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Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109


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International Conference on Air Transport – INAIR 2018


International Conference on Air Transport – INAIR 2018
Evaluation of the Influence of Icing on Wings on Aircraft Flight
Evaluation of the InfluenceParameters
of Icing on Wings on Aircraft Flight
Parameters
Damian Olejniczak*, Marcin Nowacki,
Damian Olejniczak*, Marcin Nowacki,
Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznań, Poland

Abstract
Abstract
The phenomenon of icing is the process of changing the state of concentration of water contained in the atmosphere in the form
of
Thewater vapor intoofaicing
phenomenon solid isform
the deposited
process ofon the elements
changing of the
the state construction ofofaircraft.
of concentration This phenomenon
water contained has a negative
in the atmosphere in theeffect
form
on water
of the flight
vapor mechanics of the
into a solid formaircraft. Theon
deposited settling ice structures
the elements change the shape
of the construction of the This
of aircraft. airfoil, which causes
phenomenon hasaareduction in the
negative effect
maximum
on liftmechanics
the flight force coefficient of the airfoil
of the aircraft. and, consequently,
The settling ice structuresa change
reduction
theinshape
the value
of theofairfoil,
the liftwhich
force causes
generated by the airfoil.
a reduction in the
As a resultlift
maximum of force
icing, coefficient
the weight of of the
the airfoil
aircraftand,
increases, while its
consequently, drag of movement
a reduction increases.
in the value Deterioration
of the lift of flight
force generated properties
by the airfoil.
of the
As aircraft
a result of translates
icing, the into
weightincreased fuel consumption.
of the aircraft To assess
increases, while the effect
its drag of icing increases.
of movement of the wings on the flightofparameters
Deterioration of the
flight properties
aircraft,
of numerical
the aircraft simulations
translates of the fuel
into increased prepared wing models
consumption. werethe
To assess performed: clean,ofairfoil
effect of icing shaped
the wings icing
on the structure,
flight solid of
parameters icing
the
structure.numerical
aircraft, The analysis of the change
simulations of the of the lift wing
prepared force,models
airfoil drag and the increase
were performed: clean,ofairfoil
the wing's
shaped weight was carried
icing structure, out.icing
solid The
results, analysis
structure. and conclusions
The analysis from the
of the change conducted
of the research
lift force, airfoil are
dragpresented
and theinincrease
this article.
of the wing's weight was carried out. The
results, analysis and conclusions from the conducted research are presented in this article.
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
© 2018
This The
is an Authors.
open accessPublished by Elsevier
article under B.V.
the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
© 2018
This The
is an openAuthors.
accessPublished
article by Elsevier
under B.V.
the CC BY-NC-ND license committee
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Selection
This and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific of the International Conference on Air Transport –
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license committee of the International Conference on Air Transport –
INAIR
Selection2018.
INAIR 2018. and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Air Transport –
INAIR 2018.
Keywords: aircraft, aircraft icing, airfoil
Keywords: aircraft, aircraft icing, airfoil

Nomenclature
Nomenclature
PL lift force [N]
PLX dragforce
lift [N] [N]
PXZ perpendicular
drag [N] force [N]
F
PCZ engine thrust [N]
perpendicular force [N]
FC engine thrust [N]

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 061-647-5992.


E-mail address:author.
* Corresponding damian.a.olejniczak@doctorate.put.poznan.pl
Tel.: 061-647-5992.
E-mail address: damian.a.olejniczak@doctorate.put.poznan.pl
2352-1465 © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This is an open
2352-1465 access
© 2018 Thearticle under
Authors. the CC BY-NC-ND
Published license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
by Elsevier B.V.
Selection
This is an and
openpeer-review under
access article responsibility
under of the scientific
the CC BY-NC-ND licensecommittee of the International Conference on Air Transport – INAIR 2018.
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Air Transport – INAIR 2018.

2352-1465  2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Air Transport – INAIR 2018.
10.1016/j.trpro.2018.12.017
Damian Olejniczak et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109 101
2 Damian Olejniczak, Marcin Nowacki / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

CL lift force coefficient


CX drag coefficient
SX projection surface per plane perpendicular to the velocity vector relative to the flow of the medium [m2]
S wing surface [m2]
ρ density of the medium [kg/m3]
ρa ambient density [kg/m3]
ρi ice density [kg/m3]
Vi volume of ice coating [m3]
m weight of ice [kg]
G gravity force [N]
α the angle of attack of the wing [o]
v object velocity [m/s]
l the length of the wing [m]
c the chord line of the airfoil [m]
s the maximum wing width [m]
Pa ambient pressure [Pa]

1. Introduction

The icing phenomenon of the aircraft is statistically the most frequent cause of aviation accidents from the
category of accidents caused by bad weather conditions. Icing is defined as the process of changing the state of
concentration of water contained in the atmosphere in the form of water vapor to a solid form deposited on the
elements of aircraft construction (Antonini et al. 2011, Chen et al. 2012, Fortin et al. 2006, Liu et al. 2018,
Pfitzenmaier et al. 2018). Aircraft icing occurs in favorable atmospheric conditions, for which it is considered:
 high air humidity,
 air temperature from 0oC to −20oC,
 presence of water in the atmosphere in the form of supercooled water, clouds, fog and precipitation,
 in the above-mentioned conditions the negative wing surface temperature will occur (Szewczak 2007, Szutowski
2007).
The ice covering the airfoil may take different structures depending on the current flight conditions of the
aircraft. Airfoil shaped icing is created at a temperature below −10°C in clouds of low water content, made up of
small droplets of water. Small particles of water hitting the leading edge of the wing quickly take on the shape of the
airfoil. On the other hand, solid icing is created at a temperature of −5°C to −7°C during a flight in clouds of high
water content, built of large-sized water molecules. Low flight speed is conducive to the formation of this type of
icing (Szewczak 2007). The most common icing structures are: airfoil shaped icing, solid icing type and mixed type
icing combining airfoil shaped icing and solid icing features (fig. 1.) (Gębura et al. 2014, Wróbel 2008).

Fig. 1. The airfoil icing structures of: (a) airfoil shaped icing structure; (b) solid icing structure (Gębura et al. 2014).

The aircraft's wings have the largest share in the production of lift force. The wings may have various types of air
airfoil depending on the design and construction criteria of the aircraft. The most commonly used type of airfoil are
the NACA family of the convex type. A series of forces such as engine thrust, lift, gravity and drag operate on the
102 Damian Olejniczak et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109
Damian Olejniczak, Marcin Nowacki / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 3

aircraft during flight. During the flight of a plane, the forces acting on can be saved as force component vectors (fig.
2.)

Fig. 2. Force constituent vectors acting on a plane during a horizontal flight: PL – lift force, PX – drag , FC – engine thrust,
G – gravity force, α – the angle of attack of the wing (Lewitowicz and Żyluk 2006, Milkiewicz and Stepaniuk 2009).

The phenomenon of icing negatively affects the flight mechanics of the aircraft. Forming ice structures on the
airfoils change the shape of the wing and the nature of the flow of the airfoil. The lifting force is created as a result
of the flow of the medium relative to the airfoil due to the resulting pressure difference between the top and bottom
surface of the wing. The value of the wing lift force can be determined from the dependence (Lewitowicz and Żyluk
2006, Milkiewicz and Stepaniuk 2009) (1).

v2
PL  CL    S  (1)
2

where:
PL − the value of the lift force generated by the wing [N],
C L − coefficient of lift force determined empirically, depending on the angle of attack of the wing,
 − density of the medium [kg/m3],
S − wing surface [m2],
v − velocity of the body relative to the medium [m/s].

As a result of the change in the shape of the airfoil , the maximum value of the lifting force coefficient CL,
decreases, and as a consequence the value of the lift force PL generated by the airfoil is reduced
(fig. 3.) (Bragg et al. 1986, Cebeci and Kafyeke 2003, Chachurski and Waślicki 2011).

Fig. 3. Value of the lift force coefficient CL as a function of the angle of attack α for the wing:
a − clean, b − frosted, c – icing (Chachurski and Waślicki 2011).
Damian Olejniczak et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109 103
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On the aircraft during the flight there is also a component of the P X aerodynamic drag which is parallel and
directed in the opposite direction to the direction of movement. The value of this force describes the dependence (2).
As a result of icing of the aircraft, the value of the aerodynamic drag increases as a result of the increase of the drag
coefficient and the plane of SX projection on a plane perpendicular to the velocity vector in relation to the flow of
the medium (Lewitowicz and Żyluk 2006, Milkiewicz and Stepaniuk 2009).

v2
PX  C X    S X  (2)
2

where:
PX − value of the drag vector [N],
C X − drag coefficient,
 − density of the medium [kg/m3],
S X − projection surface per plane perpendicular to the velocity vector relative to the flow of the medium [m2],
v − velocity of the body relative to the medium [m/s].

During the occurrence of icing, the weight of the aircraft also increases, which increases the gravity value G. To
estimate the energy losses of the aircraft as a result of icing, the models of the wings of the convex plane
NACA2410 were made. The first model of the wing is the clean wing, while the other two layers are applied
successively to the airfoil shaped icing and solid icing model so as to cover the greater part of the wing's leading
edge. For numerical models prepared in this way, numerical simulations were performed to determine the values of
individual forces.

2. Methodology

To estimate the effect of the aircraft's icing on its flight parameters, three models of aircraft wings were made.
Wing models were based on the NACA2410 airfoil (http://airfoiltools.com/airfoil, access 20.06.2018). The
characteristic dimensions of the models are: the length of the wing: l = 5 m, the chord line of the airfoil at the base
of the wing: c = 2.1 m, and the maximum wing width: s = 2 m. The developed wing models have been simplified
without using the geometric twist of the wings. The first model is a clean wing model, while the other model has a
model of a airfoil shaped ice and solid ice of a thickness of about 1 cm. Prepared models are shown in fig. 4.

Clean wing model Airfoil shaped icing wing model Solid icing wing model

Fig. 4. Wing models with NACA2410 airfoil .

Prepared wing models were subjected to numerical simulation in a CFD environment.. An external flow model
with an k-epsilon turbulent model was used. The density of the model mesh was set according to the Autodesk CFD
tool on the value 0.5. As the boundary conditions of the simulation, atmospheric conditions were adopted at the
height of 5000 m according to the standard atmosphere: ambient temperature: Pa=53994 Pa. Simulation tests were
carried out for the flight speed: v=150 m/s for three variants of the angle of the leading edge of the wing: α=5o, α=7o
and α=9o. For particular angles of attack of the models of clean, airfoil shaped icing , solid icing wings, the forces
acting in individual axes were determined: x – drag PX, y – lift force PL, z – perpendicular force PZ. The values of
the forces obtained as a result of the accumulation make it possible to determine the values of the lift force and drag
coefficients depending on the angle of attack of the wing by appropriate transformation of the dependence (1) and
(2). However, the weight of the ice coating was determined from the dependence (3) with the known volume of ice
models and the assumption that the ice density is ρi = 916 kg/m3. The simulation conditions are shown in Figure 5.
104 Damian Olejniczak et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109
Damian Olejniczak, Marcin Nowacki / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 5

m  i  Vi (3)

where:
m − weight of ice [kg],
 i − ice density [kg/m3],
Vi − volume of ice coating [m3].

Airfoil shaped icing wing for: α=5o, α=7o,


Clean wing for:α=5o, α=7o, α=9o Solid icing wing for: α=5o, α=7o, α=9o
α=9o

Fig. 5. Wing models with NACA 2410 airfoil during simulation in CFD environment.

3. Results

Axis force results: x – drag, y - lifting force, z - perpendicular force determined from simulation are presented in
tables 1−3. In addition, the tables contain the values of lift force coefficient and drag coefficient determined from
dependencies (1) and (2).

Table 1. Simulation results for the clean wing model.


NACA 2410 clean: α=5o α=7o α=9o
v=150 [m/s], ρa=0.7361 [kg/m3]
S − Wing surface [m2] 16.47 16.47 16.47
PX – Drag [N] 4630.27 4349.82 3688.56
PL – Lift force [N] 24826.4 31560.8 37887
PZ – Perpendicular force [N] 248.12 245.47 209.2
CX – Drag coefficient 0.03395 0.03189 0.02704
CL – Lift force coefficient 0.18202 0.2314 0.27778

Table 2. Simulation results for the airfoil shaped icing wing model.
NACA 2410 airfoil shaped icing: α=5o α=7o α=9o
v=150 [m/s], ρa=0.7361 [kg/m3]
S − Wing surface [m2] 21.96 21.96 21.96
PX – Drag [N] 6089.19 5530.48 4983.69
PL – Lift force [N] 23835.7 31084.2 37976.9
PZ – Perpendicular force [N] 4207.29 4149.18 4100.37
CX – Drag coefficient 0.04464 0.04055 0.03654
CL – Lift force coefficient 0.17476 0.2279 0.27844
Damian Olejniczak et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109 105
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Table 3. Simulation results for the solid icing wing model.


NACA 2410 solid icing: α=5o α=7o α=9o
v=150 [m/s], ρa=0.7361 [kg/m3]
S − Wing surface [m2] 22.26 22.26 22.26
PX – Drag [N] 8911.86 8282.44 7860.52
PL – Lift force [N] 20872.3 27710.9 34033
PZ – Perpendicular force [N] 4139.18 4078.76 4043.4
CX –Drag coefficient 0.06534 0.06072 0.05763
CL – Lift force coefficient 0.15303 0.20317 0.24952

Data from table 1−3 are shown graphically in figures 6−9. There has been a clear increase in the value of drag for
the icy models for all angle of attack settings. On the other hand, the values of the lifting force significantly
decreased for the wings of ice solid, while the models of airfoil shaped-icy wings generated changes in the value of
the lift force with smaller values. Figures 8−9 show graphically the values of the determined coefficients of drag and
lift force as a function of the angle of attack of the wing.

9500
1 2 3 [CELLREF]
9000
8500 [CELLREF]
[CELLREF]
8000
7500
7000
6500 [CELLREF]
PX [N]

6000
[CELLREF]
5500
[CELLREF]
5000 [CELLREF]
[CELLREF]
4500
4000 [CELLREF]
3500
3000
2500
2000
5 7 9
α

Fig. 6. Values of drag PX for the angle of attack of the wing α=5o, α=7o, α=9o of tested wing models: 1 – clean wing,
2 – airfoil shaped icing wing, 3 – solid icing wing.
106 Damian Olejniczak
Damian Olejniczak, et al. // Transportation
Marcin Nowacki Transportation Research
Research Procedia
Procedia 35
00 (2018)
(2018) 100–109
000–000 7

40500
39000 1 2 3 [CELLREF]
[CELLREF]
37500
36000
34033
34500
[CELLREF]
33000
[CELLREF]
31500
30000
PL [N]

28500 [CELLREF]
27000 [CELLREF]
25500
[CELLREF]
24000
22500 [CELLREF]
21000
19500
18000
16500
15000
5 7 9
α

Fig. 7. Values of lift force PL for the angle of attack of the wing α=5o, α=7o, α=9o of tested wing models: 1 – clean wing,
2 – airfoil shaped icing wing, 3 – solid icing wing.

[CELLREF] 1
2
[CELLREF]
3
[CELLREF]
CX

[CELLREF]
[CELLREF]

[CELLREF]
[CELLREF]
[CELLREF]

[CELLREF]

5 7 9
α

Fig. 8. Values of drag coefficient CX in the function of the angle of attack of the wings of the tested models:
1 – clean wing, 2 – airfoil shaped icing wing, 3 – solid icing wing.
Damian Olejniczak et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109 107
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[CELLREF]
1
2 [CELLREF]
3
[CELLREF]

[CELLREF]

[CELLREF]
CL

[CELLREF]

[CELLREF]

[CELLREF]
[CELLREF]

5 7 9
α

Fig. 9. Values of lift force coefficient CL in the function of the angle of attack of the wing of the tested models:
1 – clean wing, 2 – airfoil shaped icing wing, 3 – solid icing wing.

Analysis of simulation data shows that the icing of the wings significantly influences the values of drag and lift
forces. However, the results regarding the airfoil of the airfoil shaped icy are indicative of much smaller changes in
the lift force value compared to the clean wing model compared to the results obtained for the solid icy model.
However, changes in the values of drag for icy models in relation to the clean wing model are already important for
both models. In order to compare the values of the forces of the icy models in relation to the clean wing, the relative
percentage increase of the values of forces in relation to the values of forces for the clean wing was determined
depending on the angle of attack the wing's. Relative percentage increases in forces in relation to the values of forces
obtained during clean wing tests for airfoil models of airfoil shaped icy wings and solid icy wings are shown in
figures 10−11.

120% [CELLREF]

100% [CELLREF] [CELLREF]

80%
PX [%]

60% 2

40% [CELLREF] [CELLREF] 3


[CELLREF]
20%

0%
5 7 9
α

Fig. 10. Relative percentage increases in the value of the drag in relation to the value of the clean wing drag for
α=5o, α=7o, α=9o: 2 – airfoil shaped icing wing, 3 – solid icing wing.
Damian Olejniczak, Marcin Nowacki / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000 9
108 Damian Olejniczak et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109

5 7 9
0%
[CELLREF]
-2%
[CELLREF]
-4%
[CELLREF]
-6%
-8%
2
PL [%]

-10%
3
-12%
[CELLREF]
-14%
[CELLREF]
-16%
-18%
-20% [CELLREF]
α

Fig. 11. Relative percentage increases in the value of the lift force in relation to the value of the clean wing lift force for
α=5o, α=7o, α=9o: 2 – airfoil shaped icing wing, 3 – solid icing wing.

As a result of the icing of the aircraft's wings, the weight of the aircraft also increases. Therefore, it was also
estimated that the wing weight increased for the icy models using the dependence (3). From the created wing
models, the values of the volume of ice coatings were determined, which was successively: for the airfoil shaped
icing layer:V1= 0.057041 m3, for a solid icing coating: V2= 0.061021 m3. Assuming that the ice density is: ρi = 916
kg/m3 the weight of models of ice coatings was determined, which was successively: for the airfoil shaped icing
model m1=52.29 kg, for the model of solid icing m2=55.94 kg.

4. Conclusions

The phenomenon of icing significantly affects the flight mechanics of the aircraft, worsening the characteristics
associated with the production of lift force and drag by the airfoil. Also leading to increase the weight of the aircraft,
increase the demand for the force of the string, which is tantamount to increasing the fuel consumption of the
aircraft engine. The results obtained during the simulation tests prove that 1 cm thick ice sheets effectively prevent
further flight of the aircraft and may cause an aircraft accident. The simulation tests show that the wing covered with
an airfoil shaped ice structure produces slightly lower values of lift force. However, the fact that the airfoil shaped
icing of the wing does not significantly affect the changes in the lift force value does not eliminate the problem of
ice formation of the aircraft with this ice structure. Because of the conducted research, they show that this icing
leads to a significant increase in the value of drag. On the other hand, solid icing significantly affects both the lift
and drag. What makes the icing of the surface of the aircraft with ice of this structure is very dangerous. The results
of the research lead to the conclusion that already a centimeter of ice with a solid icing structure is the reason for the
increase of the wing's drag twice, and at small angles of attack the wing reduces the value of the generated lifting
force by 20%. In natural atmospheric conditions during the flight of an aircraft, ice may accumulate on the plane
surface, creating also mixed structures having features of solid icing and airfoil shaped icing. Also, the fact that the
icing phenomenon of the aircraft is a negative synergistic effect should not be overlooked. What causes that
simultaneously affects the deterioration of the properties of individual components of the aircraft, regarding both the
aerodynamic, propulsion and pilot characteristics of the aircraft.
Damian Olejniczak et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 35 (2018) 100–109 109
10 Damian Olejniczak, Marcin Nowacki / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2018) 000–000

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