
including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
 CC.8.6.6-8.C. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development,
organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to understand the importance of religious freedom and tolerance
toward others.
 Students will be able to analyze through cause and effect why the Roman Empire started
to break up.
 Students will be able to test their understanding of Latin and what English phrases and
words are similar to it.
Materials:
 Cause-Effect: “Break-up of the Roman Empire”
 “Constantine & Christianity”
 “Latin You May Know”
Subject Matter:
Religion, language, conflict, authority

Procedure:
Set:

Discuss with class why all religions in the United States are tolerated today and why this is a good thing.
Then have students discuss freedom of religion and draw parallels to Rome’s tolerance of religions.

Essential Question: Is religious tolerance and freedom important? Explain

1. Reading:
a. Students will read “Constantine & Christianity” in pairs and complete attached
questions.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

2. Cause and Effect:


a. Class will complete “Cause-Effect: Break Up of the Roman Empire” as a class.
b. Class will read the passage and go over one example of cause and effect
relationships together

3. Latin:
a. Students will try to write in what the words and phrases mean to them on the
“Latin you may know” worksheet.
Close:

Go over the “Latin you may Know” worksheet and ask students if religious tolerance and freedom is
important and to explain why.

Assessment:
 Reading Questions
 Cause and Effect Worksheet
 Latin you may Know Worksheet
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: _____________ Period: _____
the war. Since then, he had become a
committed Christian and continued to have his
armies bearing this unique symbol of Christ,
known as labarum.
4
In 313 A.D., he and Licinius (his brother-
in-law and co-emperor in the east) issued the
famous Edict of Milan. They declared that
both the Eastern and Western Roman Empires
Constantine & Christianity would keep a neutral position on all faiths.
Constantine the Great even commissioned the
construction of several grand cathedrals. For
1
Since the beginning of time, the ancient the first time in ancient Rome, Christians
Romans worshipped hundreds of gods and could openly practice their religion without
goddesses. Many of those deities came from fear.
foreign lands that the Romans had conquered.
As different faiths sprang up across the ever- 5
Though both Constantine and Licinius
expanding empire, they were more or less pledged to tolerate all faiths in their respective
tolerated. Such open attitude, however, was kingdom, Licinius later strayed from his
not the case for Judaism and Christianity. Both commitment and began the practice of
religions pointedly refused to honor Roman persecuting the Christians once again. Furious,
gods and to idolize Roman emperors. As a Constantine the Great waged wars against
result, the Jews and Christians endured Licinius. After several years of fighting,
centuries of hardship. One good example Constantine the Great finally defeated
would be Emperor Nero. In 64 A.D., a big fire Licinius. In 324 A.D., he united both the
engulfed Rome and destroyed much of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires. From
city. Emperor Nero pinned the blame on the that point on to his death, he had the throne all
Christians. Through relentless persecution, he to himself. He no longer needed to share his
also allegedly killed two Christian apostles -- power with somebody else as he had done so
Saint John and Saint Peter. previously.
2
At the start of the 4th century, Constantine 6
Interestingly, though Constantine the Great
the Great (or Constantine I) ascended the did many things in favor of Christianity, he
throne. He held a different view toward himself was not baptized until his final days.
Christianity and gave the religion a big break. Shortly before he died on May 22, 337 A.D.,
In 306 A.D., Constantine the Great was he finally changed into a white robe so he
engaged in a series of civil wars after the could get baptized.
death of his father, Emperor Constantius. At
last, he managed to crush all his opponents to 7
To the Christians, Constantine the Great
become the sole ruler of the Western Roman was one of their biggest supporters. Through
Empire. his efforts, Christianity was able to spread to
all corners of the Roman Empire and
3
It was often said that the night before his eventually become the kingdom's only religion
deciding battle, the Battle of the Milvian in 380 A.D.
Bridge, he had a dream. In it, he received the
instruction of painting the first two Greek Dictionary:
letters of the word "Christ" -- Chi (X) and Rho Idolize (verb): to worship as a god
(P) -- on all his soldiers' shields. When he Edict (noun): a decree or proclamation
woke up, he did just that and went on to win
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

1. Which of the following events took a. Nero took the blame for a fire
place last? that Christians actually
a. Constantine the Great joined started
his father on a military b. Jews and Christians endured
campaign in Britain. centuries of hardship
b. Constantine the Great c. Romans forced all Jews and
organized the Council of Christians to convert
Nicaea. d. All of the above
c. Constantine the Great
crushed all opponents and
became the sole ruler of the 5. Put the following in events in the
Western Roman Empire. correct order from earliest to most
d. Constantine issued the Edict recent.
of Milan. I. Constantine and Licinius
issued the Edict of Milan
2. What was the Edict of Milan about? II. The new capital of
a. To pick a day for celebrating Constantinople of unveiled
Easter III. Constantine was baptized
b. To determine whether Jesus IV. Constantine was name
was a divine or a created Emperor of the Western
being Roman Empire
c. To tolerate all religions
d. To name Christianity the sole a. I, II, III, IV
religion of the Roman Empire b. IV, III, II, I
c. IV, I, III, II
3. For how many years did Constantine d. IV, I, II, III
the Great rule the united Roman
Empire? 6. Which of the following statements
a. 13 years most accurately summarizes the
b. 63 years passage’s main idea?
c. 49 years a. Constantine came from a
d. 31 years long line of pro-Christian
emperors.
4. b. Christianity was the most
popular religion during
Ancient Rome.
c. Constantine helped
Christianity become popular
during his reign as emperor.
d. Constantine’s dreams
inspired him to become
What is the effect of the above baptized and support
cause? Christianity.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Cause-Effect
The Break-up of the Roman Empire
By Vickie Chao
1
The Roman Empire was once a superpower. Back in the days of the early 2nd century, Emperor
Trajan stretched the kingdom's territory to its maximum. After that, securing the frontier had become an
issue that all the future emperors had to address. Because few were as capable as Trajan, the Roman
Empire was soon in trouble. By the 3rd century, the situation had grown so bad that this once formidable
powerhouse was at the brink of self-destruction. During the period from 235 A.D. to 284 A.D. (often
called the crisis of the third century, the military anarchy, or the imperial crisis), more than two-dozen
emperors came and went. Out-of-control inflation brought the economy to its knees. And foreign tribes
continued to harass the borders. Just as things could not get worse for the Roman Empire, relief finally
arrived. In November of 284 A.D., Diocletian, a forceful Roman general, seized power and declared
himself the new emperor. One of his earliest orders was to split the Roman Empire in two. He kept the
eastern part and gave the western half to his colleague, Maximian.
2
Diocletian's decision was bold but practical. He figured that the Roman Empire had simply grown too
big over the years to be managed effectively by a single person. In 285 A.D., he named his trusted
military friend, Maximian, as a Caesar, or a junior emperor, while he himself was named an Augustus, or
a senior emperor. The following year, Diocletian promoted Maximian to be his equal, so both men held
the title of Augustus and ruled the split Roman Empire side-by-side. Diocletian chose the city of
Nicomedia (modern day's Izmit, Turkey) to be the capital of his Eastern Roman Empire, whereas
Maximian picked Milan to be the capital of his Western Roman Empire. With the kingdom broken into
two, Diocletian and Maximian were each responsible for fighting the enemies in their respective territory.
As it was no longer necessary to stretch the troops across the entire empire, it was much easier to put
down the rebels. Diocletian's daring experiment paid off handsomely.
3
By 293 A.D., Diocletian decided to go a step further and resolve the issue of succession once and for
all. That year, both of the senior emperors handpicked their own Caesar. Diocletian chose Galerius, and
Maximian selected Constantius. Galerius and Constantius were like apprentices. They did not sit idly
waiting for the two senior emperors to die or to retire. Instead, they were each given a sizable territory
and had their own capital. Galerius resided at Sirmium (in today's Serbia), and Constantius camped at
Trier (in today's Germany). Diocletian called this new power structure tetrarchy (pronounced "te-TRAR-
kee") or "rule by four."
4
Tetrarchy lasted on and off for nearly a hundred years, but it eventually ceased to exist by the end of
the 4th century. Shortly before its demise, Valentinian II was the ruler of the Western Roman Empire, and
Theodosius I the Eastern Roman Empire. The two were brothers-in-law. On May 15, 392 A.D.,
Valentinian II was found dead in his palace. Theodosius suspected foul play and declared war to avenge
his brother-in-law. During the deciding Battle of Frigidus in 394 A.D., Theodosius I won and became the
sole ruler of the Roman Empire. This unification turned out to be short-lived, for Theodosius I suddenly
fell ill and died in January of 395 A.D. Upon his death, his two sons, Honorius and Arcadius, took over.
Honorius managed the west, and Arcadius controlled the east. The two halves would never unite again!
5
The Western Roman Empire, or simply the Roman Empire, collapsed in 476 A.D. A Germanic
chieftain named Odoacer or Odovacar revolted that year. He overthrew Emperor Romulus Augustus and
ended the Western Roman Empire for good. The Eastern Roman Empire, or the Byzantine Empire, lived
on for nearly another thousand years. Upon the emergence of the Ottoman Turks, however, the Byzantine
Empire began counting its final hours. Its last ruler, Constantine XI, did his best to fend off the Ottoman
Turks' advances, but he failed. On May 29, 1453, the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople (the
capital), killed Constantine XI, and closed the last chapter of the Byzantine Empire.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

After reading the passage, fill in the appropriate cause and effect boxes.

CAUSE EFFECT
Diocletion believed Rome had grown He split the Roman empire into East
too large to defend all its borders. and Western halves.

It was much easier to put down


rebellions.

Rules in the East and West Tetrarchy (rule by four) lasted for
handpicked their own Caesar. nearly 100 years.

Valentinian II was found dead in his


palace.

The Western Roman Empire ended


for good.

The Ottoman Turks emerged to


challenge the Byzantine Empire.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Latin You May Know!


Latin Word What you think it means Class Definition

Verbatim

Arena

Subpoena

Circa

Status Quo

Impromptu

Per Se

Perpetrator

Rigor

Dilemma

Dictator

Alibi

Specimen

Vice Versa
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Barbarian Invasion of Rome


Lesson 13(1 day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Time, Continuity, and Change (2)


 People, Place, and Environments (3)
 Individuals, Groups, and Institutions (5)
 Power, Authority, and Governance (6)
PA Core:


CC.8.5.6-8.A. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and
secondary sources.
 CC.8.5.6-8.G. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos,
or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
 CC.8.5.6-8.I. Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the
same topic.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to identify the causes that led to the fall of the Roman Empire.
 Students will be able analyze primary documents describing the sack of Rome.
 Students will be able interpret a painting from the time and what its significance is.
Materials:
 “Latin You May Know”
 “Roman Numerals”
 “Barbarians Invade Rome!”
 “Fall of Rome: Analyzing Primary Sources”
Subject Matter:
Conflict, borders, political strife, numbers, language, power, governance

Procedure:
Set:

The class will first go over the “Latin you may know” worksheet from the previous day. Then jump into a
teacher lead discussion on how the phrases are used today.

Essential Question: What were the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire?

1. Worksheet:
a. The class will complete the “Roman Numerals” activity together.

2. Reading:
a. Students will then read individually or in pairs “Barbarians Invade Rome!”
b. They will then complete the attached questions
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

3. Primary Source Exercise:


a. Students will complete in small groups no larger than 4 the Primary Source
exercise on the sack of Rome.

4. Discussion:
a. The teacher will lead a discussion of the significance and perspective of the
painting shown on the page.
Close:

On an exit split students will give 2-3 causes they know of that led to the fall of the Roman Empire.

Assessment:
 Reading Questions
 Primary Source Exercise
 Roman Numerals worksheet
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Roman Numerals
Numeral Number
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
L 50
C 100
D 500
M 1000

You Try! Write the corresponding numerals or numbers below.

18 XVIII
20
IL
71
110
MDXII

Where do you see Roman Numerals in use today?


Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Barbarians Invade Rome!


By Sharon Fabian
1
The Roman Empire, at its height, extended their own gods of war. The Huns crossed the
across much of Europe, but even then there Danube River and attacked
were other groups of people who were not part Rome. They attacked Greece and Italy too.
of the Roman Empire living in Europe too. The Romans fought back and forced the Huns
Many of these groups, called tribes, lived in to retreat.
the far north and parts of Europe not occupied
6
by the Roman Empire. But the power of Rome was weakening.
By the late 400's, Rome was no longer the
2
The barbarian tribes, as many of them mighty power that it had once been. In 476,
were known, didn't like the idea of settling the Hun leader, Odoacer, seized power in the
down and farming. They preferred a roaming, western half of Rome and declared himself
warlike lifestyle. Due to climate changes and King of Italy.
other factors, many of the tribes began to
7
migrate closer to the Roman Empire and The eastern half of the Roman Empire
sometimes even settle within the borders of tried to take power back in the west by
the empire. This eventually led to conflicts sending troops, under the leadership of King
between the tribes and the Romans. Theodoric of the Ostrogoths, to fight Odoacer.
The Ostrogoths killed Odoacer, and Theodoric
3
The Romans were used to being victorious became the new leader of Italy.
in their clashes with various tribes, but this
8
didn't happen every time. In the late 300's AD, The Roman Empire in the east continued
one tribe, the Visigoths, was being threatened on, but Roman rule in the west had come to an
by another tribe, the Huns. The Huns pushed end. Europe entered into an era of uncertainty.
the Visigoths further into Roman territory. Rulers changed frequently, as one leader
This brought the Visigoths into more conflicts attacked and defeated another. Invasions,
with the Romans. Eventually, it led to a big attacks, and feuds were commonplace. It was
battle at Adrianople. This battle, in 376 AD, the beginning of the Middle Ages.
showed that the invaders had the strength to
9
defeat Roman soldiers. The Goths also achieved a bad reputation.
Maybe it was their scary look too. Maybe it
4
In 395 AD, Visigoth troops, led by Alaric was that the Roman Empire was the good guy,
I, invaded Italy and Greece. By the year 410, and someone had to be the bad guy. However
they attacked the city of Rome itself. There it happened, the word gothic developed bad
they killed Roman citizens, laid waste to connotations. That's why, later on, some of the
buildings, and robbed the city. By 412, they scarier elements of the Middle Ages became
had attacked Spain and parts of present day known as gothic. Dark, spooky castles were
France too. called gothic. Stories set in dark, spooky
castles, like Dracula, were called gothic too.
5
Meanwhile, the Huns had defeated another
10
tribe, the Ostrogoths, and were threatening The early part of the Middle Ages is often
Rome. The Huns were especially feared. They portrayed as the time when the Roman Empire
were masters at fighting on horseback. They collapsed and barbarian attacks were an
could shoot down enemies with their bows everyday event. It has also been called the
and arrows while riding at top speed. Rumor Dark Ages.
had it that they sacrificed their captives to
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

1.Barbarian tribes included all of the following except _______.


a. Ostrogoths
b. Visigoths
c. Romans
d. Huns

2. The Middle Ages began as the _________ ended.


a. Roman Empire
b. Greek Civilization
c. Dark Ages
d. Eastern Empire

3. Which event happened first?


a. Odoacer seized power in the western half of Rome and declared himself King of
Italy.
b. Visigoth troops, led by Alaric I, invaded Italy and Greece
c. The battle at Adrianople
d. The beginning of the Middle Ages

4. Feuds and fights were _______ in the Middle Ages.


a. Frequent
b. Unknown
c. Rare
d. Uncommon

5.

According to the reading, what is a possible effect of the above cause?

a. The Visigoths and Huns fought many battles


b. The Visigoths battled and weakened the Romans
c. It became known as the start of the Middle Ages
d. The Goths had a bad reputation

6. Why is the term “Dark Ages” and appropriate name for the period after the Roman
Empire?
a. Europe entered into an era of uncertainty
b. Rulers changed frequently, as one leader attacked and defeated another.
c. Invasions, attacks, and feuds were commonplace.
d. All of the above
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Fall of Rome: Analyzing Primary Sources


Procopius, on Alaric’s sack of Rome
“And the barbarians, finding that they had no hostile force to encounter them, became the
most cruel of all men. For they destroyed all the cities which they captured, especially those
south of the Ionian Gulf, so completely that nothing has been left to my time to know them by,
unless, indeed, it might be one tower or one gate or some such thing which chanced to remain.
And they killed all the people, as many as came in their way, both old and young alike, sparing
neither women nor children. They also gathered as plunder all the money out of all Europe,
and, most important of all, they left in Rome nothing whatever of public or private wealth
when they moved on to Gaul.”
Speaker:

Occasion:

Audience:

Purpose:

Synthesis (finish this statement): This quote shows that a Roman historian viewed Alaric’s tribe as…
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

End of the Empire


Lesson 14(1 day)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Time, Continuity, and Change (2)


 Individuals, Groups and Institutions (5)
 Power, Authority, and Governance (6)
 Global Connections (9)
PA Core:

 CC.8.6.6-8.A. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.


 CC.8.6.6-8.C. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and
style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.8.6.6-8.H. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and
research.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to construct a 5 paragraph essay detailing causes that led to the fall of the
Roman Empire.
 Students will be able to compare Roman mistakes to mistakes made by nations in the 20 th and
21st centuries.
 Students will be able to apply prior knowledge to construct a web of ten cause of Rome’s
weakened state.
Materials:
 “Fall of Rome” web worksheet
 Lined Paper
Subject Matter:
Government, empire, transition, conflict, internal strife

Procedure:
Set:

Students will complete the “Fall of Rome” web with 10 details. Students may work in groups of 3 or less.

Essential Question: How do Rome’s mistakes compare to mistakes made by the governments of the 20
and 21st centuries.

1. Essay:
a. Students will have the whole class to write a 5 paragraph essay that answers the
following prompt. Why did the Roman Empire weaken and eventually fall? Students are
to construct 3 reasons as their body paragraphs with an intro and a conclusion.
b. Encourage students to use works from the past to help assist them including the web
they just completed.
Close:
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

If student are not finished they may finish their essay for homework. As student pack up ask students
how Rome’s mistakes compare to other nations from the 20 and 21 st centuries.

Assessment:
 Fall of Rome web
 Essay
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Organizing Ideas:
Fall of Rome
Directions: Fill in each circle with a supporting detail about the Fall of Rome.

Fall of
Rome
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Timeline and Gladiator


Lesson 15 (3 days)

Standards:
NCSS:

 Time, Continuity, and Change(2)


PA Core:

 CC.8.6.6-8.C. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and
style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.8.6.6-8.D. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen
writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on
how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
 CC.8.6.6-8.E. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present
the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to use prior knowledge to construct a timeline of Ancient Rome’s history.
 Students will be able to analyze the movie Gladiator and pick out which parts are realistic of
Ancient Rome and which are dramatization.
Materials:
 11x17 paper, markers, etc.
 Timeline of Ancient Rome Instructions
 Gladiator
Subject Matter:
All previous covered subjects

Procedure:
Set:

Pass back all student papers and worksheets to use as references on the timeline project.

Essential Question: What from the movie gladiator is actually realistic of Ancient Rome and what is
Hollywood exaggeration?

1. Project:
a. Class will spend the next three classes constructing their timelines with all resources
available for them.

2. Movie:
a. While working on their projects students will watch gladiator to reinforce themes of the
unit.
Close:

For extra credit on the last day students may choose to present their timeline to the class or their
advertisements. Go over how realistic Gladiator is.
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Assessment:
 Timeline Project
Name _____________________________ Date ___________________

Timeline of Ancient Rome


Your Task:
Create a timeline (solo OR with a partner) the entire history of Ancient Rome. Use
11x17” paper provided by your instructor to develop your timeline. Number your timeline
from 500 BCE to 500 CE (1,000 years total). Remember, the year 0 is in the middle!

You need to include:


 Label of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire
 At least 20 events, people, themes, etc. with appropriate date
 Color
 5 illustrations relevant to your timeline
 A title and your name

*Up to 10 bonus points can be earned for extra events, illustrations, and creativity beyond
the requirements above!

Rubric
20 events with summaries 0-20
Color and title 0-5
5 illustrations 0-10
Neatness, labels, and organization 0-10
Artistic interpretation & “extras” 0-5
Total /50