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Electrical machines lab

Experiment #1
Constructional feature, transformation ratio determination & polarity
identification of a 1-F transformer
To understand the constructional feature of a transformer
To determine transformation ratio of a transformer
To determine the polarities of the windings of a transformer


Multimeter/ 1-F transformer/ 1-F AC & DC power supply (variable)/ transformer steel sheet


A transformer is a static device which transfers the electrical energy from one circuit to
another circuit without any change in the frequency. The transformer works on the principle
of electromagnetic induction between two windings placed on a common magnetic circuit.
These two windings are electrically insulated from each other and also from the core.

Constructionally the transformers are of two general types, distinguished from each other
merely by the manner in which the primary and secondary coils are placed around the
laminated core. The two types are known as (i) core-type and (ii) shell type.

Windings on transformers or other electrical machines are marked to indicate terminals of

like polarities. In fig 1 terminal 1 and 3 are identical because current entering these terminals
produces fluxes that will add up and form the common magnetic flux. For the same reason
terminal 2 and 4 are identical.

Identical terminals such as 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 are sometimes marked by dotes or ±. This are
called the polarity markings of the windings. They indicate how the windings are wound on
the core.

If the winding are visually seen, the polarities can be determined. However, usually only the
terminals of the windings are brought outside. Nevertheless, it is possible to determine the
polarities of the windings experimentally.

Fig 1: polarity determination of a transformer by observation

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1. What can we do to reduce the hysteresis loss in a transformer?

2. Why transformer cores are laminated?

3. In the simplified diagram of a transformers the primary and secondary winding are shown
located on the opposite legs (or limbs) of the core (fig 2a ) but in actual construction of a
transformer the primary and secondary windings are interleaved (fig 2b )
Why interleaved?

(a) (b)

Fig 2: interleaved arrangement of primary and secondary windings of a transformer

4. Measure the winding resistances, both primary and secondary, of a given


5. Determine the turns ratio of a given transformer

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6. For the given transformer determine the polarities of the windings experimentally

Fig3: polarity determination of a transformer experimentally

7. What will happen if we connect a transformer to a DC source?


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